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e i d d u b g i B ning

IY-Garde D s ie r o t S s-Crafts le z z u P s ic Com


A Awesome science magazine that feeds minds

Build your own Robot

Things to come in Future

every child can succeed in school



Dear readers, Welcome to Bigbuddie - the magazine bursting with enticing articles,mind-boggling facts and hands-on experiments to get our child hooked science! Bigbuddie magazine is designed to capture our child's imagination and help them to get excited about science. Every idea has been tested with kids and we've included the topics that interest them the most, whilst also introducing valuable science concepts. This makes Bigbuddie magazine a wonderfully useful resource for home educators. The magazine is also linked to the National Curriculum, so it will support children's schoolwork as well. It's not just science that our children will be learning either. Bigbuddie will help with their literacy development too.

the Big friends !

Bigbuddie is a gender-neutral magazine. Science is for girls just as much as it is for boys, so expect to find plenty of inspirational female as role models and content that appeals to all children. Bigbuddie is only available by subscription. If you haven't subscribed yet, simply go to and sign up for as little as Rs.3.00 per day, including delivery. With the help of Bigbuddie magazine, just imagine what your mini-scientist might one day discover!

GET IN TOUCH @ EFC Business Center, 3rd Floor, M3, West

Wing Marisoft IT Park, Marigold Complex,

Kalayani Nagar,Pune - 411014,India All experiments have been tried and tested by our team. The activities should be done under close adult supervision and are done at your own risk. Bigbuddie magazine cannot accept liability for the damage done.

Bigbuddie magazine is made by: Editor: Deputy Editor: Editorial Assistant: Designers: Illustrators: Writer: Contributors:

Š 2019 Bigbuddie Learning P. Ltd.

All rights reserved Reproduction of the whole or any port of the contents of Bigbuddie magazine without written permission is prohibited. Illustrations Š 2019 Bigbuddie


You can make this at home Have a go at this fun activity

Setting the cord straight-Be creative Linked to the National Curriculum Superfast science-try it now Can you guess? Can you believe it? Enter a competition-Young writter Did you know?


Bigbuddie is a magazine specially designed for each issue teaches them important STEM skills (Science,Technology,Engineering and Maths) with vibrant photos and articles that your child will be excited to read. In every Bigbuddie issue, we’ll read about fascinating science topics, practical math skills relates to real world problems, Engineering topics and lessons that also develop reading , language art skills and manners in social life. The magazine comes alive with vibrant works of art and articles that develop the art, reading, writing skills, developing the critical-thinking and analytical skills more and more with articles and activities that further develop the life skills and boost brain of your child, that will need in school and beyond.

The Bigbuddie Team

Get access code with this issue and email us for winning pass to amazing workshop

Build your Rocket

A learning aid platforms that help children to remember information more clearly, enhances children’s learning experience, support them mentally and has a positive impact on learning.

Spiral Universe


Explore one of the brightest galaxies in the sky: the Whirlpool Galaxy

Things to come in future Self-balanced cycle Nano-technology:Technology

Technolgy around us!

Explore how remote controlled car works

Build your own robot Awesome series of building robots

Heroes of technology

A brief biography of modern world scientists

Ask why:Chemistry

The answers to curious mind questions

Questions and Answers Expert answers for the questions

Do it yourself!

Build your experiments at home

Amazing & shocking Facts! Fish,Potato or the Earth shocking things are there

Grow your tomatoes

Engage your children in gardening

Lets play Rugby!

Enjoy a new game of courage and strength

Can you eat dropped food! A dropped chips or chocolate on floor weather hygienic or not!

Every child can succeed Every child can be succeed in school, but how?

Comics Strip

How to build a rocket Simple Machines

Mind games

Some of the simple but seem tough riddles for sharping brain

Spiral Galaxies Discover why our own galaxy and around 70 per cent of our closest neighbours are twisted into the shape of a pinwheel Galaxies are categorized into three main types, based on their shapes: spiral, elliptical and irregular. Almost 70 percent of those closest to the Milky Way are spirals. But in the early universe, spiral galaxies didn't exist. Astronomers believe that galaxies have spiral arms – in part – because galaxies rotate, or spin around, a central axis. About a third of known galaxies are flat spirals with bulging centers. Astronomers believe that galaxies have spiral arms because galaxies rotate – or spin around a central axis – and because of something called “density waves.” Galactic density waves are like water waves. Water itself doesn’t move across a pond – instead, wave energy moves and affects the water as it passes. A spiral galaxy’s rotation, or spin, bends the waves into spirals. Stars pass through the wave as they orbit the galaxy center. The wave causes the stars to slow slightly and temporarily clump together. Astronomers have long wondered why the spiral arms of a galaxy don’t wind up and vanish after a few rotations. Many galaxies have satellites – smaller neighboring galaxies. One theory is that a satellite can keep a larger galaxy’s density waves moving indefinitely.

Other processes may help shape galaxy spiral arms. For example, galaxy rotation might smear exploding and forming stars into a bunchy spiral arm. Many astronomers think that there are multiple processes that contribute to creating the different kinds of spiral galaxies we see. Spiral galaxies are filled with gas and dust, which results in a wealth of star formation. They are considered to be younger than elliptical galaxies, which contain less dust and form fewer stars. Spiral galaxies come in a wide variety of shapes. Roughly 60 percent of spiral galaxies contain multiple arms, while another 10 percent have only two. Approximately 30 percent of spiral galaxies lack well-defined arms, as their features have faded over time. These twisted galaxies range from a billion to a trillion times as massive as the sun. The visible disk can be anywhere from 10 to 300 thousand light-years across. The largest known spiral galaxy is NGC 6872, which is 522,000 light-years across from the tips of its outstretched spiral arms, about 5 times the size of the Milky Way. The oldest observed spiral galaxy, BX442, is approximately 10.7 billion years old. Because of the correlation between the distance and the amount of time it takes light to travel, scientists are able to see the galaxy only 3 billion years after the Big Bang formed the universe.

Getting in a whirl…

Explore one of the brightest galaxies in the sky: the Whirlpool Galaxy Globular cluster Groups of hundreds of thousands of old stars cluster together in a sphere and orbit the core of the galaxy like satellites.

Centre The rotational centre, about which the entire galaxy spins.

SMBH It is predicted that most spiral galaxies have a supermassive black hole (SMBH) at their core.

Dust lanes Gravitational forces produce compression waves that force hydrogen gas to gather in dense, opaque clouds.

Spiral arm The arms of the galaxy have high mass density and contain huge numbers of young blue stars.

Starbirth regions The compression of hydrogen gas results in areas of intense star formation activity.

Open cluster Groups of thousands of stars attracted to one another by gravity; these more loosely bound together than globular clusters.

The Milky way Galaxy..... (Where we live)

Galactic bulge The bulge at the centre of spiral galaxies contains older, redder stars.

Diameter:-120,000Light Years

Major Arms:-2

Oldest Star(years):-13 Billion

Number of Stars:-200-400 billions

Minor Arms:-2

Thickness:-1000 Light years

Unravelling the Milky Way (Where do we fit within the most well-known spiral galaxy in the universe? Sagittarius arm The Sagittarius arm is a minor spiral arm, and contains huge molecular clouds and sparse areas with clusters of young stars.

ScutumCentaurus arm One of the two major arms of our galaxy, Scutum-Centaurus has dense areas of new star formation.

Norma arm The Norma arm is a minor spiral arm consisting mostly of dust and gas.

Perseus arm The second major spiral arm of the Milky Way.

Sun We are located within a hole in the interstellar medium alled the ‘Local Bubble’, about halfway along the Orion Spur

A focus on our Milky way galaxy Like two-thirds of all discovered spiral galaxies, our own galaxy, the Milky Way,has a central bar of stars. Gas comes into the bar from the spiral arms and is compressed,forming a stellar nursery and giving birth to new stars. Extending away from the galactic bar are two main spiral arms (Scutum-Centaurus and Perseus) and two minor arms(Norma and Sagittarius). The major arms contain the highest density of stars – both young and old – while the minor arms are mostly made up of gas, with new stars forming in small areas. Our Sun is located on a partiallyspiral arm called the OrionSpur, which lies between the Sagittarius and Perseus arms.

Galactic bar The centre of the Milky Way a bar-shaped stellar nursery, which continually churns out new stars.

Orion Spur Our local spiral arm, the Orion Spur is 10,000 light years in length and 3,500 light years across.


The Artificial

Eyes eter

Imagine if you climbed out of the shower only to discover you'd shrunk in the wash by about 1500 million times! If you stepped into your living room, what you'd see around you would not be chairs, tables, computers, and your family but atoms, molecules, proteins, and cells. Shrunk down to the "nanoscale," you'd not only see the atoms that everything is made from—you'd actually be able to move them around! Now suppose you started sticking those atoms together in interesting new ways, like tiny LEGO® bricks of nature. You could build all kinds of fantastic materials, everything from brand new medicines to ultra-fast computer chips. Making new things on this incredibly small scale is called nanotechnology and it's one of the most exciting and fast-moving areas of science and technology today.

How Big is a Nano?

A nanometer is a unit of measure, just like inches, feet and miles. By definition a nanometer is onebillionth of a meter. A meter is about 39 inches long. A billion is a thousand times bigger than a million, as a number you write it out as 1,000,000,000. That is a big number and when you divide a meter into one billion pieces, well that is very small. So small you cannot see something a nanometer in size unless you use very powerful microscopes like atomic force microscopes.


ano N s i t a h W y? g o l o n h c te


000 nanom

r = 1000 1 millimete

A Lot More Than Believing Sight is one of our five senses, and it’s kind of important for getting around. What can scientists learn from studying the tiniest parts of our eyes? Almost all animals have some kind of ability to see, with hawks and eagles having some of the best vision and rats having some of the worst. And then there are moles that can hardly see at all! To better understand exactly how we see, scientists have been studying the way the retina works. The retina is the part inside your eye that responds to light and helps to collect images that allow you to see. The retina is made up of cells called cones and rods that respond to light. The average human eye has about a million cells and each cell contains about 150 million photoreceptors. Nerve cells then connect these photoreceptors to your brain. There is a lot of information that moves from your eyes into your brain and scientists have estimated it to be around 8.75 megabits per second—that’s around 5-10 times faster than the fiber optic cables used for high-speed Internet connections!

needed for that have to have many advanced properties such as strength, high conductivity, biocompatibility, and also being quite thin to resemble the retina. We think that carbon nanotubes can be quite useful for that because they have many of these properties. The challenge is to make the actual macroscale materials from them that display these properties, too. A Healthy Human Retina Ever wondered what the i nside of your eye looks like? When your doctor uses a little light to look inside your eye during a checkup, this is what he sees. Our retinas contain many blood vessels that emerge from the optic disc, and a healthy retina has a bright reddish-pink color with no spots or blotches.

Can nanotechnology help create artificial eyes? Scientists have been studying the way the retina works. The retina is the part inside of your eye that responds to light and helps to collect images that allow you to Light enters the see. retina from this side The retina is made up of cells called Rodes and Cones cones and rods that are special since they respond to light. The average human eye has about a million cells and within those cells Rodes about 150 million photoreceptors. Pale Yellow Nerve cells then connect these Retina photoreceptors to your brain. Surface layer But not every photoreceptor is wired into your brain, so in your eye there is some information processing going on. Photoreceptors There is a lot of information that moves from your eyes into your brain Cones and scientists have estimated it to be Bright Yellow around 8.75 megabits per second, Scanning electron microscope image shows a cross-section through a human retina that’s around 5-10 times faster than a T-1 fiber optic cable. If we know more about how the eye works then maybe someday we can build artificial parts that might help people with visual impairments to see better. Can nanotechnology help create artificial eyes? Scientists have made some progress using technology that is similar to the kinds of chips that are found in digital cameras. The big challenge is not capturing the image since nanotechnology can be used to make very small artificial retinas that are only a few millimeters across. No, the real challenge is taking that information collected on the artificial retina chip and somehow directing that information to the brain. Clinical trials have already been started with the artificial retina mounted on a pair of glasses and then the electrodes then wired into the retina of the patient. What do the patients see? Not real images but bits and pieces that mainly correspond to light and dark.The part of the challenge for the patient is retraining the brain to understand this information. There is still a lot of work to be done, but things are moving along!

