Biogas Magazine Edition 25

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SEPURAN® GREEN - 1,000 reference plant for efficient biogas upgrading

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Harnessing Mixing Technology


Concrete Protection Lining in Fixed Dome Concrete Biogas Plants: A Cost-Effective Solution for Sustainable Operation


Grassroots Involvement in Crucial Crucial To Sustainable Biomass Adoption




India’s & Asia’s First Paper Industry

to produce & sell cbg/biocng from waste water


Big Dish: A step towards Biogas-Solar hybridisation


Inclusion of BioCNG as a project Category for the trading of carbon credits under Article 6.2 mechanism to mobilise international finance in India





Effect of pH, Volatile Fatty Acids and Alkalinity in Biogas Production


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Dear Reader, Greetings! Welcome to the 25th edition of Biogas Magazine, where we continue our commitment to showcasing the most recent advancements, case studies, and perspectives in the dynamic field of biogas production and utilization. This edition marks yet another milestone in our journey of exploring innovative solutions and highlighting the transformative impact of biogas technology on the global sustainability landscape. Our feature on "Harnessing Mixing Technology in the Biogas Plant" sheds light on the critical role of advanced mixing techniques in maximizing biogas yield. Understanding the intricacies of this technology is essential in ensuring optimal performance and efficiency, underscoring the significance of continual innovation in the field. We are excited to present the ground-breaking inclusion of bio-CNG as a project category for carbon credit trading under the Article 6.2 mechanism in India. This development represents a significant stride towards mobilizing international finance for sustainable energy projects and underscores the growing recognition of biogas as a key player in the global green energy transition. Furthermore, we delve into an inspiring case study on India's and Asia's first paper industry to produce and sell CBG/bio-CNG from wastewater, which highlights the immense potential of biogas technology in industrial applications. Our insightful article on the requirement of grassroots involvement for sustainable biomass adoption delves into the challenges and empowering prospects that lie in fostering rural India's active participation in the biogas sector. In line with our commitment to highlighting cutting-edge innovations, we present an in-depth exploration of biogas balloons, focusing on their applications and innovations within the rapidly growing Indian market. Moreover, this edition also highlights the imperative technology of ‘Concrete Protection Lining’ in fixed-dome concrete biogas plants. This technology has emerged as a crucial tool in ensuring the sustainable operation and longevity of biogas digesters, underscoring the importance of durable and resilient solutions for the biogas plant. We hope this edition of Biogas Magazine serves as a source of inspiration and knowledge, fuelling your passion for sustainability and encouraging active participation in the global transition towards a cleaner, more sustainable energy landscape. Happy digesting!

Editors Savita Boral Abhijeet Mukherjee Designer Komal Raghav Administrator Vishal Kanchan Production Co-ordinator Jyoti Malik

About The “Indian Biogas Association” (IBA) is the first nationwide and professional biogas association for operators, manufacturers and planners of biogas plants, and representatives from public policy, science and research in India. The association was established in 2011 and revamped in 2015 to promote a greener future through biogas. The motto of the association is “propagating biogas in a sustainable way”. /biogasindia


Dr. A. R. Shukla President Indian Biogas Association


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Steverding Agitator Technology

Steverding Agitator Technology is an expert in agitators. High technology is expected today at all levels of power generation. Steverding Agitator Technology can boast more than 20 years of experience in the manufacture of agitators. The continuous optimization and analysis of our products together with constant technical innovation show best results. Today, we are partners and system component suppliers of leading biomass facility manufactures in Germany, France, United Kingdom, Lithuania and many other countries. This is our current range of agitators from Steverding Agitator Technology:





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IBA’s commitment to advancing industry

prospect for biogas/bio-CNG - Period: July- September, 2023

IBA sets up the Western and Telangana, and Kerala. IBA Southern regional working announced the election regroups sults for the southern and western regional groups on The working regional groups 20 July 2023. for the Western and Southern regions of India were for- The primary objective of mulated by IBA. Both groups the working group is to diswere established democrat- cuss crucial topics related to ically upon receiving nomi- biogas w.r.t. identified chalnations for positions State lenges, devise an action plan representatives from inter- towards execution of such a ested IBA members, followed mitigation plan, and repreby voting by the IBA mem- sent and put forth the chalbers. The Western Regional lenges and feasible solution Group representatives fea- measures to relevant Ministure states like Maharashtra, try / Administration body at Gujarat, Goa, and Rajasthan; the appropriate local/ State while the Southern Regional Level Group represents Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,

IBA organizes a webinar on ‘Bio-CNG: An Important Alternative Fuel to Move Towards a Net-Zero Economy’ On Sept 15, 2023, IBA, with the support of MNRE organized a webinar on " BioCNG: An Important Alternative Fuel to Move Towards a Net-Zero Economy ". The webinar focused on the overall development and sustainability of biogas in India, along with an opportunity to understand and enter the fast-growing Bioenergy market in India. The webinar saw the esteemed presence of speakers featuring the honorable Joint Secretary-MNRE,

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 9 World Bank, HPCL, Indian The IBA wrote to the governGas Exchange, Adani Energy, ment of Chemical and Ferand SIDBI. tilizer that the government must administer fair remuThe webinar was subscribed nerative market price for by over 400 participants, and FOM in the initial phase of it enabled industry stake- boosting end-market linkage. holders, especially global The IBA proposed a 'floor participants, to get a better market price' of Rs 5.5 per understanding of the existing kg (excluding taxes) to match ecosystem for biogas/bio- Urea Retail Prices of Rs 242 CNG in India . The webinar per 45 kg bag. emphasized understanding the prevalent scenario of the It stated that the FOM proIndian CBG industry, the role ducer will receive Rs 1.5 of different PSUs and private per kg MDA above the floor organizations in providing market price. It also advised needful support to propel the adding Rs 50 per ton per kiSATAT scheme, understand- lometre to the floor market ing the innovative means to price to account for logistics accredit the greener aspect and transportation costs. of CBG, and novel financial Now that the segregated instruments to foster indus- solid and liquid FOM are actry growth. knowledged in the Fertilizer Control Order (FCO), qualiIBA makes case to fix ‘Fair ty protocols are advised to Remunerative Price’ for Fer- boost FOM credibility and mented Organic Manure acceptance. It advised the fertilizer department to work The Indian Biogas Associa- with the Bureau of Indian tion (IBA) has made a case Standards (BIS) and industry for fixing the fair and remu- stakeholders to develop a BIS nerative price of 'fermented standard, or Eco-Mark for deorganic manure’ (FOM) at fining a quality procedure to about Rs 5.5 per kg, exclud- improve market acceptance ing the government incentive and FOM linkage. of Rs 1.5 per kg, to support biogas plants in the country. The body advised the DepartThe government has sanc- ment of Fertilizer to notify all tioned Rs 1,451 crore for or- Fertilizer Marketing Compaganic fertilizer promotion un- nies to submit an Expression der the Market Development of Interest (EOI) for the regAssistance (MDA) Scheme. istration of FOM producers MDA pays biogas plant man- and offtake from centralized ufacturers Rs 1.5 per kg for and decentralized biogas/ bio fertilizer (FOM), over the bio-CNG facilities. It also sale price.

