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INVESTIGATION # 4

E R T A E H T GRAND


E R T A E H T D GRAN rg City of Luxembou 31 December 1958 Launch of an international competition for the construction of the new theatre of the City of Luxembourg

10-11-12 September 1959 Meeting of the Jury in the new school in Bonnevoie

12 September 1959 Telegram sent to the Parisian architect, Alain Bourbonnais: „Have won – first prize – warm – and sincere – congratulations.”

Spring 1960 Start of building works

1 November 1962 The architect suddenly left the country in the middle of the night

15 April 1964 Official opening

1999 Closure of the theatre to carry out modernisation and removal of asbestos

26 September 2003 Re-opening to the public

15 January 2014 Celebration of the 50th anniversary

© Théo Mey Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


Š 2014 - Laruade - Kostohryz - Langevin


WHY?


MULTI-FUNCTIONAL BUILDING


FESTIVAL TO MARK THE MILLENNIUM OF THE TOWN

CECA HEADQUARTERS

GRAND DUCAL FAMILY


BUDGET To be worthily represented at the Brussels world exhibition in 1958, the State, quite rightly, did not hesitate to give yet more funding to it.


A SINGLE COURSE OF ACTION First meeting for the building of a new theatre

Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


EXAMPLES


1000 YEARS


THEÂTRE DES CAPUCINS © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

1950, Main theatre in the city with 600 seats.


INSALUBRIOUS THEATRE

PETITION 12 January 1927 ... dressing rooms without basins, the actors have to make up and change costumes in corridors and stairwells. ... Drafts which make people wear coats during performances. ... an entrance foyer that is more basic that the simplest of country cafĂŠs. ... narrow and twisting corridors with low ceilings. ... with heavy wooden doors. ... makeshift cloakrooms set up in odd corners ...


A THOUGHT FOR THE „CAPUCINS ” „...It replaces the revered room in rue des Capucins, to which we nevertheless owe some affection. It had been opened on 15 February 1869 in the presence of Prince Henri and Princess Amélie following bitter controversy over the designation of the disused church of the convent of the Capucins friars.” Speech by Pierre Werner on the occasion of the inauguration of the Grand-Théâtre.


A FEW REMARKS ...a few remarks regarding the problem of the city theatre, such as it is seen today...


ASPIRATIONS © E. Kutter, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


CULTURAL ENTERTAINMENT

21 May 1958 Cultural entertainment for the whole country... and in particular for civil servants of CECA.


POPULAR THEATRE © La Revue, photo M. Tockert


EUROVISION SONG CONTEST 1973 7 April 1973 22:00

© La Revue, photo M. Tockert

The 18th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest took place on the stage of the „Grand Théâtre” of the City of Luxembourg


1973 EUROVISION WINNER 7 April 1973 22:00

© La Revue, photo M. Tockert

Anne-Marie David wins first prize with her song „You’ll recognise yourself”.


EVENING BALL AT THE „GRAND THEATRE” © E. Kutter, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


NATIONAL EVENTS 21 May 1958 Handed over to the Government to organise national events, conferences, receptions...


POPE JOHN PAUL II 15 May 1985 9:00 Arrival of Pope John Paul II at Luxembourg airport.

© La Revue N°21


POPE JOHN PAUL II 15 May 1985 16:00

© Marcel Tockert, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

Signing of the town’s golden book and reception in the entrance foyer of the „Grand Théâtre”.


POPE JOHN PAUL II 16 May 1985 13:00

© La Revue N°21

High Mass celebrated on the Glacis car park outside the „Grand Théâtre”.


POPE JEAN PAUL II 16 May 1985 10:00

© Marcel Tockert, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

„Morgengebet” on the stage of the main hall of the theatre.


QUEEN ELIZABETH II © Marcel Tockert, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

9 November 1976 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and HRH the Duke of Edinburgh and the family of the Grand-Duke of Luxembourg.


