Magazine for English‑language students
B1–B2 Level 04 December 2016 Volume 20
Published by Bridge Publishing House www.bridge-online.cz www.bridgebooks.cz
CZK 22 (31 copies or more) CZK 25 (11–30 copies) CZK 30 (1–10 copies)
Tradition and Innovation
V souladu s
Talking Through Technology
Christmas Songs for Any Weather
Try Our Holiday Quiz
The Season for Singing
Decemb er 2016
Canada’s Tallest Landmark
What Do You Know About Christmas?
Don’t Look Down!
Is This the Future of Communication?
How Sports Fans Show Support
Fans or Fanatics?
+ CD + maturita card 9
Dle klíče na str. 2 .2016
Ceny předplatného 11–30 ks
předplatného 300 Kč + 200 Kč poštovné a balné
51 a více ks
(200 Kč po slevě 9% pro každého učitele na celou objednávku)
11–20 ks 21–60 ks 61–90 ks 91–120 ks 121–150 ks
+ 1 ks + 2 ks + 3 ks + 4 ks + 5 ks
151–180 ks + 6 ks 181–200 ks + 7 ks 201–260 ks + 8 ks 261–300 ks + 9 ks 301 a více ks + 10 ks a více
Jak objednat www.bridge-online.cz/objednavka email@example.com Tel.: 241 443 003
BRIDGE PUBLISHING HOUSE, SE Smetanovo nábřeží 327/14 110 00 Praha 1
Vyberte si časopis, který je vhodný pro vás a vaše žáky A1–A2
Issue 04 Volume 20 December 2016
(200 Kč po slevě 9% pro každého učitele na celou objednávku)
Ceny jsou za jedno celoroční předplatné a jsou uvedeny včetně DPH.
ČASOPISY ZDARMA A SADY BONUSŮ PODLE POČTU PŘEDPLATNÝCH
Monthly magazine for English-language students
IČO: 24222411 Correspondence Address Bridge Publishing House, SE Ohradní 1421/63a 140 00 Praha 4 Phone: 241 443 003 Registration in the CR MK ČR E 7634 Bank Account 107-2110920237/0100 Editors Zuzana Pernicová, Auburn Scallon Phone: 244 401 397 Contributing Editors Megan LeBoeuf, Helena Lee Šrůtková, Liam Peach, Zuzana Sklenková, Josef Šorm firstname.lastname@example.org Correspondents Liam Axe, Lennie Bellew, Karen Cryer, Matt Erickson, Paul Farrington‑Douglas, Nigel Haward, Jo Molloy, Patrick Phillips, Katerina Reynolds Proofreading Gareth Bowers, Karen Cryer Subscriptions Marta Procházková, Jana Zdvihalová Phone: 241 443 003
elementary / pre‑intermediate
pre-intermediate / intermediate
intermediate / upper intermediate
3.–7. třída ZŠ
7. třída ZŠ–2. ročník SŠ
1.–4. ročník SŠ
vhodné pro začátečníky
vhodné pro teenagery
vhodné pro maturitu
+420 241 443 003 email@example.com www.bridge-online.cz www.bridgebooks.cz
Hledáme novou kolegyni/kolegu do týmu na pozici ELT Consultant v Praze. Více informací naleznete na www.bridge-online.cz/prace. V případě zájmu nás kontaktujte na firstname.lastname@example.org | 241 445 735.
pro učitele angličtiny Opět rozdáváme 200 komiksů! Stačí, když vyplníte dotazník na www.bridgebooks.cz, a máte možnost vyhrát skvělé klasické dílo zpracované neotřelou a zábavnou formou.
E-shop Jan Jásek Phone: 241 440 968 email@example.com Photo Archive, iStockphoto Graphic Design Ondřej Strnad Printing Europrint, a.s. Publication Date 28. 11. 2016
The magazine does not accept advertisements.
Key to Icons TEACHERS' FILE WWW WWW AUDIO CD maturita průřezová témata
A Season for Reading
contents & info 14
You say that you’re a Christmas pro? If that’s true, then you will know Everything in our quiz, (Not written by Liz) And we’ll watch your intelligence grow.
What about the polite holiday greeting For two strangers who are meeting? One way to be sure, Whether it’s him or her, Is just don’t say it while you are eating. Read about Christmas food, books, and TV, And a tower in a country beginning with C. Then raise your hand If you’re a crazy fan Or you speak using technology. Once you get through everything We added some songs for you to sing And we all want to say Have a great holiday. Who knows what 2017 will bring?
Auburn Scallon and the Bridge Team
12 LITERATURE Getting Into the Holiday Spirit
9 CHRISTMAS What’s on the Box? 10 MATURITA Listening 11 PUZZLES Mind Benders
18 MUSIC Songs of Snow and Sunshine 19 WEIRD NEWS Strange Stories from Around the World
Make Your Own Mag! Don’t forget to take part in our year-round competition. Put yourself in the position of writer, editor and graphic designer and try to design a double‑page of a magazine. Write the articles (using only English), add pictures, and create an attractive layout. You can win great prizes: gift vouchers for electronics, experiences and cinema. For detailed competition rules, check the September 2016 issue of Bridge. We look forward to seeing your creations!
how to cele
Fil e activit y tips
to the correct
An expanded TF, as well as Recording Scripts, methodology tips, AMATE at www.bridge-onland more exercises, are available password SECRE ine.cz in the “UČITELÉ” section, T.
couples’ cost T listening cOmpre
s each of these
1 Common things to carry candy in 2 Items you can get by trick-ortreating 3 Halloween decorations 4 Other Hallowe en traditions 5 Typical pranks and vandalis m
then cross out
the word that
belong in that A chips, chocola category. te, coins, gummi bears B toilet-papering houses, throwin g eggs, singing C Pumpkin-shape songs, doing d baskets, metal graffiti buckets, pillowca D bobbing for ses, bags apples, costum e parties, wearing baking cookies costumes at school, E spider webs, jack-o’-lanterns , apples, black and orange
And what don’t
they like about
idea? 1 The Duke and Duchess Bad idea because of Cambridge … Will Amy 2 Leonard and __________ Penny __________ Will Amy 3 Sheldon and __________ __________ Amy __________ __________ Will Amy 4 Animals __________ __________ __________ __________ Will Amy __________ __________ 5 What did __________ Amy 7 and William __________ decide to wear __________ __________ this Hallowe en?
