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01 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Firstly, I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to Ms Cristina Cerulli who guided me during the thesis project and gave me lots of valuable relevant information about my topic for about three months, not only the professors who studied in the similar area, but also the events happening in my site. I learnt not merely how to frame a design work, but also the research method from her in the design process. At the meantime, thanks to all the MAUD tutors (Florian Kossak, Lorenza casini, Julia Udall and Anna Holder) who gave me the golden opportunity to do the wonderful projects and plenty of suggestions. They really helped me a lot and letted me know about so many new things. Secondly, I would also like to thank my parents who gave me the big encouragement to study here. At last, I must thank all the colleagues, especially Yona, who experienced the project together with me, we learnt a lot from each other within the whole year. The project would not develop so smoothly without you, hence, thanks again to all. I enjoyed it so much.

01

CONTENT 01 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 02 SITE CHOSEN 03 SHEFFIELD INNER RELIEF ROAD ANALYSIS AND SURVEY

NAME--Bo SUN TUTOR--Cristina CERULLI, Florian KOSSAK, Julia UDALL, Lorenza CASINI & Anna HOLDER DATE-- 30 August, 2013 REGISTRATION NO.--120185159

04CONCEPT 05 CASE STUDY 06 PROPOSALS 07 BIBLIOGRAPHY

MIND THE GAP FILL THE GAP


02 SITE CHOSEN ( SHEFFIELD, The REASONS of Sheffield chosen & The REASONS of ring road chosen)

UNITED KINGDOM (1:15000000) SHEFFIELD (1:6000000) INNER RELIEF ROAD (1:300000)

SHEFFIELD Sheffield- South Yorkshire-England (53°23‘ N 1°28’ W) Its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. Population of the City of Sheffield : 551,800 (2011 est.)

02

Location: within the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin, and the Sheaf. 61% of Sheffield’s entire area is green space, and 33% of the city lies within the Peak District National Park. The climate in Sheffield is generally temperate.

1 THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDY AND LIVE IN SHEFFIELD

The

REASONS

I have lived and studied in Sheffield for more than one year. During this time, I always go to city centre for shopping and dinner or go to suburb for a walk; the city always gives me some little surprises on my way, so that I love this peaceful city. of Sheffield chosen

2 THE PRE-STUDY OF SHALESMOOR Both of the urban design tools session and the first project we did was exploring about Shalesmoor, which is an industrial heritage area along the inner relief road in Sheffield. After these two modules learning, basically, I have grasped the general city evolution about Sheffield, which makes me pretty interested in Sheffield as well.


The

REASONS

of ring road chosen

The streets are abundance of space. They have to balance the multi-function, the value of communication, as well as the transformation of towns and cities. Streets need to meet the requirements of cultural change and climate change. According to Street Design Policy, in the 1960s a report stated that Buchanan’s Traffic in town traffic strives to simplify streets and organize them by isolating the streets. The result is that many street designs are only considered a separate flow of traffic to the main traffic signs, letting the people behind the fence hurried across the street. (Buchanan’s, 1963)

1 Walk along the ring road For my friends and me, who are living not far away from city center, we almost go to school and city centre by walk, which provides us with a great affection on Sheffield, especially the pedestrian route along the ring road.

However, the change is about to happen. Manual for streets which is the new government guidance from the department for transport will have a greater role in creating successful place. It acknowledges the streets need to respond to the complexity of public life, in different priorities, different situations and different expectations under the promotion of people’s activities. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary approach, innovation and legibility, the design of residential and light trafficked streets, and a better balance between pedestrians and vehicles. The report also pointed out that these principles can also be applied to other city streets. (CABE programme, 2007)

2 Walk across the ring road I have heard from the local people said: the area of London Road in Sheffield should have been the city centre, but because of Ring Road, it is not regarded as city center any more. People living and working there need to across the ring road every day, which means a close relationship between two areas.

In conclusion, the ring road is a crucial traffic way as well as street space for people in Sheffield. As people live, study or even travel in Sheffield, they usually keep in touch with the ring road from different directions of city. Hence, the ring road for Sheffield is also a significant impression about city. According to complicated kinds of people who are using the street space, multiple demands are required by them. During the past three Urban Design projects, for me the biggest harvest is that urban designer should create space that people really need. In this project, the public space along the ringroad should be remodeled to achieve the demands for mixed people, which can be simply divided into three occasions.

3 The first impression of the city When people come to Sheffield by train for the first time, a big impression for them about city is the space in front of train station, which is belong the ring road. The first impression is crucial for visitors to love this city.

03


03 SHEFFIELD INNER RELIEF ROAD ANALYSIS (The RING ROADS in the UK, POLICY, The impact of the URBAN STRUCTURE, SITE ANALYSIS, PROBLEM THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE PUBLIC SPACE ALONG THE RING ROAD, CONCLUSION OF ALL ANALYSIS & SURVEY)

The

RING ROADS

in the

UK

POLICY

From the history of the project about ring road, we can admit that recommendations

are listed below to develop the ring road project:

about loop (IRR) around Sheffield city centre have been implemented from the

Developing a more compact and densely populated City Centre represents a major contribution towards a lower energy, lower carbon city.

