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To the Left: Sagittarius A. Black hole at the center of our galaxy. This black hole is in the Supermassive Class. Down: What a black hole would look like with light around it.

What are black holes?

from place to place. They stay in one spot and wait for something to come near enough it so the gravity pulls it in. When the object comes into the black hole, it gets crunched onto the singularity to increase the mass of the singularity. More mass means more gravity so the area of the super gravitational increases because the strength of the pull increases.

Obviously holes that are black. Thats what you’d think right? Actually a black hole is an area in space which has a ton of gravity. There’s a very dense piece of matter called the singularity at the center of the area. Another thing is that nothing can escape the gravitational zone. If I want to go and see a black hole, Nothing. Not even light which is the fastest Okay... so what? thing that we know of existence. We know how long would it take me? that we can’t travel faster than light, or even Im sorry to let you down but that would as fast as light. So black holes are just areas be literally impossible. This is because the that suck in everything, like a vacuum cleaner, closest black hole to Earth is about 1600 light and the things can’t come out. years away. It is said that nothing can go faster than light so… Hmm, even if you ride light, it’ll take you If Black holes are so powerful, why isn’t the 1600 years, and by then you would be dead. If we Earth sucked in yet? make technology faster than light (which will probably Right. So the reason why black holes don't just not be made in your lifetime) then we might be able to suck up everything is because they don’t move around get there.

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Where do black holes come from? Good Question. A black hole comes from a star with about 25 times or more mass than our Sun. When the star is about 25-40 times the size of our Sun, they run out of gas and turn into a supernova. When something like a supernova bursts out, then the gravity resists on the supernova, and causes a fallback on the matter. Then the gravity crunches all the mass of the star into a ball and makes the singularity of a black hole. We now know how a star with 25-40 times the mass of our

Vacuums of the universe.

STAR TO BLACK HOLE.

Sun makes a black hole. So what if a star has more than 40 times the mass of our Sun? Haha. When it runs out of gas/fuel, the star will collapse on itself. No supernova just all the matter gets compressed into a singularity. Any star with mass less than 25 times the mass of our Sun normally wouldn’t turn into a black hole. The mass wouldn’t be enough to be one. Even if it could turn into a black hole, the black hole would be extremely small. It wouldn’t have enough gravity probably to keep light in.

Cycle to Black Hole Top: Star. Middle: Supernova Bottom: Black Hole As I said, you can skip the supernova if the star is big enough.

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“BLACK” HOLE? I thought they weren’t black?

Yes yes. They aren’t black. outside it is. Color is a True, the naming is kind of confusing concept. It depends confusing. No they aren’t black. on how the light hits off an They just don’t have light object. coming out of them or shining off them, so they look black. Black is also the absence of color so it is Yes they debatable are called Yes. This is because the whether black “Black” Holes. gravitational pull of a Don’t argue with holes are black black hole makes it so we Steven Hawking or not, but right cant see from the outside. now they’re Problem is, if we go into a classified as not black hole, we’d probably be black. crushed into pieces fast. You probably would see other things inside for like a sudden, and you’re matter/mass would be added to the black hole. Also Cause the light isn’t coming another thing is that you might out!! Everything that occurs not be able to see anything, inside the Event Horizon isn’t because scientists say that you visible to us. The light doesn’t would be stretched out in a reflect off a black hole, it gets theory called Spaghettification. sucked in and we can’t see from the outside. So, it’s black! Well not black black, but from the

So if I was in a black hole, everything would have color?

But why do they look black in pictures?

About the Author

• This Bottom thing is a Space Waster.

Above: Look at the diagram. The light is going past the event horizon, and gets stuck in. This is why we can’t see the light from the outside, and there’s no color.That’s why Steven Hawking named them “Black” Holes.

Black holes

Falmouth, Maine 04105

This magazine was made by Seiya Matsumoto, who is a 7th grade student at

Falmouth Middle School

Falmouth Middle School. This was his first magazine he made so just saying: This may be bad.

Told you.

[4]


Lexicon Organizer By Seiya M. Word Page #

Part of speech

Definition

Sentence from book

A place  in  space with  an  extremely strong  gravity  zone that  surrounds  very dense  matter  at  the center.  The gravitational  effect is  so  strong  that once  in  this  zone, nothing  can  exit-­not even  light.

“Way out  there, trillions,  quadrillions, and  even  more  -­illions of  miles  away,  are special  places  called black  holes.”

Power derived from  the utilization  of physical  or chemical resources.

“If so,  the  ring  is

Noun

A theoretical boundary  around a  black  hole beyond  which no  light  or  other radiation  can escape.

“Any matter  that crosses  the    event horizon  is  drawn  in by  the  black  hole's gravity  and  cannot escape,  vanishing across  the  boundary like  water  down  a drain.”

It’s the boundary  of  a black  hole’s massive  gravity zone.