T listening cOmpre
w w w. bridge-o nlin
Dec ember 201 6
sONGs p. 21
The Beatles “Do You Wan a secret?” t to Know (track
Listen to the reco rding about sentences are an true (T) or false urban legend and decide if these (F).
1 Urban legends are true stories. T F 2 Some people use red paint to look like blood 3 Megan hears at Halloween. this story before Halloween. 4 The story is about a man who kills his girlfriend. 5 Nobody helped the woman because they didn’t see 6 Megan’s friend her. believes the stor y.
se g Hou
T listening fOr
(printed and online)
17 LANGUAGE / TECHNOLOGY Lost in Translation
8 FOOD Christmas Dinner: What’s Really Traditional?
16 SPORT Body Paint and Pregame Parties
6 ISSUE Tradition vs Tolerance
Tea che rs’
Teachers’ File (TF) contains exercise – Activity Tips s based on the artic the magazine les in and recordin gs on the CD.
Read the artic le. Match each group of words
for subscribers who receive 11 or more copies of the magazine
5 HOLIDAY Christmas Quiz
14 ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES The CN Tower
4 NEWS What’s Up
Circle the word s that you hear Which words in the song. are not in the song ?
SeCreT – LIeS – LONg – CAre CLOSeD – PreTeN – D – PrOMIS e – eAr – HAve – ALL – WHISPe r – kNOWN – WHO – DANCe – WOrDS – TeLL – HAIr – THree LOvINg – LeT –
Solutions from the November magazine Guy Fawkes p. 4 November, plot, reason At the Thanksgiving Dinner Table p. 5 grandpa – mashed potatoes; grandma – cranberry sauce; husband – Donald Trump; aunt – religion or politics; teenage boy – I have kids of my own; teenage girl – last Thanksgiving; young twin boy – says I have to eat all of my vegetables if I want to have dessert Beautiful and Terrifying p. 9 1D, 2B, 3H, 4C, 5A, 6E, 7G, 8F Maturita Reading p. 10 1D, 2D, 3C, 4B, 5B
Mind Benders p. 11 Task 1: 1 unbelievable; 2 brilliant; 3 terrific; 4 gorgeous; 5 essential; 6 tiny; 7 terrified; 8 freezing; 9 disgusting; 10 miserable; 11 powerful; 12 delighted Task 2: bad – awful, nasty, terrible; big – enormous, gigantic, huge Joke: A TURKEY because it is always STUFFED. (Stuffed means very full after eating too much, and people stuff turkeys with herbs and other foods before cooking them on Thanksgiving.) Shakespeare’s corner p. 11 Meaning A Other Famous Towers p. 15 1C, 2E, 3B, 4A, 5D The Lumineers p. 18 back, late, attractive, move, close
B1– B2 What’s Up
Výchova k myšlení v evropských a globálních souvislostech
f ro m
a ro u n d t
h e w
One Earth, Many New Years The New Year doesn’t happen at the same time across the world. As the earth rotates (= turns in a circle), the first people to celebrate are the Pacific islands of Kiribati. Then New Year celebrations continue from east to west: New Zealand and Australia have the first big events, Europe is several hours later and the Americas are even later. The last New Year each year is on Baker Island, a small island in the Pacific belonging to the US. This island is not far
from Kiribati, but in time they are a whole day apart. They are separated by the International Date Line. To the west of the line it could be Tuesday while the eastern side is still in the middle of Monday. Traditionally, as ships sailed across the International Date Line, all kinds of celebrations would take place. These were originally to initiate* sailors who had not crossed the line and to add a bit of fun and keep up morale* on long voyages (= journeys).
Nigel Haward (UK)
The holiday season is as much about giving as it is about receiving gifts. There are many opportunities to add a bit of charity into your Christmas celebrations.
Heroes in Syria
Charity Christmas Cards
As you send wishes to friends and family, you can support a good cause. For example, UMÚN makes cards and calendars with artwork from handicapped people who use their legs or mouths to paint, and Konto Bariéry postcards support the improvement of access for disabled students in schools.
Many people are running from the dangerous situation in Syria, but many are still trying to stay, and some even risk their lives to try to help others.
A Donation in Someone’s Name
Gifts don’t have to be a physical item. You can give money in the name of another person to a cause that they care about. Many charities offer cards, stickers, or certificates that you can wrap and present to let them know.
