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‫המכתש‬ The Quarry A research and mapping binder The Civil Architecture Unit Department of Architecture, Bezalel Academy

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/


002


Participants Teaching Team

Arch. Liat Brix-Etgar | Arch. Matanya Sack | Arch. Dan Hasson | Arch. Bat El Yossef | Nisan Almog | Arch. Robert Ungar | Avigail Roubini

Students:

Ariel Pila | Yana Feedman | Michal Lilenthal | Yamit Ashkenazi | Bar Mussan Levi | Hadas Salame | Stav Rabinovich | Debora Williems | Nitzan Eliahu | Yael Cohen | Giulia Temin | Anat Alon | Tamar Shoshan | Diana Avshalomov | Guidia Marchisio | Yann Doduik | Giuditta Nacamulli | Itzhak Cohen Saban


005


A Crater The large hole in the heart of the old neighborhoods of Beer Sheba has been nicknamed by their

residents “the crater”. The desert bursting out between the gray concrete buildings probably stirred the

imagination of the neighborhoods’ early residents. They possibly imagined millions of years going by, with the forces of nature moving the soil and eroding the rocks – a unique geological phenomenon that should be left untouched.

But the years alongside the “crater” have eroded the power of imagination. The quarry excavated by the Ottomans to dig stones for the city’s construction has been deserted - a physical reflection of

the sense of neglect and desertion experienced by residents of the south in general and those of the neighborhoods in particular. A fenced hole of waste, disappointment and anger.

The initiative by the municipality of Beer Sheva and the Beracha Foundation to take new insights at the “crater” and its surrounding is an opportunity to bravely look at the physical and social products of the

urban planning. Their invitation to suggest alternatives for its future planning is an opportunity to stir the

imagination again. The decision to Open the municipal process to the participation of civic associations, local academia and architects' groups is an unusual civic opportunity to imagine together.

We believe that the architectural practice with its planning and design tools, offer valuable tools for

naming, mapping and coping with social issues. The concrete and materialist architectural practice

enables the participants to express their conflicts, fears and emotions through specific social situations

and individual spatial relations. It makes the rhetoric gestures into something tangible. The architectural action requires one to make a decision and thus take responsibility for the space and the people living

in it. The professional players of this discipline – architects, planners and designers – as well as anyone

informally taking part in designing the space – can become part of a civic negotiation about the place and its future.

This collection presents parts of the work of the students at the Civil Architecture Unit of the

department of architecture in Bezalel. The focuses on research and development of projects within the

“neighborhood” conceptual scale. In our perspective, this is the important spatial-social unit in processes of social change, and that this is the size that enables radical economic and planning actions initiated by citizens.

The unit’s work focused on mapping the physical, social, cultural and economic aspects of the quarry and its surrounding, and creating a “thick description” interpreting their complex relationships. This

infrastructure made it possible to identify significant planning issues and local resources that could be

used for the place’s future development. It exposed the residents’ needs and aspirations. Based on an

active, committed and continuous mapping process, the students created their own planning proposals. The "Atlas" is divided into five chapters: local resources, deserted open spaces, sense of security, local

environment and the right to view. The division into chapters provides issues for discussion and matters of common concern. Each chapter is a new beginning: an invitation to expand the group sharing the common concern and interest; an opening of questions and scenarios; a beginning of an action.

The architectural action is directed to the future. It requires one to imagine and create a space for what

is yet to come. The power of civil architecture is the ability to imagine together, again and again, another possible place.

- Liat Brix Etgar


/

Intro

01

Local resources

Page 15

02

Deserted open spaces Page 33


05

The right to the view

Page 91

04

Local environment Page 67

/

03

A sense of security Page 47

Album


Beer Sheva 205, 731

Residents | seventh place

117,500

Dunams | second place

1679

Residents per square km

5 out of 10

On a socioeconomic status scale

7096 NIS

Average monthly wage | 7964 NIS national average

65%

Eligible for a matriculation certificates | 59.8% national average


“Every ring formed has turned what

formerly had been the center into a void. Like a pauper and rich man sharing a

bagel, where one gets the circle and the other gets the hole.”

Haviva Pedaya Excerpted from “The eye of the Cat”


014


Local resources Deserted open spaces Sense of safety Local environment Right to the View The crater and its surroundings have unique resources with which the future of the area can be planned and designed. The word “resource� connects in our minds to a well: it is a source which we can draw from and use. A resource can be a natural substance or an artificial man-made product. It can also be a leftover or excess. There are human, social and cultural resources as well.

015


Rager Boulevard, District D’s eastern boundary.

A representative example of wide, busy roads connecting the city’s different neighborhoods.

Residential buildings placed over “green parks”

Beer-Sheva’s climate is arid and characterized by minimal precipitation. When resources are not

invested in maintaining the city’s private and public areas, they remain neglected.

Urban planning leftovers In 1951 architect Arie Sharon designed a plan for the city of Beer-Sheva at the request of the governmental planning and Housing Division. The plan offered a model of “neighbourhood units”. Based on this concept, the city was divided into adjacent neighborhoods with central traffic routes located between them.

016

These neighborhoods are known today as Districts A, B, C and D. Each district provided all of its residents’ necessities, by employing separation of land uses. Residential buildings were planned in low-density areas, over parks that were marked on the plan as green. In actuality they are dry and neglected.


017


Community gardens ‫קהילתיות‬ ‫גינות‬

‫עירוניים‬ ‫פארקים‬ Municipal parks ‫ציבור‬ ‫מבני‬ Public buildings

scale: 1:5,000

Signs of life Consumerism generates leftovers and excesses that are supposedly worthless. However, their correct and effective utilization can turn them into a significant local resource. Residents who are aware of sustainable methods find ways to utilize waste for beneficial purposes. Community gardens are a successful

example of local initiatives that use an unutilized area through reuse of such materials as tires, wooden surfaces and construction waste as a foundation for growing food. Identifying these points can assist in promoting a local initiative and locating points of intervention with potential for success.