Once entering  the event  horizon, there’s  no  going back.

Noun

One of  the  ways  in which  the  black  hole can  form.  Fallback happens  after  a supernova,  when leftover  star  material falls  back  on  itself  in  a sudden  collapse, crunching  together  into a  tight  singularity.

“If the  star  was  about twenty-­five  to  forty  times the  size  of  our  Sun,  then what’s  left  of  the  star’s center  goes  into  a sudden  collapse,  called fallback.”

It’s the  action that  sometimes creates  a  black hole.

Black Hole  A:  Haha  you didn’t  have  enough mass  to  fallback  on yourself  before  making yourself  a  supernova. Black  Hole  B:  Oh  yeah? Well  you  were  too  fat you  fell  on  yourself  all together!!

Noun

The resistance that  one  surface or  object encounters  when moving  over another

“The X-­rays  are generated  by  plain  old

We use  X-­ray light  to  find  black holes.  So  friction is  helping  us find  black  holes.

When shuttles come  back  into  the atmosphere,  they start  burning because  of  the  heat from  friction.

A group  of  billions and  billions  of stars,  clustered

“Galaxies and

Haha. Galaxies  are pretty  big  right? Well  if  a  black  hole

We live  in  the Milky  Way

Black Hole Noun Pg  5

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Energy

Noun

Pg 34

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Event Horizon UXL Encyclopedia of Science

Fallback Pg 23

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Friction Pg 34

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Galaxy Pg 8

Noun

Relevance Use the word or in a new importance sentence. to topic. (your own!) It’s my  Main Topic.

Nothing can escape  a  pull  of  a black  hole.

Lot’s of  energy energy  released  by is  consumed  by super-­heated  matter a  black  hole. spiraling  just  outside Not  kidding.

We use  electrical energy  to  turn  on the  lights  at  our house.  We  used to  use  heat  and candles.

of the  event horizon.”

friction.”

stardust drifting [5]


Lexicon Organizer By Seiya M. together because of  their  gravitational effect  on  each other.

through space  don’t get  dragged  into  a distant  black  hole.”

comes in  it sweeps  it  all  up. It’s  an  example  of showing  how strong  a  black  hole is.

Noun

According to Newton’s  theory,  a naturally  occurring pulling  force between  any  two objects.

“Gravity is  the source  of  a  black hole’s  super  pull.”

It’s the  source We  are  held  to of  a  black the  ground  by hole’s  pull. gravity.

Adjective

Limitless or endless.

“At this  point,

The amount  of gravity  is  infinite  in a  black  hole.  This is  why  they  have such  a  strong  pull compared  to  other things.

Noun

Unable to  be seen;;  not  visible to  the  eye.

“There’s more  to invisibility  than what  doesn’t  meet the  eye.”

Black Holes In  Harry  Potter, are  invisible  to there  was  an our  eyes. invisibility  cloak.

Noun

The natural  agent that  stimulates sight  and  makes things  visible

“A large  and  dense enough  object  could require  the  spaceship to  go  faster  than  the speed  of  light, 186,000  miles (299,000  kilometers) per  second.”

Light is  the fastest  thing  that exists.  Black holes  can  suck light  in  and  even light  can’t  get  out

Light is  bouncing off  you  this moment.  Ha.

Noun

The distance which  light  can travel  in  a  year, which  is  about  6 trillion  miles.

“A light  year  is

The closest black  hole  is about  1600 light  years away  from  us. Wow.

I’m pretty  sure nobody  can  sprint a  light  year.  Even in  their  lifetime.

1. The  amount  of material,  matter, or  substance  that something contains. 2.  Another  word for  matter.

“Newton also  noted that  in  any  situation, the  strength  of  the  pull depends  on  how  much matter,  or  mass,  is involved.”

Mass=Gravity Black holes= Massive Gravity  Zone. Black  Holes= Lots  of  Mass.

“I have  more mass  than  you!!” Iron  yells  at Hydrogen.

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Gravity Pg 13

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Infinite UXL Encyclopedia of Science

Invisibility Pg 33

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Light UXL Encyclopedia of Science

Light Year Pg  29

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Mass Pg 14-­15

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Noun

pressure and  density are  infinite.”

about 31  quadrillion feet,  or  6  trillion miles.”

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Galaxy.

The are  infinite stars  in  the universe.


Lexicon Organizer By Seiya M. Matter

Noun

Stuff, substance, or  material.

“No matter  what  it  is,  if it’s  made  of  matter, then  it  possesses  the power  to  pull  on anything  else.”

No matter  can escape  a  black hole.  Technically saying  that  nothing can  escape  a black  hole.

Haha. You’re made  of  matter too  you  know.

Noun

An act  of  taking hold  of something  and exerting  force  to draw  it  toward one

“A black  hole’s  pull  is

The kind  of force  from  a black  hole.

“I will  pull  you  to my  singularity!!”-­ Mr.  Blackhole.