How artificial eyes work? Image Processing Controls Video Processing Unit

Battery Electronic Case

Retinal Implant (Electrode array)

4 1


Miniature camers fitted into glasses worn by a patient captures a scene. The video is sent to a computer worn on the hip -known as the video processing unit-where it is processed and sent back to the glasses via a cable.

Antenna Transmitter


The data is transmitted from the glasses to an antenna in the implant fitted in the eye.

3 Electrode arrays in the implant placed behind the retina emits samll pulses of electricity which bypass damaged photoreceptors and transmit the visual information along the optic nerves to the brain

The brain receives patterns of the light and darkness which patients learn to interpret as rough outlines of objects or people.

Self-balancing bicycle-The gyroscopic bike

Meet the training Never graze your knees again with the self-balancing bicycle aid that aims to teach beginners how to ride a bicycle in a single morning

THE BICYCLE THAT DOESN’T FALL OVER… The gyroscopic effect is the force that a keeps an object rotating as long as nothing obstructs it. Essentially, it makes use of Newton's first law of motion, which states that a body will keep moving until another force changes it. Just as gravity pulls objects toward a more massive object, the gyroscopic effect pulls the disc back to its original position, even after a force has been applied to it. That's why even when you push a Spinning top, it keeps on spinning despite moving sideways.


ike yrob J a ide

Stabilising wheels have fallen out of favour as a cycling learning aid in recent years,because while they teach children how to sit on a bike, they don’t teach them how to balance one. Other methods, such as bicycles without pedals or good old-fashioned trial and error, yield quicker results – but it can still take weeks of scrapes and bruises before kids get the hang of it. But now one company says it can help kids crack bicycle-riding in just one morning.

Jyrobike is the world’s first self-balancing bicycle. Its auto balance system works by exploiting the fact that the faster you ride a bike,the easier it is to balance. This is because when a bike travels at high speeds, the rotating discs of the wheels become natural gyroscopes - and this is the force that keeps the bike upright. Newton’s first law of motion states that an object in motion continues to move at a constant speed along a straight line unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force – such as a lean or jolt. On a stationary or slow-moving bike, a wobble-causing force such as a jolt might push the top of the wheel left and the bottom of the wheel right. But when the wheel is in motion, the top and bottom spin round rapidly, correcting the wheel’s balance and ensuring you stay upright. This is why learning to go fast is such an important part of mastering riding a bike – but this is contrary to theinstincts of nervous beginners.

Inside the Control Hub on the front wheel, a spinning disc provides stability for novice riders

Helping hand

To make it easy for children to help, there is a handle on the saddle

Settings The flywheel can spin at three different speeds, providing different levels of stabilisation as the rider improves.

Tyre The wheels are wide-profile tyres. making the bike more stable even without the gyroscopic assistance Frame The frame is made from a lightweight alloy so it is easy for children to push off from a standing start


The flywheel can be removed, reducing the weight of the control hub by 60 per cent, removing the need for assistance


The battEry takes two to three hours to charge and on full power will last for three hours


The wheel can also play sound effects like bells, trumpets and barking

Motor A motor powers the flywheel's rotations. fuelled by a battery

Flywheel The flywheel spins at up to 1,550rpm to provide a stabilising effect on the bike. It's heavily weighted around the rim

The Jyrobike’s tech will allow even the slowest riders to benefit from the gyroscope effect. It’s front wheel is fitted with a motorised flywheel that is weighted,around the wheel’s rim. It can be set to three different speeds spins independently of the bike’s movements, it allows the bike to benefit from the self-correcting properties of a wheel travelling at high speed, 1 even if the bike itself is trundling along at a pedestrian pace. As the learners grows in confidence, they can reduce the speed of the flywheel incrementally,until eventually they can ride the bike without assistance. The Jyrobike’s tyres are also thicker than standard bike tyres, in order to A bit of speed further increase the bike’s stability. The team behind the bike claim the key to quick learning is practising steering and pedalling together, which stabilisers don’t allow.What’s more, it’s hoped that this approach may offer children with motor skill disabilitiesthe chance to ride a bicycle for the first time.



Turn handlebars to the right

Bike will lean to left

Relax bar will turn to left All views are top views


5 things that use gyroscopic tech Spinning top When you spin a top,it is desperate to keep on rotating. Even if you push it,it doesn’t topple over but uses its spinning motion to right itself.It will only fall when it slows down and loses that force that has been keeping it upright.

Frisbee A frisbee is basically a flat spinning top. A flick of the wrist will give it the initial force to spin and keep a flat trajectory, whereas if you throw it without a wrist flick,it won’t be spinning fast enough to stay stable in the air.

Ice skater If an ice skater tries a slow spin, they’ll fall over or wobble.If they spin themselves quickly,they can stay upright due to the gyroscopic effect, If their body is off-off-center,they’ll still spin but would move like an out-of-control spinning top.

Compass When you allow a gyroscope to move freely,it will continue pointing in the same direction,so if you spin the gyroscope toward north no matter which way you turn the rest of the device,it should continue pointing north.

Aeroplanes Spinning a gyroscope horizontally will allow a pilot to know to what degree they’re tilting.If they angle themselves upward,the gauge will move but the gyroscope won’t so the pilot will know the plane has gone upward.

How they


E.Coli Bacteria

Virus - Bacteria Viruses are the smallest and simplest life form known. They are 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria. The biggest difference between viruses and bacteria is that viruses must have a living host - like a plant or animal - to multiply, while most bacteria can grow on non-living surfaces. Bacteria are intercellular organisms (i.e. they live in-between cells); whereas viruses are intracellular organisms (they infiltrate the host cell and live inside the cell). They change the host cell's genetic material from its normal function to producing the virus itself.

There are some useful bacteria but all viruses are harmful.

Flu Virus

Antibiotics cannot kill viruses, but can kill most bacteria, with the exception of most Gram-negative bacteria.

An example of a disease caused by bacteria is strep throat and an example of an affliction caused by a virus is the flu.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful

microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces, sterilization is the process of killing all microorganisms.

Sterilization is the process of killing all microorganisms.

Sterilization also destroys the spores of various organisms present on surfaces, in liquids, in medication such extreme forms of decontamination are needed during critical times like surgery, or in environments like laboratory, hospital. It is more practical to use disinfection in everyday life.

Brass - Bronze Brass and Bronze are metal alloys used extensively in everyday objects. While brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, bronze is an alloy consisting mainly of copper, combined most often with tin, but at times also with other metals. Brass has higher malleability than zinc or copper. It has a a low melting point (900 centigrade) and flows when melted making it easy to cast in moulds. Combinations of iron, aluminum, silicon and manganese make brass wear and tear and corrosion resistant. Susceptible to stress cracking when exposed to ammonia. Bronze is hard and brittle. It melts at a slightly higher temperature at 950 centigrade, but this depends on the amount of tin present in the alloy. Bronze resists corrosion (especially seawater corrosion) and metal fatigue more than steel and is also a better conductor of heat and electricity than most steels.

Brass is used for applications where low friction is required such as locks, gears, bearings, doorknobs, ammunition, and valves. It is used for plumbing and electrical applications. Bronze is ideally used today for springs, bearings, bushings, medals and sculpture


Remote Controlled Toys works

Gear Box It is the box where gear mechanism is fitted. Motors work at high speeds, the gearbox is needed to reduce the higher motor speed down to something more reasonable for the wheels. One can achieve different speed of the car with the help of gear box or gear mechanism

Gear Box

Whether you play them in your home or send them into space to explore planet Servomotors mars as a Curiosity Rover,remote controlled vehicles can work over vast distances. Mars rovers are super-advanced RC vehicles. Because it takes so long for radio waves to travel from Earth to Mars (and back), it's impossible to drive rovers across Mars's surface with a joystick the rover could have crashed before operators on Earth knew anything about it. Instead, they upload an entire day's instructions to the rovers during the night.

Receiver:- An antenna and circuit board

inside the toy receives signals from the transmitter. The receiver's electronics circuits are tuned to a particular frequency. An antenna picks up radio waves and passes them to a receiver. They decode signals from the transmitter and send the commands to the motors,and activates motors inside the toy as commanded by the transmitter. MOTOR:- Motors bring into life to cause a specific action to occur that can turn wheels forwards and backwards. RC vehicles achieve an amazingly complex range of motions with a surprisingly simple electric motors power the wheels set of components.

Motor 3 Servo motors/Steering Servo RC vehicles use a special kind of electric motor, called a servomotor. This small, high-torque electric motor moves the wheels' control arms. You can tweak its movement from the transmitter -- for instance, to alter the distance it turns with each command or limit the steering angle to speed over straight tracks or spin to a precise position. This is how an RC car knows how far to turn the wheels when you steer it.

Battery Compartment


A rechargeable battery pack or replaceable batteries as the power source provide power for the electronic circuits of the controller and vehicle. The power source sends power to all working parts, including the motor.


You hold the transmitter in your hands to control the toy. It sends Radio waves to the receiver. The transmitter's electronic circuits convert your instructions into radio waves and send them out to the receiver.

Circuit Board Receiver 2 Steering Mechanism

Steering Mechanism The steering mechanism is used to turn the car around the bends. The servo motor is used to control steering system. It just obeys orders given by servomotor it and moves in that direction.

Servo motors


The front wheels should turn at different angles to get around a bend.

Suspensions Suspensions:- The front and rear

suspensions are adjustable to tackle many terrains. Shifting the control arm alters ride height, camber (the vertical angle of the wheels) and toe-in (the degree they point in or out). Turning a collar on the oil-filled shocks changes springiness.

Light Weight Plastic body Cover it.(Not to Scale)

Build Your Getting Sta

Getting Started Lession 1


Welcome to the first installment of the Bigbuddie Roboshop a series of 10 lessons plus 2 Assignments that will teach you how to make your own robot. This lession is aimed at anybody willing to get started in robotics and have a basic understanding of terms such as “voltage”, “current”, “motor”, and“sensors”. Although this might seem pretty basic, even people with previous robot building experience might find useful information regarding the general method of building a robot. There are 10 lessons that will be released in the following 10 issues. Each lesson guides you through one step of making a general-purpose mobile robot. This will enable you to build your very own mobile robot in order to perform a task of your choice. Each lesson will be illustrated with an example from Bigbuddie Robotshop experience in producing the Rover type robot. The lessons are intended to be read one after the other and build upon the information gained..

What is a robot?

An electromechanical device which is capable of reacting in some way to its environment, and take autonomous decisions or actions in order to achieve a specific task This means that a toaster, a lamp, or a car would not be considered as robots since they have no way of perceiving their environment. On the other hand, a vacuum cleaner that can navigate around a room, or a solar panel that seeks the sun, can be considered as a robotic system. The first step is to determine what your robot should do (i.e. what is its purpose in life). Robots can be used in almost any situation and are primarily intended to help humans in some way. If you are unsure of what you want your robot to do or simply want to concentrate your efforts on specific tasks, here are some ideas:.

Knowledge & Learning In order to build increasingly complex robots, most professionals and hobbyists use knowledge they have acquired when building previous robots. Instead of building one robot, you can learn how to use individual components with the objective of building your own “knowledge library” to use to undertake a larger, more complex design in the future.

Amusement & Companionship Building a robot is in and of itself is fun and exciting. Robotics incorporates aspects of many disciplines including engineering (mechanical, electrical, computer), sciences (mathematics and physics) and arts (aesthetics) and users are free to use their imagination. Amusing others with your creations (especially if they are user-friendly and interactive) helps others to become interested in the field.

Competitions & Contests Competitions give the project design guidelines and a due date. They also put your robot against others in the same class and test your design and construction skills. Although many competitions are s pecifically for students (elementary to university), there also exist open competitions where adults and professionals alike can compete.