suggested labeling fertilizer marketing companies at the district level to help farmers apply for EOIs in their districts. The body also advised the Department of Fertilizer to ensure proper assistance from Fertilizer Marketing Companies (IFFCO, KRIBHCO, NFL, etc.) in co-selling FOM through their dealers' networks and other marketing entities. Bio-Energy Pavilion, 2023 The Bio-Energy Pavilion 2023, a significant event in the renewable energy sector, exceeded all expectations. With more than 40 prominent Biogas and CBG-related companies participating, it served as a robust platform for industry players. The remarkable turnout of over 2500 trade visitors highlighted the growing interest and importance of biogas and CBG in the sustainable energy landscape. The accompanying International Bio-Energy Conference was a focal point of knowledge sharing, featuring 30+ distinguished speakers. Experts from notable organizations, including the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Reliance, Adani, and SBI Bank, addressed critical topics within the Biogas and CBG sectors. Their insights and perspectives shed light on the sector's advance-

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ments and potential. The Bio-Energy Pavilion provided unparalleled networking and business collaboration opportunities, facilitating partnerships and fostering innovation. The event's resounding success showcased the industry's growth and commitment to sustainable energy solutions. As we reflect on this exceptional gathering, we extend our gratitude to all participants and stakeholders for their contribution to the success of the Bio-Energy Pavilion 2023. We look forward to continuing the momentum in advancing the biogas and CBG sector. we anticipate an even more impactful event next year, bringing together a larger

community of energy enthusiasts and professionals. The feedback and enthusiasm from attendees have inspired us to expand the scope of the event, incorporating more interactive sessions, workshops, and technology showcases to foster deeper engagement and collaboration within the industry.

from regional group representatives and numerous members, the event fostered a collaborative environment for exchanging ideas and discussing the strategic direction of the association. The assembly proved instrumental in fortifying the collective vision of the IBA community.

General Assembly, 2023 The recent General Assembly, hosted virtually on MS Teams by the IBA, served as a dynamic platform for members to gain insights into the association's current standing and future trajectory. With active participation Abhijeet Mukherjee Director Operation Indian Biogas Association

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Effect of pH, Volatile Fatty Acids and

Alkalinity in Biogas Production


Figure 1. Generation of Municipal Solid Waste (Mexico)

he constant demand for energy and other services such as healthcare and food tends to increase due to the constant increase in the population, which in turn demands more services. As a direct consequence of these needs, the population with its various anthropogenic activities generate a large amount of waste. Generally waste has lost an economic and utilisation value for its generator (Figure 1). However, organic waste, such as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), agriculture, livestock, forestry, fishing, and algae (sargassum), among others, is potentially exploitable to pro-

duce biogas due to the large amount of organic matter entailed in it. Biomass is a widely used carbon-rich biological material due to its availability, lower processing cost, and higher conversion. It is mainly constituted by hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin. Biomass can be classified into first, second and third generation. The first-generation biomass corresponds to food, which should not be compromised to obtain fuel and energy. The second generation is the residues of food, agriculture, livestock, fishing, and forest biomass. The third generation is algae such as sargassum, which is a source of di-

rect contamination in coastal areas. But, the economic and technological challenge of only collecting this type of waste should not be forgotten, and thus most of it is not treated and its destination is unknown, leading to the release of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is more efficient at capturing radiation than Carbon Dioxide (CO2) so the relative impact of methane is 25 times greater than that of CO2 over a 100year period. The valorization of the organic fraction of the waste can be carried out by biodigestion processes also known as anaerobic digestion (AD), in which the biological degrada-

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 13 tion of the substrates (organic matter) is carried out in the absence of oxygen to favor the biogas production. Biogas composition may vary based on the type of substrate and technology used. Typical ranges are: Methane (50- 60%), Carbon Dioxide (40 - 50%) and Hydrogen Sulfide (1 - 3%). The calorific value of biogas is approximately 5.5 kcal/Nm³ compared to 10.4 kcal/Nm³ of natural gas. One ton of fresh organic waste can generate approximately 160-180 Nm³ biogas. A head of cattle, pigs or poultry can generate up to 0.400, 0.135 and 0.014 m³ biogas day-1,respectively, which depends on the technology used. Algae and agricultural residues with moisture greater than 40 percent can be treated by AD.

Methanogens, which are strictly anaerobic, are directly responsible for methane formation. One of the most outstanding characteristics of methanogens is their extreme catabolic specialization, since they degrade simple compounds such as acetate, but not complex molecules such as glucose. The anaerobic digestion process is carried out in four stages: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis.

of enzymes (carboxyl groups and amines), ii) changes in non-enzymatic components (ionization of the substrate and protein denaturation of enzymes) and iii) affectation of the level of toxicity of different compounds. The optimal pH to produce biogas rich in methane greater than 50 percent must be greater than 6.2 units, presenting problems if it decreases below 6.0 and greater than 8.3. The inhibition process is reversible, and depending upon concentration and the type of substrate, dilution and the possible addition of buffer substances are adequate. The pH is a modulator of the chemical balance. The pH is directly affected by the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs).

below 6.2 units. Favoring the production of intermediate products such as acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and alcohols, among others, exerts an acid influence on the system. In the third stage, acetogenesis, the products resulting from acidogenesis VFAs are acids in solution Particularly, the accelerated are converted to their corre which are acetic acid, proAD process requires technologies capable of generating Effect of pH, AGV and alkalin- pionic acid and butyric acid, the corresponding salts are large volumes of biogas with ity on the digestion process acetate, propionate, and buthe highest amounts of methThe effect of these three varityrate. The concentration of ane, with low retention times. There are different types of ables is strongly dependent VFAs recommended in an AD technologies, which can vary on each other. The concentra- can be 2.0 - 3.0 g L-1, with an as per dry matter content of tion of hydronium or hydroxyl optimal concentration of 0.3 feedstock (wet or dry), sub- ions present in the medium kg m3. The most inhibitory strate concentration, horizon- determines the acidity or form of VFAs is the undissotal or vertical digester, mate- basicity of the system. Once ciated form of the acid which rials used (concrete, plastics, the substrate enters the bio- controls the pH of the system. others), height to diameter reactor, it begins its digestion Weak acids are acids that do ratio, mechanical or pneu- process in which the value of not completely dissociate in matic agitation, operation the hydrogen concentration solution. An excessive amount temperature range (meso- (pH) is variable, affecting the of VFAs in the system can be philic, thermophilic or both); behavior of the anaerobic caused by the presence of a particle size, residence time, process. Changes in pH can high organic loads 13,000 mg be influenced by i) changes L-1. This is accompanied by a among others. in the hydrolysable groups drop in pH below 5.0 units. A