The White Helmets are a group of Syrians who work to rescue people injured in the war. When the government drops poisonous chlorine or “barrel bombs” (barrels filled with nails and explosives) on civilian homes and businesses, they dig through the rubble* to find survivors and give them medical treatment. They try to save everyone, no matter their religion or what side of the war they are on. The White Helmets are not soldiers or trained paramedics*, but normal civilians – bakers, engineers, painters, students, and anyone who wants to help. At first, the group was all men, but now there are two teams of women helping as well. The White Helmets are collecting donations to support their work at whitehelmets.org
Adding to Your Gift List
The holidays are an important time to remember those less fortunate (= lucky) than ourselves. To help families or children in need, look for Christmas trees decorated with their requests in shopping malls while you’re doing your traditional shopping. Auburn Scallon (USA)
to initiate – to introduce someone into rubble – piles of broken stone and bricks a group by a special ceremony left when a building is destroyed morale – confidence, energy and paramedic – a person trained to interest, especially in a difficult do medical work, especially in an situation emergency, but not a doctor
Megan LeBoeuf (USA)
Christmas Quiz How much do you know about Christmas in English-speaking countries? Try our quiz and find out. Circle all correct answers for each question. Auburn Scallon (USA)
3 Where do B ritish children hang th eir stockings? A over the firep lace B at the end of their beds C on the front door
2 W ha goe t tradi s t a Ch on the ionally top rist m o A a gold as tree f ? en p B a ig n an ge C a star l
4 ember 2 aking t is Dec 1 Wha in English‑spe called s? countrie e tmas Ev A Chris s a tm B Chris g Day in x C Bo
nside find i ? u o y er an crack hat c 5 W hristmas a C oy mall t A a s ke B a jo rown per c a p a C
6 Durin g wh do people ich season(s) in Englis celebrate Christ h‑speak ing coun mas A winte tries? r B autum n C summ er
are olly ese for a j h t of mes ings s? ich a r a Wh lish n who b ristm 8 g h are En man at C s as ters hristma c a old sents hristm r a C h c with g pre ther C us hich W ociated speakin la Fa 9 C s A ta as sh ngli San 2 Nick in E tries? B t n i Sa coun vil C de 3 A a gel n an ise men B a w hree C t
nd ally itish a do Br ilies typic n e h m W a f 4 ican th Amer resents? 24 p n e on the th g op in n 25 he eve on the th g A in t in n r he mo the 25 B in t ing on n e v e he C in t
7 W h lett ere do wan ers ab childr ou en t A t for Ch t wha send oA r i s tm t they nt B t o th arctica as? e C t o h North eav en 1 Pole
10 W hat d to dec o American o s of the rate the ou use ir hou tside s e s? A wre aths 4 B ligh ts C a n ativity scene 5
Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
heaven ["hev(@)n] – nebe 2 saint [seInt, s(@)nt] – svatý 3 wise man [waIz] – mudrc 1
wreath [ri;T] – věnec nativity scene [n@"tIvIti si;n] – betlém, jesličky
Výchova k myšlení v evropských a globálních souvislostech
Tradition vs Tolerance
We live in a world that loves anything “new and improved”. Apple releases a new iPhone every year. There are new fashion trends each season. Even our language is constantly changing. So why do we repeat some things year after year instead of looking for ways to make them better? There is something to be said for* the power of repetition1. As the saying goes, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.•” Traditions can keep us connected to our culture and give us something to look forward to every year. Change, on the other hand, can be risky, and doesn’t always make things better. Particularly around the winter holidays, traditions are an important part of most celebrations. However, there are times when we have to choose between tradition and tolerance. Some traditions that have stood the test of time* for decades or even centuries are becoming less and less acceptable in the modern world. This is often because our ancestors2 had less contact with other cultures, which made it easier not to consider their feelings.
A Controversial Character
One tradition that has gotten attention in recent years is “Black Peter”. On December 5th, Dutch people celebrate the holiday of Sinterklaas, which includes a visit from St Nicholas and his servant3 Peter. Black Peter is usually played by a white man in blackface* with large painted lips and a black curly-haired wig4. The character was popularized by an 1848 book called Saint Nicholas and His Servant. So what’s the problem? Some people see Black Peter as a racist symbol being used by a country with a history of slavery5. Sinterklaas celebrations these days are often met with protests. In 2015, a United Nations committee asked the Netherlands to consider changing the celebration.
repetition [repI"tIS(@)n] – opakování 2 ancestors ["&nsest@z] – předkové 3 servant ["s3;v(@)nt] – sluha 4 wig [wIg] – paruka 5 slavery ["sleIv(@)ri] – otroctví 6 offensive [@"fensIv] – urážlivý 7 to lounge [laUn(d)Z] – lenošit, poflakovat se 8 windowsill ["wInd@UsIl] – okenní parapet 9 faded ["feIdId] – vybledlý 1
there is something to be said for – (idiom) there are some good qualities in sth; this thing has value to stand the test of time – to not change; to be continued by future generations
The prime minister disagreed, saying, “Folk traditions, come on. What Christmas songs you should sing, how you celebrate Christmas and Easter – this isn’t what politics is about.” Some groups have made suggestions on how to make the character less offensive6. Actors have tried putting just a little dirt on their faces and saying it comes from Peter being inside a chimney. Others suggest making Peter a magical creature, such as an elf. But many Dutch residents don’t see a problem and don’t want to change anything.
In the US, even the wording of your holiday greeting can be controversial. In the past it was popular for employees at restaurants and shopping malls to wish every customer a “Merry Christmas!” But as more and more
It Wouldn’t Feel Like Christmas Without… There are many Christmas traditions, and every person has their favorites. What memories do you associate with this season?
Decorating the tree is a big deal in my family and the atmosphere has to be just right. We usually pick out the tree in early to mid-December. We bring it home, bake chocolate chip cookies and make hot chocolate. The evening is spent singing along with our favorite Christmas songs, enjoying the tasty treats and decorating the tree. I have many great childhood memories from evenings like this.” Katerina Reynolds (USA)
“ Black Peter: silly or insulting?
US citizens celebrate other holidays, such as Hanukkah, or are not religious at all, lots of companies have switched to a simple wish of “Happy Holidays!” Some religious Americans see this as negative. They argue that America was founded as a Christian nation and that attempts to be too politically correct* have created the atmosphere of a “war on Christmas”. On the other hand, some non-religious Americans say that assuming everyone should be Christian is actually more offensive. Who knew that an attempt to say something nice could bring up so much anger? Auburn Scallon (USA)
blackface – when non‑black people paint their faces to look dark-skinned politically correct – saying things in a way to avoid offending anyone to blast (music) – to play at an extremely loud volume
Although this English phrase is famous, the grammar is incorrect. Can you rewrite the sentence correctly? “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.”
BrE x AmE
colour (BrE) x color (AmE) shopping centre (BrE) x shopping mall (AmE) favourites (BrE) x favorites (AmE) pyjamas (BrE) x pajamas (AmE)
On Christmas morning, my mum blasts* Christmas carols as loudly as possible to wake us up. It’s really annoying, but without it, it just doesn’t feel like Christmas.” Karen Cryer (UK)
One of my favorite things about Christmas is spending the majority of the day in pajamas. My family always opens presents, eats a late breakfast, and lounges7 around the house in our most comfortable clothes. I can’t imagine getting dressed anytime before noon on December 25th.” Auburn Scallon (USA)
Christmas wouldn't be Christmas in my house without a familiar visitor. For over 30 years, a paper shepherd that I made at school as a very small boy has proudly sat on our windowsill8 every year, watching over my family. These days his colours are pretty faded9, his beard is not as curly as it used to be, and he has a bit of trouble standing up, but it just wouldn’t be the same without him.” Liam Peach (UK)
Discuss Can you think of any other holiday celebrations that might be controversial today? What do people on either side say about them? Have you ever felt offended by a tradition? Why or why not? If someone asked you to change a tradition because it made them feel hurt or offended, how would you respond?