Perth Inner A989

2. Public Service Offices: Paisley A726, A761, B7050 Ayr A70, A79, A719 Newcastle-upon-Tyne InnerB1600

URBAN STRUCTURE

In the City Centre Master Plan 2013, it emphasizes some important points which

1.City Council: Dundee Inner A991

The impact of the

1950s, as well as they were included in the development plan of Sheffield (1958 passed) under 1947 in Town and Country Planning Act. Since then, route has been designed between Penistone Road and Shoreham Street as well. (Sheffield City Council, 2012) From the maps below we could see that as a whole, the texture of city, especially

The Moorfoot Building provides an opportunity to consolidate office space for the

the city centre of Sheffield, has not changed very obviously from the year of 1900

Council and other public services for at least the next 15 years. It can accommodate

till now since the ring road appeared. But the previous constructions, which were

up to 2500 staff which among other things will help to generate a significant customer

replaced by ring road now, were totally destroyed to contribute to this big traffic

base for the Market and other retail units proposed on the The Moor. The Council

route. As mentioned above, the city pattern almost maintained what they were

and its partners will also address the public spaces and ground floor character

initially while the constructions along the road just altered a little to some extent.

around The Moorfoot Building to promote a better setting and connectivity with Darlington A68, A167z

London Road with more active ground floor uses.

2000s

3. Sustainable City Proposal: Leeds A58(M), A64(M), A647, A6110, A6120 Bradford A6181, A6177 Liverpool Inner A5058 Bolton A58

Huddersfield A62

Manchester and Salford Inner, M60 Mansfield InnerA6009 Nottingham A52, A6514, A428, A4500, A5123 Norwich A147, A140, A1042 Derby A601, A38, A61, A5111 Leicester A594, A563, A6030 Hinckley B590 Birmingham Outer A4040 Coventry Ringway A4053 Kidderminster Ringway A451 Cambridge A1134 Ipswich A1022, A1156 Cheltenham A46 Chelmsford A138 London Inner, North / South Circulars, Orbital Oxford A34, A40, A44, A423, A4142 Croydon A212, A232, A236 CanterburyA28, A290 Cardiff A4232 Basingstoke RingwayA30, A339, A340 AshfordA292 Chichester A259, A286 Chester Inner A5268

1970s

Replace all street lighting with low energy, smart, directional street lighting. Promote more shade trees and green spaces including green roofs in the City Centre. 4. Accessible City:

1970s

Better cycle and walking connections across the Inner Relief Road e.g.at Moorfoot, Victoria Quays, Upper Hanover St, Brook Hill etc and better cross city routes along the Steel Route, along the Porter, Sheaf Valley Park, Upper Don etc. Improvements to the older junctions on the Inner Relief Road such as Brookhill to

Historic map of 1900s shows the process of construction

reduce congestion, improve safety and walking and cycling. 5. Green and Connected City: One of the outstanding successes of Sheffield’s urban regeneration since the mid 1990’s has been the creation of high quality and well-loved pedestrian spaces creating coherent and easily understood routes through the City Centre, providing an attractive setting for long term investment and changing the way both local people visitors perceive and use the City Centre.

The formation of ring roads is an important part of the road life. They help to solve the traffic around city and town to facilitate vehicle towards the destination through the flow distribution. However, the ring road can also cause traffic jams, especially very busy in peak time and shopping time, as a lot of industrial areas and parks are close to them. (Data from Berry, 2013)

Current map

1990s 1970s

04


SITE ANALYSIS

JUNCTION 9 JUNCTION 7 JUNCTION 10

JUNCTION 8 Through cutting and stretching the ring JUNCTION 1

road out into a line from the first junction to the tenth junction, analysed data and information gathered could be compared more easily.

JUNCTION 2

JUNCTION 6

Sheffield Inner Ring Road is a dual-carriageway circling Sheffield city centre. From the 1960s onwards, the loop is connected to Parkway, which links M1 motorway. Many important buildings currently under construction as well as many major office buildings and luxury apartments in Sheffield are situated on both sides of the ring road. (Sheffield city council, 2012) The total length is about 6500 metres. The total time spending by walking is about 1.5 hours.

BUILT FABRIC GREEN SPACE PRIVATE SPACE JUNCTION 3 JUNCTION 5

OPEN SPACE RIVER PUBLIC CAR PARKING

JUNCTION 4

05


DISTANCE BTWEEN EACH JUNCTION(m) WALKING TIME SPENDING BTWEEN EACH JUNCTION

01

--490--

02

--1070--

03

--670--

04

--440--

05

--1060--

06

--850--

07

--530--

01

--7--

02

--23--

03

--7--

04

--7--

05

--15--

06

--5--

07

--5--

08 --300-- 09

08

--5-- 09

--170--

10

--730--

01

--3--

10

--10--

01

100

50 HILL PROFILE (m) 0

BUILT FABRIC 1-3 storeys 4-6 storeys 7- storeys

06

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BUILDINGS ALONG THE RINGROAD commercial area business area campus area accommodation

GREEN SPACE

OPEN SPACE AND THE PEDESTRIAN UNACCESSIBLE AREA

PRIVATE SPACE


PARK SQUARE A PUBLIC SPACE IN FRONT OF ELECTRIC WORKS

EXISTING PUBLIC SPACE

A PUBLIC SPACE IN FRONT OF CAMPUS BUILDINGS SHEAF SQUARE PEDESTRIAN STREET

A PUBLIC SPACE IN FRONT OF CAMPUS BUILDINGS A PUBLIC SPACE IN FRONT OF CAMPUS BUILDINGS

PUBLIC CAR PARKING

THE UNDERCROSS TO LONDON ROAD

THE UNDERCROSS TO THE OPAL 2 STUDENTS ACCOMMODATION

07

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING undercross ground crossing overpass SIGNS ON THE RING ROAD