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 14 decrease in temperature or excessive foaming can cause excessive formation of VFAs in the system. The longer the structural chain of the acid, the small concentration of it can inhibit the process. Propionic acid is the most toxic of the VFAs which has an inhibitory effect in concentrations greater than 1.0 g L-1. Alkalinity contributes significantly to the buffering effect. A buffer refers to the ability of a solution to maintain a constant pH value. Buffering capacity tends to regulate the concentration of the hydrogen ion. An effect in the addition of lime to counteract the acidity of the system can cause complications in the operation of the digester, such as plugging or a direct reduction of carbon dioxide that serves as an acceptor of hydrogen ions in the redox process, giving rise to the formation of methane. If the CO2 concentration is small, low amounts of CH4 will be obtained. The amount of organic nitrogen is transformed into ammonia nitrogen which helps to maintain the alkalinity of the process. The inhibition by total free ammoniacal nitrogen is related to the concentration of free ammonium (NH3)g which corresponds to 150 mg L-1. Free ammonia values of 80 – 100 mg L-1 are suggested. Concentrations greater than 1,500 – 3,000 mg L-1 can produce an increase in pH greater than 8.5

units, this can inhibit the AD Conclusions process only in the methanoIt is observed that the formagenic stage. tion of high concentrations A simplified case study was of acids is due to two issues. conducted in a dry digester The first corresponds to long with less than 30% humidity, retention times, greater than processing organic urban sol- 30 days, and the second to id waste through anaerobic the concentration of the subdigestion (AD) for 140 days. strate, greater than 70 perThe analysis of the digester cent. Thus, the inhibitory efsubstrate included measur- fect of the concentration of ing VFA concentrations (ac- VFAs in the AD process was etate, propipropionate, and verified, with an effect on butyrate), pH changes, and the pH less than 6.0 and amammonia levels. The initial monium concentrations, not pH of 7.5 decreased sharply greater than 800 mg L-1 due to around 4.0 within the first to the large number of acids 10 days, followed by a gradu- generated. al increase to 6.0-7.0 until day 42. The presence of free am- Uncontrolled feeding rates monia, resulting from hydro- and inadequate residence lysis and protein digestion, times favor piling concencontributed to this pH rise. tration of large chain fatty acids leading to acidic enviThe production of VFA played ronments,, which in turn acts a crucial role in inhibiting as a key inhibitor in for the methanogenesis, especially methanogenesis stage. It is due to high acetic acid con- important to carry out technicentrations (up to 12,000 mg cal studies and play with the L-1 until day 40 and 8,000 mg variables to predict the qualL-1 on day 110). This suggests itative and quantitative bethe presence of acidophilus havior in biogas production in bacteria capable of tolerat- anaerobic digestion projects ing high acid levels. Propion- from different substrates and ic acid consistently exceeded technologies. 2,000 mg/L, considered toxic beyond 1,000 mg/L, while butyrate reached levels of up to 16,000 mg/L.

Oscar Piña Maldonado Business Development

TWM "Waste Management & Treatment


Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 15

Equipments for Livestock Effluent & Biogas Digestate Treatment!

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Harnessing Mixing Technology


naerobic digestion is a well-established and efficient process that converts organic waste into valuable biogas and nutrient-rich fertilizers. Traditionally, anaerobic digesters have relied on natural bacterial processes to decompose organic matter. However, with the rapid advancements in mixing technology into anaerobic digesters, we can enhance their efficiency, improve monitoring and control, and uncover new possibilities for sustainable waste management.

breaking down organic matter, promoting the activity of anaerobic bacteria, and enhancing the digesting process by continuously mixing the substrate. Agitators play a crucial role in the efficient operation of biogas plants. These agitators are specifically designed to mix and homogenize the substrate within the anaerobic digester, prevent the formation of stratification or dead zones, ensure uniform distribution of organic material, and maximize contact between the feedstock and microorganisms.

material is uniformly exposed to the bacteria, enchanting the degradation process and optimizing gas yield. Agitators prevent the accumulation of scum or floating layers on the digester surface, which can hinder gas production. Substrate Homogenization

The composition of the substrate in anaerobic digesters can vary due to variations in feedstock or loading patterns. Side-enter agitators aid in achieving substrate homogenization by blending different materials together. This Mixing Technology homogenization improves The primary purpose of the the stability of the digestion agitators is to facilitate effi- Efficient mixing is directly process, reduces the risk of cient mixing of the substrate linked to increased biogas toxic or inhibitory substancwithin the anaerobic digester. production. The agitators en- es accumulating in localized The agitator process aids in sure that all of the organic

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 17 areas, and ensures a consistent microbial environment. Homogenization also helps to prevent substrate imbalances and maintains steady and predictable biogas production.

zones or dead zones, where microbial activity is limited. To prevent this stratification, it is necessary to employ mixing techniques that promote circulation and create a homogeneous environment within Paddy straw Mixing the digester. Proper mixing Paddy straw, an abundant ag- helps to maintain uniform ricultural residue, holds great temperature, pH, and micropotential as a feed stock for bial conditions in the anaerobiogas production. Howev- bic digester. er, the successful utilization of paddy straw in anerobic Co-digestion and Mixing digestion requires effective Co-digestion, the process of mixing techniques to opti- blending different substrates mize the biogas production together, can enhance the process. biogas production potential Enhancing Substrate Accessibility

of paddy straw. Mixing paddy straw with other organic materials, like animal manure, crop residues, or food waste, can improve the overall nutrient balance and substrate composition within the digester. Co-digestion not only enhances the biodegradability of paddy straw but also provides a more balanced nutrient profile for the microorganisms involved in anaerobic digestion. Efficient mixing is crucial in ensuring the proper dispersion and integration of the co-digested substrates.

The promotors installed submersible and side-entry agitators in the mixing tank and digester. Due to its low density, paddy straw tends to float on the surface of the digester when used as a feedstock. This floating layer can create operational challenges by impeding the flow of gas and inhibiting proper mixing. To break up the floating strata, ARMATEC has supplied and installed top-entry agitators. The supplied agitators have multiple propellers in different stages of the mixing shaft to break the floating layer and also help in mixing. In numerous other projects, we have designed and supplied top-entry agitators without interrupting the gas holder.