BANQUET FOR QUEEN ELIZABETH II 9 November 1976 20:00

© E.Kutter, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

The queen brought over her famous golden dinner service, gift from a Russian tsar, and also all the table decoration: candlesticks, vases, tablecloths…


QUEEN ELIZABETH II’S GOLDEN DINNER SERVICE © La Revue, photo M. Tockert

9 November 1976 23:00 The doors to the rooms where these valuable objects are placed are guarded night and day by members of the armed forces.


12 March 1981

QUEEN BEATRIX OF NETHERLANDS

10 July 1980

KING JUAN CARLOS AND QUEEN SOPHIE OF SPAIN

16 July 1966

THE HONORABLE HABIB BOURGUIBA President of the Republic of Tunisia

15 July 1975

THE HONORABLE RUDOLF KIRCHSCHLÄGER President of the Republic of Austria

27 April 1971

THE VERY HONORABLE ROLAND MICHENER Canadian Governor and his wife

7 July 1971

QUEEN JULIANA OF THE NETHERLANDS

4 May 1972

THE HONORABLE GEORGES POMPIDOU President of the French Republic

22 September 1983

KING CARL XVI GUSTAVE AND QUEEN SYLVIA OF SWEDEN


WHERE?


OUTSIDE

INSIDE

HISTORIC CENTRE


INSIDE OR OUTSIDE CITY CENTRE ?

THEATRE OUTSIDE CITY CENTRE Intense debate about the building of the new theatre outside the historic centre.


NEW PLACE 2 SOLUTIONS


THE SHOPKEEPERS AGAINST let’s protest... vehemently...transfer... city theatre...outside... the town centre © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

AGAINST


THE ACTORS FOR © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

FOR


FOR

Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


FOR

© Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

THE ARCHITECTS FOR


FOR

Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


TRANSFORMATION PROJECT

looking for an architect

Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


1951 PRELIMINARY DRAFT FOR THE EXPANSION OF THEATRE Michel Wolf and Arthur Thill


TRANSFORMATION OF THE KUTTER VILLA 1942 Arthur Thill


THEÂTRE DES CAPUCINS ©Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


SKETCH OF A NEW THEATRE © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


1936 PROJECT OF A NEW THEATRE Project of a new theatre, unobstructed on all sides, with a scenery room, workshop and room for 800-1000 people.


PROJECT 1936 CONSTRUCTION ON THE SQUARE

PROJECT 1941 TRANSFORMATION


1941 TRANSFORMATION PROJECT © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

Architect Jean Lammar Transformation project for the „Capucins theatre”


© Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

GERMAN OCCUPATION


1942 PROJECT FOR A NEW THEATRE II © Musée d’Histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg, photo Christof Weber

Architect Dr.ing.Hentrich and Heuser Convict Parc


SITE

The town requests from the Government the use of

THE GROUND BEHIND THE PESCATORE FOUNDATION.


EXCHANGE Sale on 29 March, 1940 The state has agreed to give the town, in part-exchange, the land behind the J.-P. Pescatore institution and which was originally intended for the building of the new secondary school.


NEW SITE FOR THE SECONDARY SCHOOL „The acquisition by the state had been motivated by the plan to build the new secondary school, for which the various construction proposals had so roused pre-war public opinion. The increase in the numbers of pupils and modern ideas regarding the building of schools led the Government in the mid-fifties to find another site for the secondary school.” Speech by Pierre Werner at the inauguration of the „Grand Théâtre”.


1938 COMPETITION FOR THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL Award-winning architect H.Schumacher Award-winning project © Archives Nationales de Luxembourg, Administration des Bâtiments Publics


HUBERT SCHUMACHER 1896-1961

© Revue Technique


1964 COMPETITION FOR THE NEW SECONDARY SCHOOL © E. Kutter, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

Award-winning architect Schmit-Noesen


2014 ENERGY-EFFICIENT RENOVATION ©Tageblatt


TEMPORARY TRANSFER ©Tageblatt


INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION


UIA ORGANISERS


OPENING THE PUBLIC PROJECTS TO FOREIGNERS You had to be naïve to think that a foreigner even remotely capable would agree to undergo the humiliating test that a competition for anyone over thirty represents. A foreign architect will carry off the prize in all probability! Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION © L’apogée des concours d’architecture, Aymone Nicolas

List of competitions submitted to the UIA 1956-1959


PARTICIPANTS


RULES OF THE COMPETITION © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


LIST OF PARTICIPANTS © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

+

INVITED ARCHITECTS

NATIONAL ARCHITECTS


CHOICE OF INVITED ARCHITECTS Foreign architects are not allowed to compete alone, except for 8 named „guest participants”...from BENELUX countries and from our two large neighbours, France and Germany.