CYCLE ROUTES AND CROSSING ALONG THE RINGROAD

PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES AND CROSSING ALONG THE RINGROAD tram bus VEHICLE ACCESS LOOP FROM THE RINGROAD TO THE CITY CENTRE

TYPOLOGY OF THE CURRENT SECTION AND PUBLIC ACTIVITIES

08

A

LOCATION OF THE SECTION TYPES

DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM OF THE LITTER BINS ON THE RING ROAD

DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM OF THE BENCHES ON THE RING ROAD

01 F

B

02

03 E

D

C

04 E

D C

D

05 D

C

D

E

06 C

E

07 B

F

08

09 A

10

01 E


PROBLEM

SUB--PROBLEM

TRAFFIC PROBLEMS

TRAFFIC CONFLICTS

POLLUTION PROBLEMS

NOISE POLLUTION

TYPES OF THE SPACE

MOTORWAY

AIR POLLUTION

CYCLE WAY

GARBAGE POLLUTION INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS

USERS ON THE RING ROAD

LITTER BINS

PEDESTRIAN

BENCHES FOODSTANDS

UNDERCROSS

LIGHTINGS CCTVS

OPEN SPACE

BROKEN SURFACE FENCES

GREEN SPACE ABSENCE FACILITIES

PLANTS

LOW CONDITION

DISTRIBUTION DIAGRAM OF THE PROBLEMS ON THE RING ROAD

WE HOPE THERE WOULD BE AN ICE CREAM VAN, ON OUR WAY AFTER SCHOOL.

THE BROKEN FENCES ALONG THE RING ROAD BRINGS BIG THREATENS!

LACK OF THE LITTER BINS ALONG THE RING ROAD, THE GARBAGES COULD BE SEEN ANYWHERE WHICH PROVIDES A BAD ENVIRONEMENT FOR PUBLIC AND UNFRIENDLY IMPRESSION FOR VISITORS AS WELL.

09

WITHOUT THE CCTV, THE UNDERCROSS SPACE MAKES PEOPLE FEAR, ESPECIALLY FOR WOMEN AND CHILDREN. THE IMPERFECT MANAGEMENT OF PLANTS IN PUBLIC SPACE WOULD MAKE THE ENVIRONMENT UNCOMFORTABLE


THE

CURRENT STATUS

OF THE PUBLIC SPACE ALONG THE RING ROAD

THE BROKEN SURFACE OF THE ROAD AND THE WALL BRINGS PUBLIC MORE IMAGINATION

THE ABANDONED OR UNDER-USED STRUCTURE COULD BE REDESIGNED TO FROVIDE MORE FUN FOR PUBLIC. DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTIONS COULD PROVIDE THE SAME FUNCTION WHICH IS SEATING AREA. 10 DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTIONS COULD PROVIDE THE SAME FUNCTION WHICH IS SEATING AREA.

THE IDLE SOFT AND HARD SPACE ALONG THE RING ROAD WOULD BE THE COMFORTABLE SPACE FOR THE COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC TO HOLD SOME LLITTLE ACTIVITIES DURING THE WEEKENDS AND WEEKDAYS THE IMAGES WITH FRAMES WOULD APPEAR AGAIN IN THE PROPOSAL PART

CONCLUSION OF ALL ANALYSIS From the above analysis it can be seen, Ring Road is a public space, which is in faultiness of infrastructure but affects people’s life. The further proposal of this project will concentrate on solving the existing problems and improving the infrastructure system of loop road, in order to encourage more people to use the public space surrounded, which can also strengthen exchanges between neighbours. Because the functions of road are not perfect and the current situation of road traffic is relative complicated, so proposal will also make full efforts to provide a better environment and formation of public space to give a better coexistence among the existing vehicle, bicycle route and pedestrian.


SURVEY

PUBLIC SPACES CONDITION ALONG THE SHEFFIELD INNER RELIEF ROAD

VIA

Hi loves, I am an Urban Design master student of the University of Sheffield. Now I am studying about the public spaces along the inner ring road in Sheffield. I need your help to understand more about this area to propose ideas to make the space better for pedestrians. Thanks for your attention. It will not take you too much time. Have a good day. 1 Do you walk along the inner ring road?

5 Do you think the condition of the pedestrian road along the ring road is good enough?

NO 33%

NO 50%

It needs more spaces and trees YES 67%

YES 50%

Beacause the cars have to give way to pedestrians so the carriageway is enough. No benches. I can’t have a rest

2 If yes, why do you walk along it?

FOR FUN 0%

EXERCISE 25%

Because I like dodging amongst the cars.

6 What kind of changes could be made for public spaces along the ring road?

GOOD PAVEMENT

50%

MORE LIGHTINGS

33.33%

MORE BENCHES

Relationship with the road should be better, and more connection to housing and activities in adjacent neighbourhoods

THE WAY TO HOME/WORK /STUDY 75%

50%

FOOD STANDS

66.67%

MORE SQUARES

66.67%

0.00%

20.00%

40.00%

60.00%

80.00%

More circles.

3 If no, why don’t you always walk along it? IT IS NOT SAFE ENOUGH 22%

IT IS TOO NOISY 22%

THERE IS NO NEED TO WALK ALONG IT FOR ME 45%

THE RINGROAD IS SO BORING 11%

7 Do you think it is possible to do some public activities in the public spaces along the ring road? (like a picnic, music festival) -At the moment it’s too polluted and noisy and busy to be enjoyable. Other spa R&D are better. But be good to relate more to the places around it that in to the road -The high volume of traffic would be a big disturbance -Not enough space, and too much traffic -space -I like to watch the ladies in the cars.