018 ‫ קנ"מ‬/ ‫מקורות‬

‫שטחים ציבוריים וגינות קהילתיות‬ ,‫רבים ממבני הציבור נמצאים בשולי הפארקים‬


Community gardening by residents and social-educational

Spontaneous and informal activity at the crater

organizations

The garden of Hilwa, who grows her food independently and Using recycled water from an air conditioner.

019


Utilization of air conditioner waste water system

Planting vegetation recycling air conditioning water

020


021


An immigrant neighborhood

22,702 residents 50% over the age of 40 26% over the age of 60 33% of the population are immigrants 2% of the population are Muslims 022

District D was established in the 50’s and populated with immigrants, mainly from Northern Africa. In the early 70’s, the neighborhood accepted a large immigration wave from Russia and Georgia, and in the 90’s numerous immigrants from the former Soviet Union, which deeply affected the neighborhood’s socioeconomic status and character. The Russian community was assimilated into the neighborhood, imbuing it with contents preserving the culture and nature of their former lives. Elements showing a similarity between the public environment in certain areas in Russia and the nature of the district’s local construction can be seen in many places.


1 1

2

2

Source: “Homeless” and “Yad 2” websites

The crater

2

Ben Gurion University campus

1

Real estate value

Locals Students

The university’s effect and its boundaries In recent years, the trend of university students moving into apartments in the neighborhood has been growing. The university is a resource of energy, youth and creativity, as well as an economic, cultural and social driving force. Where university students reside, the age range, community activities and commercial potential change for the better. The neighborhood’s proximity to the university greatly affects real estate value, but this does not prevent students from insisting on living a walking distance from the campus, which means the northern and western parts of the neighborhood remain almost unaffected.

In areas where rent is low, students can be granted scholarships for living there and contributing to the neighborhood. However, students still prefer to pay more and even go as far as Districts B and C rather than live deep inside District D. Why, then, isn’t District D able to attract students as residents? Some claim the reason lies in inadequate infrastructures and a limited supply of apartments. However, many link the rigidity of boundaries of the students’ residential area (particularly females) to the poor sense of safety experienced in District D.

023


‫שכונה ו‬

‫שכונה ד‬

A significant portion of the population works in manufacturing, sales, maintenance, education or real estate

54,4 % are part of the labour forces

41 % of other type of household

25% of houshold whith children up to 17

34% of houshold whith people aged of 65+

One third of the households inculdes people aged 65+

30%

Own a car

90%

Have wireless internet access

65%

Own a personal computer

3,12 % unemployed

of which 52,2 % worked

45,6 % are not part of the labour forces

Half of the people are not considered able to work

Employment figures reflect a deep social crisis Civil registry figures from 2008 indicate one of the most severe economic and social crisis in Israel. Most of the population is old, only 30% own a car, and half of the population is disqualified for employment. Out of those who are employed, the vast majority works outside of the neighborhood.

024


Shortage of local employment, poor commerce The neighborhood’s employment infrastructure does permit a local economy to develop. The residents’ consumer power is directed to businesses located in urban shopping centers.

025


.

-

.

.

-

.

.

.

.

.

-

.

-

.

.

.

.

100

Sorce: facebook. scale: 1:10,000 5

Learning from virtual communities in Beer Sheva Selected quotes from social networks tagged from popular public venues –parks, shopping centers and public buildings

026


Group activities

Facebook groups made up of users with common fields of interest

Political activities

Users with interests who use the social networks to convey political messages

Private activities

Independent users whose social activities are daily and personal

District D

1500+

1500+

1000+

500+

1000+

500+

1+

1+

Neighborhood ties on the social network Examining the virtual arena permits immediate extensive introduction to the local population of District D. Groups of residents as well as public institutions and key municipal figures conduct extensive social network activities.

027


How can the university promote a neighborhood economy around the crater? Michal Lilenthal City / university

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

028


Distributing the university’s seeds around the city to reinforce its neighborhoods

Promoting Beer Sheva - this is the way The Ben Gurion University is known to be an educational institution whose students conduct an autonomic lifestyle with weak connection to the city. There are ways to provide the students with a high quality learning experience by utilizing the crater’s landscape and designating areas for the residents’ needs.

029


How can the development of neighborhood employment places based on the residents’ qualifications affect the neighborhood’s future? Debora Williems Site specific Fab Lab

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

030


Neighborhood-specific employment workshops A suggestion for a creatively oriented local employment area based on common qualifications in the neighborhood – manufacturing, mechanical work and services

031


Local resources

Deserted open spaces Sense of security Local environment Right to the View Many neighborhoods in Beer-Sheva that was constructed according to the “neighborhood unit” planning concept, are characterized by large open spaces between residential buildings. Landscape planning tailored to the desert climate and the neighborhood’s economical condition, and re-designation of deserted areas, can assist in revitalizing these empty spaces. Successful open spaces sustain themselves and the people around them.