Paddy straw consists of tough and fibrous material that requires proper preparation and mixing to improve its Efficient mixing of paddy accessibility to anaerobic mistraw is vital for maximizing croorganisms. Efficient mixbiogas production and ensuring helps to break down the ing the successful utilization straw into smaller particles, of this abundant agriculturexposing a larger surface area al residue in biogas plants. to the microbial community. By employing suitable mixThis facilitates the enzymating techniques and systems, ic hydrolysis of complex carbiogas plant operators can bohydrates present in paddy unlock the full potential of straw, allowing for efficient paddy straw as a sustainable degradation and conversion Case study feedstock. into biogas. ARMATEC-FTS got a chance to Inadequate mixing of paddy provide the solution to break straw may result in stratifi- the floating Layers in a paddy cation within the digester, straw based biogas project in where heavier particles de- China. scend to the bottom while lighter materials float on top. Vijay Kumar Lanka This stratification can lead to Managing Director Armatech FTS-india Pvt. Ltd. the formation of anaerobic

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Registered office: Via del molo, 1/b | 19126 La Spezia, (SP) | ITALY Headquarters: Via Scotte, 8 | 36033 Isola Vicentina (VI) | ITALY | T. +39 0444 573979 F. +39 0444 809186 | |

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Concrete Protection Lining in Fixed Dome Concrete Biogas Plants

A Cost-Effective Solution for Sustainable Operation


compromised by the relentless assault of hydrogen sulfide, a byproduct of the anaerobic breakdown of organic matter. The concrete surface of the gas-holder dome, vital for containment, falls victim to this corrosion, resulting in structural weakening and eventual gas leakage. This form of concrete corrosion, or microbial-induced corrosion (MIC), stems from the activities of sulfuric acid-producing bacteria present within the bio-digester.

Fixed dome concrete biogas plants have emerged as an efficient means of harnessing renewable energy from organic waste. However, a significant challenge faced by these plants revolves around the corrosive effects of hydrogen sulfide on their concrete surfaces, particularly within the gas-holder dome. This article delves into the issue of concrete degradation caused by hydrogen sulfide, the emergence of Concrete Protection Lining (CPL) as a Understanding the Need for solution, and its application in CPL reducing the cost of ownership in biogas plants. Microbial-induced corrosion underscores the demand for The Hydrogen Sulfide Predic- effective Concrete Protection ament Lining. Traditional methods, involving adhesion bonding, The integrity of fixed dome have offered only limited concrete biogas plants is

success. Over time, adhesion bonds deteriorate, exposing the concrete to hydrogen sulfide attacks. Conventional CPL techniques like bituminous and tar-based paints, FRP, epoxy, and PU coatings have been explored but often fall short. CPL - A Shift in Approach Polyethylene Concrete Protection Liners have emerged as a transformative solution in this landscape. Developed by pioneers like Sangir, these liners prioritize physical bonding or interlocked fixation, surpassing conventional adhesion-based methods. Over the past 15 years, Sangir has championed these liners, showcasing their efficacy in applications ranging from cement/concrete pipes to

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 20 sumps, tanks, trenches, and Application Success: A Case even in high-chloride soil en- Study vironments for footings/pilThe implementation of ings. Stud-Liners in biogas plant A Permanent Solution with concrete domes has yielded Polyethylene Concrete Pro- significant success. Notably, tection Liners Sangir collaborated with a multinational EPC company Distinguished by the brand on a project for the Nationname "San-Stud," these Poly- al Mission for Clean Ganga ethylene Concrete Protection (NMCG). Liners, commonly referred to as Stud-Liners, represent In West Bengal, as part of this a permanent and resilient project, numerous bio-disolution. Crafted from pre- gesters were established to mium-grade polyethylene process urban waste and orwith specialized formulations, ganic solids. The methodolothese liners employ an ex- gy involved careful placement trusion process to integrate of Concrete Protection Liners V-shaped anchoring mecha- on casting shutter, welding nisms. This anchoring ensures of liner sheets, positioning a robust interlocked physical steel rebar rods, and pourfixation onto the inner sur- ing concrete. This resulted in a robust, corrosion-resistant face. structure with an extended Key Features and Benefits operational life. The Stud-Liners boast a range of thicknesses, from 2mm to 5mm. The V-shaped studs, homogenously constructed with the liner sheet, exhibit exceptional pull-out strength resistance. During installation, the liners are introduced before the concreting, along with the shuttering. Once the concrete is poured, the V-shaped anchoring seamlessly integrates into the concrete surface during setting and hardening. This establishes an inert barrier, safeguarding the concrete from corrosive media.

ing methods. 3. The use of Stud-Liners leads to reduced Operational Expenditure (OPEX), minimizing repairs and rehabilitation, thus lowering the overall cost of ownership. 4. The operational life of biogas plants is significantly extended through the application of Stud-Liners, ensuring prolonged and cost-effective service. Conclusion

Concrete Protection Lining has revolutionized the approach to mitigating the corrosive effects of hydrogen sulfide in fixed dome concrete biogas plants. The adoption of Polyethylene Concrete Protection Liners, characterized by interlocked physical fixation, presents an elegant and enduring solution. By enInvaluable Takeaways hancing structural integrity 1. Concrete Protection Liners and reducing maintenance with physical bonding during costs, Stud-Liners pave the concreting offer superior way for sustainable and effiadherence, eliminating con- cient biogas plant operation, cerns about peel-offs or de- contributing to a cleaner and lamination. greener energy landscape. 2. Physical bonding or interlocked fixation proves more resilient compared to traditional adhesive or stuck bond-

Himanshu Mistry

Head-Business Development & Marketing

Sangir Plastics Pvt. Ltd.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 21


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Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 22

Grassroots Involvement is Crucial

To Sustainable Biomass Adoption


ut of India’s 32.87 lakh square kilometers, approximately 14.10 lakh kilometers is the gross sown area across the country. With such largescale agricultural activities underway, it is not surprising that massive amounts of farm waste consisting of roots, stubble, and stalks are generated every year. Seasonal farming in the country has a very short time interval, and therefore fields must be cleared as soon as possible to fit in as many crop cycles as possible in order to improve the yearly yield from the land.

farmers tend to clear the fields of agricultural waste by setting it alight, causing air pollution and soil degradation. Ironically, it is already well known that this agricultural waste can be transformed into briquettes and pellets to form biomass, which can then be burned to heat boilers and run turbines.

Alternatively, a gaseous fuel called Compressed Biogas (CBG) can be produced, which is a good substitute for natural gas and can be used as fuel for automobiles and in heating applications. This then begets the question: why is Coupled with the fact that biomass not already a widely there has been no real finan- used fuel when it is obviouscial incentive to do otherwise, ly a cleaner source of energy

as compared to fossil fuels and petroleum-based energy sources? There are many reasons for this, but all of them could be attributed to the nature of agricultural waste and where it is produced. Challenges for Biomass Production and Adoption Agricultural waste is extremely voluminous and has a relatively low density. If burned, it produces a large amount of smoke because of its high moisture content and very low calorific value. This makes it very difficult to transport due of its bulky nature and a very poor and highly polluting fuel if used directly in its raw

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 23 form. Furthermore, typical landholdings for farmers in India are fragmented, and crop cycles vary across the country. This further complicates the transportation from the fields and makes the sourcing of agricultural waste of consistent quantity and quality a major challenge. Technology and knowledge for biomass production are yet to percolate fully into the Indian hinterland, and this means that most of the processing of raw waste happens away from the fields in semi-urban areas. This increases transportation costs, and the farmer receives little or no value for the waste produced on his farms. This disincentivizes the farmer’s efforts and makes it unviable for long -term adoption. Empowering Rural India by Getting its Skin in the Game Using proven technology and processes, organic agricultural waste can be converted into pellets and briquettes. This processed biomass is much denser, has virtually no moisture, and possesses a much higher calorific value. These facets make it costeffective to transport and much more viable as an energy source. This biomass can then be blended with coal by consumers and burned in their thermal power plants to

produce electricity.