AFTER THE CAREFUL INVESTIGATION OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE SHEFFIELD INNER RELIEF ROAD, IN ORDER TO RECOGNIZE THE EXACT DEMAND AND NEED OF THE NEIGHBOURHOODS, COMMUNITIES AND PUBLIC WHO USE THE RING ROAD, I DESIGNED A SURVEY FORM VIA SURVEYMONKEY AND SENT THE LINK TO THE SHEFFIELD FORUM AND MY COLLEAGUES IN SHEFFIELD. FORTUNATELY, I RECEIVED 20 RESPONSES FROM THEM. THEY TOLD ME THEIR VALUABLE FEELINGS OF THE OPEN SPACES ALONG THE RING ROAD. THERE IS NO DOUBT THAT THEIR RESPONSES ARE MY GUIDANCE OF THE FURTHER PROPOSALS AND STRATEGIES AS WELL.

4 Which part of the public space gave you the most impressive memory along the inner ring road? Why? Trees. The view to the play park and basketball court- wanting to know what people are doing. The plants and shrubs along the middle and by the pavement.

YES 43% NO 57%

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04 CONCEPT OUTER AREA

DEFINITION GAP of

The definition from Cambridge dictionary SHEFFIELD INNER RELIEF ROAD

An empty space or opening in the middle of something or between two things. The definition from the MENTAL perspective There is little exchange between human beings and the public space in the ring road. The definition from the PHYSICAL perspective

CITY CENTRE

MIND THE GAP PURPOSE

DISCONNECTION SINGLE FUNCTION URBAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM CLEAR BOUNDARY WASTELAND BORING

The spaces along city centre and the outer area are separated because of the ring road.

RECONNECTION MULTI- FUNCTION SOCIAL SPACES INDISTINCT BOUNDARY USEFUL LAND DELIGHT

FILL THE GAP

The Impact on Physical and Mental Health for public: A good environment along the ring road will bring the happy mood for users, at the meantime, the clear environment could make public healthy. (Nakamura, 2002)

Increasing the Sense of Security along the Ring road: Physical changes to improve environment with the better management of public space can help allay crime fears. (McKay,1998) The Social Dimension of Public Space along the Ring road: The spaces would rebuild the cultural identity of an area, are parts of their unique characters and provide local communities with a sense of belonging. (Kuo,1998) Movement In-Between Spaces along the Ring road: Well-designed streets and public spaces encourage people working and living around there to walk and cycle, and have the power to make the environment much safer. (Blandy, 2003)

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05 CASE STUDY THE DESIGNER’S PERSPECTIVE

GREENING THE ROMFORD RINGROAD

The vision was to deliver a unique and distinctive public realm which could help to develop a healthy walkable town. This was some challenge, given that the available public realm was mostly under the control of highways and, with the exception of the County Square shopping mall on Bank Street and Elwick Road which is no new development coming forward to redefine the boundaries of this public realm. The most important thing is to improve the arrival experience and the connection from station to town centre. The earlier work on Exhibition Road helped us to promote the concept of shared space or the ‘integrated street’ to connect the town centre and station. These were the four aspects which the designers considered more in this project which were “An integrated and inter-disciplinary design team”, “Marrying art, environment and engineering”, “Engagement and re-education” and “Materials and technical specification”.

Commission: London Borough of Havering ( 2008-2012) Team: What if: projects (lead consultant), with Flora Gathorne-Hardy (landscape architects), Jacobs (Engineers), A&E (art strategy), Inge Clemente (photography) The Ring Road, creates a physical and psychological barrier around the shopping malls and car parks that define the town centre, which is a two-mile long dual carriageway and disconnecting it from its hinterland. It is a difficult place to be for pedestrians and cyclists, a challenging habitat for nature and it provides very little opportunity to linger, rest or play.

MAKING SPACE

To get involved in the project, the team made some ‘Romford Jam’ from blackberries found along the neglected and fenced off banks of the River Rom that runs through the centre of the town. They collected, cleaned the berries and added a little lemon and sugar as well. They then applied the jam making process to the Ring Road to reveal how the environment could be changed basing on the existing patterns of use, maintenance and local issue through the careful investigations to propose the simple and playful alterations to the existing constructions, shared spaces and public travelling habits as well.

Breaking Boundaries It had the principal aim of making the re-designed shared space ring road a place as much as a means of travelling between or to other places, and the programme brought a number of generic chances that artists could explore through their collaborative work. Selecting the artists

And then they proposed several ideas--What if the Ring Road became...

Public art consultants hold an extensive database of artists’ work to and selected good appropriate artists on different scale schemes.

...a safe and comfortable environment for walking and cycling? ...a series of public green spaces which are re-energised and serving not only town centre users but also create spaces for neighbourhoods and communities surrounding the Ring Road which are vacant sites now?

13

Lost O

This programme of temporary works designed and carried out by Michael Pinsky, was delivered on the weekend that the Tour de France came to Ashford in 2007. It was the recipient of a £50,000 award from different organizations to encourage high quality public art projects in England.

...a place for rest and recreation, rather than being a difficult place to be? ...a place that supports and reflects the town’s cultural life?

The Champions Group In this project different participants creatively contributed to an award winning exemplar of good design.