033


Municipal retirement home Moria Center + Lahav Center Tnufa the Jewish home The Nirim community center + Hanoar Haleumi Retirement home Retirement home Levin community center Community garden Sweden retirement home Levin community center Welfare office - Beer Sheva municipality Neurim community center and service center for the blind Senior citizens’ club Family community center Rashy House Yeter Club Ayalim Organization - apartments for students The open apartments Scouts – southern district

Public areas ‫ציבוריים‬ ‫שטחים‬

Beer Sheba parents’ patrol Bigudit Habad Young Maccabi Atnahta Bney Akiva

4% ‫תעסוקה‬ employment

land cover 14% 14% ‫תכסית‬

16%

20%

45%

open ‫שטח‬ spaces ‫פתוח‬

‫שטח‬ public ‫ציבורי‬ spaces

residential ‫מגורים‬

‫השכונה‬ ‫בשימוש תושבי‬ used by neighborhood residents30% 30%

Ayalim Organization - youth club A Home Nearby - a Jewish home for students Negev coexistence forum for civil equality The white house Youth shelter - Perah Source: urban construction plan for Beer Sheva, scale 1:5,000

Youth shelter

Strangers to the neighborhood Mapping the various uses of public buildings in District D reveals that throughout the years most public buildings have been allocated to organizations, associations and groups that were active in other

034

districts of Beer Sheva. Unused buildings were fenced and closed. As a result, 70% of public properties in the neighborhood do not currently cater to the needs of its residents.


urban building scheme, 1982

urban building scheme, 1997

Stagnant area An analysis of the city’s original planning documents from the district’s establishment, indicate a small number of new programs and a lack of significant construction within the neighborhood.

035


2010

2010

2011

2011

2012

2012

fountains

Source: city development report prepared by the Social Watch in August 2013, scale 1:20,000

Directing budget to the neighborhood’s fringes Mapping the investment of resources by the planning department of the Beer Sheva municipality by area between 2010-2012 reveals that most development has focused on the new neighborhoods and the old city, while development budgets invested in District D have been directed to projects in the neighborhood’s fringes rather than developing public areas inside it.

036


037


6,330,000 10,900,000

6,330,000

000

00,

3,2

10,900,000

1,736,000 2,780,000

5,320,000

,065,000 1,065,000

2,210,000 1,385,000

36,640,000

2,270,000 1,630,000

2,210,000

2,270,000

3,000,000

0

0

1,325,000

0

0

Source: city development report prepared by the Social Watch in August 2013

Neighborhood’s budget Mapping the municipal budget by the different neighborhoods reveals a similarity between the neighborhood’s socioeconomic status and the size of the budget invested in it. Most of the budget is invested in the old city and in the new neighborhoods in the city’s outskirts.

038


‫*‬

‫בתחנה בבאר שבע עמד קטר‪ ‬‬ ‫ומספרו שבעים ארבע מאות ארבעה עשר‪ ‬‬ ‫קטר קיטור תשוש קטר קיטור ישן‪ ‬‬ ‫עמד בתחנה והעלה עשן‪ ‬‬ ‫הגיעה עת לזוז המבקר שרק‪ ‬‬ ‫וגם נתן את הסימן בדגל ירקרק‪ ‬‬ ‫ליבו של הקטר התחיל אזי לפעום‪ ‬‬ ‫והוא מוכן לצאת לעבר הצפון‪ ‬‬ ‫וצ'יף צ'יף צ'ף‪ ‬‬ ‫הקטר נשף‪ ‬‬ ‫ותיק תיק תק‪ ‬‬ ‫הגלגל דפק‪ ‬‬ ‫ואז הפסים זה לזה אמרו‪ ‬‬ ‫שבעים ארבע מאות ארבעה עשר‪ ‬‬ ‫זה הוא‬ ‫‪”Excerpted from the “The Locomotive Song‬‬ ‫‪by Haim Hefer‬‬

‫‪039‬‬


‫קיבא‬ ‫ר‬

‫ח' ר‬ ‫ר‬

‫בית פרנק‪-‬לוי‬ ‫ביה"ס עוזיאל‬

‫ר‬

‫ח' ר‬

‫בי ע‬

‫בי ע‬

‫קיבא‬

‫בי ע‬

‫השכונה‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ח' ר‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫בית הכנסת‬ ‫"הבית הלבן"‬

‫בית הכנסת "שנות חיינו"‬

‫השכונה‬

‫שימושים שטח לב‪-‬השכונה‬ ‫גינה קהילתית‬ ‫ושטחים חומים‬ ‫שצ"פים‬

‫"הבית הלבן"‬ ‫בית הכנסת "שנות חיינו"‬

‫בית הכנסת "שנות חיינו"‬

‫בית פרנק‪-‬לוי‬

‫בית פרנק‪-‬לוי‬

‫ביה"ס עוזיאל‬

‫ביה"ס עוזיאל‬

‫בית הכנסת "שנות חיינו"‬

‫שצ"פים ושטחים חומים‬

‫שצ"פים ושטחים חומים‬

‫רח' בר גיורא‬

‫רח' אלעזר בן‪-‬יאיר‬

‫שטח לב‪-‬השכונה‬ ‫שימושים ביל"ו)‬ ‫בית הספר עוזיאל (לשעבר‬

‫בית הכנסת‬

‫בית הכנסת‬ ‫"הבית הלבן"‬

‫ר‬

‫‪4‬‬

‫ח' ר‬

‫בי ע‬

‫קיבא‬

‫ונה‬

‫שטח לב‪-‬השכונה‬

‫קיבא‬

‫רח' בר גיורא‬

‫רח' בר גיורא‬

‫רח' אלעזר בן‪-‬יאיר‬

‫רח' אלעזר בן‪-‬יאיר‬

‫‪Open public areas and green areas in the crater’s proximity, surrounded by barriers and fences‬‬

‫השכונה‬

‫שימושים שטח לב‪-‬השכונה‬

‫מועדונית פרנק לוי‬

‫בית הכנסת‬

‫בית הכנסת‬

‫"הבית הלבן"‬

‫"הבית הלבן"‬

‫בית הכנסת "שנות חיינו"‬

‫בית הכנסת "שנות חיינו"‬

‫בית פרנק‪-‬לוי‬

‫בית פרנק‪-‬לוי‬

‫ביה"ס עוזיאל‬

‫ביה"ס עוזיאל‬

‫הבית הלבן‬

‫שצ"פים ושטחים חומים‬

‫שצ"פים ושטחים ח‬

‫‪Fences as an obstacle‬‬ ‫‪important open area: the schoolyard. An analysis of the school building‬‬ ‫‪and the yard around it discovers that removing the fence and opening‬‬ ‫‪the area to the public would assist in connecting the neighborhood’s‬‬ ‫‪urban tapestry.‬‬

