Black - B r i g h t
(A Bespoke Approach to Empowerment)
Whatâ€™s Inside...? ISSN No. 1751-1909 Blackbright News Magazine Registered Office Studio 57 LU2 0QG Tel: 01582 721 605 email: email@example.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
- How do the police protect and serve us? (Editorial)
- An Explantion of Death in Custody (P.7)
- A Man with a PhD Dr Lez Henry (P.9)
- What do you want to be when you grow up? (P.12) Founder & Managing Editor Myrna Loy Logo Design: Flo Alowaja Photos taken from Google Images Graphic Design: M Loy
- Unconditional Love (P.14)
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most of the members of the IPCC are ex-police officers or ex-officers of other regulatory systems, the organisation shows its loyalty to the offending police officers it is supposed to investigate, as opposed to the complainant, whose interests it should have at heart. After hearing about the tragic and unnecessary police related deaths of Shiji Lapite, Sean Alder, Alton Manning, Sean Rigg, Michael Powell, Mark Duggan, Jacob Michael, Azelle Rodney, Jimmy Mubenga, Frank Ogburu, Smiley Culture, Demetre Fraser and Leon Briggs, to name a few, and female deaths inside police institutions, which include Helen Cole, Sarah Campbell, Nisa Anne Smith, Valerie Hayes, Lisa Marley, Julie Walsh – the list goes on, it is very disconcerting! It is a fact that CCTV cameras are rigged to conceal evidence. Corrupt police officers implicate the whole police force, forcing
Editorial As my regular readers know, my daughters and I present a radio show called Straight Talk (currently on a Saturday) on Jamrock Radio, which discusses issues that inform our community. In November, I interviewed Michael Docherty because I heard he had been an eloquent speaker at a collaborative event, put together by Lenos Wilson of Non-Violence Alliance at the UK Centre for Carnival Arts based in Luton. Nearly 300 members of the black community attended that meeting in anticipation of discovering what had happened to 34 year old Leon Briggs, who died in police custody hours of being taken in. Michael Docherty, who is a Civil Liberties Campaigner and Founder of Justice Now, had experienced, first-hand, police misconduct and abuse of power, and since this was the premise that suspicions were built on, it seemed appropriate to bring him in for an interview. At the time of writing this editorial, Michael Docherty is the first individual to privately prosecute a police civilian and win. The interview can be found at http://blackbrightnews.podomatic.com.
the public to lose faith and confidence in the police service. Docherty informed me that there had been around ’6,000’ police-related deaths, as at 2012, and not one police officer has been prosecuted!! Spliced CCTV reels; perjury, collusion, non-compliance with the ‘Golden Hour’ hate crime and racism are reasons why the police are not prosecuted. The Crown Prosecution Service jailed police woman, Rebecca Swanston, for leaking intelligence to her 4 lovers, yet no-one is jailed for Corporate manslaughter!
It was interesting to learn during the interview, that whenever there is a death in custody, the police have to call in the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC), whose statutory obligation is to secure and maintain public confidence in the system of complaining against the police’. However, Docherty believes that because 4
Docherty is campaigning for an Independent Watchdog to police the police, like they do in Canada. Then, only days later, I heard Janet and Frank Robinson on BBC news share their disappointment in the cover up of their son (John)’s death, when Staffordshire Hospital misdiagnosed a ruptured spleen by saying he was suffering from bruised ribs. He died hours afterwards, and the Robinsons are angry and insulted by the NHS’s subsequent cover up. Francis Report: “to err is human to cover up is unforgiveable!” which is my bone of contention, because if ‘people at the top’ are covering up, lying and deceiving, what kind of example are they setting for our young. We grow up witnessing the exposure of those in power found guilty of committing fraud; having extra-marital affairs; lying and deceiving the public to protect their reputation, income or to prevent paying out compensation and when little Joe Public makes a mistake, he or she is hung out to dry and made a spectacle of, while the big wigs get off with a pat on the back, a large pension and a transfer to a different area or a another high-paid position!
According to Simon Chauchard of Oxford India University, “the frequency with which alleged or convicted criminals manage to gain public office threatens the ideals and the functioning of the Indian democracy”.
“The Negro struggle has
It is clear that we live in a collusive society where many who are recruited to serve and protect are guilty of lies and deception, how do we change this deceptive culture? Editorial by Myrna Loy
What Statement are you making? Bedfordshire Police continues to call for the public to support the fight against gun crime with the message: ‘Bedfordshire Police is making a statement about gun crime – are you? If you want action, make your words count’.