THE ASHFORD RING ROAD PROJECT “The fact remains that most of our streets are not civilised, enjoyable places to be.” --CABE Space PROJECT “FAMILY TREE” Client Team(s) Champions Group

Vision Identity / Branding Public Art Strategy Shared Space Concepts After that, 70 lovely projects were proposed on the ring road that can transform the ring road into a lively, living support system. The scale of proposed projects ranges from small changes that can be delivered immediately and easily, to large scale strategic projects that involve not only the complex organisation, but also the larger budgets. (What if: projects Ltd, 2012)

Public Realm Strategy Site Access Strategy

Scheme Progress Group Media & Marketing Group Public Relations Press Relations Marketing Temporary Artworks

Project Manager Integrated Design Team Engineering Traffic Urban Design

Movement Strategy

Landscape Architecture

Advocacy

Lead Artist

COMMUNICATING CHANGE The purpose is let residents know what is happening on the ring road. (Eeles, Knight, Roberts, Stubbings and Whitelaw, 2009)


06 PROPOSALS

There are varieties of benches between the buildings near the tram station--Shalesmoor, however, the users are not too many in this area.

( PROPOSALS, STRATEGY IMPLEMENT & TIME SCALE, CONCLUSION)

Going through the various analysis and similar good cases studies, the project proposed a concept of FILL THE GAP. From several case studies show that they focus on analysis of the basic information about existing situation, combining with the problems to further improvement. Through the understanding of Sheffield Ring Road, this proposal is to focus on two different size spaces, one is the improvement of a small space, and the other one is a large space for reused. The small spaces generally refer to the kind of low quality street, which above is mentioned, the large spaces refer to those who have been abandoned, such as large green lands and underground channels. Therefore, for different spatial scales, there will be different design approaches.

4

On the bridge, we could get the good view of the river DON. However, because of the dangerous environment with the high speed traffic, almost nobody likes to stay here to appreciate the river.

4

10 11

AREA 1

EXISTING SITUATION + PROBLEM SOLVING + SURVEY + CASE STUDIES

The open space in front of the primary school is designed as an extension of the school playground after school.

AREA 2

Enough amount of street infrastructures , like litter bins, could help build a good city image for public.

9

PROPOSALS Sometimes the broken surface of the wall or the street would bring some inspiration to the artists or designers. They could tell a different story of this city.

78

14

3 There is a graffiti which says that IS THE RIVER REALLY BEAUTIFUL OR IS IT JUST THE GRADIENT OF THE LAND? under the bridge. I suppose a cafe named RIVER on the bridge would attract lots of people to enjoy the whole beautiful afternoon with a cup of espresso over the river.

The big green space along the ring road and next to the communities is a gift for the public. It should not be just like what it is now, however, it could bear the responsibility of a socialization space for the neighbourhood as well. Here, you can enjoy one outdoor movie; here, you can enjoy one community trade; here, you can enjoy one culture salon; whatever...

4 5

The city could be a big museum of different exhibitions which would tell the story, the history even the culture of the city itself.

6

6

THIS PART WILL PICK UP SEVRAL TYPICAL AREAS TO SHOW THE PROPOSAL METHODS

The space in the middle of the undercross roundabout seems the semi--surround area where different things could happen here.

There is no doubt that not one facility just has one function. When you feel tired on your way, you can sit on the road barriers. It looks like our life, sometimes after a little relax or rest, there will be a better future.


AREA 1

NETHERTHORPE PRIMARY SCHOOL

THE OPEN SPACE IN FRONT OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL IS DESIGNED AS AN EXTENSION OF THE SCHOOL PLAYGROUND AFTER SCHOOL FOR NOT JUST CHILDREN BUT ALSO THEIR PARENTS. WHO SAID THE INNOCENCE IS CHILDREN’S PATENT?

RING ROAD

15

AFTER

BEFORE

REUSE THE ABANDONED CONSTRUCTIONS AND TRANSFORM IT TO A PUBLIC BOOK SHELF WHICH SURROUNDING PUBLIC COULD DONATE THE READ BOOKS AND EXCHANGE TO A “NEW” BOOK. MAYBE YOU CAN GET A MESSAGE FROM HER ON THE MARGIN OF THE BOOK AND START A NEW DATING.

RING ROAD


AREA 2

AFTER

COMMUNITY

RING ROAD

BEFORE

THE OPEN SPACE IN FRONT OF THE COMMUNITY NEXT TO THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING CENTRE IS A BIG GREEN SPACE WHERE COULD HOLD PUBLIC ACTIVITIES, SUCH AS THE OUTDOOR MOVIE, VINTAGE MARKET AND SO ON. IN ORDER TO AVOID THE SAFE ISSUE, A STREET BARRIER WOULD BE SET UP BETWEEN THE MOTORWAY AND THE PEDESTRIAN.

16

AFTER

RING ROAD

REUSE THE ABANDONED CONSTRUCTIONS AND TRANSFORM IT TO A FLOWER POT HOOK WHICH COULD IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENT ALONG THE RING ROAD. AT THE SAME TIME, STREET FURNITURE IS NEEDED IN THIS AREA FOR PUBLIC TO HAVE A REST ON THE WAY.

BEFORE


BEFORE

4 AFTER

ACCORDING TO THE PUBLIC SURVEY, REUSING THE SPACE AT THE UNDERCROSS ROUNDABOUT AND PROVIDING SOME SNACK VANS SEEM NOT BAD.

UNDERCROSS ROUNDABOUT

6

RING ROAD TRANSFORM THE ABANDONED FACILITIES TO THE ENTERTAINMENT EQUIPMENTS AND BRING SOME HAPPINESS IN TO THE STREET.