‫‪The phenomenon of fencing that is common in many Israeli‬‬ ‫‪neighborhoods is clear in District D as well. The most visible example‬‬ ‫‪is the vast fencing around what used to be the neighborhood’s most‬‬

‫‪040‬‬


Collective memory The building of the “Uziel” school – a neighborhood icon – is situated in the center of the open public space. Placed at a high topographical point, it is highly visible and unique, particularly as it is one of the first

public buildings constructed in the neighborhood and has a place in the residents’ collective memory. Today it is used as a school for girls, with most students and staff coming from other neighborhoods in the city.

041


Inadequate commercial areas Several large malls and shopping centers have been constructed around Beer Sheva in recent years in the city’s outskirts. These retail centers attract extensive business activities, making commerce inside the neighborhoods redundant. The lack of

042

significant economic power within the neighborhood is reflected in small neighborhood shopping centers that compete over a limited number of customers. Additionally, there are only a few employment opportunities in the neighborhood and its surroundings.


Let’s meet at the kiosk The neighborhood’s commercial activities focus mainly around small shopping centers led by the Gilat Center – a meeting place for diverse local populations. The success of the neighborhood’s small businesses indicates the size that enable local private initiatives to succeed.

043


How can a deserted neighborhood icon activate renewal by and for the residents? Ariel Pila

Would you like an evacuation? Toward a civil architecture

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

044


Social density, vertical open public areas Reusing the building of the Uziel school for public programs to create a high quality open public area Densification of the neighborhood at the expense of deserted areas in a gradual process, while encouraging a variety of initiators as an alternative to “evacuation-construction�.

045


How can a positive change be encouraged by using the neighborhood’s existing infrastructures? Tamar Shoshan and Stav Rabinovich The minesweeper

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

046


Mixing uses and interests Changing the designation of public areas that are not properly utilized. A new public-private partnership imparting new uses such as residences, clubs and commerce to the open public space between buildings.

047


Local resources Deserted open spaces

A sense of security Local Environment Right to the view A safe area enables people of all ages and gender to move freely throughout the day and night, without fear of injury or violence. A safe area is characterized by busy pedestrian traffic and diverse public uses. What are the physical and social components undermining the sense of personal security in the crater area? What architectural and social actions can lead to a desirable change?

049


050

050


Lack of personal, financial and nutritional security District D is known as one of the most socially distressed neighborhoods in Israel. In a study by Ronny Kaufman from the social work department at the Ben Gurion University, 53% of the families in District D were found to suffer from nutritional insecurity as reflected by skipping meals and a shortage in basic food products. 27% of the families suffer from severe nutritional insecurity, meaning several days ‫ המרחב השכונתי עודנו מוזנח‬,80-‫על אף פרויקט שיקום שכונות משנות ה‬ every month where family members experience hunger. .‫מאד ומרבית התושבים נשארים מחוסר ברירה‬ Working people cannot always evade poverty either: according to the study, 40% of the families with one wage earner and 20% of the families ‫פרטיים‬ ‫כשטחים‬ ‫בין בניינים‬ ‫נרחבים‬D‫שטחים‬ ‫מגדיר‬ ‫השיכוני‬insecurity ‫התכנון העירוני‬ with two wage earners in District suffer from nutritional as ‫תומכות‬ well. ‫ המצב הכלכלי הרעוע והיעדר מסגרות‬.‫שתחזוקתם בידי התושבים‬ ‫הציבוריים‬ ‫במרחבים‬ ‫ניכרת גם‬ ‫ אשר‬,‫הזנחה קשה‬ ‫למצב של‬According ‫בית הביא‬to‫כועדי‬ District D is also known as crime-ridden neighborhood. .‫בשכונה‬ ‫העירוניים‬ 2008 figures, the crime rate in Beer Sheba has decreased by over 70%. However, there are still some 60 active drug sale points in the city, most of them in District D.‫ פשע והזנחה מתבטא לא רק‬,‫השילוב ההרסני של עוני‬ ‫אלא‬ ‫בסטטיסטיקות‬

Despite “Project Renewal” a governmental urban renewal program that began in the 80’s, the neighborhood is still dilapidated and most residents remain only because they have no other choice. The area’s planning designates vast areas between buildings as private areas which maintenance is in the hands of the residents. The unstable financial condition and lack of supporting institutions such as “building ‫ במחקר שנערך‬.‫שכונה ד' מוכרת כאחת משכונות המצוקה הקשות בישראל‬ committees” have led to a severe state of neglect that can be also be ,‫על ידי רוני קאופמן מהמחלקה לעבודה סוציאלית באוניברסיטת בן גוריון‬ observed in the neighborhood’s municipal areas.