Claude McKay (Poet) “If we must die—let it not be like hogs hunted and penned in an inglorious spot. Oh, Kinsmen! We must meet the common foe; Though far outnumbered, let us show us brave, and for their thousands blows deal one death-blow! What though before us lies the open grave? Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack, Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back!
The message is supported by the Police and Crime Commissioner and Luton Borough Council as part of a much wider range of enforcement, reassurance and community cohesion activity going on in the town. It is designed to provoke people with information about incidents, where firearms or violence have been used, to put pen to paper and make a statement. “Since the murder of Paul Foster in April 2013 Luton has witnessed an unusual and worrying increase in gun related and violent crime,” said Chief Superintendent Mark Turner. “That is now being addressed and brought under control but with further help from the public we can ensure an even safer Luton for everyone. “We continue to ask Luton residents to be brave and make statements that will help us bring people to justice. We understand that putting yourself forward in this way could cause concern but we want to reassure people, it might be as simple as a confidential conversation but if it is concerns for yourself or family then talk to us about it, we have measures we can put in place to address these fears and anxieties,” he added. Police and Crime Commissioner Olly Martins said: “The conviction of Kyle Beckford earlier this year showed the value of the public passing on information. Without key pieces of evidence, that result may not have been possible.”
A ÂŁ2000 reward is still on offer from Bedfordshire Police and Crimestoppers, to anyone who provides information that leads to the arrest and conviction for gun crime. Anyone with information relating firearms offences can contact Bedfordshire Police, in confidence, on 101, or text information to 07786 200011. Alternatively you can contact the independent charity Crimestoppers anonymously, on 0800 555 111.
AN EXPLANATION OF DEATH IN CUSTODY Rebecca Broadbent explains the contentious issue of death in police custody and the process for investigation, prosecution and inquests into the incidents. Source: www.thestudentlawyer.com Custody can be defined as an authorised form of state detention. The term therefore includes: Police custody (if an individual is under arrest in a police station, or detained for the purposes of a search), and Prison custody (if somebody is serving time on remand, or if somebody who has already been convicted and sentenced is serving a custodial term in a prison). What is a death in custody? Quite simply, a death in custody is a death which occurs in state detention, whether that be in police custody, prison, or some other form of detention centre. It includes both deaths of natural causes and suicides. In fact, deaths in or following police custody are considered one of the most controversial areas of policingâ€Ś DEATHS IN CuSTODY: A CONTENTIOuS ISSuE Deaths in custody are a contentious issue, particularly so in the context of police custody. In fact, deaths in or following police custody are considered one of the most controversial areas of policing and make up some of the most high-profile cases considered by the Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC). The IPCC is a body, totally independent from government and the police, which deals with police complaints.
Deaths in police custody Deaths in police custody influence public confidence in the police. We like to think that the police always operate in good faith. However, when someone dies in police cus-
tody, it can raise legitimate questions as to their treatment whilst detained. This is one of the reasons why an inquest is necessary after an individual dies in custody. In addition to the necessity of an inquest, all deaths following either police contact or police custody must, by statute, be referred to the IPCC. Based on these referrals, the IPCC produces an annual report consisting of the statistics relating to the deaths. Recommendations as to policy and practice are then given by the IPCC. Deaths in police custody can arise out of the following circumstances:
consider it relevant to charge the offence as a corporate manslaughter offence if:
Unlawful killing by police officers The use of excessive force by a police officer Death by alcohol or drugs poisoning Suicide Traffic accident with the police Negligent treatment whilst in police detention.
If an individual dies as a result of misconduct, his estate is entitled to pursue a civil action against the police. Detention at a custodial institution, or in a custody area at a court or police station. Detention at a removal centre or short-term holding facility. Transportation in a vehicle, or his detention in any premises, in pursuance of prison escort arrangements or immigration escort arrangements. Placement in secure accommodation. Detention as a patient. If the death occurred whilst in custody and a corporate manslaughter prosecution is anticipated, the case should be referred to the Special Crime and Counter-Terrorism Division (SCCTD) for handling. This is the body which prosecutes deaths in custody cases too.