17 BEFORE AFTER

AFTER BEFORE 5

3

TRAIN STATION

RING ROAD RIVER

DO NOT JUST PASS, PLEASE SIT DOWN AND LISTEN TO THE STORY OF THE RIVER.

3

4

RING ROAD

5

6

6

IN ORDER TO MAKE THE PEDESTRIAN, CYCLE ROUTE AND RING ROAD COEXISTENCE, THE CLEAR ROUTE MUST BE EASY FOR PUBLIC TO RECOGNISE.

4


AFTER 10

8

BEFORE AFTER BEFORE

RING ROAD

RING ROAD JUST REUSING THE ABANDONED STREET STRUCTURE AS A UMBRELLA CONTAINER PROVIDE SOME PUBLIC USING UMBRELLAS IN THE RAINING DAY.

THE BIG GREEN SPACE IS USED AS A VINTAGE MARKETING AREA WHICH COULD BE HELD DURING THE WEEKENDS, HOWEVER, THE SPACE RENTING FEE WOULD BE CHARGED AND THIS FEE WILL BE USED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE FUNDING. AS WE ALL KNOW THAT WE LIKE SUNSHINE A LOT, A HAMMOCK HANGING ON THE TREE FOR THE SURROUNDING COMMUNITY AND OTHER USERS. BEFORE BEFORE

11

RING ROAD

7

AFTER

18

AFTER

RING ROAD COMMUNITY

9 THE SPACE UNDER THE BRIDGE IS NEAR THE HOTEL AREA ALONG THE RING ROAD, THE OUTDOOR BOOK STORE COULD IMPROVE THE CULTURAL ATMOSPHERE FOR THE VISITORS AND SURROUNDING USERS.

FOR THE SMALL SCALE, LIKE THE INTERESTING WALL SURFACE WITH SMALL STRUCTURES, THE PROJECT WOULD INVITE THE ARTISTS TO HELP MAKE THE ENVIRONMENT CREATIVE. RING ROAD

78

9

10 11


STRATEGY IMPLEMENT & TIME SCALE SHORT TERM THE CHOSEN AGENCY WILL HOLD A PUBLIC TOUR TO CONFIRM THE SITES WHICH NEED TO CHANGE ALONG THE RING ROAD

CITY COUNCIL

TO UNDERSTAND THE REAL NEED OF PUBLIC AND COMMUNITIES

START UP THE RING ROAD PROJECT AND DELEGATE

TO RECOGNIZE THE CURRENT SITUATION OF THE SITES

A DESIGN AGENCY

PUBLIC

TO CONTROL THE PROJECT

LONG TERM

COMMUNITIES WHO LIVE ALONG THE RING ROAD/WORKERS OF THE COMPANIES AND ORGANIZATIONS ALONG THE RING ROAD/DESIGNERS AND ARTISTS WHO ARE INTERESTED IN THE PROJECT/PROFESSIONAL BUILDERS

MANAGEMENT

WWWW

SHORT TERM FUNDING SUPPORT: CITY COUNCIL/PROJECT SPONSORS/SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES AND COMPANIES DONATING + MATERIAL SUPPORT: SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES AND COMPANIES DONATING + HUMAN RESOURCE: VOLUNTEERS/ SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES AND COMPANIES/DESIGNERS AND ARTISTS WWWW WWWW

MAINTENANCE BY PUBLIC AND PROFESSIONAL BUILDERS MAINTENANCE METHODS 1 SPACE RENTING FEE FOR MARKETING, SALON OR OUTDOOR MOVIE COULD SUPPORT THE FURTHER MAINTENANCE

STRATEGY IMPLEMENT

2 VOLUNTEERS HELP MANAGE THE SPACE ALONG THE RING ROAD

MIDDLE TERM

&

3 AS THE UNIVERSITY AREA IS ALONG THE RING ROAD, EMPLOYING THE STUDENTS TO HELP MAINTAIN THE PUBLIC SPACE COULD SUPPLY THE STUDENTS THE OPPORTUNITIES OF PART-TIME JOBS AS WELL.

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (DESIGN APPROACH)

TIME SCALE

MIDDLE TERM

MIDDLE TERM

IN SERVICE & ACTIVITIES HOLDING

IDEA TESTING W W W W W W W W

CREATIVE IDEAS ADDING: DESIGNERS AND ARTISTS/ SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES AND COMPANIES/VOLUNTEERS W W W W WWWW CONDITION IMPROVING: DESIGNERS/ SURROUNDING COMMUNITIES AND COMPANIES/ VOLUNTEERS W W W W W W W W W W W W

THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF IDEA TESTING PROCESS BY SKINN, NAMED SHEFFIELD DREAM CITY. DESIGNERS MADE SOME PUBLIC FURNITURES AND BROUGHT THEM TO THE ROUNDABOUT NEAR SHEFFIELD CITY CENTRE AND DISPLAYED THEM IN ORDER TO TEST WHETHER THE PUBLIC LIKE THE PUBLIC SPACE WITH THESE FACILITIES. AT THE MEANTIME, THE RESULT OF THIS TEST COULD HELP THE DESIGNERS IMPROVE THEIR DESIGN WORK.