Autonomous life form Humans are natural creators and innovators. The next great innovation will be to develop a fully autonomous life form that rivals or surpasses ourselves in ability and perhaps creativity. This goal is still being accomplished in small steps by individuals, research organizations and professionals.

Domestic or Professional tasks

Domestic robots help liberate people from unpleasant or dangerous tasks and give them more liberty and security. Professional and Service Robots are used in a variety of applications at work, in public, in hazardous environments, in locations such as deep -sea, battlefields and space, just to name a few. In addition to the service areas such as cleaning, surveillance, inspection and maintenance, we utilize these robots where manual task execution is dangerous, impossible or unacceptable. Professional and Service Robots are more capable, rugged and often more expensive than domestic robots and are ideally suited for professional and/or commercial use.

Security and Surveillance Most mobile robots are used to venture into areas where humans either should not or cannot go. Robots of various sizes (either remote controlled, semi-autonomous or fully autonomous) are an ideal choice for these tasks.


Nano-robots or nanobots are robots scaled down to microscopic size in order to put them into very small spaces to perform a function.

g n i l b m e s As Robot

Lession 7

Sample only not accurate as per the lessons

Installing your pan and tilt It's a fiddly job, but well worth the trouble The servos will need to be powered separately as they are at heart just motors with a little bit of circuitry. The code we have will combine the wheel motors, servos and ultrasonic. The end result will involve the robot Lession 1 an object less than 3ocm away, stop, moving forward until it senses then turn the pan-and-tilt left, check the distance, then turn the ultrasonic on the pan-and-tilt right and pick whichever direction has a further distance until the next object.

Mount the sen sor WHAT ARE SERVOS?

Commonly aged RC hobby servos, they are found in remote-control vehicles and are used for steering or wing flaps. They are light, strong and use very little power, but importantly are highly accurate.

Using the hexagonal mounting rods,mount the sensors at about 10mm to cope with uneven floors. Most sensors will be sensitive enough at that distance:if not,there will be a potentiometer to adjust the sensitivity


Mount the switch Try to place the micro-switches as close to the front of the robot as possible.spaced far enough apart so we can work out what direction the robot is facing when it hits something.

01 Assemble the kit :A The pan-and-tilt mount allows a full view of

180 degrees from left to right, up and down - great for adding ultrasonics or even a camera. The servos give the perfect control for this.

02Connect the servos: The servos are still a motor, so it is advisable

to give them their own power separate from the Raspberry Pi. Take note of the voltage required; most allow up to 6 volts, some less. It can share the same batteries as the motors.

03 Don't forget the kernel :To get full conlrol over the servos, we

need servod (ServoBlaster) running. So download this and make it executable with chmod +x servod and run it with sudo iservod.


Add the Sensor circuit Place the two transistors and resistors on the breadboard,checking each pin is in its own column.Add the jumper cables from the sensors and power lines,and then to GPIO pins.

. . . s e o r e H l Rea gy o l o n h c of Te

Steve Jobs

The Life of Steve: A infamous mastermind behind the Apple. Steve path from birth to Who revolutionised Music, success wasn‛t straight and easy Movies and Mobile 1955

Steven Jobs was born February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, and was adopted by Paul and Clara Jobs. As a child, Jobs preferred doing things by himself. He showed an early interest in electronics and gadgetry. He spent a lot of time working in the garage workshop of a neighbor who worked at HewlettPackard, an electronics manufacturer. Jobs also enrolled in the Hewlett-Packard Explorer Club. There he saw engineers demonstrate new products, and he saw first computer at the age of twelve. He was very impressed, and knew right away that he wanted to work with computers.While in high school Jobs attended lectures at the HewlettPackard plant. On one occasion he boldly asked William Hewlett (1931–2001), the president, for some parts he needed to complete a class project. Hewlett was so impressed he gave Jobs the parts, and offered hima summer internship at Hewlett-Packard.

The Man Who Thought Different

1985 1972

After graduating from high school, Jobs attended Reed College in Oregon. However, he found the classes boring and soon dropped out,He nevertheless stayed at Reed and went to some classes that interested him, slept on the floors of friends’ rooms. He took a position as a technician with video game maker Atari. He became more and more interested in philosophy and several months later, he left Atari to find spiritual enlightenment in India.


He spent seven months traveling around India and studying the religion of Zen Buddhism. He would walk seven miles every Sunday to get a free meal at the Hare Krishna temple. He later became a Buddhist and vegetarian. The greatest influence on Steve Jobs, however, was the book Autobiography of a Yogi— “the guide to meditation and spirituality that he had first read as a teenager,”


He returned to California went back to work for Atari. In 1976,Jobs got together with Steve Wozniak a friend from high school, Jobs began hanging out with Steve Wozniak again and the two of them were very interested in computers. Wozniak wanted his own personal computer and, being the electronics genius he was, he invented his own computer. Jobs was impressed, he said they should start their own company selling thecomputer and Wozniak agreed. In 1976, they formed the company Apple Computer and called their first computer the Apple I. They began making the computers in Jobs' garage. Jobs was just 21 years old at the time.

In 1984 Apple introduced a revolutionary new model, the Macintosh. The on-screen display had small pictures called icons. To use the computer, the user pointed at an icon and clicked a button using a new device called a mouse. This process made the Macintosh very easy to use. The Macintosh did not sell well to businesses, however. It lacked features other personal computers had, corresponding high quality printer. Apple was coming under increasing pressure from the PC designed by IBM. The PC was an open concept which could be cloned and made by multi-ple companies. The PC was much cheaper than the Macintosh and Apple sales began to decline. The failure of the Macintosh signaled the beginning of Jobs's downfall at Apple. Even though he was co-founder of the company,he had no official title, making his position at the company vulnerable. Jobs resigned in 1985 from the company he had helped found, hough he retained his title as chair-man of its board of directors.


Steve was stunned by his removal. Apple was his life, and he had just been kicked out of it. He started travelling, looking for expend his energy. In 1985, Jobs always wanting to create that next great product, founded another computer company, NeXT. The first products from NeXT were high-end personal computers. They were technically great, but too expensive for the average person and NeXT began to lose money. Jobs then turned NeXT into a software company NeXT was not, however, the end of Steve Jobs. In 1986 Jobs purchased a small company Graphics group from filmmaker George Lucas.


In 2007, Apple introduced the iPhone which changed the way phones were used and took the mobile phone market by storm. Jobs became a celebrity and was considered by many to be one of the great innovators of the 2000s. It is already fair to say that the iPhone will go down in history as the first digital convergence device, equivalent to putting a computer, an iPod and a phone in your pocket. It was such an obvious part of Apple’s move outside the PC business that Steve announced at the end of Macworld 2007, that the company’s name would be changed from Apple Computer Inc. to Apple Inc.


Steve Jobs died on October 5, 2011 from pancreatic cancer. He had fought cancer for several years since first being diagnosed in 2003,and passed away a few months later due to pancreatic cancer,but his visionary mind lives on in the company he created. A legendary life thus came to an end. The Apple II was one of the first computer with a color display. The Apple II was probably the first user-friendly system.

He changed the name of the company to Pixar. At first the company sold 3D graphics software, but in 1991 they received a contract from Disney to create a full length film. Their first film was Toy Story which was a huge success. Pixar went on to make films such as Finding Nemo, Monsters Inc., Cars, WALL-E, and Up. Jobs actually made more money with Pixar than he did during his first stint with Apple.


Coincidentally, Apple bought NeXt Inc. in 1996. He then returned to the company as the CEO. Apple was struggling at the time and needed some new ideas. With Jobs at the helm, Apple began to branch out into new products. Jobs’ return is said to have reinvigorated the company and brought it back to its original level of innovation and appeal. He continued pushing the company’s vision forward with his ideas for sleek design, branding, and intuitive technology.


The greatest momentum for Apple came from an unexpected source – the iPod. They introduced the iPod music player and iTunes music software. For the first time, people were buying Macs just so that they could use this little music player the size of palm. Both were a huge success and gave Apple a new image of being on the cutting edge of consumer electronics. It didn’t just change the way we all listen to music. It changed the entire music industry. but in fact it changed the whole computer industry. Apple I, a computer singlehandedly designed and handbuilt by Wozniak,and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club.

The Apple III could be viewed as an enhanced Apple II, The Apple III is a business-oriented personal computer

Steve Jobs(Rt.) with his friend Steve Woznaik(Lt.)

Most Inspiring Steve Jobs Quotes “You can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future.” “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” “Your time is limited, so don’t waste it living someone else’s life.” “You have to be burning with an idea, or a problem, or a wrong that you want to right. If you’re not passionate enough from the start, you’ll never stick it out.” “Simple can be harder than complex: You have to work hard to get your thinking clean to make it simple. But it’s worth it in the end because once you get there, you can move mountains.” “Being the richest man in the cemetery doesn’t matter to me. Going to bed at night saying we’ve done something wonderful… that’s what matters to me.”



Chemistry Questions

Why is milk white? Milk is nature's buffet for children, providing all the nutrition needs Milk consists of about 5 percent lactose, 3.7 percent fats and 3.5 percent proteins. Calcium-rich casein is by far the most common protein, and it is the combination of casein and certain fats that give milk its color. The color white is nature's light buffet,in that it results from all the wavelengths of visible light being reflected into the eye. Casein and certain fats reflect wide ranges of wavelengths, causing milk to appear white.

Why is butter yellow?

Butter is yellow because of the natural pigment carotene. Carotene is also why butter is a source of vitamin A. Carotene comes from the cows' diet, which consists mostly of hay, silage, grains and cereals, which are converted by our body into vitamin A. Commercial butter often has carotenoid pigments added to make it look richer or to match the buyer’s idea of what butter should look like. You can extract your own carotenoid pigments to color your own homemade butter if you like. First, grate some carrots. Then melt some butter in a pan, and gently sautÊ the carrots in the butter. The melted butter will extract some of the carotenoid pigments from the carrots. The oily liquid that floats to the top is clarified butter, which is quite a bit darker than it used to be. Cool the clarified butter. Now you can use a mixer to blend it into the homemade butter to get a deep yellow color.

Why does nail polish smell so strong?

Nail polish contains several ingredients that give it its strong odor. Some of those ingredients are the solvents used to keep the plastic liquid until it dries on your toenails. Butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, and toluene are examples. Butyl acetate gives bananas their smell, and is used to flavor candies. Ethyl acetate is another similar ester that smells like pears. When these two molecules are present in huge amounts, they can have a very strong odor.

Toluene is derived from petroleum, and give paint thinner its characteristic smell. It is also used as the fluid that fuels cigarette lighters. Nail polish may also include camphor, a strong smelling molecule that is used to keep the plastic flexible. Camphor is now made synthetically, but it is found in the camphor laurel tree that grows in China. It is sometimes used as a moth repellant (the tree probably produced it as an insecticide). It give Vicks VapoRub its strong scent. Nail polish remover also has an interesting smell. It is mostly acetone, a strong organic solvent that is good at dissolving many plastics, glues, and paints.

Why do some glues smell strong? There are several types of glues. Glues that use a plastic or rubber dissolved in a petroleum based solvent will smell like the solvent. For example, rubber cement is latex rubber dissolved in n-heptane. N-heptane is just a chain of 7 carbon atoms, with 2 hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon,

and another one at each end. It is a component Model airplane cement uses toluene as a solvent. It also has a characteristic odor. Some glues, like epoxy, come in two parts, which react together to form a new molecule. Each part contains some volatile molecules that have characteristic odors, but as they cure they can also emit new molecules with different odors. Silicone rubber adhesives combine with the moisture in the air to cure, and in the curing process they release lactic acid, which has a sharp eye-stinging odor.

Why is there salt in the ocean?