The death occurred in custody and The organisation owed the detainee a duty of care. Section 2(2) of the Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 lists various institutions and circumstances and, if an individual falls within these, he is owed the duty of care stipulated in section(1)(d) of the Act. These include:
The annual reports of the Commissioner of the Police for the Metropolis and HM Inspectors of Constabulary suggest that in most cases where individuals die in police custody, there is no suggestion of any misconduct on the part of the police.
DEATHS ARISING OuT Of POLICE MISCONDuCT If an individual dies as a result of misconduct, his estate is entitled to pursue a civil action against the police. Any cause of action he may have had in relation to his treatment survives his death. Additionally, certain family members can sue for any loss or damage they have suffered as a consequence of the death (Kirkham v Chief Constable of the Greater Manchester Police  2 QB 283).
DEATHS fOLLOWING CONTACT WITH THE POLICE Death following contact with the police encompasses those situations where an individual dies after some form of interaction with the police. Contact with the police could therefore include: Direct contact, assault, or physical interaction (although it is not limited to this by any means) Checking the welfare of a homeless individual by officers. The release of an individual by a custody officer on bail.
DEATHS IN PRISON CuSTODY Prison authorities own a common law duty of care to prisoners to protect them from criminal acts and from self-harm and suicide. Article 2
In transit from police detention, to another place, including hospital. However, when someone dies in police custody, it can raise legitimate questions as to their treatment whilst detained. CORPORATE MANSLAuGHTER AND POLICE CuSTODY When a prosecution relating to a death in police custody is contemplated, the prosecutor may
ECHR places a positive obligation on such authorities to protect a prisoner’s right to life, by, for example, taking preventative operational action. All prisons are expected to have local policies and strategies in place to respond to a death in custody. All deaths in prison custody are subject to the following: A police investigation A criminal investigation, if necessary A coroner’s inquest, and An investigation by the Prison and Probation Ombudsman. The investigation If it transpires that any person or body is criminally responsible for the death of that individual, the potential for punishment must be identified. If the death occurred in police custody, or following contact with the police, the body which investigates the death is the IPCC. If the death occurred in prison, or other detention which was not police detention, the police will investigate. All investigations must be thorough. If it transpires that any person or body is criminally responsible for the death of that individual, the potential for punishment must be identified. The prosecution If a prosecution becomes necessary in relation to a death in prison custody, the case is prosecuted by lawyers in the SCCTD. When prosecuting, it is imperative that the relevant prosecutor has not had any previous dealings with any individual who may be a suspect, and is totally independent from the police. The inquest When an individual dies in custody, his death must be reported to a coroner. A coroner is a lawyer or doctor who investigates the cause of deaths which are referred to him. If a prosecution for murder or manslaughter in relation to the death is being considered, the coroner will open an inquest, but it will be adjourned until the outcome of the criminal proceedings has been determined. If the prosecutor decides a charge is not appropriate, the coroner must be informed of the decision and the reasons behind it. The inquest then proceeds. HOW OfTEN DO PEOPLE DIE IN CuSTODY? In the 11 years between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010, 5,998 deaths in custody were recorded and reported. This is an average of 545 deaths per year.
DR LEZ HENRY (Black with a Ph.D) Dr William Henry was born in Lewisham of Jamaican parents, his mother was a qualified machinist who worked in a factory; his dad was a farmer who ended up working on British Rail. Growing up in Lewisham he always had the support of his parents in whatever ventures he embarked upon. “I can give credit to both my parents for teaching me (and my siblings) where we are, how we’re perceived in society and why we need to achieve as much as we can” says Dr Henry. Dr Henry is a writer, academic, public speaker and community activist who has been interviewed extensively by both British and foreign media. The author a number of books on race, culture, history, music and politics, he is also one of the pioneers of British Reggae-dancehall Deejays. Dr. Henry is also a Social Anthropologist who lectured in the Department Of Sociology, Goldsmiths College. With a keen passion to give back to the community, he has had first hand experience of supporting mental health service users and has spent time working as the Centre Manager for one of the oldest African, African-Caribbean Mental Health organisations, Family Health Isis, is based in south east London Although a naturally talented person from a young age (he and his brother were both tested academically suitable enough to go to a local grammar school), he was forced to go to the local comprehensive school, Samuel Pepys - now Crossways Academy, on account of his skin colour. “This experience brought home to me how racist this society was,” Dr Henry affirms, “the school itself was nicknamed Sambo Peeps due to the high number of black boys who studied there.” In spite of having the capability to perform well at school, Dr Henry felt he did not agree with some aspects of the British educational system, which, in his view, “taught us that blacks achieved 9 nothing in history”.