BIGGER SCALE ENVIRONMENT TRANSFORMING: DESIGNERS/PROFESSIONAL BUILDERS WWWW WWWW WWWW WWWW WWWW WWWW

W: ONE WEEK

19


CONCLUSION

07 BIBLIOGRAPHY

In terms of the green space and existing open space Reuse and well utilize In terms of the pedestrian crossing Undercross Add more lights and CCTVs to enhance the sense of security Set up some retail vans to keep more people and reduce the rate of crime Ground crossing and Overpass Keep the infrastructures strong enough and the signs clear enough In terms of the existing topography and sections Well utilize them to hold some public activities L i t t l e t ra n s fo r m to a c h i e v e the purpose which has been mentioned in the concept part In terms of the distribution of the litter bins on the ring road The space from the Junction 3 to the Junction 5 need more litter bins In terms of the distribution of the benches on the ring road The spaces from the Junction 3 to the Junction 7 and from the Junction 9 to the Junction 10 need more benches. In terms of FILL THE GAP project itself There was no doubt that the public space along the ring road in Sheffield was awkward. As we know that the inner relief road played an important role as the transport support system for Sheffield, however, the situation was not very satisfied. How to make the motorway, bicycle route and pedestrian coexist was a thorny problem. So many people used this area day by day, however, what it appeared were traffic problem, pollution problem and infrastructure problem as well. As an urban designer, how to provide an accessible, safety, healthy public area with the socialization function seemed so significant. Obviously, solving these problems and providing a friendly and comfortable public space with some creative ideas were the main purpose in this project. The public space along the ring road would be not just where public could have a rest but also an important area for their social life with their neighbourhoods and colleagues as well.

IMAGES FORM THE CABE WEBSITE

At first, as the project was framed for public, understanding the need of them was the most essential part for the further proposal, hence, I made a public survey after a series of the careful investigations and analysis. Fortunately, the outcome was considerable because of the active public cooperation. These preworks played as guidance for my work. Secondly, during the proposal part, thanks to Cristina, Florian and SKINN’s help, it could be represented in a right way and developed smoothly. In the proposal part, the problems were solved in different scales and function need. The proposals considered not just the physical space improvement but also the social activities holding. The implement and the time scale also were proposed in the last part. At last, I hope this project has clearly proposed that the Sheffield inner ring road would be a coherent space where could tell the story of Sheffield not just from a linear way but also from different dimensions. From this three-month thesis project, I learnt a lot and this valuable experience enhanced my urban design theory of this one-year study, as it was a completely individual work which was so different from the other three projects during the course module. I had to consider all aspects by myself, from the preparing for the project, such as some pre-reading, to the site chosen and design decision and how to solve the problems during the whole design process. I had to say again that I really enjoy this process.

WEBSITES Berry, P. (2013). Ring roads. Available: http://www.roadsuk.com/network/ ringroads/. Last accessed 24th Aug 2013. Gehl, J. (2013). Project. Available: http://www.gehlarchitects.com/index. php?id=160154#/159110/. Last accessed 24th Aug 2013. Nes, A. (2001). Road Building and Urban Change. Available: http://www.ucl. ac.uk/bartlett/3sss/papers_pdf/17_vanNess.pdf. Last accessed 24th Aug 2013. Steven, U. (2013). Greening the Romford Ring Road. Available: http://www. what-if.info/Romford_Ring_Road.html. Last accessed 24th Aug 2013. Vernals, H. (2011). So what’s all this roads business ?. Available: http://www. haydnvernals.co.uk/roads/roads.htm. Last accessed 24th Aug 2013. BOOKS Blandy, S., Lister, D., Atkinson, R. and Flint, J. (2003) Gated Communities: a systematic review of the research evidence. CNR Paper 12. Kuo, F. E., Sullivan, W. C., Coley, R. L. and Brunson, L. (1998) ‘Fertile ground for community: inner-city neighborhood common spaces’. American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 26(6), pp823-851. McKay, T. (1998) ‘Empty spaces, dangerous places’. ICA Newsletter, Vol. 1(3), pp2-3. Takano, T, Nakamura, K. & Watanabe, M. (2002) ‘Urban residential environments and senior citizens’ longevity in megacity areas: the importance of walkable green spaces’. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 12. DOCUMENTS AND REPORTS Buchanan, C.,(1963)Traffic in Towns - A Study of the Long Term Problems of Traffic in Urban Areas - Reports of the Steering Group and Working Group appointed by the Minister of Transport. London: HMSO. 1963. CABE (2007). This way to better streets: 10 case studies on improving street design. Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment. p2-10. Eeles, J., Knight, A., Roberts, G., Stubbings, R. and Whitelaw,L., (2009).The Ashford Ring Road Project. Kent: RKL Consultants. p5-45. Sheffield City Council. (2013). Sheffield City Center Master Plan 2013

20


MA/UD

There are varieties of benches between

On the bridge, we could get the good view

the buildings near the tram station--

of the river DON. However, because of the

Shalesmoor, however, the users are not

dangerous environment with the high speed

too many in this area.

traffic, almost nobody likes to stay here to appreciate the river.

Bo Sun

The open space in front of the primary school is designed as an extension of the school

FILL THE GAP As I have lived and studied in Sheffield for more than one year, I experience a lot during my daily life and some pre-exploring of this lovely city. Hence, my thesis project focuses on the urban space which I use everyday--Sheffield inner relief road. In the UK, almost every city has its ring road, however, the ring road space is always regarded as a very negative urban area with noise and pollution, especially the pedestrian and the public space. As an important transportation support system for contemporary urban, as a urban designer, I have to consider about this significant issue. I hope that the gap between the city centre and the outer area could be filled and the public space along the ring road could be improved, so that it could become a social dimension of public space which could impact on public health, reduce crime and fear of crime along the ring road with more movement in and between the spaces along the ring road.

playground after school.