What’s Really Traditional? Traditions are a big part of Christmas, and that includes the food. Sure, a Christmas tree and decorations are an important part of the atmosphere, but does it really feel right without the Christmas smells and tastes? If you are British, that might be a turkey roasting in the oven, while for Czechs it could be carp frying in a pan. No matter where you are from, special Christmas foods are most likely a key part of your celebration.
In English lessons, textbooks usually portray (= describe) the typical Christmas meal in the UK as roast turkey, stuffing (made from dried bread, chopped onion, celery and spices), and Christmas pudding, a cake-like dessert made of dried fruit with nutmeg, cinnamon, and cloves for flavor. The traditional American Christmas meal doesn’t look much different, but the Christmas pudding is replaced with a similar dessert called fruitcake. But are these stereotypical images the reality?
Eat What You Want
Traditions in the UK and USA are much more flexible* these days than those in the Czech Republic, where fried carp and potato salad still seem to be the norm*. Depending on the family, the main dinner may be on Christmas Eve (December 24th) or
A Fun Morning Meal
Can you match the spices to the pictures? 1 nutmeg 2 cinnamon 3 cloves B
Christmas Day (December 25th). More and more families are trading in (= exchanging) the roast turkey for family favorites or special treats* that they don’t normally have throughout the year. American families might roast a ham, serve grilled steaks with mashed potatoes, or create a vegetarian meal for dinner. And despite what the textbooks say, both Christmas pudding and fruitcake are actually quite unpopular these days. Perhaps Americans get enough turkey and stuffing the month before. Having a traditional Thanksgiving meal of turkey, stuffing, and pumpkin pie is much more important and far less flexible. Other families just don’t like the idea of cooking all day and then facing a pile of dishes in the sink. Chinese restaurants, which are sometimes the only restaurants open on Christmas Eve or Christmas Day, have become an alternative tradition in the US – particularly in families from religions that don’t celebrate Christmas.
Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
Christmas breakfast on the 25th is a more important tradition for many American families. Treats like Santa Claus C andy pancakes, with a whipped c ane cream beard and strawberries for a hat, are both festive (= suitable for a holiday) and fun. This also keeps
Both Christmas pudding and fruitcake are actually quite unpopular these days. the kids entertained until it is time to open presents. But that’s not the end of it. For those with a sweet tooth, there are candy canes on the Christmas tree or chocolates and cookies to share among the family, so forget about your diet on Christmas Day. Katerina Reynolds (USA)
flexible – easy to change; more than one correct way the norm – the most common or typical way of doing sth treat – sth special that you don’t usually buy or do
BrE x AmE
flavour (BrE) x flavor (AmE) favourite (BrE) x favorite (AmE)
B1– B2 Christmas
What’s on the Box? Christmas in Front of the Television
Gathering around the telly• on Christmas Day is as much a part of British Christmas as the turkey and the trimmings (= side dishes). Weeks before cleaning the house or buying presents, many households check the TV guides and then argue over what to watch. The Christmas television countdown* has begun! As the television stations fight for the biggest viewing figures (= audiences), Christmas programmes start from mid‑December and continue into the New Year. There are lots of repeats* of popular TV shows and films: an old James Bond or Agatha Christie film, or kids’ favourites like Toy Story or Wallace and Gromit. We don’t have any traditional fairy tales like on Czech TV, but some old black and white films like Casablanca are shown during daytime. In the evening we want to watch new films, and people often complain that the ones shown on television are not recent enough. On Christmas Day we begin with opening our presents and having a big lunch, followed by the Queen’s Speech, which is broadcast (= shown) at 3pm. The Queen addresses the nation with a Christmas message and a summary of the past year. The tradition has decreased in popularity
over the years, but a number of people still consider it an important part of Christmas Day. The real TV battle starts in the early evening, when most people have had too much to eat
and drink and find themselves lying on the sofa. Watching TV is also a good way to survive being with family, as we’ve probably already been cooped up* together for hours. The biggest battles take place between the popular soaps*: EastEnders on the BBC and Coronation Street on ITV. On Christmas Day, they always produce a festive (= suitable for a holiday) storyline with some huge drama.
Can you match the programmes with the descriptions?
1 Bake Off 2 Call the Midwife* 3 Coronation Street 4 Doctor Who 5 EastEnders 6 Sherlock Holmes 7 Strictly Come Dancing 8 The X Factor
A a ballroom dancing competition involving celebrities B a crime drama starring Benedict Cumberbatch as a famous detective C a soap opera set in East London D a competition to find the best baker E a show about nurses who deliver babies in the 1950s and 1960s F a singing competition G a soap opera named after the fictional street where it takes place H a popular sci-fi series that has been running since the 1950s
Then the Christmas specials take over and draw in the largest audiences. Viewers usually get a Strictly Come Dancing Christmas special, an X Factor special, a Doctor Who Christmas special, and an episode of Sherlock Holmes. This year there will be two Christmas Bake Off specials and a Call the Midwife Christmas special, too. These popular TV shows are sometimes two hours long instead of one, and they all have one thing in common – they are usually shiny, very big budget (= expensive), and they make us laugh, cry and feel Christmassy. Jo Molloy (UK)
countdown – counting the time before sth starts repeat – a programme that has been on television before cooped up – sharing a small space (a coop is where a chicken lives) soap – soap opera; a programme about a group of characters, often full of crazy drama midwife – a person who is trained to help women give birth
Language Point• Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
“Box” and “telly” are informal expressions for television. Other expressions are, for example, “idiot box” and “the small screen”.
B1 Maturita Didaktický test
Listening part two
8 points / 1 point per question
You are going to hear a part of a radio programme about an interesting job. Decide whether the statements 1–8 are true (T) or false (F).