to increasing earnings for farmers, can be found within Compressed Biogas (CBG) the agricultural sector itself. is fast emerging as a sus- Fruits and vegetables are tainable liquid biofuel. This high-value crops, and about methane-rich fuel is noth- 40% of this produce goes to ing but purified biogas that waste post-harvest. Howevis produced through the an- er, farmers that have their aerobic decomposition of or- own food production units ganic waste like agricultural for items like pickles etc. near waste in a digestor. For via- their farms have been able to ble production of CBG and reduce this wastage and imthe optimal utilisation of in- prove their income manifold. frastructure, vast quantities of feedstock are required However, setting up such prothroughout the year, which cessing units is capital intenis a severe constraint owing sive, and is not an option for to the challenges involved in all farmers. To circumvent the collecting the agri-waste from issue of high investment costs, the source and transporting it many farmers have formed to the plant. collectives that do the setup and operation of these faciliIf this enrichment of agri- ties. This leads to shared exwaste into biomass-based fuel penditure for infrastructure, happens closer to the source but with a share of the profits (fields), the transportation as well. Such collectives have expenditure is substantially also set up a supply chain of curtailed. Through focused their own and have ventured initiatives enabled through into retail markets through digital mechanisms such as e-commerce platforms and BiofuelCircle’s Biomass Bank, brick-and-mortar stores in urfarmers can gain access to the ban areas to promote the sale requisite knowledge, tech- of their products and link buynology, and consumers, and ers directly to the producers. set up agri-waste processing units in the rural areas them- Others have tied up with food selves close to their fields. processing manufacturers Such activities will significant- that directly purchase their ly enhance the market value produce from the field. Studof the waste, which will now ies have shown that farmers be sold as biomass. linked to the food processing sector have achieved an An example of this enrich- average additional income of ment-driven business model nearly 50% in certain parts of for areas close to the source, the country over those that and its efficacy with regards didn’t have such associations.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 24

For biomass to grow into a sizeable sector, it is imperative to introduce similar initiatives for agricultural waste. Empowering farmers with the know-how and finances to set up and run these biomass processing factories and linking the offtake with eager buyers through biomass banks will act as a catalyst for entrepreneurship in rural areas, and introduce the importance of consistency, accountability, and quality consciousness in these markets. The spawning of such facilities will also lead to the creation of employment opportunities for the rural population.

with the fuel, it is to replace, and should not require extensive changes to the existing infrastructure set up of the consumer. Access to this fuel must be open, and it should also be available with consistency in its quality.

Digital platforms such as BiofuelCircle’s Biomass Banks can resolve these aspects by injecting value to the entire value chain. A participative model that engages producers (farmers), service providers (tractor owners) and rural enterprises (storages and briquette makers) can potentially create a rewarding ecosystem in rural areas. Digitalisation in this case is not Way forward only bringing these particiLong term adoption of any pants together but also crenew fuel is viable only if the ating a dynamic marketplace economic aspects of the tranSuhas Baxi sition and subsequent operaCo-Founder and CEO tions are taken care of. Thus, BiofuelCircle it should be cheaper or at par

that could help invigorate the local rural economy. By equipping farmers with the resources to add substantially to their yearly revenues through agricultural waste processing, encouraging the creation of a robust supply chain for the sector, and linking producers with buyers eager to meet their renewable purchase obligations (RPO), an economically viable and sustainable long-term market will emerge which will ensure consistent growth for biomass uptake in the country.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 25

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 26

India’s & Asia’s first paper industry to

Produce & Sell CBG/Bio-CNG From Waste Water


aper Industries are the most complex and energy-intensive of all industries with, the highest final energy consumption. In addition, the Indian Paper Industry is the fifteenth largest paper manufacturing center in the world and accounts for approximately 3% of global paper production. As a result, the wastewater generated and disposed of by the paper and pulp industries is quite high.

mill’s dependency on fossil fuels. Biogas development offers a hedge against fossil fuel price hikes & volatility.

Biogas produced by anaerobic digestion can be upgraded and biogas enhancement is a relatively new process in the Indian Market. With the improvement in technology, increased awareness for green energy, and reduced production cost for equipment, biogas upgradation has now become a possibility for Pulp and paper mills pro- developing countries such as duce enormous quantities India. of organic waste that could be transformed into a meth- KIS Group focuses on climate ane-based energy source. change efforts through EnerBiogas, as an energy source, gy transition and decarboncan provide a buffer against ization of various Industries energy security concerns and such as Agricultural waste, can help reduce the paper Sugar, Palm, Rice, Paper In-

dustry, MSW, Cow Dung, poultry waste, etc. in a responsible manner by adopting advanced technologies with reduced dependency on fossil fuels. We are contributing towards net carbon zero efforts by implementing India’s and Asia’s first: Paper mill effluent to BioCNG/ CBG. This plant is commissioned at Sainsons Paper Industries Pvt. Ltd.( Kraft paper from Agro residue & waste paper), Pehowa, Haryana. KIS commissioned the BioCNG plant to utilize clean and green energy to contribute towards carbon emission reduction, which is a better utilization of biogas than producing electricity and burning in a boiler. The pro-

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 27

duced BioCNG compressed biogas can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of fossil fuel. This article mainly illustrates the potential of the BioCNG conversion from Biogas.


Paper Mill Effluent (from wet washing for raw material (wheat straw) and paper machine backwater.) The installed higher-rated Anaerobic digester has a design Above is the schematic flow capacity of 18 MT COD load and flow of 4500 m3/day at of the process; COD is 4500 mg/l. The COD

reduction is in the range of 65-70% for the digester and raw biogas generation in the range of 6000-7000 m3/day with methane content of 6070%, which is presently being flared. See the table below:

Sr. No.





Effluent Flow








Biogas Flow Rate



Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 28 Process/Technology a. Removal of Sulphur from Biogas : The raw biogas from the existing anaerobic digester is transferred to the new scrubber system for the removal of H2S content. Raw Biogas has H2S of 20,000 ppm and its reduced to almost 0-5 ppm through our patented BioClean Technology. The process is a modified liquid red-ox process to remove H2S in Biogas using chelated polyvalent metal ions with a stabilizing agent.

BioCNG Generation (PSA)/ CO2 Removal Process : The biogas is entering into the Pressure Swing Adsorption System, and the raw purified biogas is passed through different units like Desulphrizer, moisture separator, Chiller, Pre-Filters, GDU units & PSA Towers. After Passing through all these systems methane is purified to the purity of 98%. The CO2 is removed through the PSA system by molecular sieves. The removed CO2 is vented off to the atmosphere but in future, we can capture the enriched CO2 further by removing the impurities, and can be used in industrial applications.