SITE ANALYSIS

Enough amount of

1 DISTANCE BTWEEN EACH JUNCTION(m)

Sometimes the broken surface of the wall

street infrastructures

01-490-02-1070-03-670-04-440-05-1060-06-850-07-530-08-300-09170-10-730-01

or the street would bring some inspiration

, like litter bins, could

to the artists or designers. They could tell

help build a good city

2 WALKING TIME SPENDING BTWEEN EACH JUNCTION

a different story of this city.

image for public.

01-7-02-23-03-7-04-7-05-15-06-5-07-5-08-5-09-3-10-10-01 100 50 0

4 BUILT FABRIC

1-3 storeys

4-6 storeys

7- storeys

5 THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BUILDINGS ALONG THE RING ROAD commercial area business area campus area accommodation

the definition of Gap, the explaination of the concept--MIND THE GAP, FILL THE GAP and the purpose of the project

7 OPEN SPACE AND THE PEDESTRIAN

5 Proposal: Strategies would be proposed in this part with the time scale and the management part.

whole beautiful afternoon with a cup of

however, it could bear the responsibility of

espresso over the river.

whatever... There is no doubt that not one

UNACCESSIBLE AREA

facility just has one function.

8 PRIVATE SPACE

overpass

12 CYCLE ROUTES AND CROSSING ALONG THE RINGROAD

13 PUBLIC TRANSPORT ROUTES AND CROSSING ALONG THE RINGROAD tram bus

14 VEHICLE ACCESS LOOP FROM THE RINGROAD TO THE CITY CENTRE

4 Case study: Two case studies which are in the similar context of UK are showed.

attract lots of people to enjoy the

public. It should not be just like what it is now,

movie; here, you can enjoy one community

2 Sheffield inner relief road analysis and survey

3 Concept:

named RIVER on the bridge would

and next to the communities is a gift for the

trade; here, you can enjoy one culture salon;

1 Site chosen:

-the participation survey

under the bridge. I suppose a cafe

The big green space along the ring road

as well. Here, you can enjoy one outdoor

6 GREEN SPACE

10 PUBLIC CAR PARKING 11 PEDESTRIAN CROSSING undercross ground crossing

-the maps and diagrams of the site and the survey analysis

THE RIVER REALLY BEAUTIFUL OR IS IT

a socialization space for the neighbourhood

Framework -the contexts of the UK and Sheffield

There is a graffiti which says that IS

JUST THE GRADIENT OF THE LAND?

9 EXISTING PUBLIC SPACE

the reasons of Sheffield and the ringroad chosen

PROPOSALS ALONG THE RING ROAD (Please see more from my portfolio)

3 HILL PROFILE (m)

Site analysis Through the site analysis, I could understand very well about the site with the participatary survey from the existing situation to the potential development. And this is also my guidance of the further proposals and stategies. (Please see more from my portfolio)

The space in the middle of

When you feel tired on your way,

the undercross roundabout

you can sit on the road barriers.

seems the semi--surround

It looks like our life, sometimes

The city could be a big museum of different

area where different things

after a little relax or rest, there

exhibitions which would tell the story, the

could happen here.

will be a better future.

history even the culture of the city itself.

This diagram showed the proposal part of this project Through the understanding of Sheffield Ring Road, this proposal is to focus on two different size spaces, one is the improvement of a small space, and the other one is a large space for re-used. Therefore, there will be different design approaches for different spatial scales to make the ring road become a coherent space which could tell the city story in different dimensions. (Please see more from my portfolio) CITY COUNCIL Start up the ring road project and delegate A DESIGN AGENCY To control the project

SHORT TERM (wwww) THE CHOSEN AGENCY Will hold a public tour To confirm the sites which need to change along the ring road To understand the real need of public and communities To recognize the current situation of the sites Commnities who live along the ring road/Workers of the companies and organizations along the ring road/Designers and artists who are interested in this project/Professional builders

LONG TERM MANAGEMENT Maintenance by Public and Prorfessional builders MAINTENANCE METHODS 1 Space reting fee for marketing, salon or outdoor movie could support the further maintenance 2 Volunteers help manage the space along the ring road 3 As the university area is along the ring road, employing the Students to help maintain the public space could supply the students the opportunity of part-time jobs as well.

SHORT TERM (wwww wwww) FUNDING SUPPORT: City council/ Project sponsors/Surrounding communities and companies donating + MATERIAL SUPPORT: Surrounding communities and companies donating + HUMAN RESOURCE: Volunteers/ Surrounding communities and companies/Designers and artists

MIDDLE TERM IN SERVICE & ACTIVITIES HOLDING

Strategy implement of this collaboration project and time scale

MIDDLE TERM DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION PROCESS (Desing approach) CREATIVE IDEAS ADDING: Designers and artists /Surrounding communities and companies/Volunteers wwww wwww CONDITION IMPROVING: Designers/ Surrounding communities and companies/ Volunteers wwww wwww wwww BIGGER SCALE ENVIRONMENT TRANSFORMING: Designers/Professional builders wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww wwww

MIDDLE TERM (wwww wwww) IDEA TESTING This is an example of idea testing process by SKINN which I joined, named Sheffield dream city. Designers made some public furnitures and brought them to the roundabout near Sheffield city centre and displayed them in order to test whether public liked the public space with there facilities. At the meantime, the result of this test could help the designers improve their work.

W: ONE WEEK

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