1 The man was surprised by the statistics. He thought there would be fewer female pilots.
2 To become a captain, Joy only has to complete more flying hours.
3 Joy never has to stay away from her home overnight because of her job.
4 The man believes that being a female pilot is very difficult for a mother.
5 The man understands the opinions that some people have about women pilots.
6 In the past Joy was not allowed to fly private jets.
7 Both of Joy’s parents encouraged her to follow her dreams of being a pilot.
8 After graduation Joy remained at the university, teaching new pilots.
16 points / 2 points per question
You will hear a teacher giving information about the city and the University of Trondheim. While listening, fill in statements 9–16. Use no more than three words for each answer.
9 There are ________________ students studying in Trondheim. 10 The founder of the city was King Olav ___________________________________ . 11 In the Middle Ages, the city’s cathedral was one of the ________________ most important places for Christians in Europe. 12 The University of Trondheim was founded in ________________ . 13 Students should keep the programme, because they will find useful ___________________________ and other information there. 14 The spring semester starts in ________________ . 15 During bank holidays, food can be bought in ________________ . 16 If you want to camp in an open area for more than two days, you have to get ________________ . Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
Shakespeare’s Corner Auburn Scallon (USA)
Winter Wordsearch Task 1
It’s cold, very cold, and you don’t want to go outside until you are all bundled up (= dressed warmly). Try our winter wordseach filled with all the clothes and equipment you’ll need to survive (= stay alive) through the cold winter months. The words may be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal.
DM YO S S E J Q L GB R S S K V L T L J Z T E
A B O O U O H C A F Y K
H C V H S M I O T L D C
D E L I K A P S Q A A A
S I U C A U X E K J O J
J L S T T G F V R L Y C
I A L L E R B M U S K A
U Q I C N H E M S E I F K O S O T B R U W H R W
S C A R F Y O Q K A V T
D E U E A B M B T K T E
How many of Shakespeare’s plays have you seen or read? Do you know anything about his comedy Twelfth Night? Talk with a partner. If you don’t know anything about it, make some guesses based on the title (or watch the modern American film She’s the Man).
Twelfth Night “Some are born great, some achieve greatness, and some have greatness thrust upon them.*” Guess the meaning:
A Most people don’t do great things until they are old. B If a person is not great when they are young, they never will be. C Sometimes people become great without even trying.
Speaking in a Modern Context
Lists are often used in English to talk about different examples in a certain category. You don’t need a conjunction (e.g. and, but) between the first two, but you need one before the last item. You can also use different words (e.g. a few, others, most) to show quantities. Use the examples to make your own comparisons.
1 shoes that cover your feet and lower legs: B __ __ __ __ 2 an item worn over other clothes, usually outside: C __ __ __ 3 what you wear to keep your hands warm: G __ __ __ __ __ 4 what you wear on your head: H __ __ 5 it covers your head and is often part of a sweatshirt: H __ __ __ 6 similar to number two, but shorter and lighter: J __ __ __ __ __ 7 British English word for a sweater or sweatshirt: J __ __ __ __ __ 8 a long piece of cloth worn around your neck: S __ __ __ __ 9 special shoes that you wear to move on ice: S __ __ __ __ __ 10 long pieces of wood or plastic that you wear to move over snow: S __ __ __ 11 what you wear on your feet inside your shoes: S __ __ __ __ 12 you carry it in your hand to protect yourself against rain or snow: U __ __ __ __ __ __ __
Have you found all the words and crossed them out? Now look at the remaining letters in the crossword, put them into correct order and use them to complete the following jokes about snowmen. How does a snowman get to work?
Some people/students…, some…, and some…
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ! (use the remaining letters in the second line)
Some families/places…, others…, and a few… Sometimes… other times…, and occasionally…
How do snowmen greet each other?
__ __ __ __ __ ! (use the remaining letters in the last line)
Example Some students love English, some hate it, and some study other languages. Some families celebrate Christmas, others celebrate Hanukkah, and a few celebrate both. Sometimes I have lots of homework, other times I have a little, and occasionally I don’t have any.
Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
* Někdo se velkým rodí, někdo velikosti dosáhne a někomu velikost spadne do klína. (překl. M. Hilský)
__ __ __ to __ __ __ __ you! (use the remaining letters in the fourth line) What do you call an old snowman?
B1– B2 Literature
Getting Into the Holiday Spirit
Reading is a nice way to add some calm and quiet to a season filled with noise and activity. And it doesn’t have to be a solo activity – many families like to read these classic stories and poems out loud together. So light some candles, grab some hot chocolate, curl up* on the sofa and get to know these winter favourites from several countries. Then try to choose the correct ending for each story.
Our Favourite Christmas Literature Paul Farrington-Douglas (UK)
A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens
This is probably the most famous Christmas story of all (except for the one in the Bible, of course). It’s the story of a Christmas-hating man who thinks only of money and work. His name is Ebenezer Scrooge, and today we still use the word “scrooge” for someone who is mean* with money. Three ghosts visit Ebenezer Scrooge in his sleep. The Ghost of Christmas Past shows Scrooge scenes of himself as a young man. The Ghost of Christmas Present shows him scenes of people enjoying being together at Christmas. And the Ghost of Christmas Future shows Scrooge dying lonely and unloved, his possessions (= things he owns) 2 stolen by servants* and lawyers.
The Grinch Who Stole Christmas by Dr Seuss
Not everyone loves Christmas. Lonely people can find it hard when everyone else is having fun and getting presents. The Grinch (who has a heart “three sizes too small”, and who never gets any presents) finds it harder than anyone. He listens jealously* to the laughter, fun and singing, until one year he has an idea for how to spoil Christmas for everyone else. On Christmas Eve he dresses up as Santa Claus and goes from house to house, stealing all the children’s presents. Surely that will stop this horrible thing called Christmas! But in the morning, the Grinch hears the villagers singing just as happily as ever. “Maybe 1 Christmas,” he thinks, “doesn’t come from a store!”
A Visit from St Nicholas
by Clement Clarke Moore
This 19th-century American poem was the foundation* of many of our modern ideas about Father Christmas. The story is simple. Long after the children have gone to bed, a father wakes up to loud noises outside his house. Looking out the window, he sees Santa Claus• in a flying sleigh pulled by eight reindeer. “Saint Nick•” enters the house through the chimney, carrying a sack of toys. His eyes are twinkly (= shiny), his cheeks and nose are 3 bright red, and he looks happy and friendly.