As an escape, he ended up taking courses in black history at Moonshot Youth Club, and at 15 was introduced to African history and black contributions to the world’s development, as well as studying martial arts to create a mind/body balance. This focus on the African contribution helped give him a sense of identity. He felt that “as a child there’s a certain amount of confusion within the system as to whom we’re supposed to revere educationally (in the typical British education system).” After being expelled from both school and college for fighting, Dr Henry initially started work as a clerk in solicitor firms and banks after taking career aptitude tests. At 18, however, Dr Henry trained as an industrial pipe fitter and was for a while a self-employed plumbing and heating engineer. This never stopped his passion for learning nevertheless, “I’ve always been into self-education and literature; I have completed plenty of courses which don’t have officially recognised qualifications.” After those years of experience, Dr Henry enrolled on an Access course at Goldsmith’s College, University of London, going on to complete a BA in Anthropology and Sociology, then heading straight into intense PhD study. Even as a mature student, he faced frequent mockery and subtle discrimination - “People frequently questioned my being there.... even the tutor as well as the students laughed when I informed them I intended to get a PhD from that course.” In 2003, he finally qualified as a social anthropologist, briefly becoming a Visiting Research Fellow and lecturer at Goldsmith’s Department of Sociology. Already a selftaught individual, Dr Henry cited his attraction to sociology from the application of theories and models being applied to society. Because of his earlier passion for learning alongside his jobs, he felt he was there purely for the theory and models as opposed to being educated in a conventional way. It was during his PhD study that Dr Henry and his wife and friends set up Nu-Beyond. Established in1998, NuBeyond is an independent organisation which continues to seek out and remedy the factors which exacerbate the tensions between various communities, whether they are racial, sexual or class-driven patterns of behaviour. The organisation hopes to tackle these problems in a way which provides an example of self-reliance that leads to self-determination. Its programmes focus on the specialities of education, race, ethnicity, diversity and social, cultural and political empowerment. He cites his old mentor Professor Herbert Ekwe-Ekwe (who he met in Lewisham as a young man) as the main inspiration behind Nu-Beyond. 10
Through Nu-Beyond, Dr Henry also organises sessions called ‘BLAK Friday’. It was set up in 2006 ahead of the 2007 anniversary of the Atlantic slave trade - “a space to present alternatives to the ‘Wilberfarce’ promoted widely for the ‘white saviour’ of helpless black slaves without acknowledging the activism of blacks in the emancipation process.” A project with a more contemporary focus within Nu-Beyond is the ‘Guns, Gangs, Family and Community’ project, offering training for youth services, presenting practical solutions to serious problems for black and wider communities within the UK. “Unlike research projects from various organisations, we focus on strong groundwork and connecting people with training and work rather than compiling pages of research which on the ground tends to be useless,” says Dr Henry.
From his work, Dr Henry has diagnosed some of the biggest obstacles facing young black youths today is the problem of people not knowing what they’re being educated for and not grasping the fundamentals of education, as well as lacklustre parenting. “Some black parents don’t take on the mantle of responsibility for raising their child, wrongly heaping that responsibility onto the teacher. Some kids think they can resurrect their life in college even after performing poorly in school. They don’t understand the educational relationship.” He also points to an increasing acceptance by black young people that being stupid is cool. “In my day (the 1970s) I was determined to appear smart in school; now it’s the other way, some among black youth unfortunately seem to revel in being seen as stupid and underachieving. Sometimes these kids don’t know what they’re being educated for.” A friend of prominent black academics and writers such as Paul Gilroy, Robert Beckford and Linton Kwesi Johnson, Dr Henry is a firm critic of the disproportionate number of ethnic minorities in prominent institutions such as the media, finance, politics and the law.