ASSOCIATIONS ... contact an architect from Luxembourg seeking to go into partnership with foreign specialists...


PAUL NIEPOORT Architect, Copenhagen

Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

request to take part in the competition


ANDRE JACQMAIN Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

Architect, Brussels request for participation in the competition


LUCIEN DUBOIS Architect, Geneva

Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

request to take part in the competition


ATBAT „L’ATELIER DES BATISSEURS”

V. BODIANSKY


EXPO 58 Š Archives David Liaudet


MEETINGS © E. Kutter Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

Prouvé, Gillet, Maillet, Eiermann, the Grand Duchess, politicians...


FRENCH PAVILLON © Paris-Match, mai 1958, auteurs de l’article : Jean-Paul Penez et Jacques de Potier

Guillaume Gillet


© Paris-Match mai 1958 auteurs de l’article Jean-Paul Penez et Jacques de Potier.

GUILLAUME GILLET


DUTCH PAVILION Le Corbusier © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


GERMAN PAVILION Egon Eiermann


LUXEMBOURG PAVILION © Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

André Maillet and Jean Prouvé


JURY


MEMBERS OF THE JURY


J.J.P OUD J.TSCHUMI

H.BECK

G.REUTER

W. KALLMORGEN

H.SCHUMACHER

H.J Le MEME

V.ENGELS


WERNER KALLMORGEN

Kaiserhรถft 1962-1966

Elbphilarmonie 2014 HAMBURG


PARTICIPATION OF J.J.P OUD ARCHITECT Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

...I would have great pleasure in being available during June 1959 to be part of your jury...


J.J.P OUD


DR J.J.P OUD 1890 - 1963


DEATH OF PROFESSOR BARTNING

J.MEYER Actor, director and film director. „Comédie française” 1914-2003


J.TSCHUMI ARCHITECT


HOTELS... © Christian Aschman, Lëtzebuerg Moderne, Edition Maison Moderne. 2013


CIGARS...


AGENDA OF THE JURY 10:00 11:00 13:00 14:30 19:00

visit of the site 1st work session cold buffet 2nd work session dinner at the AIRFIELD restaurant 22:00 Luxembourg by night


FINAL CONSIDERATIONS The jury congratulates the Luxembourg authorities for having organised this competition on an international scale. 22:00 Luxembourg by night


RESULTS


1ST PRIZE Architect Alain Bourbonnais Paris


1ST PRIZE


2ND PRIZE Architects Jean Lammar, Luxembourg François Mayer and Gérard Benoit, Paris


3RD PRIZE Architects Pierre Gilbert, Luxembourg, Florian Vischer et Georges Weber, Basle


4TH PRIZE Architects Pierre Guillaume Gillet, Paris, René Mailliet, Luxembourg, Jean Prouvé


GUILLAUME GILLET IN VALENCIENNES ...asks to be able to use our project to build a theatre in Valenciennes...


AGREEMENT IF IT IS NOT A COPY


GUILLAUME GILLET

LUXEMBOURG PROJECT

VALENCIENNES PROJECT


GERARD WEBER National Theatre Mannheim 1957


MENTION Professor Gerhard Weber, BDA architect, Oberallmannshausen


MENTION Laurent Schmit, architect DPLG Luxembourg Nicolas Schmit-Noesen architect DPLG Luxembourg


MENTION Léonard Knaff, architect DPLG, Luxembourg


MENTION Prof. Egon Eiermann, Karlsruhe


DISAPPOINTMENT Professor Egon Eiermann

BERLIN ERNST-REUTER-PLATZ


MENTION Bernard Weber architect, Luxembourg, Rudi Feltes architect, Luxembourg


INVITED Ernst + G端nther G.Huhn D端sseldorf


INVITED Er.B. Bijvoet Haarlem


INVITED Bureau ATBAT


INVITED Albert J. De Doncker and Robert P.Michiels, Brussels


EXHIBITION OF WINNING PROJECTS WINNER’S TELEGRAMME ... very warm and sincere congratulations...