Pure Sulphur Recovery: The sulphur present in the hydrogen sulphide is precipitated as elemental sulphur, which has commercial value as ferOur Unique 4 Stage CO2 tilizer (Purity is 97%). Removal system almost reStorage of Clean Biogas in moves 98% -100% CO2 withDouble Membrane Gas hold- out much methane loss to get er: The purified biogas after a recovery of 97%-99% purity. the scrubber is collected in The output after cleaning and the double membrane gas upgradation is mentioned, holder as a buffer before we are getting Methane with being taken into the biogas a purity of more than 99%, a upgradation system.

Commercial Sale of Vehicle Grade CBG/BioCNG : The compressor takes the gas from the storage tank stored in the cylinder cascades to supply BioCNG to the nearby Oil Company. The mill has already entered an agreement with HPCL to sell the BioCNG. The final product specifications are adhering to all the quality and safety guidelines as notified by Government (IS 16987 : 2016). Typical R.O.I (Cost Economics) for Paper Mill BioCNG Project : Below is the typical R.O.I for Complete BioCNG Plant for the existing Biogas projects; in which Capex includes mainly is Scrubber System, Biogas Management System, PSA System & related equipment/ instruments.

Sale of BioCNG / CBG to vehicles

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 29


7200 m3/day


3.09 Tonnes/day

Estimated Capex

₹ 9.75 Crores


1.5 years

*Note : The calculations are inductive & may vary depending on the size & variable parameters. The pulp and paper industries are growing day by day. Growing while achieving zero net emissions and zero waste, and improving overall resource efficiency are key drivers of sustainability in the industry. For decarbonization and energy transition, it’s a good op-

portunity for the pulp & paper industry to make BioCNG from the paper mill effluent. The BioCNG industry has huge potential for India as the country moves toward its goal of generating clean & green energy. Net zero is ambitious, but with a BioCNG ecosystem, it is achievable. It will play a key role in transitioning from K. R. Raghunath

Founder & CEO

KIS Group

fossil fuels to green energy. In the future, CO2 can be captured further for usage in the industry’s purposes.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 30

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 31

Big Dish: A step towards Biogas Solar Hybridization


uni Seva Ashram, an embodiment of a clean and green campus, which is an Indian NGO that offers services in social and health care, education, and sustainability, started working in sustainability much before it became fashionable to talk about it. Anuben, MSA's Founder, believed firmly in living and growing in harmony with nature. For MSA, sustainable development is a way of human development wherein the use of resources meets human needs while preserving

the environment. Their clear motto encompasses living with sustainability does not compromise the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Muni Seva Ashram is an active agent in the drive for sustainable development, with large-scale interests in organic farming, agro-forestry, horticulture, animal husbandry, solar energy, and biogas. Over the years, the Ashram has made a sustained effort to use modern technologies to reduce the use of conventional resources. The

step of hybridization of solar and biogas is one such step. They recently launched the “Big Dish” unit in their cancer hospital, which requires only one-third of the land area compared to Scheffler dishes with the same capacity, states Sunrise CSP India. The standard Scheffler dishes have an aperture area of 16 m2 and are generally used in a series of several units for commercial cooking. "The Big Dish system is more efficient than previous dish technologies because of its engineering design and track-

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 32 ing accuracy," stated Deepak Gadhia, Chairman and Managing Director of Sunrise CSP India and the driving force behind the hospital installation. He is active with Muni Seva Ashram as one of the trustees. "In 2018, the authorities of Muni Seva Ashram were approached by the Sunrise CSP team from Australia to showcase their Big Dish technology during their tour to India. Sunrise CSP India was established as a result of this incident. Then, the Kailash Cancer Hospital's Big Dish installation was funded by the Australian Sunrise CSP organization. Sunrise CSP India

entered into a steam delivery agreement with the client and took over as the operator of the first Big Dish facility.

"The otherwise commonly known photovoltaic solar panels can convert only 20% of the sunlight falling on them into usable energy in the form Big Dish, according to Sh. of electricity. Gadhia, is a major turning point for the solar industrial "ON A SUNNY DAY, THE BIG heat market in India: "Its de- DISH SYSTEM SAVES 1,000 KG ployment will be extremely OF BIOMASS BRIQUETTES" beneficial to industries that rely on steam and thermic flu- A Big Dish can produce about id for heating by burning bio- 400 kW of heat and 400 kg of mass, coal, furnace oil, diesel, steam every hour, seven days and other fossil fuels." "With a week, thanks to its high conthis solar concentrator tech- centration ratio. The Big Dish nology, we are able to use facility has 489 m2 of aper90% of the sunlight that falls ture area. According to Praon the reflector of the solar nav Gadhia, CEO of Sunrise concentrator," he continued. CSP India, it produces steam

Aperture area

489 m2

Type of mirror

Mirror area

1 mm thick glass mirror is bonded to a sandwich consisting of a layer of galvanised steel, a thin layer of wood and a second steel sheet layer 380 mirrors of 1.17 x 1.17 m = 520 m2

Thermal capacity

~400 kW at DNI 900 W/m2

Land area for one dish unit

625 m2 footprint

Range of operating temperature

Up to 400 °C

Range of pressure

Up to 40 bar

Heat transfer medium

Water / steam

Receiver type

Direct steam receiver

Total weight

26 tons

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 33 - Cement Industry and many more…..... The major distinguishing factors of this revolutionary technology are: • 96% Thermal Efficiency of the Receiver • World’s most efficient superheated steam receiver which produces steam at: 40 bar and 400 OC

at up to 400 °C at 40 bar.

is already in motion.

According to the project developer, solar steam will provide around 70% of the heat needed for cooking, cleaning, and sterilization in the 2,000bed hospital. According to Sunrise CSP India, this results in a savings of roughly 1,000 kg of biomass briquettes on a sunny day. The steam is stored as pressurized hot water in two 6,000-liter tanks, enabling the hospital to receive heat even after the sun sets. Briquettes will now primarily be utilized as a backup on cloudy days.

The Big dish Technology can be adopted for delivering wide range of applications across various industries such as:

• Factory in Field Technology (FiF): The complete dish can be manufactured on-site that ensure cost-effectiveness and rapid delivery including sandwiching and baking of mirrors to give it strength and curvature

• System Life of 30 Years - Paper Industry - Food Processing Industry Muni Seva Ashram is further envisaging to come up with - Chemical Industry large scale biogas plant espe- Textile Industry cially to buffer out the energy - Desalination Plants need during the absence of - Ceramic Industry Sun! - Cold Storage - Hydrogen Production Plants - Petroleum Refineries - Pharma Industry The hospital's air conditioning - Steel Industry system is currently powered - Dairy Industry by sorption chillers, though solar steam may eventually take over. The Sunrise CSP team calculates that in order to achieve the 1,000 TR coolAprajita Mishra ing capacity, eight more Big Strategy Adviser Dish units would be required. Indian Biogas Association The plan for future expansion

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 34

Our KCBG range of compressors for biogas applications is tailor-made for compressing raw and sweet biogas, ensuring reliable operations, and enhancing plant performance. Our capacity turn-down technology is suitable for variable gas production rate, keeping your plant running. Optimize your biogas production journey with our cutting-edge compression solutions.