Speaking about the reception of him and his colleagues, Dr Henry says “We are definitely sidelined in favour of mainstream white academics and writers.” Broadening the argument to the aforementioned institutions, he continues “A black kid who achieves AAAB at A level will generally find it a lot harder to get into a top university medicine course than a white kid who achieves all Bs. The professionals who choose the prospective students need to change their attitude to how they select their students. We need to remedy the impression that a middle class white Oxbridge graduate is somehow more intelligent than an ethnic minority pupil from the inner city. I encourage black people of all ages to study at universities, as once we attain top qualifications and influence in employment, we will form a critical mass which no one will be able to ignore.” Dr William has also gained the reputation as an international speaker, lecturing at many institutions including University Of The West Indies, Department of Literature-Reggae Studies Unit, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica, WI: University of Gothenburg: Centre for Cultural Studies, Gothenburg, Sweden. The African American Studies Department, Yale University, Connecticut, USA. Queens University Belfast: Department of Ethnomusicology, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Howard University: Department of Humanities, Washington DC, USA and African And African American Studies Program, University Of Oklahoma: Tulsa, USA. As an international lecturer, Dr Henry cites the University of Oklahoma as having the biggest impact on him. “My visit there introduced me to an area called the ‘Black Wall Street’ or as the Ku Klux Klan called it, ‘Little Africa’. It was set up as a blacks-only area, as a result of segregation. Ironically, it was the best thing to happen to that community as they demonstrated that they were very autonomous, self-reliant and prosperous without having to rely on handouts and assistance by whites. Unfortunately it was burnt and looted within a day on June 1st 1921 by the KKK as they noticed its growing prosperity.” The model of the Black Wall Street is a model which Dr Henry would like to see developed in communities over here. As far as his plans for the future are concerned, Dr Henry says “Just do what I do and hopefully get paid for it!
1. Childhood dreams. Think back to when you were
What do you want to be when you grow up? by Chris
Primary school, secondary school, undergraduate degree, postgraduate study – many PhDs have spent their whole life working towards goals that are education related. It’s natural to think of an academic position as the logical next step or culmination of all those years of work. And yet, it’s also worth taking some time out to reflect and ask ourselves, by completing a PhD, have we actually achieved what we originally set out to do? What else do we want to achieve in our lives? These are important questions, because each of us has hopes, dreams and ambitions that help to drive us on, or which we’ve not yet fulfilled. Knowing what motivates us is important as we approach the end of our PhD, because these hopes and ambitions can help us to generate options for career paths outside of academia.
a child. When grown-ups asked you ‘what do you want to be when you grow up?’, what did you say? Did you want to become an professor or researcher? Write down your dreams, however fantastic or mundane they sound. Is now the right time to begin to realise those dreams? Can you pursue a career path that will help to make your dreams come true? 2. Ambitions. As we grow up we develop ambitions and goals that we strive to achieve. What were, or are, your ambitions? Financial – make enough money to live comfortably? Environmental – save the world? Have you put your ambitions on hold while you take the time ‘get your qualifications’? Now that you’re in sight of completing your PhD, is it time once again to focus on achieving your personal ambitions? Jot down your ambitions and consider the career path that would best help you to realise those ambitions. 3. Challenges. Sometimes we set ourselves challenges in life – or they are set by other people for us. Maybe someone once challenged you to ‘get a proper job’? Maybe you’ve sat too long at a desk and want to master the art of gardening? What about running your own ethical business? Walking to the North Pole? Write down some challenges that excite or frustrate you. How could you tackle and overcome these challenges after completing your studies?
Having spent some time reflecting on these topics, think about where you are now in your life. Despite everything that you’ve accomplished (and a postgraduate degree is a tremendous achievement), do you still feel a sense of unfulfilment? Could you feel more fulfilled if you took steps towards realising one of the dreams, ambitions or challenges that you’ve noted down? Think also about the people who matter to you, and how they So take 15 minutes out of your day to reflect upon might be surprised, but also full of admiration, if the following topics: you took bold steps towards achieving a personal 12 dream or ambition.
Photo above from Generating Geniuses (TonySewell)
There are no right or wrong answers to this exercise. Exploring these aspects of your character will help to confirm that academia is right for you, or bring to light potential career paths outside of academia. http://jobsontoast.com/how-to-realise-your-dreams-and-ambitions/
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unconditional love, as it is a man-made portal created to give those with an intimate knowledge of you, carte blanche to get away with murder, and finally; (d) - Unconditional love is the composite structure of all the things we are sewn up in, in another and can be broken but never destroyed. Having only broached the subject in a very ad hoc way with friends and family, I was surprised (though not shocked) by the myriad of thought patterns emanating from my two colleagues. One could say from looking at the list of thoughts above, that the sentiments painted a picture of a group of people devoid of any understanding of the true meaning of unconditional love; though as the debate, unravelled, I realised with my own offering, that we as human beings are very much shaped as young adults, initially by our peer groups and social explorations with life and spirit. The blueprint to how we carry ourselves emotionally with regards to unconditional love, imprints itself from our earthly source; being our parents and then flows into our acknowledgement of self in relation to worth which is based in the exploration of love on many levels, so it would be very easy for me to pull this article together by waxing lyrical about differing upbringing and how, really, there is only one clear banner of unconditional love for us all to work from despite our assorted ideals of unconditional love, though that would be too easy for the real truth is ,that it is this obvious assortment of ideals when it comes to unconditional love that makes us who and what we are as sentient beings.