‫ כלכלי ותזונתי‬,‫חוסר בטחון אישי‬

,‫ מהמשפחות בשכונה ד בעיר סובלות מחוסר ביטחון תזונתי‬53% ‫התגלה כי‬ 27% .‫בסיסיים‬ ‫במוצרי מזון‬ ‫ומחסור‬ ‫ארוחות‬ ‫בדילוג על‬ ‫שבא לידי ביטוי‬ The destructive combination of poverty, crime and neglect is reflected ‫ימים‬ ‫שמשמעותו‬ ‫ תזונתי‬of ‫ביטחון‬ ‫מחוסר‬ not only in ‫כמה‬ statistics but also ,‫חמור‬ in the feeling insecurity and‫סובלות‬ fear ‫מהמשפחות‬ .‫מרעב‬ ‫המשפחה‬ ‫בני‬ ‫סובלים‬ ‫החודש‬ experienced by anyone walking the area. The source of this‫בה‬ feeling can‫במהלך‬ be separated into a number of alterable physical components such as ‫מהמשפחות‬ 40%areas, ,‫המחקר‬ ‫ על פי‬:‫מעוני‬ ‫חומקים‬ ‫ אינם‬vegetation. ‫גם אנשים עובדים‬ lighting, hidden public deserted buildings and unruly

'‫ מהמשפחות עם שני מפרנסים בשכונה ד‬20%-‫שיש בהן מפרנס אחד ו‬ .‫סובלים גם הם מחוסר ביטחון תזונתי‬ ‫ את‬.‫ תחושת חוסר בטחון ופחד‬,‫גם בתחושה של כל אחד המתהלך במרחב‬ ,‫המקור לתחושה זו ניתן לפרק למרכיבים מרחביים ברי שינוי כמו תאורה‬ Excerpted from the story “Ill South” published by Local NRG and written by Uri Binder, Shimon Ifargan, Dan Even and Merav David – May ‫ ירדה רמת הפשיעה‬2008-‫ לפי נתונים ב‬.‫שכונה ד' מוכרת גם כשכונת פשע‬ .‫ בניינים נטושים וצמחיה הצומחת פרא‬,‫שטחים ציבוריים נסתרים‬ 2008. Ifargan, Dan Even and Merav David – May 2008) ‫ תחנות סמים‬60-‫ עדיין קיימות בעיר כ‬,‫ עם זאת‬.70% ‫בבאר שבע במעל‬ .'‫ רובן בשכונת ד‬,‫פעילות‬ 051

(2008 ‫ מאי‬,‫ מירב דוד‬,‫ דן אבן‬,‫ שמעון איפרגן‬,‫ מקומי "דרום חולה" מאת אורי בינדר‬NRG-‫)מתוך כתבה ב‬

051


Unruly‫חיה‬ vegetation / hedges ‫גדר‬/‫פראית‬ ‫מצחיה‬

‫מוזנחים‬ ‫שטחי‬ No man’s lands ‫שטחים‬/‫הפקר‬ / neglected areas

Apartment blocks - shikunim ‫שיכונים‬

‫עמודים‬ ‫ קומת‬on ‫על‬columns ‫שיכונים‬ Apartment blocks

‫קומתיים‬ ‫דו‬/‫חד‬ ‫מגורים‬ One/two floor residences

‫נטושים‬ ‫מבנים‬ Deserted buildings

Shelters ‫מקלטים‬

‫דר חיה‬

‫ים מוזנחים‬ Entrances to most buildings are open. The ground floors form unlighted corridors made of columns, walls and staircases. The large spaces between buildings allow criminals to escape and hide, and that’s where many of the harassments take place. Large and empty “no man’s lands” form large areas between residential buildings. This leads to “blind spots” located out of the sight of passersby and residents. The easily visible characteristics of the streets and no man’s lands are neglect, faulty sanitation, filth, weeds and old furniture. Deserted, broken buildings have dark, empty areas around them that induce fear. In many cases, one-story shelters are located between two buildings, forming hidden niches in the middle of an open, unlighted area. Unruly vegetation in building entrances and empty areas blocks one’s view and creates hiding places. Street lighting is inadequate. The existing lighting fixtures are non-standard, the light is scattered and its intensity is too low. Most building entrances are unlighted.

052

‫עמודים‬

‫מתיים‬


Mapping night light in part of District D

Long exposure at night in a public garden

053


"

When I walk home from university, I want the way to be pleasant. Hilla, student of health sciences, Bar Giora Street

I will not walk more than ďŹ ve minutes by foot because of the sun. Ma’ayan, teacher and mother of 2, District D

054

"


Possible walking paths Good walking paths

Pedestrian accessibility

Insufficient inviting routes for pedestrians The upper map shows accessible routes for pedestrians and particularly high quality routes. The lower map shows areas blocked to pedestrians whether physically or by a sense of fear. The neighborhood has vast areas that appear accessible on the map but are in fact either dark, blocked by a fence or unpleasant to walk through.

055


N

High light intensity

S

High exposure level

Five lamp posts for every 100 meters

Chipped stone cladding 2.2 meter stone fence Ackerstein tiles Heat radiating asphalt

E Medium light intensity

W

Low exposure level

As a rule, the neglect of the open private areas is not a positive phenomenon. However, in this particular location the unruly tree creates pleasant shades for those walking under it.

A stonewall along the stairs is used as an improvised hand support.

Analysis of walkability, intensity of sun and visibility Selected walking routes in District D, their exposure to light and public visibility, and an analysis of the effect of such elements as vegetation, support walls and lighting on accessibility and the comfortable feeling experienced by pedestrians.

056


N Medium light intensity

S

Medium exposure level

No street lighting. Most lighting at night comes from lighting on perpendicular streets and apartment windows.

Vegetation in the street is cultivated mainly by the residents.

Iron posts block car entrance.

During most of the day the route is shaded and pleasant although this is one of the only trees on the entire street.

N

High light intensity

S

Medium exposure level

Limestone and chalky marlstone

Loess sediment and gravel

Garland chrysanthemum

057


December

June Total shaded areas throughout the day

Modernism in the heart of the desert, out of sight This is a complete contradiction to Middle Eastern cities throughout history that were densely constructed in order to minimize surface area exposed to the sun.