1100 VISITORS


PERFECT ORGANISATION An event organised in the highceilinged and bright village hall in Bonnevoie, late afternoon on Friday. The public were invited to sample a delicate delicious local wine and tasty sandwiches that the kind, likeable caretaker of the town hall took it upon himself to serve to the guests extremely well.


VISIT OF THE MODEL BY PRINCE FELIX 30 November 1959


ARCHITECT


ALAIN BOURBONNAIS The architect in a „Turbulé ” costume. © Edition „La Fabulosie” Dicy-Yonne


DEPARTURE Thursday 10 November 2013 The name of Monsieur Alain Bourbonnais makes you think of an amazing place called „La Fabuloserie”. I read from the website that it would refer to the architect’s country home in Burgundy, a house he allegedly transformed into a temple of Art Brut with the help of his wife Caroline. Coincidence, I will cross Burgundy the next day.


THE LUXEMBOURG FILE


MEETING Friday 11 November 2013 Armistice Day. Journey via Dicy, on the edge of Burgundy. Finding „La Fabuloserie” and meeting with Caroline Bourbonnais, wife of the architect Alain Bourbonnais.


„LA FABULOSERIE“

„La Fabuloserie” is an indescribable world, a meeting of exquisite objects and of elegance: lace, random collations of wood and iron.


The architect in the midst of his „Turbulents�


1965 ST-CLOUD CHURCH

1969 TRAIN STATION NATION - PARIS

1963 CAEN THEATRE


JOSEPH LEYDENBACH’S VILLA Alain Bourbonnais stayed for two years in Luxembourg. Monsieur Leydenbach, president of the International Bank in Luxembourg, contacted him to build his villa.


NINI Caroline and Alain never returned to Luxembourg after their hurried departure in the autumn of 62. They did not see the finished theatre, only a few kindly glimpses from a mysterious Nini allowed them to believe in the project’s success.


YOUR LETTER OF 17 MAY IS A RED ROSE FOR ME!


CONSTRUCTION


© T. Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


EXECUTION PLAN Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg

FACADE


Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


TRADITIONAL? „The College of Aldermen has certain concerns regarding the durability of the prefabricated sections ...it asks you to look for a more traditional way of building... material of tested durability...in this field natural stone seems to offer more guarantees.” © T. Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


OR PREFABRICATED? „I cannot yet see any reason to review the problem of the fronts of the buildings ... allow me to build prototypes that will be assessed.”

© T. Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


PREFABRICATED SECTIONS © T. Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


A. BOURBONNAIS

MANUFACTURING THE PROTOTYPES © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


DETAILED ELEMENTS OF THE FACADE © Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


CHOICE OF CEILINGS


REPORT N° 33 „In his official report dated 04.08.1962 had asked the architect to suggest several foreign firms to him...Notes that until now this has not been followed up... remind the architect of the urgent nature of this matter...”


STUDY TRIPS TO GERMANY The working group ceiling.

in search of a modern Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


DEUTSCHE BANK FRANKFURT Ceilings retained by the working group Š Archives de la Ville de Luxembourg


©T. Mey Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

A. BOURBONNAIS „... I wanted to have ceiling vaults in the entrance foyer and it was then that people, wanting their stupid little pyramids stuck to the ceiling, turned up.” Interview D’Land, April 1964

© T. Mey, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


CHOICE OF CHANDELIERS


PROPOSAL I


PROPOSAL II

PROPOSAL III

PROPOSAL IV


PROPOSAL V

PROPOSAL VI

PROPOSAL IIX

PROPOSAL X PROPOSAL VII

PROPOSAL IX


© T.Krier, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

PROPOSAL XI

PROPOSAL XII


PROPOSAL XIII

PROPOSAL XIV


©T.KRIER photothèque Ville de Luxembourg

CHOICE OF DIAMONDS


OFFICIAL VISIT © T.Krier, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


MADE IN AUSTRIA


©T.KRIER Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg

FINAL CHOICE


WORKSITE REPORT EXTRACT


REPORT N° 30 „In his official report of 04 August 1962 had asked the architect to suggest several foreign firms to him….Notes that until now this has not been followed up.. remind the architect of the urgent nature of this matter...”