Water in the oceans evaporates into the air, leaving solids like salt behind. The water vapor then rises and cools until it falls as rain. If the nearly pure water in the rain falls on land, it dissolves some of the dirt it falls on. Rain that has dissolved carbon dioxide in it is slightly acidic, and the acid helps to dissolve the dirt. Dirt is mostly silica, so about 15% of the dissolved solids in river water turns out to be dissolved silica (silicon dioxide, what glass and quartz is made of). Many things dissolve more easily than silica. Gypsum for example (calcium sulfate), and chalk (calcium carbonate), each dissolve in slightly acidic water, adding calcium, sulfate, carbonate, and bicarbonate ions to the water. But sodium and chlorine ions are even more soluble. There is just much more of the other ions in dirt than there is salt. So the solids in river water are mostly bicarbonate ions (from the carbon dioxide in the air), calcium, silica, sulfate, chloride, sodium, and magnesium, in that order. But when the river water gets to the sea, the organisms in the ocean start to remove ions from the water to build their shells. Diatoms in plankton remove silica. Other plankton and shellfish remove calcium and bicarbonate ions to make shells and coral reefs. As the water evaporates and concentrates the ions, the less soluble ones precipitate out of the water and fall to the bottom of the ocean. Calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate form deposits on the sea floor. But no living organism builds its house out of salt, and very little salt gets locked up in the mud. So ocean water ends up being mostly salt water, with a number of other molecules in it, but in much smaller amounts.

What is a soda can made out of? These days, usually aluminum, with about 1% manganese and 1% magnesium. The extra metals give the aluminum more strength, and make it easier to form. Other metals are in the alloy in much smaller quantities, including copper, gallium, iron, silicon, titanium, vanadium, and zinc. Some of these are added deliberately to improve the alloy, while others are present only because they would be difficult to remove from the raw materials used to make the alloy. The lids of the can are made from a different alloy, which contains up to 5% magnesium. This alloy is more expensive, and not as strong as the alloy used for the body of the can, but it is more easily formed into the complex easy-open top. This is why the top of the can is so much smaller in diameter than the rest of the can – it makes it cheaper, and a smaller lid is stronger, so the weaker more expensive alloy is not a problem. The bottom of the can is also made smaller, so the cans will stack. The cans are lacquered with plastic both to prevent the acids in the contents from attacking the aluminum, and to keep the outside of the can from reacting with things it contacts in shipping and storage. Food grade petroleum jelly and food grade waxes are used as lubricants when the cans are constructed and crimped closed. The cans are designed to hold a maximum pressure of 6.67916Kg/cm2. This is much more than the contents of the can are usually under, and provides some margin for heat and shock in shipping.

Why do onions make you cry?

This inconvenient little molecule is produced by enzymes in the onion when you cut it. Normally these enzymes are locked up inside the onion cells, but the knife breaks open the cells and lets the enzymes out, where they make this stuff. 1-Sulfinylpropane is a small molecule, so it can easily evaporate into the air. It gets into your nose and eyes, where the sensors in the eye that protect it from harmful substances get alerted.


Did you know? Nuremberg, Germany was the birthplace of the first massproduced pencils in 1662,Spurred by Faber-Castell (established in 1761)

Because enquiring minds need to know…


The most obvious answer is that people like the tingling of bubbles on their tongues. In fact,this stimulates the same receptors in your mouth and nose as mustard. Furthermore, carbon dioxide also changes the taste, giving liquid a more bitter taste. In non-fizzy drinks,the taste is not evenly distributed on your tongue. The result: your brain gets confused and interprets it that as a slightly bitter taste. Bubbles `attract' flavours to themselves. When they explode, they emit a strong flavour concentration. This happens when you drink soft drinks.

Brain Buzz

The bubbles in cool drinks are made from carbon. These occur when carbon dioxide is diluted in water. Some natural springs also contain bubbles. The carbon gas rises while the water travels underground. The carbon that is released comes from the contact that the water makes with carbon in the rock layers.

How long would the average lead pencil write? The average pencil can write approximately 45,000 words, which is equivalent to a line 56.37km long. Graphite transfers easily to paper because it contains layers of carbon atoms joined together in a ‘chicken mesh’ pattern. The bond within each layer is very strong but the bond between each layer is weak, allowing for easy transference to paper. Pencils can write underwater and in zero gravity, so were used on space missions by American and Russian astronauts. Nowadays we have erasers to remove our mistakes, but before they were invented, writers and artists used breadcrumbs for this purpose. The world’s longest and largest pencil is a Castell 9000, on display at the manufacturer’s plant near Kuala Lumpur. Made of Malaysian wood and polymer, it stands 19.81m high


Why do we like fizzy drinks?

Brain Buzz

A Pencils have never contained lead. The term started in the Roman Empire when lead rods were used to write because of the grey marks they left on paper. A Graphite was named after the Greek word graphein meaning ‘to writeʻ. A In 1795, French chemist Nicolas Jacques Conté invented the pencil ‘leadʻ recipe that we still use today, consisting of a graphite, clay and water mix.

Where do mosquitoes go in winter? Mosquitoes can’t stand the cold. And most of them die during winter. Some survive by hiding in warm places, like small crevices in houses. There they spend their time snoozing winter away. Mosquitoes are cold-blooded. That means they need heat to function. That’s why they only get active again in spring, and go on the hunt for fresh blood. Mosquitoes don’t live more than a few months. So they can survive a maximum of one winter season. The survivors provide the next generation.

Where does the solar system end? We don’t have the exact place or distance, but what we do know is that 7.5 trillion kilometres from Earth is the Oort Cloud; and our solar system ends some distance behind that. Our star is the sun, which emits a magnetic field called the heliosphere. The sun’s gravity holds the smaller rocky planets, such as Mercury, Earth, Venus and Mars, ‘close’ to it. Further out we find the gassy planets Jupiter, Uranus and Saturn. Five billion kilometres from the sun we find the Kuiper Belt, which is made up of ice and rock left over from the formation of the solar system. Past that is the Oort Cloud, which is an even larger collection of ice and dust. The Voyager 1 space probe, launched in the 1970s, has been feeding scientists vital and fascinating information. The probe measures the solar wind, which contains charged particles carrying a magnetic field. It is the combination of the charged particles and their magnetic field that prevents interstellar material from entering our solar system. When Voyager 1 detected interstellar material, it signalled the reading as the end of, or the reduction of, the sun’s effect, leading scientists to believe that it had exited our solar system.

Brain Buzz

The claim to kill almost every germ is totally a marketing tool.

Simply put, the 99% claim leaves the manufacturers with a margin for error if someone becomes ill inspite of using their product. Four out of 5 germs are spread by hands. Hand sanitisers and waterless cleaners mostly contain a high percentage (70%) of alcohol, which is proven to be most successful against bacteria and viruses. Research shows that while hand sanitisers do reduce the amount of bacteria and viruses, as well as being less damaging to the skin, they are also ideal to use when soap and water aren’t available, but should not replace soap and water entirely.

How do rechargeable batteries work?


The claim by manufacturers using 99.9% or 99.99% is a powerful psychological tool, more powerful than saying “highly effective against”. Manufacturers are able to make this claim because they test products on an inanimate surface. This removes many of the variables that living tissue would provide, as the inanimate surface provides uniformity and easily controlled variables. The test surface (even if it is hands) is cleaned before being smeared with the target organism – very different from the circumstances in which people find their hands daily.


Why do manufacturers claim that their hand sanitisers kill 99.9% of germs?

Brain Buzz Their chemistry doesn't

work over about 45 degrees Celsius and operating at high temp shortens their life.

All batteries rely on chemical reactions to produce an electric current. Inside a battery are two electrodes made of different sorts of metal, named an anode and a cathode, and an electrolyte, often an acid. Chemical reactions between the electrodes and electrolyte create a fl ow of electrons from anode to cathode when the battery is connected – an electric current. In the process the electrodes and electrolyte gradually become depleted as they react with each other. In a non-rechargeable battery this reaction is irreversible, and the battery will eventually stop working. When a rechargeable battery is charging, an electric current is passed the opposite way through the battery. This reverses the chemical reaction and rejuvenates the electrodes and electrolyte to a state where they can once again produce electricity. However, even a rechargeable battery can only be recharged a certain number of times before it can no longer hold a charge.

Why blowing a fuse is actually a good thing?

Fuses are essentially fire breaks, points of deliberate weakness that, if power surges through a house’s electrical system, will collapse to prevent damage or fire. This is achieved by the fuse’s central component, a strip or strand of metal which has a lower breaking capacity. The metal’s breaking capacity is the maximum current that can be passed through it safely, while anything above that will cause it to melt and break the circuit. Zinc, copper, silver and aluminium are all commonly used as fuse wire. The fuse wire is placed between two terminals,wrapped in a non-conductive material and put in place. If a power surge happens, the fuse will break, severing the connection, closing thus minimising further damage.


Sensor Tap Water outlet





Control Box

Sensor Eye



Hygiene is one of the key benefits of automatic taps. The user is not required to actually touch the tap with their hands at any point during the hand-washing operation. This means that there can be no cross contamination between users in Malls,Multiplexes and Hospitals


An object i.e. hands approaches the sensor eye '3' The infrared proximity is triggered or disrupted once an object enters its infrared sensing zone '2'

DC Direct Current Battery compartment

Infrared Sensor Range


Water Inlet




Sensor Eye

Sensor Signal Wire

Flexible Hose



AC- Alternate Current Transformer connected to mains power supply

Water Inlet/Entry


The proximity sensor zone is live once powered (Typical sensor range 20-26cm wide)

The sensor eye part beams out infra red signal

7 Sensor Signal Wire


Water inlet to enter hot,cold or premix water from the tank Flexible Hose

The flexible hose works as water out passage that transfers water released from the solenoid valve '5' to the sensor tap '8'.


The sensor signal wire transfers or sends an electronic signal to the solenoid valve '5' to OPEN or CLOSE


Solonoid Valve

The solenoid valve acts as a latching mechanism that restricts or allows water to flow through it.


It opens up and releases water through the flexible hose '7' as soon as an electronic signal is received from the sensor '3'. The solenoid valve is always in CLOSED position, and opens up once an electronic signal is received, it goes back to CLOSED position when the object '1' leaves the infra red sensing zone '2' Water outlet/Exit


Water comes out through the solonoid valve from the out let

What is the Solenoid Valve?

A solenoid is a wire carrying electricity that is twisted into a coil around a magnetic core. When electricity flow through the coiled wire,a magnetic field is created that can be harnessed for various purposes.This principle is used to create solenoid valves. Solenoid Transform electrical energy into motion, the solenoid physically starts and stops the water flow.The solenoid valve is initially energized to start the water flow; the plunger is driven into the range of a permanent magnet which in turn holds the plunger in the "open" position. In order to return the plunger into its original "closed" position the solenoid is once again "pulsed" but this time by reversing polarity. What is the Infrared Sensor?

An infrared sensor is an electronic instrument which is used to sense certain characteristics of its surroundings by either emitting and/or detecting infrared radiation. When the sensor senses the presence of an object (i.e. user’s hands) in front of the tap and sends a signal to the solenoid valve initiate the flow of water. When the object is no longer present, the infrared unit sends an electronic signal to the solenoid valve again to terminate the flow of water usually after a few seconds.


Build a mini


Disalination plant

This skill may one day save your life! Desalination plants that obtain fresh water from ocean water are huge steel structures consume vast amounts of electricity. This simple device is fun to make and it really works It just needs some warm sunlight

Place the dish on a flat surface outside in the sun in the morning and tip in the salt water.



Place the saucer upside down in the middle of the .salty water then stand the glass on it.


Cover the dish with the plastic then tape the plastic down around the edge so it is not steched too tight

You'll need: Flat bottomed plastic dish 15-20cm deep. Drinking Glass Saucer Two cup of sea water or water with cooking salt dissolve in it Sheet of clean,transperent plastic to cober the dish Roll of masking tape Stone

Desalination Fact WhatĘźs happening? The plastic covering helps from the sun,which warms water.As a result,some of evaporates,leaving the salt


Place the stone in the middle of the plastic that it weighs the plastic down towards the glass.Then look through the plastic to see what is happening about once every half hour.

When you can see some water in the glass, remove the plastic and take out the glass. Wipe the outside of the glass dry then taste the water. It should not taste salty.


trap the heat up the salt this water behind.