A When he wakes, he is a changed man who joins in the joys of Christmas.
B In the morning, she is found dead in the street, but with a smile on her face. C He winks* at the father before filling the children’s stockings with presents. D But the morning is warm, and the snowman has melted*. E His heart suddenly grows three sizes bigger, and he decides to give back all the presents and join in the fun.
Can you match the excerpts with the correct stories? There are two for each story. Since The Snowman is told without words, the excerpts are from a song that is included in the television adaptation of the story. 1 ’Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house Not a creature was stirring (= moving), not even a mouse.
2 “Why, for fifty-three years I’ve put up with it (= tolerated it) now! I MUST stop this Christmas from coming! But HOW?”
The Little Match Girl
by Hans Christian Andersen On a freezing New Year’s Eve, while the streets and houses are filled with happy, laughing people, a very young girl tries to sell matches to passers-by. She is shivering* from the cold, and her bare feet* are blue, but she does not dare to go home because her father will beat her for not selling any matches.
She grows colder and colder, and she lights her matches one by one to warm herself. As the matches burn, she sees magical visions: a New Year’s Eve dinner table, a Christmas tree, and finally her grandmother coming to take her up to heaven. 4
3 Nobody ever stopped him in the street to say happily, “My dear Scrooge, how are you? When will you come to see me?” No beggars (= poor people) dared ask him for a penny, and no children dared ask him for the time. 4 Nobody had bought anything from her the whole long day; no one had given her a single penny. 5 I’m holding very tight I’m riding in the midnight blue I’m finding I can fly So high above with you 6 But I heard him exclaim (= shout), as he drove out of sight, Happy Christmas to all, and to all a good night!
by Raymond Briggs This beautiful story is told through around 170 pictures, with no text at all. A young boy builds a snowman one Christmas Eve. At night, the snowman comes to life, and he and the boy have a wonderful night of fun. The boy amazes (= surprises) the snowman with things like the television, light switches, and his mum’s make-up box; in return, the snowman takes the boy flying. The snowman returns to the garden in the first light of the morning, and the boy goes to bed. On Christmas morning, the boy wakes up and runs outside to 5 see his magical new friend.
7 Really, for a man who had been out of practice for so many years it was a splendid (= very good) laugh! 8 It was a warm, bright flame, like a candle, as she held her hands over it: it was a wonderful light. 9 Children gaze (= look) open mouthed Taken by surprise Nobody down below Believes their eyes 10 It came without ribbons! It came without tags! It came without packages, boxes or bags! Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
mean – selfish with money, not willing to curl up – to sit with your knees close to share (BrE); cruel or unkind to your body, often to stay warm (AmE & BrE) jealously – feeling upset because servant – someone who works in your others have sth you don’t home, often cooking or cleaning was the foundation – produced the basic ideas
to shiver – to shake slightly because you are cold bare feet – without any shoes or socks to wink – to quickly close and open one eye to melt – to change from solid to liquid (e.g. snow to water)
Santa Claus, Father Christmas, and Saint Nick (or Nicholas) are all English names for the same person. Father Christmas is used more often in British English and Santa Claus is more popular in American English
B1 English-Speaking Countries
of the Modern World Liam Axe (CAN)
Five Fun Facts About Canada’s CN Tower
To most people, Canada is known for its wilderness1 and natural beauty. But along with mountains, lakes and national parks, the country is home to one of the tallest man-made structures2 in the world: the CN Tower. Located in the heart of Toronto, Canada’s largest city, the tower is a must-see for tourists and visitors. Here are five things you probably didn’t know about Canada’s most famous urban3 landmark.
It’s a Record Holder
At 553.33m, the CN Tower was the tallest tower in the world for over 30 years. In 1994 it was named one of the seven wonders of the modern world. It’s still the tallest tower in the Western Hemisphere4, and it holds the record for the world’s highest elevator with a glass floor, as well as the highest wine cellar.
You Can Walk on Top of It
In 2011, the CN Tower opened the EdgeWalk, an activity in which adrenaline junkies* can put on special equipment and walk around the roof of the tower. The EdgeWalk holds the Guinness World Record for the “highest external5 walk on a building”. People can even get married on the EdgeWalk. Weddings take place from April to October, and the CN Tower has got special black and white equipment for the bride and groom to wear.
It’s Got a Glass Floor
To help visitors see how high they really are, the CN Tower has got a glass floor, so you can see straight down to the street below your feet. Don’t be nervous, though. The floor is five times stronger than most standard floors. In fact, it would be strong enough to hold fourteen large hippos6 – if they could somehow fit into the elevator to get to the top.
301 Front St W Toronto ON, M5V 2T6, Canada
It’s Very, Very Tough*
In Canada, nobody knows what to expect from Mother Nature, especially in winter, so the CN Tower was built to withstand the elements7. It could withstand a massive earthquake8, as well as winds of up to 418km per hour. It’s also struck by lightning up to 75 times per year!
2016 is its 40th Anniversary
The CN Tower first opened its doors to the public 40 years ago, in 1976. A time capsule* was created when it opened, containing things like newspapers, a documentary video and a letter from Canada’s prime minister. The capsule is hidden behind a wall in the tower, and it will be opened in 2076 – the tower’s 100th anniversary.
Other Man-Made Landmarks in Canada These are some of the most popular tourist destinations built by Canadians. Can you match these descriptions with their pictures? Which would you most like to visit? 1 West Edmonton Mall is the largest shopping mall in North America. It contains over 800 stores, as well as a roller‑coaster9, and even an indoor water park.
2 The Capilano Suspension Bridge is a 140-metre-long bridge in Vancouver, British Columbia. Over 800,000 people walk across it every year. 3 The Peak 2 Peak Gondola is a cable gondola lift*. The gondolas travel over three kilometres between two mountains – Whistler and Blackcomb. It’s the highest cable gondola lift in the world. 4 There are many totem poles – tall, wooden poles with carvings of symbols and animals – built by First Nations• people in western Canada, but the poles on the islands of Haida Gwaii are some of the most beautiful.