REPORT N° 33 „In his official report dated 04 August 1962 had asked the architect to suggest several foreign firms to him….Notes that until now this has not been followed up... remind the architect of the urgent nature of this matter...”

REPORT N° 31 „Notes that for some time now the Bourbonnais Agency in avenue Pasteur employs no more than two technicians which is obviously not matched to the scale of the task to be currently carried out...”

REPORT N° 34 19 September 1962 „...Organisation of a second submission for the decorative lighting...”

REPORT N° 50 REPORT N° 48 05 October 1962 „Hears Monsieur Bourbonnais explain that the firm FIBROCIT of Brussels has just created a prototype for a seat for the main hall, according to his specifications. A prototype that the architect will inspect very soon when he travels to Brussels.”

11 October 1962 „Hears Monsieur Bourbonnais revealing that he intends to have made as soon as possible a scale model specially focusing on the material and color layouts of the entrance foyer; that, as from now, he thinks that the main color of the whole building should be white...”


REPORT N° 53

REPORT N° 59

19 October 1962

4 December 1962

„Considering that, as a result of a letter dated 18.10.62 from the firm FIBROCIT of Brussels, the architect, having viewed on site a prototype built to his specifications, chose a different model made up of another prototype that FIBROCIT had under construction...”

„Thinks that there is good reason to ditch the proposal of Monsieur Bourbonnais aiming at creating a new model of a chair for the main hall and that we should limit the choice to good quality yet up-todate models...that are, of course, very comfortable...”

REPORT N° 60

REPORT N° 61

4 December 1962 „Believes that the only solution that will still allow the main hall to be completed before the deadline and that will thus allow the inauguration to take place during 1963 would comprise of putting a highly specialised firm, such as the Coene company of Courtrai, in charge of completing the layout and decoration...”

4 December 1962 „Besides he remembers that for reasons of simplification and to avoid possible complications it would be preferable not to base oneself on elements (drafts, sketches…) drawn up for certain sections by the Bourbonnais agency...”


CONFLICT WITH THE PROJECT TEAM


ARCHITECT ON THE RUN


LUXEMBOURG, AUTUMN 62 The tension between the working group and the architect had reached its breaking point. The situation had become untenable. On the evening before 1 November, Alain Bourbonnais, Caroline and their associates loaded all the plans for the completion of the „Grand Théâtre” project into the boot of their car.

At nightfall they fled Luxembourg. Caroline describes to me, still trembling, crossing the border, butterflies in her stomach, and also the great “beanfeast” that ensued early in the morning on arrival in Paris.


„The secretary... asked in the entrance foyer for some coffers with gilded mouldings in the entrance foyer: Poor man!... So the arguments came back fiercer and fiercer and I was taken over by suggestions from engineers, they wanted to cover three sides of the pillars with marble and one side with mirrors so that the ladies could gaze at themselves. All that, in my view,

has no place in a modern building.” A. Bourbonnais

„...for the pastel colors used instead of the natural materials that I wanted, for the chandeliers that replaced the indirect lighting, for all that

I don’t feel responsible.” A. Bourbonnais


AMAZEMENT IN LUXEMBOURG ! „So what has happened, would to God, has happened. Monsieur Bourbonnais lost patience and, certain that art can ignore boundaries, he disappeared and ran off to the French capital. Fine example of internationalism!�


FAREWELL SONG TO BOURBONNAIS Review Extract 1963

It’s sad but true, How it’s sad, so sad Oh, how it’s sad He’s cleared off Bourbo…Bourbon…Bourbonnais The town had a dog Found him abroad He got the first prize He was from Paris Chorus