When the water vapour rises and comes in contact with the plastic ceiling some of it condenses on the plastic back into liquid water,You should see these droplets forming. The dip in the middle of the plastic these water droplets run down towards centre and drip into the glass.This idea can be used to produce clean drinking water from dirty water or sea water.

Your Why Is Salt Important to Body?

What is salt?

Salt is a natural mineral that is found on the Earth. The salt that we eat is called sodium chloride. It consists of 40% sodium and 60% chlorine joined together chemically to make a compound we call salt.

ate, A healthy amount of salt helps your body to regul that fluids or control, the right amount of water and you need. pump A healthy amount of salt also helps your heart ure. blood at a healthy rate, which gives you good press In addition, salt helps your muscles and nerves function properly. can Salt is also a natural disinfectant, which means it may you t, throa sore a kill germs. If you have ever had heal have gargled with salt water to soothe and also it - that's salt working as a disinfectant. Salt can . body your on help wounds or sores heal

Growing your own


Do you want to grow a tomato plant (literally) from the ground up? Using just the healthy, ripe tomatoes you probably already have sitting in your fruit bowl, you can grow several unique tomato plants in your garden. By following some simple instructions, you can learn how to grow a tomato plant from seed, whether you choose to buy pre-packaged seeds or ferment your own. Make sure the pot has drainage

Put the cage into the planter



Fill in the potting mix


This step is only if you will be using a cage in a container. If using a stake or planting outside, you will not need to put them into position until you’ve If planting in a pot, it needs to have planted. holes in the bottom for drainage. If it Do not put the potting mix into the does not, drill ¼to ½ holes every few inches around the bottom edge and a few bucket before inserting the cage. Instead, put the pointy end of the cage holes in the center as well. If you plan to keep the container inside into the pot and then fill in the or on a balcony, you will probably want to potting mix. put a saucer underneath it so that the drainage doesn’t run everywhere. If using a garden, be sure you choose a consistently sunny place. It can also add some compost to the soil before planting. Cover the hole


Pour the potting mix into the container. Water the mix until it is evenly moist. Then, fill in more mix until it comes ½ inch below the rim of the container. The surface of the soil should be even. You can use a cup or watering can to water the mix.



Use the soil that you removed to fill in the hole. The seedling should only be showing about four leaves. Make sure the surface of the soil is even when you have finished covering.

Dig a small hole into the soil You should dig a small hole into the center of the soil if planting in a container. If planting multiple plants in a garden,you will need to dig holes two feet each other. Put the plants into the small holes. Planting from seedling requires insertin it deep enough in the hole so that only four or five leaves are left showing once the hole is covered. The hole only needs to be a few inches deep.

Place the cage in the garden Put the point end of the cage around the area where you planted. The seedlings should be in the middle of the cage. If using stakes, you can wait to put in the stakes until the seeds have sprouted into seedlings. Put the stakes three inches from the seedling. Use a hammer to secure the stake into the ground. Waiting until the plant is larger to cage or stake may result in a damaged plant.

Next Issue Some good choices are calendula, zinnias, marigolds, and nasturtiums. The ladybugs and braconid wasps they attract get to eat the aphids and hornworms that would otherwise destroy your tomatoes

How to Plant Potatoes in Pots?

Fertilize once a week


Water the plant regularly

You should water the plants every two or three days. The soil should be moist at all times. If at any point it does feel dry, water the soil or mix until it is moist again. The soil should seem saturated, but not drowning in water.



Prune when needed


The fertilizer gives the plants the nutrition to grow and thrive. Essentially, Pour the potting mix into the container. it acts as food. Use an organic fertilizer Water the mix until it is evenly moist. once a week. To use the fertilizer, work Then, fill in more mix until it comes ½ inch it into the first few inches of soil with below the rim of the container. The surface your fingers or a plastic fork. Make sure of the soil should be even. the fertilizer stays a few inches away You can use a cup or watering can to water from the stem. the mix. Directions vary according to the product. Follow the directions on the label when applying fertilizer. Organic fertilizers release nutrients slower than chemical fertilizers. Using a chemical fertilizer risks burning the roots, though they are often cheaper.


Harvest after about six to eight weeks A seedling will begin to flower in about a Tomato plants do get pests, but month. If you used seeds, you should add fungus is often a larger problem. about two weeks to that amount of time. Symptoms of a fungus problems include yellowing leaves, moldy blotches, Flowers will turn into small, green fruits. Avoid pests and diseases and dark spots. Stems may be affected Ripe and ready to pick cherry tomatoes will be ready a few weeks after that. The tomatoes as well. Pick the leaves off and spray your plant with fungicide immediately if you should come off of the stems easily. notice any of these symptoms. Potato beetles and stink bugs are common pests. Do not pull or twist the vine to pick a tomato. Pick them off or use a natural insect spray to repel them. Pick individual fruits off of the vine every day. Fungus that spreads throughout the entire plant can most likely not be saved. The plant should continue to produce tomatoes To avoid infections, try watering your plants in the morning directly into the soil. until the first frost. Watering leaves, especially later in the day, encourages fungal growth. Fungus can survive in soil for years. Remove the cherry tomato plants from the Freshly picked tomatoes should be stored at soil if fungus is a recurring problem. Plant a different type of plant or room temperature; they will rot if refrigerated. in that area.

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The tallest mountain in the solar systemis on Mars named Olympus Mons, is 21km high and 600km in diameter. Despite having formed over billions of years, evidence A Martian year is the equivalent from volcanic lava flows is so recent many scientists believe it could still be active. of 687 Earth days â&#x20AC;&#x201C;while a day on the Red Planet only lasts 40 Jupiter has unique cloud minutes more than one on Earth features. The upper atmosphere of Jupiter &  Z      is divided into cloud belts rock, metal, and hydrogen and zones. They are made compounds. primarily of ammonia  &  Z  crystals, sulfur, and atmosphere (which is made mixtures of the two compounds. primarily of hydrogen), there are layers of compressed The Great Red Spot hydrogen gas, liquid metallic is a huge storm on hydrogen, and a core of ice, Jupiter. rock, and metals. It has raged for at least 350 years. It is so large that three Earths could fit inside it. Jupiter has the shortest day of all the planets.It turns on its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes.

Being Overweight!

When people talk about being overweight or obese, they mean that someone has more body fat than is healthy. Everyone has some body fat, but too much fat can lead to health problems. Overweight kids might find it hard to get around and keep up with friends on the playground. They might be teased or feel bad about themselves. More kids and teenagers have weight problems than ever before.

Why Do People Become Overweight or Obese? Most of the time, people have too much body fat because the body gets more calories (from foods and drinks) than it burns through physical activity, such as playing soccer or walking to school. Extra calories are stored as fat. The more extra calories a person eats, the more fat is stored. This happens very easily in modern life. People spend more time in front of screens, like TVs, phones, and computers, and less time moving around. We drive everywhere instead of walking or riding bikes. Fewer schools have gym classes every day; more kids play video and mobile games than active games like dodgeball. People lead busier lives so they have less time to cook healthy meals. We eat more restaurant meals, take-out food, ready-made food, and snacks. Weight problems can run in families. But don't let that discourage you from making changes that could help you be a healthy weight. Your habits â&#x20AC;&#x201D; what kind of food and how much you eat and how much you exercise â&#x20AC;&#x201D; can make a big difference. How Can You Keep From Becoming Overweight?

How Can Extra Weight Hurt Your Health? It's hard to feel good when your body has too much weight to carry. Being overweight or obese can make it harder to breathe and sleep. It can make a person feel tired and cause aches or pains. A weight problem also can make you feel embarrassed, sad, or even angry. When people feel bad, they may eat more because food can be comforting. This isn't a good idea, especially if someone is already overweight. Getting help is important because weighing too much can make you sick. Overweight or obese kids have a greater chance of getting diabetes and other health problems. And overweight adults have a higher chance of getting heart disease. What Should You Do? Talking to a parent is the best first step if you are concerned about your weight. Your mom or dad can make a doctor's appointment for you. The doctor may suggest ways of changing your eating and exercise habits.

One of the best ways to stay at a healthy weight is to be active. You can join a sports team. Or, if you don't like team sports, try swimming, tennis, martial arts, or just playing in your own backyard. Jumping rope, dancing, and running around will get your heart pumping.

In general, kids don't need to diet. But a kid who is very overweight may need some expert help from a dietitian or a doctor who specializes in weight management. Together, along with your family, you'll come up with a plan that includes eating nutritious foods and exercising regularly.

Getting some extra exercise can be as easy as taking the stairs instead of the elevator or walking instead of having your parents drive you. Being active also means watching less TV and playing fewer video and mobile games.

Helping Others!

Eating healthy is another part of staying fit. Eat a variety of foods and get five servings of fruits and vegetables a day. Choose water and low-fat milk over soda and other sugary drinks. When it comes to high-calorie and high-fat foods, eat them only once in a while and, when you do, have smaller portions.

If you have a friend or relative who is overweight, remember to be kind. He or she is probably well aware of the problem. Jokes or teasing will make the person feel worse. Encourage your friend instead by exercising together and sharing what you know about eating healthy foods.

Check your habits Watch a lot of TV and play a lot of video games, Consume food and drinks that are high in sugar and fat Are not physically active each day Short sleep duration Eat less fruits and vegetables Personal, parental and family stress

What can be done ? Increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, as well as legumes, whole grains and nuts Limit the intake of sugars,candies,cakes, soft drinks and ice-creams. Be physically active - accumulate at least 60 minutes of regular, moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity each day




Try squeezing a tennis ball 10 times in one minute, and you will get an idea of how hard a healthy heart works to pump out blood. Excess weight expands total blood volume, forcing the heart to work harder. Over time, the heart muscle thickens, maki it more difficult to pump. Obesity can directly affect the structure and function of the heart. In some cases, the size of the heart muscle and left atrium appears to increase in obese children. Irregularities in the left atrium would affect the heart's ability to fill properly. The pumping action of the hearts of obese children may increase, along with the amount of blood pumped out with each beat. Obese children are two to three times more than normal-weight children to develop high blood pressure and high cholesterol, increasing the risk for heart attacks (and strokes).


Obese children are prone to pseudotumor cerebri,a little-understood buildup of pressure in fluid around the brain. It can cause severe headaches and impaired vision. At least one study has suggested obese children might also tend toward lower IQs


Fat deposits in the chest wall can push against the lungs and diaphragm, making it harder for the lungs to expand and bring in oxygen. An obese child can feel out of breath while standing still. Obese children are two to five times as likely to develop sleep apnea, in which breathing is temporarily interrupted during sleep when the thicker tissues in the throat and neck sag. As a result, less oxygen is sent to the brain, which can hamper a child's ability to concentrate and learn. Sleep apnea can also heighten the risk of heart attack and stroke.

Liver Fatty liver disease,can cause recurrent abdominal pain, infection and fatigue. In the long term, it is linked to scarring and cirrhosis of the liver, liver failure and liver cancer.

Obesity increases the risk of asthma, a in which the airways become constricted. Having asthma can trigger a cycle in which a child is unable to be physically active and therefore gains weight. Obese children have a twofold risk of asthma.

Fat causes liver to enlarge

Bones & Growth Plate In a child, there are special structures at the end of most bones called growth plates. The growth plate is made of a type of cartilage that lengthens the bone as a person grows. The top part of the thigh bone is shaped like a ball that fits into the hip socket. In a condition called slipped capital femoral epiphysis, the top of the ball slips off the femoral head through the growth plate. Think of the ball as a scoop of ice cream that falls off the "cone," the thighbone. In obese children, the bone and cartilage are not strong enough to bear excess weight.

Pancreas Obesity causes insulin to not work normally in the body. This is called insulin resistance. Insulin, made in the pancreas, helps bring glucose (sugar) into the body's cells, where it is the main source of energy. When people are obese and insulin -resistant, they have to make more and more insulin. Eventually they cannot make enough insulin to meet these demands, and diabetes develops. Metabolic Syndrome Obesity can also lead to this relatively new condition. Excess fat in the belly produces noxious factors that interfere with normal glucose and fat metabolism and leads to inflammation in the blood vessels. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of diabetes fivefold.