5 In the city of Ottawa, part of a man-made waterway called the Rideau Canal freezes every winter, and becomes the Rideau Canal Skateway. At 7.8km long, it’s the world’s largest skating rink – as big as 90 ice hockey rinks. B
Look at the address of the CN Tower. There are some letters that represent longer words. Do you know what they mean? Write the whole words for these common address abbreviations. (Hint: three of them are Canadian provinces) 1 St
Solutions in TF and the next issue of Bridge
Culture Point Outside North America, it’s common to refer to groups like the Haida people – who built the totem poles on Haida Gwaii – as Indians. However, in Canada we don’t use this term any more, as it can be offensive. The most common terms nowadays are First Nations or indigenous people.
wilderness ["wIld@nIs] – divočina 2 structure ["strVktS@] – stavba 3 urban ["3;b(@)n] – městský 4 hemisphere ["hemIsfI@] – polokoule 5 external [Ik"st3;n(@)l] – venkovní 6 hippo (hippopotamus) ["hIp@U] – hroch 7 to withstand the elements [wID"st&nd] – odolat přírodním živlům 8 earthquake ["3;TkweIk] – zemětřesení 9 roller-coaster ["r@Ul@ "k@Ust@] – horská dráha 1
adrenaline junkies – people who love risk and dangerous situations tough – strong; can’t be easily damaged time capsule – a container (= box) with items from a certain time period that is hidden somewhere to be discovered by people in the future gondola lift – a type of transport where cabins (called gondolas) are supported and moved by a steel cable
BrE x AmE
lift (BrE) x elevator (AmE, CanE) shopping centre (BrE) x shopping mall (AmE, CanE) shop (BrE) x store (AmE, CanE)
The Life of Diehard Sports Fans
Dressing for Success
First, you’ve got to look the part*. For some fans this means wearing a jersey3 with their favorite player’s name and number. But that jersey becomes outdated (= not modern) when a player retires or changes teams. This has led to a newer tradition of jerseys with fans’ own names and favorite numbers on the back. Some fans also paint their face to match the team’s colors or mascot. No jersey? No problem. Some fans use body paint instead. No matter the temperature, there always seems to be at least one man in the stadium without a shirt. Is that his team’s color or is he just blue from the cold?
The PreGame Party
Fans all over the world like to meet in a pub or restaurant before going to the stadium. But in America, the tradition of tailgating takes it to a different level. Tailgating means arriving at the stadium hours before the game starts, opening the trunk of your car, setting up a grill in the parking lot, and having a pregame party with tons of food and drinks. Tailgating is most popular at American football and baseball games,
observer [@b"z3;v@] – pozorovatel 2 diehard fan ["daIhA;d] – skalní fanoušek 3 jersey ["dZ3;zi] – dres 4 betrayed [bI"treId] – zrazeni 5 season ticket – permanentka na celou sezónu 1
head*. The best trash talkers can even get a reaction from a player in the middle of a game. You don’t have to be a great athlete to love sports. Sports fans can range from casual observers1 to diehard fans2. But being committed (= very loyal) to your team requires more than just watching a game and cheering for your favorite player. Diehard fans eat, breathe and live* the sports they love. but you might find this trend at hockey, basketball and soccer matches as well.
Some fans want to be involved in the game itself. Those sitting near the playing area try to trash talk* the opposing team by not so politely telling the players that they’re no good. However, expert trash talkers do research about the player’s history, family or any legal problems they have had. They will say anything to try to get into a player’s
With Us or Against Us
Diehard fans feel a personal connection to the team. If their favorite player leaves to join another club, they often feel betrayed4. So what do they do to express that anger? Burn the jersey. Groups of fans get together and set the disloyal (= not loyal) player’s jersey or other memorabilia* on fire.
Never Miss a Game
Season tickets5 are essential (= necessary) for diehard fans. Some even travel to matches in different cities or countries to support their team. But getting season tickets isn’t always easy. In the English Premier League, some clubs have waiting lists of more than 30,000 people. The situation is similar for Major League Baseball and the National Football League in the US, where the Green Bay Packers have a waiting list of over 30 years. If you sign up now, maybe your grandchildren can attend a game. Matt Erickson (USA)
to look the part – (idiom) to dress to eat, breathe and live sth – (idiom) appropriately for a specific situation to really love sth; when your interest to trash talk – to insult sb, especially affects every part of your life; in sports e.g. Jason eats, breathes, and lives to get into sb’s head – to distract sb hockey. Don’t bother talking to him and stop them from thinking clearly while a game is on television. memorabilia – items that people collect connected to a specific topic
BrE x AmE
favourite (BrE) x favorite (AmE) colour (BrE) x color (AmE) boot (BrE) x trunk (AmE) car park (BrE) x parking lot (AmE) American football (BrE) x football (AmE) football (BrE) x soccer (AmE) sledging (BrE) x trash talk (AmE)
B2 Language / Technology
Lost in Translation
Tools That Help Us Understand... or Misunderstand? you. There are even voice translators that you can use for whole conversations. Users record short phrases or sentences and the app translates them into whichever language they choose, so they can pass a phone back and forth to have a conversation. Can your clothes help you And soon it might communicate? IconSpeak is a T-shirt with 40 universal be even easier. A tiny icons, showing everything crowdfunded* translator Hi-Tech Translation from fire and police services to called The Pilot, which Computer programmers have transportation and food. Just point at what you need. will do all the translating come up with a variety of tools to for you, is currently being translate text from one language developed. Each person puts one device to another. Nowadays, online translation into their ear. When one person speaks, services from Google or Bing are included the words are passed through a smartphone on lots of web pages. There are even apps for app with speech-recognition software, so smartphones that can instantly translate any that the other person hears the words in text just by taking a photo of it. their native language. Soon you may be Technology can help with spoken words, able to talk to anyone in the world. But too. If you hear a word but don’t know how how much of what is said will get lost in to spell it, you can speak the word into your translation? smartphone and many apps will find it for “I don’t understand.” “Could you repeat that, please?” “What did they say?” Learning a new language is not easy, and trying to communicate with someone who has no idea what you are saying is really frustrating. But creativity can solve any problem, and these inventions might change how we communicate.
crowdfunded – when the money for a product is raised online through sites like Kickstarter, Indiegogo, or Hithit proper noun – the name of a person, place or object that is spelled with a capital letter
That’s Not What I Meant
These new technologies are exciting, but anyone who has used them knows that computerized translations are still not totally correct. Words can be taken out of context or they may have different meanings. Many forms of verbs, proper nouns* and idiomatic language* can also be confusing. When the saying “The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak” (= when someone would like to do something but isn’t strong enough) was translated into Russian and then re-translated back into English, it became “The vodka is strong, but the meat is rotten•.” Another saying, “Out of sight, out of mind” (= if you can’t see something, you don’t think about it) became “Blind and insane*.” Lennie Bellew (USA)
idiomatic language – language natural to a native speaker, often containing expressions that can’t be easily translated word for word insane – mentally ill, mad
Scan the QR code or go to https://goo.gl/xo9e1H to watch a short video about how The Pilot works.