The town thought This little dog will guard your new building very well Because dogs are loyal God knows why Those town dogs squabbled Because of the sausage With that foreign dog Chorus

The stranger said Now there is nobody who grumbles in this building Everything goes by me or I bear my teeth Our dogs all barked as you are annoyed at shit When you think you have let the sausage escape Chorus Every dog in town Scrapped with him The foreigner was all alone There were lots of us


SATURDAY 3 NOVEMBER 1962 8:00 The mail contains a letter from Bourbonnais dated 31 October 1962, terminating the contract as an architect and giving notice of the closure of the Luxembourg Agency from 1 November 1962.

12:00 Messieurs S., B. and R. go to the local Bourbonnais office to see it closed.

SUNDAY 4 DECEMBER 1962 18:00 Discussions on the measures needed

20:00 Messieurs S and B return to the agency and contact an associate of the architect, Monsieur M. who lives in this house with his family. The result of the following interview shows that Monsieur Bourbonnais has emptied the premises during the days off and has taken all the plans, documents and models, partly in his private car, partly in a van with a French number plate. The result of information gleaned later shows that this van was left at Longwy.

5 NOVEMBER 1962 Report by bailiff’s writ, drawn up by Madame J.J.H on 5 November 1962 which ensures that the Bourbonnais Agency is closed. Local enquiry by the Police ViceCommissioner


© T. Mey, Photothèque Ville de Luxembourg

FILE RETURNED


RESUMPTION OF NEGOTIATIONS Wednesday 7 November 1962 Letter from Bourbonnais in which he states his readiness to resume talks.


ITEMS RECEIVED Tuesday 15 January 1963

File N째11

File N째1

File N째4

File N째13


ITEMS RECEIVED Tuesday 16 January 1963

File N째6

File N째5

File N째2

File N째3


File N째4

File N째7

File N째10

File N째14


COMPLETION


CHOICE OF CARPET


GRAND DUCAL LOGE


ETERNIT BUSINESS ... a briefcase as a gift from the firm


ETERNIT


FRANZ KINNEN LOOKS FOR A BOARD 35 X 2,5M TO REST HIS STAINED GLASS WINDOW


©La Revue

THE INVITATION

GRANDE DUCHESSE CHARLOTTE

INAUGURATION WHERE IS THE ARCHITECT?


ACT I „..I am extremely surprised not to have received an invitation yet�


ACT II „...sending things as attachments…doesn’t fall within our remit...”


ACT III „...the circumstances surrounding your precipitated departure from Luxembourg do not allow us to invite you to these celebrations...�


©La Revue

1964 INAUGURATION

GRANDE DUCHESSE CHARLOTTE


Deputy mayor

“It is a gallery given over to mirrors fashioned in the style of the 20th century. Tonight in this huge hall the two large central chandeliers, the fitted spotlights and the wall lights are shining brightly. On the ceiling, following the huge vista, there is a show of dancing light and shadow on the white diamond-shaped forms of the ceiling. We blissfully lose ourselves in this splendid space that so widely opens up before us. We others from Luxembourg are not yet accustomed to its vastness here. We breathe deeply and we can look way into the distance�


SPEECH BY MARCEL FISCHBACH


SPEECH BY PIERRE WERNER Prime Minister „It is widely recognised that the moral and cultural consciousness of a civilisation is best reflected in its theatre... It is beneath the emblem of dramatic art that this palace has been planned and justified... We must make this palace of the millennium a centre of good things and intelligence.�


DISPLAY BY MAURICE BEJART

BOLERO BY RAVEL


©La Revue

INAUGURATION R E T A E H T NEW

GRANDE DUCHESSE CHARLOTTE


2014 50TH ANNIVERSARY


© Tony Krier, Photothèque de la Ville de Luxembourg


14th International Architecture Exhibition Biennale di Venezia 2014

MODERNITY - LOVED, HATED OR IGNORED?

INVESTIGATION # 4 N° x/20 © 2014 - Laruade - Kostohryz - Langevin


INVESTIGATION #4 GRAND THEATRE