UnConditional Love LOVE DESIGNED TO HEAL Written Syandene
A few months ago following the end of a 16-hour recording studio session, the metamorphic subject of ‘Unconditional Love’ sat comfortably amidst the bold splendour of kick drums, bongos and a sound booth - rich with the last traces of mellifluous tones and semi-quavers reverberating ethereally in the air. The neat, amplesized studio had now taken on a cool, shubeen-type feel with easy laughter, musical reviewing, and hopes for the future punctuating the sessions’ end. It would have been another early morning session closed by jovial goodbye’s and plans for further creative interaction a few days down the line, had it not been for the arrival of a mutual colleague and chief instigator who set the scene for an all-consuming debate on ‘Unconditional Love’. For some reason it seemed an effortless foray into the complexities of ‘Unconditional Love’. None of us, in the stillness of a relaxed Tuesday morning studio thought we would knit such variant, counteractive, yet unified tones together as the sentimental trajectory of emotive words bounced off its human targets.
When the great Mahatma Ghandi wrote ‘Love never claims. It ever gives. Love ever suffers. Never resents. Never revenges itself,’ it is because he had reached a place where the stripping bare of ego had enabled him to love without ego unconditionally and this is the foundation of unconditional love, so it is when we have chosen to condition ourselves that the
The schools, trains of thought and focus ran thus: (a) - Unconditional love is defined by how much you give to another in order to receive that unconditional love back. (b)- Unconditional love is designed to create pain and hurt because as humans we are susceptible to the well-engineered manipulation of our heartstrings to suit another’s agenda. (c) - There is no such thing as 14
first three points in the schools and trains of thought above become prevalent as we then become slaves to our conditioning though these first three schools of thought are also a tangible reality for those who have not explored fully the higher self. From lawyer to non-violent social protestor Ghandi used the foundation of unconditional love to transfer everything that he came to believe about the efficacy of unconditional love onto a pervading force within his country and worldwide that sought to impose a deleterious way of being onto an innocent peoples who knew anything outside of unconditional over was/is counterproductive to true harmony and real love.
There are many of us that will struggle to grasp the embracing of such elevated acts when we have been hurt or abused in some way by another gifted with the act of taking care of our spirit and heart and in such instances the first three points in the schools and trains of thought will ring true for a lot of people. We have all at some point experienced the pain of pining for a love we no longer have access to when initially we believed it was unconditional and so, to last forever. All experienced the love of a friend or family member that chose to sacrifice something of themselves and hold our hands through the rain despite being in pain themselves . All or most of us have been blessed enough to experience the selfless act of a stranger coming to our aid in a moment of distress or sharing words of clarity and kindness when we fell into a dark place within. These selfless acts of unconditional love are really what typify our existence and it is only when we are collectively tuned into this type of energy that we can fully understand mahatma Ghandiâ€™s vision. For it is not about the unconditional love we receive from another that defines our sense of being. It is not about a collective ideal of what unconditional love should be because we all dif- 15
ferent. Not a completely selfless act because we are all susceptible to imperfection and so engage in this act of the higher self to the best of our abilities but the unconditional love we choose to embrace as the norm to give back without ego, bravado, or a false sense of being, that is the real act of unconditional love. Syandene.
DID YOU KNOW The number of pyramids in ancient Nubia (aka Kush & today Sudan) were a total of 223, (Kerma, Napata, Nuri, Naga, and Meroe), double the pyramids of its neighbour Egypt. The underground graves of the Nubian pyramids were richly decorated. All pyramids were not monuments of kings is evidenced by their great number. Other grandees of the empire, especially priests of high rank, or such as had obtained the sacerdotal dignity, might have found in them their final resting place. The well-known British writer Basil Davidson described Meroe as one of the largest archeological sites in the world.
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