BLOUNT'S DISEASE Excessive weight on the growth plate of the tibia can cause the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg. Unlike bowlegs, which tend to straighten as a child develops, Blount's disease is progressive and the condition worsens. What is BMI?

Fat and the body

A fat cell is like a plastic bag that holds a drop of fat. The number of fat cells a person has is determined by late adolescence â&#x20AC;&#x201D; overeating in childhood creates more. The cells increase and decrease in size depending on how much fat they store. So although overweight children can become lean (as their fat cells shrink), they do not lose the extra fat cells no matter how much weight they lose.

Harms a Child's Body

One pound of body fat is about the size of a coffee mug

Body mass index is a measure of weight in relation to height that is used to estimate a person's body fat and, by extension, health risks. BMI is the most widely accepted method used to screen for overweight in children and adolescents, but it is not an actual measure of body fat. Being "obese" means that a child has a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for his or her age. A BMI at or above the 85th percentile is labeled "overweight."

How to Ride a Bicycle Do you want to go outside and ride a bike? Are you trying to teach someone else? Many kids never got the chance to learn in scientific and simple way. There’s no reason to be embarrassed. Instead, get eager to start one of the healthiest, most environmentally friendly, and most satisfying forms of self-transportation possible. It requires preparation, technique, and a little falling, but anyone can learn how to ride a bicycle.

st r i F ety


Find a suitable location. When you’re learning, you want to find a place that’s comfortable and far from traffic. A good place to start is a flat, smooth stretch of ground such as your non trafic driveway or your sidewalk. Those who don’t have space at home can practice in a parking lot or park. Starting off on grass or smooth gravel helps since falls there hurt less. These surfaces make balancing and pedaling harder though. Check your local trafic laws to see if it is legal to ride on sidewalks or other paths.

If you want to learn to ride a bicycle, protect yourself by wearing a helmet, knee and elbow pads, and a long-sleeved shirt and pants. Take your bike to a wide open space that is flat and smooth. While sitting on the bike, push yourself with your feet until the bike moves, then tuck your feet onto the pedals. While in motion, maintain the bike’s balance as long as you can, and push the pedals with your feet to keep moving forward. Once you feel the bike beginning to tip, catch it by putting one foot on the ground. Keep reading to learn how to ride your bike on a slope!

Test the brakes. Find out how the Wear riding clothing. Knee and elbow pads insulate joints and protect against scrapes, so they are recommended for all riders. Long-sleeved shirts and long pants also help protect against falls and can be combined with pads. Avoid loose pants and long skirts. These may get caught in the gears and tires. Avoid open-toed shoes. These leave your feet exposed to the bike and ground.

Put on a helmet. Helmets are recommended for beginners and

experienced bike riders alike. You never know when an accident will happen. A broken bone can usually be fixed, but head trauma, in bicycle accidents, leaves a lasting impact. Helmets are measured to fit the head. A good one fits tightly and comes down to an inch (two and a half centimeters) above your eyebrows. It will also have straps that keep your helmet tight while still letting you move your mouth. Commuter helmets are one common type. They are rounded, made of foam and plastic, and can be found online or in retail stores where bikes are available. Road helmets are elongated and often have vents. They’re also made with foam and plastic but are popular on roads or in competitive racing. Seek them online or in retail stores. Youth (age 10-15), child (age 5-10), and toddler (under 5) helmets are all smaller commuter or road helmets. Toddler helmets are the only ones with more foam.

brakes work on the bicycle. Stay off the bicycle. Keep it next to you and walk it. Push the brake buttons to get used to their location, how they feel,and how the bike reacts to them. Once you’ve learned this, you’ll feel more comfortable because you’ll be able to make an emergency stop when needed. If your bike has brakes on the handlebars, test each one to see which controls the front and which controls the rear wheel. These can be switched by professionals. Notice how squeezing the back brake causes the rear wheel to skid. Squeezing the front brake causes the bike to pitch forward. If your bike doesn’t have brakes on the handles, it should have backpedal (coaster) brakes. To brake, press down on the pedal closest to the back end of the bike as if pedaling backwards. If your bike is a fixed wheel and hasn’t been modified, it has no brakes. Instead of braking, you will need to either slow the pace of your pedaling or skid by leaning forward and holding both pedals horizontally with your feet.

Go out during the day. Riding is possible at night but not recommended for beginners. You’ll be spending a lot of time learning to balance. This means that, as you get acclimated, the bicycle can swerve into any dangers you'll have a hard time seeing. At night, drivers also have a more difficult time seeing you. Plant one foot on the ground. Begin on a flat surface. Flat surfaces such as a driveway, sidewalk,

quiet road, or park trail are stable. There are no slopes, so the falls are shorter and you will have an easier time balancing and coming to a stop. Short grass and smooth gravel are also surfaces you can use. Falls will hurt less, but these surfaces force you to pedal harder to move the bike.

Adjust the bike seat. Lower the bike seat far

enough that whoever's riding can put both of their feet flat on the ground while seated. A low seat allows you to stop yourself with your feet before you fall.

It doesn't matter which side you choose, but your dominant side will feel more natural. A right-handed person, for instance, can stand on the left side of the bike. Lift up your right leg, reach it over the bike,and put it on the ground on the other side of the bike. Hold the bike upwards between your legs.

Feel the weight of the bike between your legs and try to keep it balanced as you lower yourself. Having feet on the ground prevents the bike from toppling while you acclimate. Maintain your weight in the center of the bike, evenly distributed between your left and right sides. Sit up straight instead of leaning.

Start gliding. Rather than pedal, push yourself off by foot. Tuck your feet upwards and onto the pedals. While in motion, maintain the bike’s balance as long as you can. Once you feel the bike beginning to tip, catch it by putting one foot to the ground, then push off again.

Keep your eyes straight ahead. When you

look at obstacles, your bike heads towards them. Concentrate on looking towards where you want the bike to go. It takes some practice to avoid distractions from road hazards or other sights. Before you have complete control, go where the bike goes. When starting, the bike tends to go to the side or in circles. Instead of stopping, let it go and try to maintain balance while it does. If you are helping a child or friend, you can hold onto their lower back to help them stay steady while they practice.

Dismount from the bike.

Start pedaling. Start with one foot on the ground. Your other foot should be

flat on a pedal pointed upwards. Push off, put that foot on the other pedal, and go! Keep going as long as you can maintain balance. Going faster makes balancing easier, but don’t go so fast that you lose control.

Practice gliding . Walk the bike to the top of a slope, mount it,

and glide in the flat area. Dismount and repeat as necessary until you get used to balancing and controlling the bike. Keep your weight focused in your feet. Stay pressed against the seat, keep your elbows bent, and your body relaxed. When you are confident, try riding with your feet on the pedals.

Brake while gliding . Once you have become comfortable keeping your feet on the pedals, try again, this time gently squeezing the brakes while descending. You'll learn to slow the bike without swerving out of control or pitching over the handlebars.

Try steering. Once you can

pedal, and brake in a straight line, Move the handlebars until you change the direction of the bike without losing control. Feel how the bike acts and adjust your balance to match it.

Pedal through the road. Use the techniques learned while gliding to pedal and steer without stopping on the roadl. Transition to the flatter surface while practicing sharper turns, then brake to a stop.

Bicycles are physics in action Large wheels multiply pedalling speed Gears linked by chain increase speed or pedalling force

Don't stop by foot. A better practice is stop by using the brakes. Stop pedaling, shift your weight onto the lowest pedal, and squeeze both handbrakes, if the bike has them. Once the bike has stopped, raise yourself a little and step off onto the ground. Putting your feet down too early while using the brakes stops the bicycle abruptly. Your momentum won't stop and you'll whack into the handlebars.

Cycling is one of the best pastimes for people who want to reduce risk of having heart disease and stroke. The term “bicycle” was not introduced until the 1860’s. It was coined in France to describe a new kind of two-wheeler with a mechanical drive. Frame divides rider’s weight between front and back wheels Handelbar levers make front wheels easier to turn

Friction brakes turn energy into heat Spokes share rider’s weight evenly

y a l P s ’ t e L Part-1,Introduction

Safety as a top priority Rugby is a highly physical Game. To enjoy it to its utmost you need to be physically and mentally prepared. You also need to understand how to play safely.

The Game Rugby is a game in which the object is to carry the ball over the opponents’ goal line and force it to the ground to score. Legend has it that in 1823, during a game of school football in the town of Rugby, England, a young man named William Webb Ellis picked up the ball and ran towards the opposition’s goal line. Two centuries later, Rugby Football has evolved into one of the world’s most popular sports, with millions of people playing, watching and enjoying the game. At the heart of Rugby is a unique ethos which it has retained over the years. Not only is the game played to the Laws, but within the spirit of the Laws. Through discipline, control and mutual self-respect, a fellowship and sense of fair play are forged, defining Rugby as the game it is. From the school playground to the Rugby World Cup final, Rugby Union offers a truly unique and thoroughly rewarding experience for all involved in the game. Rugby is played by men and women and by boys and girls worldwide. More than 8.5 million people aged from six to 60+ regularly participate in the playing of the game. The wide variation of skills and physical requirements needed for the game mean that there is an opportunity for individuals of every shape, size and ability to participate.

Apart from the playing of the game and its ancillary support, rugby embraces a number of social and emotional concepts such as courage, loyalty, sportsmanship, discipline and teamwork.

It’s simple... but complex

The above description may sound simple - but there is one catch. In order to go forward, the ball must be passed backwards. The ball can be kicked forwards, but the kicker’s team mates must be behind the ball at the moment the ball is kicked. This apparent contradiction creates a need for fine teamwork and great discipline, as little can be achieved by any one individual player. Onlyby working as a team can players move the ball forward towards their opponents’goal line and eventually go on to win the game. Rugby has its unique aspects, but like many other sports it is essentially about the creation and use of space. The winners of a game of Rugby will be the team of players who can get themselves and the ball into space and use thatspace wisely,while denying the opposing team both possession of the ball and access to space in which to use it.

Part-11,Whistle Blow Why did the whistle blow?

This is just a sample page, Bigbuddie upcoming issues will publish indetail description about learning of this game,and other too!

For anyone who is not familiar with the finer points of the Laws of Rugby it can sometimes be hard to tell why the referee has stopped play for an infringement. Here we look at some of the most common reasons why the whistle may have blown. Alongside is the signal youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll see the referee make when each circumstance occurs during play. The signals for penalty and free kick are shown in January Issue. Forward pass or knock on

Advantage being played

Advantage can be applied to either minor infringements (e.g. knock-on), or offences which would result in a penalty (e.g. offside). The decision has to be made by the referee as to whether there may be more benefit to the non-offending team if play continues. If no advantage occurs, the referee will blow the whistle and bring play back to the place of the original infringement which occurred prior to advantage being played Failure to release player or ball After a tackle, the tackler must immediately release the ball carrier, and the ball carrier must immediately release the ball. Failure on either of these counts limits a fair contest for possession. If release does not occur within a reasonable time frame, the referee will award a penalty to the non-offending team. Joining ruck/maul from the side When joining a ruck or maul, all players must do so from behind the hindmost foot of their hindmost team mate. If they join from the side, they are in an offside position and taking part in the game, and this will immediately be penalised with the award of a penalty to the opposing team.

Sometimes an attack which seems to be heading towards the try line will be stopped by the refereeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s whistle. If a pass has gone forwards, or a handling error has resulted in a knock-on, a scrum will have been awarded to the non-offending team. Failure to roll away Any players on the ground when a ruck or maul is formed must immediately roll away from the ball, so as to allow continuity of play for the team in possession. Failure to do so will result in the award of a penalty to the non-offending team.

Unplayable ball at ruck or maul If the ball becomes unplayable at a ruck e.g. under players who are on the ground, the referee will award a scrum to the team going forward before the ball became unplayable. For a maul the scrum goes to the team not in possession when the maul began.