058


“Public safety in cities – the safety of the sidewalk and street – isn’t maintained mainly by the police, necessary as it is. It is mainly maintained by a complex, almost unconscious network of voluntary controls and balances operated by the residents themselves… no police force can enforce civilization where normal, casual enforcement has been ruined.” Excerpted from The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs

Mapping visibility level of public areas from residents’ windows in District D

Out of sight Many areas in the neighborhood are out of the residents’ sight, therefore turning into deserted areas that are not supervised.

059


‫רחוב אברהם אבינו‬

‫ירדתי למכולת במרכז אורן והתחילו איתי ‪ 3‬גברים‪ ,‬חסמו לי‬ ‫את היציאה מהמכולת‪ ,‬בעל המכולת לא התערב )כנראה מכיר‬ ‫אותם או חבר שלהם(‪ ,‬אחד אחז בי בכוח בכתף ושאל למה אני‬ ‫לא זורמת‪ ,‬מרוב פחד לא יכולתי לצעוק‪ ,‬רק נאבקתי‬ ‫להשתחרר ורצתי משם‬

‫רחוב רינגלבלום‬

‫בשעה ‪ 13:00‬ע"י שיכור שניסה לגעת ולתפוס‬

‫רחוב רינגלבלום‬

‫רץ מאחורי לאחר שעקב אחרי‪ ,‬ואז תפס אותי‬ ‫מאחורה בחוזקה ואחז בחזה ובישבן‬

‫רחוב אלפרד רוסי‬

‫שעות הערב )‪ (19:00‬בערך ‪ ,‬ראיתי שעקב אחריי איש בסביבות גיל ה‪ ,40-‬יחד עם‬ ‫הכלב השלו‪ .‬הוא ביקש ממני לגשת אליו וקרא לי בכל מיני שמות‪ .‬כשהתעלמתי הוא‬ ‫אמר לכלב שלו שיתפוס אותי ורץ גם‪ .‬התקשרתי מהר לשותפה ורצתי הכי מהר שיכולתי‬

‫שדרות רגר‬

‫רכב חסם לי את הכביש בזמן שחציתי את מעבר החציה ולא נתן לי‬ ‫לעקוף אותו תוך כדי שהוא צועק מילים גסות‪ .‬זה היה מפחידהדקה‬ ‫הזאת הרגישה כמו נצח‪.‬‬

‫אם עוברים בשביל הזה בשעות הערב בטוח משהו רע יקרה‬

‫רחוב שלמה המלך‬

‫בשעות הערב המוקדמות הלכתי לבית של חברים‪ .‬בשביל שמוביל לבית שלהם עבר‬ ‫גבר מבוגר‪ ,‬עם שער כסוף מתולתל‪ ,‬נמוך‪ ,‬וניסה לדבר איתי ובשלב מסוים תפס‬ ‫בידי וניסה למשוך אותי לבוא איתו‪ .‬הצלחתי להתחמק ורצתי לבית של החברה‬

‫רחוב רבי עקיבא‬

‫רחוב רבי עקיבא‬ ‫הלך במהרה עם ידו במכנסיים ואז רץ לכיווני‬

‫הלכנו בלילה וראינו לפנינו אדם כבן ‪,50‬הולך‬ ‫במהרה עם ידו במכנסיים‪ ,‬הוא נעלם לנו מהאופק‬ ‫וכשהגענו לפתח הבניין הוא צץ שוב מהבניין ליד‬ ‫והתחיל לרוץ אחרינו )כנראה עשה קיצור דרך והמתין‬ ‫שנגיע לבניין(‪ ,‬עלינו במהרה ונעלנו את הדלת‬

‫רחוב מצדה‬

‫רחוב מצדה‬

‫ראיתי יוצא‬ ‫מהשיחים אלי‬ ‫תוך שהיד שלו‪.‬‬ ‫במכנסיים‬

‫פארק‬

‫שעה ‪ 11‬בלילה‪ ,‬ברגע שראיתי‬ ‫שהוא עם היד במכנסיים רצתי‬ ‫הביתה‪ .‬הוא רדף אחרי עד‬ ‫הכניסה לבניין‪ .‬פחד מוות‬

‫רחוב וינגייט‬

‫חזרתי לבנין וגבר‬ ‫מבוגר נכנס אחרי‬ ‫והתחיל לרדוף‬ ‫אחרי‪ ,‬רצתי כמו‬ ‫מטורפת ולא ידעתי‬ ‫איך זה ייגמר‪ .‬אני‬ ‫לא אשכח את זה‬ ‫בחיים‬

‫רחוב יצחק למדן‬

‫בשעה ‪ 14:00‬הלכתי הביתה‬ ‫מהלימודים כשגבר שחום עם‬ ‫שיער שחור ושפם הלך מולי‪.‬‬ ‫הוא התקרב אלי‪ ,‬ליטף לי‬ ‫את הזרוע ונהם‪ .‬כל זאת‬ ‫תוך כדי הליכה‪ .‬הייתי‬ ‫המומה ולא הצלחתי להגיב‬ ‫חוץ מלהגביר את קצב‬ ‫ההליכה‪ .‬הסתכלתי לאחור‬ ‫וראיתי שהוא המשיך ללכת‬ ‫לכיוון רחוב מצדה והסתובב‬ ‫להסתכל עלי כל כמה‬ ‫צעדים‪ .‬אחרי שהוא נעלם‬ ‫רצתי הביתה‬

‫מעבר בין בניין‬

‫בשעה ‪ 15:00‬בצהריים קפצו‬ ‫עלי שני בחורים בזמן‬ ‫שדיברתי בטלפון ממש באמצע‬ ‫הרחוב‪ ,‬הם משכו לי בשיער‪,‬‬ ‫הכו אותי וניסו לגנוב לי את‬ ‫הפלאפון‪ .‬צרחתי בכל הכח‬ ‫אבל אף אחד לא שמע אותי‪.‬‬ ‫השיחה התנתקה‪ .‬המשכתי‬ ‫להאבק בהם עד שהם ברחו‪.‬‬