Biogas Compressor Package

Gas Storage

Suction Pressure 200-30 kg/cm²G


Cascade Filling Pressure 255 kg/cm²G



KCBG/LP 1 Compressor Suction Pressure 0.1 kg/cm²G

Stage KCBG/HP Compressor

KCNG-HB Series Hydraulic Booster

Discharge Pressure 255 kg/cm²G

Biogas Treatment / H2S Removal

Discharge Pressure 8/16 kg/cm²G

Suction Pressure 0.3/7.5/11 kg/cm²G

CO2 Scrubber

CGD Pipeline Injection Discharge Pressure 40 kg/cm²G

CNG Fueling Station

Biogas Purification Using PSA

KCBG/LP Series

KCG/HP Series

Low Pressure Compressor for Feeding Gas into CO2 Scrubber

High Pressure Compressor for Bio CNG Stations/Cascade Filling

• Flow Rate – 500 to 2000 Nm3/hr

• Flow Rate – 250 to 800 Nm3/hr

• Discharge Pressure – 8 / 16 kg/cm2G

• Suction Pressure - 0.3 / 7.5 / 11 kg/cm2G

Salient Features

• Discharge Pressure - 40 / 255 kg/cm2G

• Reciprocating / Screw Type

Salient Features

• Designed to work for the suction pressure as low as 0.147 kg/cm2G

• Direct coupled drive

• V- belt drive arrangement • Water-Cooled heat exchanger

• Air cooled heat exchanger • 40-100% capacity turndown

• SS 304 for all Wetted Parts • 0-100% capacity turndown

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Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 35

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Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 36

Inclusion of BioCNG as a project category for the trading of

carbon credits under Article 6.2 mechanism to mobilise international finance in India


ioCNG holds significant importance in the trading of carbon credits. This renewable energy source has the potential to attract foreign investments, especially in developing countries like India. BioCNG production and utilisation offers several benefits. Primarily, it provides a sustainable alternative to traditional fossil fuels, thereby reducing dependency on non-renewable energy sources. In edition, it helps address waste management challenges by converting organic waste into a valuable energy resource. Further, by reducing methane emissions as well as avoiding carbon-di-oxide emissions from utilization of fossil-CNG, BioCNG contributes to climate change mitigation efforts and promotes sustainable development.

The trading of carbon credits related to BioCNG enables countries and organisations to offset their carbon footprint by investing in projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This mechanism creates a financial incentive for developing countries like India to attract foreign investments in BioCNG infrastructure. These investments not only contribute to the growth of the renewable energy sector but also support economic development and job creation.

velopment and Entrepreneurship has launched an innovative initiative to set up Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) production plants, and promote CBG available in the market for use in automotive fuels. The initiative would benefit both vehicle users as well as farmers and entrepreneurs. The plants are proposed to be set up mainly through independent entrepreneurs. CBG produced at these plants will be transported through cascades or pipelines to the fuel station networks of Oil MarketRecent Developments in In- ing Companies (OMCs) for dia marketing as a green transUnder Sustainable Alternative port fuel alternative. The Towards Affordable Trans- 1,500-strong CNG stations portation (SATAT) policy, the network in the country curUnion Minister of Petroleum rently serves about 32 lakh and Natural Gas & Skill De- gas-based vehicles. The entrepreneurs would be able

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 37 to separately market the other by-products from these plants, including bio-manure, carbon dioxide, etc., to enhance returns on investment. It is planned to roll out 5,000 CBG plants across India in a phased manner in the next 4 years. India officially announced the establishment of the National Designated Authority for the Implementation of the Paris Agreement (NDAIAPA) through a Gazetted Notification issued on May 30, 2022. The primary role of this authority is to make decisions regarding the participation of specific project types in the international carbon market under Article 6 mechanisms.

cells, high-end technology for energy efficiency, sustainable aviation fuel, best available technologies for process improvement in hard-to-abate sectors, tidal energy, ocean thermal energy, ocean salt gradient energy, ocean wave energy, ocean current energy, and high voltage direct current transmission in conjunction with renewable energy projects. Furthermore, alternate materials such as green ammonia and removal activities like carbon capture utilization and storage have been included in the finalised list.

These activities aim to facilitate the adoption and transfer of emerging technologies and have the potential to attract international financing This development aligns with in India. The activities will the completion of the Paris initially be applicable for the Agreement Rulebook, specif- first three years and may be ically Article 6, which focuses subject to updates or revion carbon trading via bilater- sions by NADAIPA as deemed al or cooperative approach- necessary. es and international market mechanisms. India has taken Unlocking Foreign Investthe necessary actions as re- ments and Additional Benquired by the host party or efits through Carbon Credit country. A comprehensive Trading list of activities has been finalised for consideration in In the pursuit of combating the trading of carbon credits climate change and transiunder bilateral or cooperative tioning towards a sustainapproaches using the Article able future, project catego6.2 mechanism was recent- ries such as BioCNG have ly finalized. GHG mitigation emerged as key players in atactivities include renewable tracting foreign investments energy with storage (limited for countries while reaping to the stored component), additional benefits. Under solar thermal power, offshore Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreewind, green hydrogen, com- ment, the trading of carbon pressed bio-gas, emerging credits generated by projects mobility solutions like fuel like BioCNG presents a valu-

able opportunity for countries to secure international financing and simultaneously realize numerous advantages. Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement refers to a voluntary cooperation mechanism that permits countries to engage in emissions trading or transfer mitigation outcomes among themselves. While the specific project categories eligible under Article 6.2 are not explicitly limited to any specific set of technologies or activities, the agreement encourages the inclusion of a wide range of activities that contribute to emissions reduction and sustainable development. BioCNG, short for Bio-Compressed Natural Gas, harnesses renewable energy through the anaerobic digestion of organic waste, such as agricultural residue, food waste, or animal manure. This process not only produces clean energy but also captures and utilizes methane, a potent greenhouse gas that would otherwise contribute to global warming. By implementing BioCNG projects, countries can achieve two significant outcomes: mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and addressing waste management challenges. When BioCNG projects qualify for carbon credits trading under Article 6.2, a door opens for foreign investments to flow into the host country. These investments inject capital, expertise, and technology, fostering economic growth and

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 38 development. International investors are attracted to projects that align with their sustainability goals and provide financial returns through the sale of carbon credits. The revenue generated from carbon credit trading can be reinvested in the country's sustainable development initiatives, creating a positive cycle of environmental and economic benefits.