Foods your pets should never eat

Old Food You don’t like old and moldy food, so what makes you think your dog will? The bacteria in spoiled food contains all sorts of toxins that can be damaging to your dog’s health. Feed them the freshest and best, dog-approved food only!


Xylitol is a type of artificial sweetener found in many sugar-free products, like gum and candy, as well as some nut butters like peanut butter. Xylitol can cause insulin release, which can lead to liver failure, seizures and brain damage.

Chocolate, coffee & caffeine Chocolate, coffee and caffeine all contain substances called methylxanthines, which are very dangerous to a pet’s health.‘when ingested by pets, methylxanthines can cause vomiting and diarrhea, panting, excessive thirst and urination, hyperactivity, abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures and even death. Note that darker chocolate is more dangerous than milk chocolate. White chocolate has the lowest level of methylxanthines, while baking chocolate contains the highest.’

Onions & garlic In all forms (powdered, raw, cooked etc.), these foods can cause gastrointestinal irritation in pets and could lead to red blood cell damage,dogs are also at risk if they consume enough of any of these foods.

Grapes and raisins There are better treats to give your dog. Grapes and raisins can cause kidney failure in dogs. And just a small amount can make a dog sick. Vomiting over and over is an early sign. Within a day, your dog will get sluggish and depressed.

Salt and salty snack foods Salt, as well as salt-heavy foods like chips and pretzels, can lead to excessive thirst and urination, and even sodium ion poisoning in pets. Some signs that your pet may have consumed too much salt include, vomiting, diarrhea, depression, tremors, elevated body temperature, seizures and even death.

Corn on the cob Unlike most vegetables, it does not digest well in a dog’s stomach. If your dog swallows large chunks of the cob, or even whole, it can cause an intestinal blockage due to its size and shape. Signs to look out for are vomiting, loss of appetite or reduced appetite, absence of faeces or diarrhoea and abdominal discomfort.

Alcohol Alcohol is significantly more toxic to dogs than to humans. When consumed, even small quantities of alcoholic beverages and food products may cause vomiting, diarrhoea, decreased coordination, central nervous system depression, difficulty breathing, tremors, blood changes, coma and even death. So, remember to keep alcohol well out of your dog’s reach.

Nuts Almonds are not easily digested can give your dog an upset stomach and create gastric intestinal distress.Walnuts contain a toxin named tremorgenic mycotoxins can cause seizures. If your dog is in pain, they might not want to get up, or might struggle to do so.They don’t always cry or whine. Sometimes pain is displayed through the pet being quiet, hiding, or not eating well. Sometimes they appear to be sleepy and may have an increased respiratory rate. Never assume your dog is not in pain just because they aren’t crying or whining."

Let’s make some Lemon juice!

How do we divide the lime juice equally among the eight of us? Aman has a piece of string in his pocket. We cut it so it is the same length as the drink inside the jug.

After school, we play under the peepal tree. Langri-taang, ankh-micholi, oonch-neech, eye-spy and more.

Near the tree is Raju Uncle’s chai shop. When it is very hot, he leaves a jug of lime juice and glasses for us. We fold the string into two. Then we fold the doubled string two more times. Now we have eight equal parts. We keep the folded string against the jug and mark equal sections on the jug. It is delicious, and we want some more. “You can make some,” Raju Uncle says. “The recipe is on the board.”

Manu and Sara lift the jug together and pour the lime juice carefully into glasses.

We have water, sugar syrup and lime juice, but we don’t know how to measure things out of ten.

Guria says, “We have eight sections marked. Let’s mark two more and we will have ten sections.” Alok pours the lime juice till the first mark. I pour two portions of sugar syrup so that the mixture goes up to the third mark. Manu pours the cold water till the 10th mark.

We pour out eight glasses of lime juice. We have some juice left. We pour it into a big glass for Raju Uncle.

“Shabash!” says Raju Uncle. “This is the best lime juice I have tasted. But it will taste even better with some hot pakoras.”“Hooray! Thank you, Raju Uncle!”

Take one whole lemon and get an adult to cut it into 8 equal parts. Do be careful with the knife. Each piece makes up one part of the whole. Each piece is also called a fraction. Now try to put the pieces back so that you get half a lemon.

Give your friend three-fourths of a lemon. How many pieces does she get? Let us say your brother wants half a lemon. How many pieces make a half?

How to Build a Now that we have finally made it to the secret location, we can begin your training as Astronauts.

Rocket I bet you junior astronauts want to make a Rocket you can climb into and blast off to space with, right? Okay, let's explore what we need in order to do that.

Firstly, can anybody tell me what the basic parts of a Rocket are?

Um, we need: - A Rocket body to hold the fuel... - A fuel source... - A Rocket nozzle or thruster... - And a capsule for the Astronauts!

That's right Shweta! A rocket is shaped the way it is for aerodynamic reasons and you point it at the sky simply because that's where you're headed! What gives a rocket lift? Fuel. Fuel is a solid or a liquid (or a mixture of both) that undergoes an endothermic chemical reaction!

I have a feeling I'm near an endothermic chemical reaction right now! Rocket Thrusters

Life Support Capsule Cargo Hold Fuel Tank

A chemical reaction happens when the bonds between atoms or molecules are changed. In rocket fuel, the breaking and forming of new bonds release extremely powerful heat energy. To initiate the endothermic chemical reaction in rocket fuel you need to ignite it with an electric spark The ISRO's GSLV-III lifts off into successful orbit.

Another example of a chemical reaction is when molecules of baking soda and molecules of vinegar inter-act. Their chemical reaction creates new molecules like CO2. When the expanding CO2 gas is forced through a narrow passage, called a thruster, you get the lift!

Hey! That's why at a rocket launch they say, "LIFT OFF"! The lift is pushing the rocket OFF the Earth!

In 2012 the rocket-powered "Sky Crane" lowered the Curiosity rover onto Mars.

? y t i c i r t c e l E s What i Electricity is an invisible phenomenon created by the movement of electrons in a conductor. This seemingly simple explanation leads usto a whole world of possibilities … and unknowns! Curiously enough,it is a challenge to define electrical energy. However, we understand its properties, how to generate it and transmit it from point A to point B and, especially, how to use it.

icity Measuring electr





Ωohm W


An electric current can be comparedto the water flowing through a hose. The pressure inside the hose, or the force with which the water flows, is like voltage (V). The hose’s discharge, or the amount of water flowing, is like current intensity, measured in amperes (A). Friction along the hose’s inner wall is similar to resistance (Ω). Power is what is produced by multiplying voltage by intensity, and is expressed in watts (W). Consumption is expressed in watthours (Wh) and indicates the energy used by a system or device over a given period of time. V / Volt, Standard unit for measuringhe force of electricity, or voltage. Named after Alessandro Volta, inventor of the battery. A / Ampere, Unit for measuring the amount of electric current. Named after André-Marie Ampère, the French inventor of the galvanometer.

Ω / Ohm, Unit for measuring the resistance of a substance through which electricity flows. Named after Georg Simon Ohm, the German physicist and author of the law of electricity that bears his surname.

W / Watt, Standard unit for measuring power, including that of alternating current. Named after the Scottish inventor James Watt, renowned for his improvements to the steam engine.

Similarities between the water in a hose and an electric current


tors Role of the resis

Friction=Ohm Discharge=Ampere


The resistor is the part of an electrical circuit that resists, or limits, the power of an electrical current in a circuit. The resistor also helps to reduce, or lessen, the amount of electricity moving through the circuit. Resistors are important to circuits because they reduce the amount of electricity traveling by a current through the circuit. This ensures that the right amount of electricity is provided to an object that needs electricity to work. Resistance = voltage/current or R = V/I

Resistance is measured in Ohms. The Ohm is often represented by the omega symbol:


The symbol for resistance is a zigzag line as shown above. The letter "R" is used in equations.

When to Turn Off Your Lights The cost effectiveness of when to turn off lights depends on the type of lights and the price of electricity. The type of lightbulb you use is important for several reasons. All lightbulbs have a nominal or rated operating life, which is affected by how many times they are turned on and off. The more often they are switched on and off, the lower their operating life.

Incandescent Lighting Incandescent lights should be turned off whenever they are not needed, because they are the least efficient type of lighting. 90% of the energy they use is given off as heat, and only about 10% results in light. Turning lights off will also keep a room cooler, an extra benefit in the summer.

CFL Lighting(compact fluorescent light) Since they are already very efficient, the cost effectiveness of turning CFLs off to conserve energy is a bit more complicated. A general rule-of-thumb is this: If you will be out of a room for 15 minutes or less, leave it on. If you will be out of a room for more than 15 minutes, turn it off. The operating life of CFLs is more affected by the number of times they are switched on and off. You can generally extend the life of a CFL bulb more by switching it on and off less frequently than if you simply use it less. It is a popularly held belief that CFLs use a lot of energy to get started and it is better not to turn them off for short periods.

LED Lighting (light-emitting diode ) The operating life of a light emitting diode (LED) is unaffected by turning it on and off. There is no negative effect on LED lifetime. This characteristic gives LEDs several distinct advantages when it comes to operations. Also, in contrast to traditional technologies, LEDs turn on at full brightness almost instantly, with no delay. LEDs are also largely unaffected by vibration because they do not have filaments or glass enclosures.

Electrical Hazard Sign

Water + Elecricity=Danger

Electricity always takes the shortest path to reach the ground. When a person gets an electric shock, their body becomes that shortest route. Why? The body is made up of approximately 70% water, and water, like metal, is an excellent conductor of electricity. Tree branches can also conduct electricity because they have liquid, or sap, inside. Even low-voltage current can be lethal or very harmful to humans. However, in most cases, electricity-related accidents can be avoided. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s simply a matter of taking the right precautions. Operate all electrical appliances (hair dryer, radio, etc.) as far away as possible from water, whether in the bathroom or near the pool. During a thunderstorm, stay away from water and large objects,such as isolated trees and transmission towers. Your bestprotection against lightning is to remain indoors. Always follow the proper safety rules concerning electrical appliances you are using or environments you are enteringâ&#x20AC;Ś When it comes to preventing electricity-related accidents,you can never be too cautious or alert.

Can you eat

food dropped

on the floor?




Whether it’s the last chocolate chip cookie falling to the ground, a french fry landing on the table, or spilling open a bag of candies, we’ve all been there asking ourselves, “Can I still eat it?” The five-second rule holds that it’s okay to eat an item you dropped on the ground, as long as it was there for fewer than five seconds, right? But wait . . . is it actually okay?

Though there are endless variations on timing (ten-second rule, twenty-second rule, etc.), the generalpremise of this folklore is that your food won’t be contaminated by bacteriawithin the given time frame. To analyze whether or not this is true, we need to understand the risks of contamination in the first place. This particularly nasty strain of Salmonella is found in the digestive tracts and feces of animals all over the world and can potentially end up in our food.

One of the most harmful bacteria potentially present in our homes is Salmonella typhimurium.

The bacteria get ingested through raw or undercooked food, and when present in large enough numbers can cause sickness. Even though the acid in your stomach will kill many bacteria, those that survive move on to the small intestine and begin to multiply, causing inflammation, which leads to cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting. So technically, you aren’t “sick to your stomach”you’re sick to your small intestine. While you may not be ingesting undercooked food directly, S. typhimurium can live up to four weeks on dry surfaces in your house (another reason to clean the kitchen more often!). Similar survival rates can be found in other bacteria, providing studies with some interesting results. A study testing the five-second rule was done by dropping bologna onto three different surfaces contaminated with S. typhimurium: tile, carpet, and wood.