‫רחוב מצדה‬

‫בשתי פעמים שונות נתקלתי‬ ‫בגבר מבוגר שאונן בחדר‬ ‫המדרגות שלי‪ .‬מדובר בשני‬ ‫גברים שונים‪ .‬פעם אחת‬ ‫הייתה בסביבות השעה ‪23:00‬‬ ‫ופעם שנייה בצהרי היום‬ ‫כשחזרתי מהאוניברסיטה‪ .‬שתי‬ ‫הפעמים היו באותו השבוע‪.‬‬ ‫בפעם הראשונה הזמנתי‬ ‫משטרה והם הגיעו אחרי שעה‪.‬‬ ‫בפעם השנייה כבר וויתרתי‪.‬‬ ‫מפחיד אפילו לעלות במדרגות‬ ‫לבד לבית שלי‬

‫הכניסה שלי לבניין חשוכה וכל‬ ‫הזמן יש לי אנשים ששותים בכניסה‬ ‫לבניין‪ ,‬או מעשנים‪ ,‬או סתם‬ ‫אנשים מוזרים שכל הזמן‬ ‫מסתובבים לנו בחדר המדרגות‪,‬‬ ‫אפילו כמה הומלסים נרדמו לנו‬ ‫באמצע הבניין ולבוא ולראות את‬ ‫זה באמצע הלילה זה ממש לא נעים‬ ‫לפני יומיים שעליתי בחדר‬ ‫המדרגות ראיתי בחור עם כלב שגם‬ ‫מתקרב לכניסה לבניין הכלב בא‬ ‫לנבוח וכנראה שבעל הכלב לא רצה‬ ‫שהוא יעשה רעש אז הוא פשוט בעט‬ ‫בכלב עד שהוא שתק והתחיל לעלות‬ ‫אחרי במדרגות‪ ,‬כמובן שרצתי‬ ‫בטירוף ונעלתי מהר את הדלת‬ ‫והבנאדם פשוט הלך‪ ,‬אומנם לא‬ ‫הייתה לי איתו יותר מידי‬ ‫אינטרקציה ונכון שגם שאר‬ ‫המקרים זה רק אנשים שעומדים‬ ‫בכניסה לבניין אבל אני מאמינה‬ ‫שזה עניין של זמן שיקרה משהו‬ ‫נורא אחר‬

‫‪Lack of personal security‬‬ ‫‪Based on random interviews with women, a local Facebook group was opened, encouraging women‬‬ ‫‪who have experienced street harassment to tell their story and locate it on the neighborhood map.‬‬

‫‪060‬‬


Deserted, hidden space between buildings on Alfred Rossi St.

Dark building entrance on Masada St.

Wild bushes blocking views on Shlomo Hamelech St.

061


“In the evening, around 7 pm, I saw a 40 year old man following me with his dog. He asked me to get closer and called me names. When I ignored him he told his dog to get me and started running in my direction. I called my roommate quickly and ran as fast as I could.”

“It was 8 in the evening. I came out of my apartment on Masada Street and under my window saw a 40 or 50 year old man giving himself pleasure. I saw him come out of the bushes with his hand in his trousers.” “I live on Masada, on the corner of Yehuda Halevy. The entrance to my building is dark, and there are always people drinking or smoking there, or strange people walking around in our stair room. A few homeless people have even fallen asleep inside our building, and coming home and seeing this in the middle of the night is very unpleasant. Two days ago I was going up the stairs and saw a man with a dog getting closer to the building’s entrance. The dog started barking and his owner didn’t want him to make any noise, so he simply kicked it until it was quiet and then began following me up the stairs. Of course I started running like crazy and locked the door quickly behind me. He simply went away. True, I didn’t have much interaction with him, and the other people were only standing at the entrance to our building. But I believe it is only a matter of time before something terrible happens.”

“In the early evening I went to visit some friends. A short man with curly gray hair was walking on the path leading to their home. He tried to talk to me and at one point grabbed my hand and tried to pull me and make me go with him.”

Freedom of motion for women in the city In almost every city in the world, women are unable to realize their right to move freely in every part of the city, particularly in troubled neighborhoods. Women are more exposed to harassment, and therefore tell of a sense of insecurity in some parts of the city. According to a study performed by the Central Bureau of Statistics in 2009, there is a difference between women’s and men’s sense of security: 84% of the men reported they felt safe walking alone in the

062

dark, compared to only 60% of the women. Mapping street harassments experienced by female students around the university brings to view the sense of insecurity experienced on the streets and in building entrances. This issue is a concern for many cities around the world, including Vienna. The municipality of Vienna operates a department headed by an urban planner who advances programs based on studies of the city’s uses by women.


‫סופת חול‬

Sandstorm

‫תהילה חכימי‬

Tehila Hakimi

Excerpted from: Tomorrow We Will Work

Along the buildings of Masada Road I walk I daydream The August heat dries my thoughts

‫ מחר נעבוד‬:‫מתוך‬

‫יבא ִל ְמ ָּצ ָּדה‬ ָּ ‫מד ֵרגֹות ֵּמ ַר ִבי ֲע ִק‬ ְ ‫ֶא ְתמֹול ַב ַליְ ָּלה ָּי ַר ְד ִתי ַב‬