A type  of invisible  light energy

“Radio energy  from

Supermassive black holes  are huge  sources  of radio  light.

We use  radio waves  to  listen  to the;;  radio!!

Noun

The single  point  at the  center  of  a black  hole  where  all of  its  tremendously dense  matter  is concentrated.  The rest  of  a  black  hole is  the  powerful gravity  zone  that surrounds  the  tiny spot.

“The matter  is  so densely  packed  that  it forms  a  single  point, called  a  singularity”

It’s the  spot where  the  gravity is  coming  from. Also  it’s  the center  of  a  black hole.

The singularity  is  all of  the  gravity  in  a black  hole.  Black holes  are  areas  that have  an  extreme gravitational  pull.  The singularity  is  causing the  gravity.

Noun

The process  by which  (in  some theories)  an object  would  be stretched  and ripped  apart  by gravitational forces  on  falling into  a  black  hole.

“Scientists call  this phenomenon,

You saw  it  in the  definition. Things  would  be stretched  apart by  the gravitational  pull of  a  black  hole.

We’ll never  be  able to  see  something spaghettified  and  we don’t  want  to.

A spiral  curve, shape,  or  pattern.

“Spirals of  water

It’s the shape/pattern of  a  black hole.

I made  spiral  art for  my  art  project.

A large,  extremely hot  ball  of glowing  gas  and plasma.

“It pulls  in  nearby  stars and  even  starlight.”  Pg

It’s technically  a black  hole’s  dad. If  it  has  enough mass,  the  gravity pulls  the  star  in to  make  a  black hole’s singularity.

Every night  when we  look  up  we can  see  the  stars if  the  clouds  are out  of  the  way.

Pg 14

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Pull Pg 5

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Radio

Noun

Pg 39

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Singularity Pg 16-­17

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Spaghettification

Pg 51

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Spiral

Noun

Pg 8

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Star Pg 5

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Noun

the strongest  in  the entire  universe.”

outer space  was interfering  with  the phone  signals.”

spaghettification, or the  noodle effect.”

flow toward  the center.”

5

“Black holes  come from  stars.”  Pg  19

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Lexicon Organizer By Seiya M. A star  that suddenly increases  greatly in  brightness because  of  a catastrophic explosion  that ejects  most  of  its mass.

“As the  star  material rushes  outward,  the star  grows  and  grows until  it  is  a

Noun

All existing  matter and  space considered  as  a whole.

“A black  hole’s  pull  is the  strongest  pull  in the  entire  universe.”

Black holes  exist in  the  Universe.  I put  this  in  my lexicon  because black  holes  exist in  the  universe.

Look around yourself. Everything  you see  is  part  of  the universe.

Noun

Closest black hole  to  Earth. (By  the  way  it’s  a binary  system.)

“V4641 Sagittarii  is actually  a  binary system  with  one visible  star  and  one black  hole  circling around  each  other.”

It’s a  black  hole and  it’s  the closest  to  Earth. (By  the  way  it’s  a binary  system.)

Try to  look  for  the V4641  Sagittarii. You’ll  only  see  the star.

Noun

A small  very  dense star  that  is  typically the  size  of  a  planet. A  white  dwarf  is formed  when  a low-­mass  star  has exhausted  all  its central  nuclear  fuel

“Average-­sized stars, like  the  Sun,  shrink  to become  white  dwarfs (small,  extremely  dense stars  having  low brightness)  about  the size  of  Earth.”

Another solution that happens  to  a star  instead  of becoming  a black  hole.

Earth:“Haha Mr. Whitedwarf.  We’re  the same  size!!”

Electromagnetic radiation of  high energy  and  very short  wavelength (between  ultraviolet light  and  gamma rays)  that  is  able  to pass  through  many materials  opaque  to light.

“X-­rays can  mark the  spot  of  a  black hole,  but  what generates  them?

Used to  find black  holes.

X-­ray is  used  to see  if  we  have broken  bones  or not.

Supernova Noun Pg 22

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Universe Pg 5

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

V4641 Sagittarii Pg 47

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole White  Dwarf UXL Encyclopedia of  Science

X-­ray Pg 34

A Black Hole  Is  NOT a  Hole

Noun

supernova, or super  star.”

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Sometimes “Look in  the  sky! when  a  star  is It’s  a  supernova a  supernova, dad!!” it  collapses  on itself  to  make a  black  hole.

Mr. Whitedwarf:  “Yes but  I  am  much  more dense  compared  to you.


Bibiography DeCristofano, Carolyn Cinami., and Michael W. Carroll. A Black Hole Is Not a Hole. Watertown, MA: Charlesbridge, 2012. Print. "Black Hole." UXL Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. Rob Nagel. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Detroit: UXL, 2002. 322-326. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. "Black hole." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 607-611. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.

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Seiya M.  

Black Holes.

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