When the bologna was dropped onto tile, nearly 99 percent of the bacteria was transferred in five seconds! On the other hand, very little bacteria was transferred from the carpet to the bologna (0-5 percent), and a varied amount was transferred from the wood surface (5-68 percent). Carpet in the kitchen doesn’t sound like such a bad idea after all! Another study found that wet food, such as pastrami, picked up much more bacteria from the surface when compared to dry food such as saltine crackers. These results remained consistent in tests using two seconds and six seconds, suggesting that it was not the amount of time that was most important but rather how wet the food was. Finally, using a school campus to represent an “everyday environment,” researchers dropped apple slices and Skittles in various dining locations to see how long it took the food to be contaminated with salmonella. Surprisingly, the results showed that no salmonella was transferred to the dropped food, regardless of whether it was left on the ground for five, ten, or even thirty seconds. This suggests that salmonella was rarely present on the surfaces in these public spaces. Having said that, other studies have looked less specifically at one strain of bacteria and found contamination after only two seconds of contact. So the five-second rule depends on many variables! It really comes down to which bacteria are present to begin with, what food you are dropping (its wetness), and which type of surface it’s falling onto. Simply put, the five-second rule can be thrown out the window with regard to contamination. bacteria will cover your food in fractions of a second. But whether or not you will get sick depends on a variety of factors.


So knowing the risks, will you still eat it?


Make sure that your two electrodes don â&#x20AC;&#x2122;t touch, otherwise they will short out the battery

Build and experiment at home

Energy experiments

Electrolysis Kit

Nearly anything can potentially be an energy source-even the contents of your bin. Empty it out and get building WHAT YOU NEED... A glass, some aluminium foil, a 9V (PP3) battery, two pieces of insulated wire (about 20cm each), bicarbonate of soda, sticky tape.


1. Fill the glass with tap water and stir

in a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda until it dissolves.

2.Tear off a piece of foil about 10 cm

Build time 10 min.

square and fold it over on itself a few times to make a strip around 10 cm x 1cm or so. This will be one electrode youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll need two, so make another identical one.

3.Now strip a centimeter of insulation

from each end of the two lengths of wire,and tape a stripped end to each foil electrode,making a connection near the top.

4.Dangle the two electrodes into the

bicarbonate solution and attach the loose ends of the two wires to terminals of the 9V battery. How it works You should soon see a stream of tiny Chemical reactions can make electricity,but bubbles rising from both of the foil you can also do this the other way round-using electrodes. electricity to force chemical reactions. In this case,you are electrolysing water-using electric power to split it into its component elements of Hydrogen and Oxygen.

Coin Batteries WHAT YOU NEED... 4 x 20 coins and 4 x 5Rs.coins, salt water solution, J-cloth, bowl, scissors, sticky tape, 30-40cm electrical wire, LED.

Build time 25 min.

LEDs only allow current in one direction,so you may need to try each orientation


1.Cut out eight circles of the cloth, .

the same size as the 5Rs.coins. Put them in the salt solution to soak.

2.Cut the wire into two equal lengths.

4.The important thing as you make the pile is

If it is insulated, strip the insulation from the last centimetre or so of both ends. Tape the exposed end of one wire to a 2p coin, making sure there is good metal-to-metal contact.

to ensure that each 5 Rs. coin only touches the lop below it, and is well separated by the J-cloths from the one above. Now attach a wire to the lop on the top of the pile, just as you did with the bottom 5 Rs. Let the pile stand for a few minutes, then take the loose ends of the two wires and touch them to the terminals of the LED. It should then light up.

3.Lay this coin down with the wire

beneath it. On top of the 5Rs. lay two of the J-cloth circles, and then a lop. Repeat this ordering with the rest of the coins and cloth circles.

Pop Pop Boat WHAT TO DO...

1.This might not be a battery, but is a

great way to produce power. Bend the copper tube all the way around the broomstick once, making a loop with two equal legs, then slide it off.

WHAT YOU NEED... A small flattish tin, such as a sardine tin or metal pencil case, thin cooper tubing (about 30cm), a broomstick, water, a bathtub, tea-light candle, metal wire, tape.

.Slot the tea light beneath the 2.Now take two pieces of . metal wire and 4 copper loop, and light it, so that the tape them parallel to one another across the middle of the sardine tin. They should be far enough apart that they can support the copper loop. Place the loop on the metal wires, and bend its legs down over the side of the tin. Then bend them again below the bottom of the tin, so the ends are horizontal.

3.Remove the tube and fill . it completely

How it works

The salt solution is called an electrolyte, and reacts with the metals of the coins to different degrees. Chemical reactions involve moving electrons, producing a voltage. Stacking up more than one 'cell' creates enough to light an LED.

flame bears directly on the copper loop.

with water. The best way to do this is probably to use it like a straw, and suck water through it. When it's full, hold your fingers over the ends to keep the water in, carefully float the tin in the bath, and then place the copper boiler in position on the wires, with the ends of the tube below the water line.

How it works

The tealight boils a small amount of the water in the copper coil, which turns to steam and forces water out of the ends of the tube, propelling the boat forward. The steam then starts to condense, sucking water back into the tube, cooling it down a little. The cycle then repeats, driving the boat forward.

Build time 60 min.

Bend the copper carefully and not too sharply, so that it doesn â&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fold and pinch shut

How to draw cartoon animal Baby H i p p o p o t a m u s oval, for the Sketch a large dy. LOOK at hippoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s round bo ped head. the popcorn-sha Sketch it.


s for ears. Sketch two oval d shade. Add two eyes an e for a smile. Draw a curved lin e for a ta il. Add a curved lin



r. le inside each ea rc ci ll a sm a h Sketc circle line and a small ed rv cu a w ra , D ur stra ight lines fo w ra D e. os n for his ree for legs. Draw th , dy bo s hi w lo be connect the curved lines to legs. bottoms of the


Add curved lines for ails. eyebrows. Draw toen

5 drawing! Erase LOOK at the final . Boldly go over extra sketch lines al lines. Shade and darken the fin ppo any way you and color your hi want!


Bottle Bookend

Wondering what to do with orphaned socks? A lone baby sock makes a perfect penguin head!

What you’ll Need 1-Half litle plastic bottle 2-3 cups of sand Funnel 1 baby sock

1 Clean out the bottle and remove all labels. Fill it with sand and replace the cap

5 To make the earmuffs, bend the wire into a head -band bead in half and glue a piece to each end of the wire,rounded side facing out. Slip the earmuffs onto the penguin’s head and glue to secure


4-5 cotton balls White and yellow felt


To make the penguin’s head, stuff the baby sock with cotton To make the eyes,cut two circles about the size of a balls and slip it over the top plain M&M from white felt. of the bottle Glue a tiny black pom-pom to each. Glue the circles onto the sock.

4 To make the beak,fold a piece of yellow felt and cut a 1/4-inch traingle on the crease. Glue the crease onto the sock about 1/2inch below the eyes.

Scissors 2 Tiny black pom-poms

Tacky glue 1 three inch piece of wire 1 two cm felt bead 1 Envelope Washi tape 2 colors of yarn

6 Cut two wing shapes from the Tyvek envelope, about two-thirds the height of your bottle and about 3 inches across at the widest point. Cover the wings with strips of washi tape and give the top, straight edge of each wing around the neck of the bottle.



Finally,to make the feet, fold a 3 inch square of To give the penguin a scarf, yellow felt in half and cut braid three 20 inch starnds a 2 inch tall half heart of yarn. shape on the crease. If yarn is thin,you may want to Glue it to the bottom of double or triple it(as shown) the bottle,rounded points f to give it some thickness. acing out.

In next issue

Pim pom

rug for your


Junior Detective How good are you at lateral thinking? Apply your mind to these questions

A malicious computer program informs a user that it has “kidnapped” an important file and that what happens to the file will be based on the next statement to be typed by the user. If the user types a false statement it will delete the file, and if the user types a true statement it will change the file’s name so it can never be found. The user types a statement that makes the computer unable to perform or shut down. What could the user have typed? Answers in next issue

A man with a number of bookshelves has distributed his book collection evenly on the shelves, putting 80 books on each shelf. If he adds 3 shelves and redistributes his collection all the shelves, each shelf will have 50 books. How many are in his collection?

A black man dressed all in black, wearing a black mask, stands at a crossroads in a totally black-painted town. All of the streetlights in town are broken. There is no moon. A blackpainted car without headlights drives straight toward him, but turns in time and doesn’t hit him. How did the driver know to swerve? If a red house is made of red bricks, and a blue house is made of blue bricks, what is a green house made of? A five letter word becomes shorter when you add two letters to it. What is the word?

A 6-foot tall man was holding a glass beaker above his head. He let it drop to the carpet without spilling a single drop of water. How could he manage to drop the glass from a height of six feet and not spill a drop of water?


rosswo Picture C

Mind Blenders Word F


Sudoku Challenge Fill in the blank squares so that each row, each column and each 3-by-3 block contains all of the digits 1 through 9. If you use logic you can solve the puzzle without guesswork.

rs Thousands of sailo in es lost their liv recks attacks and shipw ach re to while trying n ma is th India before ul sf es cc made the su voyage.

y did the 1. In which countr ? te â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;saunaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; origina , gold or 2. Which is lighter plastic? 3. Which explorer oute discovered the sear g the din to India by roun e? op H Cape of Good

Mega Intelligence quiz

loured in 4.Brass gets disco presence air because of the lowing fol of which of the gases in air? named 5. Which planet is d go n ma Ro after the ? of war

How to Help Your Kids Succeed in School

Every child can succeed in school. The question is: How can we help our children succeed?

Part-1: ENCOURAGE CHILD TO READ Helping your child become a reader is the most important thing that you can do to help him succeed in school. The importance of reading can’t be overstated. Once children learn to read, they spend the rest of their lives reading to learn. Reading is the skill that enables learning in other subjects. Start early. If your child is not reading yet, then reading aloud to him should become part of your daily routine. At first, read for no more than a few minutes at a time, several times a day. As you read, talk with your child. Encourage him to ask questions and to talk about the story. Ask him to predict what will come next. When your child begins to read, ask him to read to you from books or magazines that he enjoys. The joy in reading comes from the content more than the process of reading itself. The sooner your child develops good reading skills – and reading becomes “easier” and “less work” - the sooner he will begin to enjoy the content of the stories he reads. Early reading skill development is a key to developing a “love of reading”. The building blocks of reading include phonemic awareness (recognizing different sounds), phonics (associating sounds with letters) and sight words (recognizing common words at sight). Find quality exercises for your child to develop these skills. Make sure that your home has lots of reading materials that are appropriate for your child. Keep children’s books in the house. Ask family members to consider giving your child books and magazine subscriptions as gifts. Turn off the TV and video games! Books can have a hard time competing for a child’s attention. A little boredom can result in kids forming a terrific habit: reading. Show that you value reading. Let your child see you reading for pleasure as well as reading letters and recipes,directions and instructions, newspapers, online and so forth. Go with her to the library and check out books for yourself. When your child sees that reading is important to you, she is likely to decide that it’s important to her, too.

TALK WITH YOUR CHILD It’s through speaking with parents and older family members that children develop the language skills they need. Children who don’t hear a lot of talk and who aren’t encouraged to talk themselves often have problems learning to read. Children who haven’t learned to listen carefully often have trouble following directions and paying attention in class.

Find time to talk any place, for example, as you walk with your child, talk with her about what she’s doing at school or as you shop in a store, talk with your child about prices, differences in brands and how to pick out good vegetables and fruit. As you read a book with your child, pause occasionally to ask him about what’s happening. Ask him what he thinks will happen next, or what he thinks of a particular character. When your child talks to you, stop what you’re doing and pay attention. Look at him and ask questions to let him know that you’ve heard what he said. Demonstrate for him how to be a good listener.

MAKE HOMEWORK & HOME STUDY A PRIORITY Establish the importance of education as a core value in your household. Your child should see education not as something that just happens ‘at school’ but as a fundamental part of their young lives. Make homework a priority in your daily family life. Even if study time is for only a few minutes a day, make sure it is treated as a priority over other activities. Be consistent in this from a young age and your children will understand –through your actions – the importance of school and education. Continue in next issue



Contact the teacher if your child has an ongoing problem with his schoolwork. You shouldn’t wait for report-card time to begin addressing any difficulties. By alerting the teacher, you can work together to solve a problem in its early stages. Approach the teacher with a cooperative spirit. Believe that the teacher wants to help you and your child, even if you disagree about something. Don’t go to the principal without first giving the teacher a chance to work out the problem with you and your child.

Everything your children need to know

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