The word spirit can mean the soul (a person’s inner character) as well as strong alcohol. The word flesh can refer both to a body and to meat.
Songs of Snow and Sunshine Most of my Christmas memories have nothing to do with snow. My grandparents live in California, where if there is even a little bit of frost1, the locals call it a “white Christmas”. And if you live in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa or anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere, the Christmas season is actually during summertime. So we’ve chosen carols about the different types of December weather. Auburn Scallon (USA)
Can you match the description with the correct Christmas carol and lyrics?
a Snow had fallen Snow on snow Snow on snow on snow b I really can’t stay I’ve got to go away This evening has been So very nice c May your days be merry and bright And may all your Christmases be white d O’er* the beach we go Laughing all the way e Sleigh2 bells ring, are you listening In the lane, snow is glistening3
C “Winter Wonderland” John Legend After it snows, even simple activities like taking a walk feel a little more magical. D “Jingle Bells (Kiwi Style)” The Polkadots New Zealanders can sing the same Christmas carols as Americans or Brits, but they have to change a few words for the weather Down Under*. E “Baby, It’s Cold Outside” Idina Menzel & Michael Bublé When the temperature gets really low, some would say that you really shouldn’t leave the house (especially if they really don’t want the person they’re with to go anywhere).
w w w. bri dge-o nlin
se g Hou
ishin ubl eP
B “White Christmas” Human Nature Some people say that it doesn’t feel like Christmas unless there is snow. If you agree, this is the perfect Christmas carol for you.
5 halfway to springtime
Dec ember 201 6
3 hoping for snow 4 a freezing evening
A “In the Bleak4 Midwinter” Lily & Madeleine This traditional religious5 song describes the weather on the night that Jesus was born.
1 warm and sunny 2 enjoying the snow
Who is the best singer in your family? You’ll be surprised to hear that it could be your pet. See the December CD for a funny exercise with animals singing Christmas carols.
frost [frQst] – námraza, jinovatka sleigh [sleI] – sáně, saňový 3 to glisten ["glIs(@)n] – třpytit se, lesknout se 4 bleak [bli;k] – sychravý, pochmurný 5 religious [rI"lIdZ@s] – náboženský 1
o’er – (old‑fashioned) over Down Under – an informal name for Australia and New Zealand
B1– B2 Weird News
Really?! Strange Stories from Around the World
A Sausage Attack A man was walking along the street with his young son in Neubrandenburg in Germany, having been to the shops to buy a sausage. A motorist, trying to park, annoyed him for some reason. The motorist and the pedestrian got into an argument. Insults1 and threats2 were exchanged, and the pedestrian hit the motorist’s BMW so hard with his 30-centimetre‑long sausage that the car was dented3. The pedestrian will probably have to pay a fine, but the report didn’t say what happened to the offensive weapon4. The “wurst•” that could happen is that the police took it away as evidence5. Nigel Haward (UK)
Wait, Don’t Shoot!
on Is Pris han rT Bette iage? Marr
It’s common for American children to have their picture taken with Santa each year, but a few states have added a twist to this tradition. Gun clubs in the US states of Georgia and Arizona offer families the chance to take festive photos with Saint Nick while holding their favorite firearms*. The gun clubs do have some rules to make sure everyone stays safe. The guns can’t be loaded6, they are inspected7 by the staff, and in some places children may be in the photos but are not allowed to hold the guns. One thing is for sure: this gives a whole new meaning to the phrase photo shoot•.
Auburn Scallon (USA)
insult ["InsVlt] – urážka 2 threat [Tret] – výhrůžka 3 to dent [dent] – promáčknout 4 offensive weapon [@"fensIv "wep(@)n] – útočná zbraň 5 evidence ["evId(@)ns] – důkaz 6 loaded ["l@UdId] – nabitý 7 to inspect [In"spekt] – prohlédnout, zkontrolovat 8 dryer ["draI@] – sušička prádla 9 divorce attorney [dI"vO;s @"t3;ni] – rozvodový právník 1
Lawrence Ripple and his wife, Dido, of Kansas City, have been married for 33 unhappy years. Finally, after having an argument about a broken dryer8 that Mrs Ripple wanted her husband to repair, he decided that prison would be better than being married. So Mr Ripple wrote a note that said, “I have a gun. Give me money,” and went to the nearest bank. At the bank, he showed the note to the clerk, and the clerk gave him a bag with around $3,000 in it. Then, to the surprise of everyone in the bank, Mr Ripple sat down and waited. When the bank’s security guard walked over to him, Ripple said, “I’m the guy you’re looking for.” The police came quickly and arrested Mr Ripple. He told them he had had enough of living with his wife and he wanted to go to prison. He will probably get his wish. Now instead of a divorce attorney9, Mr Ripple needs a criminal lawyer.
firearms – a term for guns that a person can carry
• This is play on the words “wurst” (German word for sausage) and “worst”, which sound almost the same. • A “photo shoot” is when a professional photographer takes lots of photos, usually of models or celebrities. “To shoot” is the action of firing a gun.
Patrick Phillips (USA)
resolution – předsevzetí heck – sakra to suit me – aby vyhovoval mně
to resolve – rozhodnout se, předsevzít si offended – uražený, pohoršený
human nature – the ways of thinking and behaviour that are common to most people I blew it – I failed