countries can attract foreign investments and unlock a range of additional benefits. These projects contribute to conserving forex reserve, greenhouse gas reduction, waste management, energy diversification, job creation, and local economic development. Embracing sustainable initiatives not only safeguards the environment but also paves the way for a prosperous and resilient future, Moreover, BioCNG projects where nations thrive by capoffer additional advantages italizing on clean energy solubeyond carbon credit trad- tions. ing. They contribute to energy diversification by reduc- BioCNG Projects Hold Iming reliance on fossil fuels, mense Potential and a Promenhancing energy security, ising Scope in India and promoting a cleaner and India possesses abundant ormore sustainable energy mix. ganic waste resources, includAdditionally, these projects ing agricultural residue, food create job opportunities in waste, and animal manure. the renewable energy sector, These waste streams can stimulate local economies, serve as a valuable feedstock and support rural develop- for BioCNG production. By ment through the utilization leveraging these resources, of organic waste resources. India can effectively address BioCNG projects also play a waste management issues vital role in waste manage- while simultaneously generment. By converting organic ating clean energy. waste into a valuable energy resource, they alleviate the One of the key advantages burden on landfills, reduce of BioCNG projects in India methane emissions, and im- is their ability to contribute prove overall waste manage- to multiple sectors. BioCNG ment practices. This holistic can be used as a clean alterapproach towards waste man- native fuel for transportation, agement not only mitigates reducing the reliance on fosenvironmental impacts but sil fuels and mitigating harmalso addresses public health ful emissions. It can also be concerns associated with im- utilized for cooking, heating, proper waste disposal. and powering various indusIn conclusion, when project categories like BioCNG are permitted for carbon credit trading under Article 6.2,

trial processes. This versatility makes BioCNG an attractive option for multiple sectors and contributes to the overall sustainability goals of the country. It also has the potential to conserve and boost India’s foreign exchange reserve by reducing oil imports. Furthermore, BioCNG projects align with the Indian government's emphasis on renewable energy and waste management. Initiatives such as the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) and the promotion of clean and sustainable energy sources provide a conducive environment for the growth of BioCNG projects. The government's focus on boosting the renewable energy sector, combined with favourable policies and incentives, creates a supportive ecosystem for BioCNG investments. The scope for BioCNG projects in India is vast and promising. By leveraging the potential of BioCNG, India can take strides towards a greener and more sustainable future. If you are interested in pursuing a BioCNG project or exploring its potential eligibility under Article 6.2 trading, reach out to us at business@

Samrat Sengupta

Vice President EKI Energy Services Ltd.

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 39


Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 40

BIOMEMBRANE SYSTEMS INDIA PVT LIMITED is a leader in the field of biogas infrastructure, specializing in the design, production, and installation of covering systems for biogas projects. With a commitment to innovation, reliability, and sustainability, Biomembrane Systems has emerged as a trusted partner in the emerging biogas industry. Our comprehensive portfolio includes wide range of membranes and systems designed to cater to various applications for biogas industry. Biomembrane Systems serves as a one-stop solution provider from the initial design concept to the final commissioning & testing phase.

1.Double/Single Membrane Digester Balloon: Our membrane solutions for digester provide a robust and efficient containment system, ensuring the safe storage of biogas generated from organic waste. 2. Ground Mounted Standalone Gas Storage Balloon: Our groundmounted gas storage balloons are designed for reliability & ease of use. 3. Cylindrical/Rectangular Storage Balloons: Tailored to meet specific requirements, ensuring flexibility without compromising performance. Ms. Sushila Tiwari

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Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 41

Biogas Balloons: Innovations and Applications in the Growing Indian Market

Introduction: The rapid expansion of the Indian biogas market has ushered in exciting opportunities for biogas gas-holder technologies. Biogas, recognized as a pivotal renewable energy source in India, addresses energy demands, curbs greenhouse gas emissions, and propels sustainable growth. This article explores the construction, operating principles, applications, and benefits of biogas balloons, shedding light on their pivotal role in the biogas landscape. Biogas Balloons: Construction and Working Principles:

Biogas balloons, often referred to as biogas gasholders or biogas bags, are engineered using versatile materials like flame-retardant reinforced PVC. This material selection ensures resilience to corrosive biogas properties and the capacity to withstand gas-induced pressures. Typically, the balloons are cylindrical or spherical, accommodating various sizes from domestic to community or industrial scales. Equipped with inlet and outlet connections, they facilitate biogas ingress and egress.

breakdown of organic materials. Due to its flexibility the balloon expands as gas flows from the digester to the balloon through the inlet, This elasticity prevents overpressure and serves as temporary storage. By Maintaining a constant pressure within the system, the balloon adapts to fluctuations in gas production rates to ensure effective operations. Applications of Biogas:

Biogas derived from anaerobic digestion of organic waste has diverse applications These balloons gather and across sectors, such as: store the methane-rich biogas that results from the - Cooking and Heating: As a

Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 42 clean-burning fuel for household cooking and heating. - Electricity Generation: Utilized in power generation through biogas-driven generators. - Vehicle Fuel: Converted into compressed natural gas (CNG) for transportation. - Industrial Processes: Energy source for various industrial operations. - Agriculture and Farming: Employed for lighting, water heating, and farm machinery fuel. PVC Fabric vs. MS Domes for Digester Covers: 1. Flexibility and Easy Installation:PVC fabric's adaptability to different digester designs, thanks to its flexibility, facilitates straightforward installation. This stands in contrast to the intricate fabrication and installation processes required for MS domes, saving time and costs. 2. Corrosion Resistance: PVC fabric's immunity to biogas-induced corrosion and degradation surpasses that of metallic MS domes. The resilience of PVC fabric ensures durability over time. 3. Cost-Efficiency: Due to its lower material cost, simpler installation, and reduced need for specialized appara-

tus, PVC fabric is an economical alternative.

The benefits include:

- Fast Installation 4. Light Weight: The light- - Long Service Life weight nature of PVC fabric - Unique Membrane Fabrics minimizes structural load, - Integrated Management simplifies installation, and en- Systems hances maintenance ease. -Cost-Effectiveness - Enhanced Safety and Reli5. Gas-Tightness: Properly ability installed PVC fabric provides exceptional gas-tightness, su- Conclusion: perior to MS domes, which may necessitate additional The burgeoning Indian biomaintenance. gas market presents fertile ground for innovative solu6. Aesthetics and Integration: tions like biogas balloons. PVC fabric's aesthetic flexi- These versatile systems cater bility permits customization to various applications while to blend harmoniously with demonstrating advantages the surroundings, while MS over traditional options like domes might not align as well MS domes. As the adoption with the environment. of biogas technology continues to rise, such advanceAdvantages of Biogas Dou- ments will play a pivotal role ble Membrane Balloons: in propelling India towards a sustainable energy future. The double membrane biogas ground balloon, composed of outer biogas fabric and inner and floor membranes, maintains constant gas pressure regardless of supply and output. Auxiliary air fans sustain pressure, and the inner and outer diaphragms endure external loads. Concrete foundations host gas charging and discharge pipes, while ultrasonic and wire length systems measure fill levels.

Punit Jhaveri Director-Strategic Growth Lucky-Tech Membranes Pvt. Ltd.


Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 43


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Biogas Magazine | Edition 25 | 44

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