‫דרך ְמ ָּצ ָּדה‬ ֶ ‫ָּב ַר ָּכבֹות € ֶשל‬

‫ּגופּה ָה ָרזֶ ה ִמ ְתנַ ְדנֵ ד‬ ָ ,‫יתי ִא ָּשה‬ ִ ‫וְ ָר ִא‬ ‫הֹול ֶכת‬ ֶ ‫ֲאני‬ Last night I was walking down the stairs from Rabbi Akiva to ‫ € ֶש ֶקל ַב ָּיד‬200 ‫יפה € ֶשל‬ ָ ִ‫אֹוחזֶ ת ִּב ְמנ‬ ֶ ‫הקיץ‬ ִ ‫חֹולמת ְָּב‬ ֶ ‫ֲאני‬ Masada ‫מר ְש ְר ִשים‬ ַ ‫ָּכל ַה ֶד ֶרך ָּש ַמ ְע ִתי ֶאת ַה ְש ָּטרֹות ַה‬ ‫מח ָּשבֹות‬ ֲ ‫אֹוּגוסט ְמיַ ֵּבש ִלי ֶאת ַה‬ ְ ‫ַהחֹם € ֶשל‬ And saw a‫ם‬woman, her thin body wobbling ִ‫ָּכ ֲאבו ִלי ַה ִּב ְר ַּכי‬ ‫יע ְל ֶמ ְר ַכז ַהנגֶ ב‬ ַ ִ‫ַעד € ֶשאג‬

Until I reach Merkaz Hanegev I may die I may have died already

a fan ‫ ֶלב ָחבול‬Holding ‫שאנִ י רֹוָ אה ֶּכ‬ ֲ 200-Shekel ‫ֹואב ִלי ְּכ‬ ֵּ ‫מֹו € ֶש ָּכ‬hand-held ‫ְָּכ‬ ‫ריסים‬ ִ ‫ת‬The ְ ‫את ַה‬entire ֶ ‫סגַ ְר ִתי‬way ָ ְ‫ ָּתה ו‬Iְ‫ּבי‬heard ָ ‫יתי ַה‬ ִ ‫על‬ ִ the bills rustling

knees ‫סופת חֹול‬ ַ My ‫בֹוא‬ ‫מחר ָּת‬ ָּ hurt ‫אמרו € ֶש‬ ְ ‫גַ ם ָּכ ָּכה‬

Like I hurt when I see an injured dog

‫ָּיכֹול ִל ְהיֹות € ֶשאּמות‬ ‫ָּיכֹול ִל ְהיֹות € ֶש ְכ ָּבר ַמ ִתי‬ ‫ַבמ ּכֹ ֶלת € ֶשל ּבוז'נַ ח‬ ‫הּשכן קֹונֶ ה ְב ֶע ְש ִרים € ֶש ֶקל‬ ֵ

In Bojnak’s grocery store

I went up to my apartment and closed the shutters

The neighbor buys for twenty Shekels

‫ ַה ְצ ָּר ִכים‬tomorrow ‫ים וְ לא ְל ִפי‬anyway ‫צר ִכים ְל ִפי ַה ְש ָּק ִל‬ ָּ ‫ְִמ‬ Because they said there would be a sandstorm

‫ַמה € ֶשנִ ְכ ָּנס ַב ְש ָּטר‬

Whatever the bill can buy Goods based on Shekels rather than necessities

Urban design and crime CPTED - Crime Prevention ‫מדינות רבות בעולם מאמצות את גישת‬ ‫ המשרד לביטחון פנים פרסם‬,‫ בישראל‬.Through Environmental Design “Broken Windows”, an essay in criminology from 1982 treats crime like .‫מדריך מקצועי למניעת פשיעה באמצעות עיצוב הסביבה‬

an epidemic stemming from neglect in public space. As an example, a broken window in a building will give the impression that the place ‫ טוענת כי עיצוב נכון ויעיל של הסביבה הבנויה יכול‬CPTED-‫גישת ה‬ is deserted. ‫ ערך‬.‫להוביל לצמצום אירועי הפשיעה והפחד ממנה ולשיפור באיכות החיים‬ Soon more windows will be broken, the building will be burglarized, ‫ טיפוח יחסי‬,‫חברתי חשוב הנלווה לכך הוא הגברת הסולידריות החברתית‬ and its condition will deteriorate further and further. This is true not .‫שכּנות טובה וערבות הדדית בקרב אזרחים‬ only of crime-ridden areas. During the study, a car with a broken window was left in the middle of a good neighborhood in California. After about a week, parts of the car began to disappear.

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‫עיצוב עירוני ופשע‬ ‫ מתייחס לפשע כאל‬,1982 ‫ מאמר בקרמינולוגיה משנת‬,"‫"חלונות שבורים‬ .‫מגיפה שנובעת מהזנחה במרחב הציבורי‬

Many countries around the world implement the CPTED approach (crime prevention through environmental design). In Israel, the ‫ במהרה‬.‫ חלון שבור במבנה יותיר את הרושם שהמקום נטוש‬,‫לדוגמה‬ Ministry of Public Security has published a professional handbook on ‫ הדבר נכון לא רק‬.‫ הבניין יפרץ והמצב יתדרדר עוד ועוד‬,‫ישברו עוד חלונות‬ crime prevention through environmental design. .‫לאיזורים הסובלים מפשיעה‬ The CPTED approach claims that correct, effective planning of the constructed environment can lead to a reduction in criminal events ‫במהלך המחקר הציבו מכונית עם חלון שבור באמצע שכונה טובה‬ and the sense of fear, and to an improvement in quality of life. An .‫ אחרי כשבוע החלו להיעלם חלקים מהרכב‬.‫בקליפורניה‬ important accompanying social value is increased social solidarity, the cultivation of better relationships among neighbors, and mutual responsibility between citizens.

063


How can the crater be turned from a barrier to a motivator for walking in the city? Nitzan Eliyahu Walkability in the neighborhood

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

064


Sport path Accessible path to everyone Walking path with partial accessibility (Desired path (Goat path, in Hebrew

‫שבילי עיזים במחצבה‬

‫נתיב אופניים‬

‫דרך סמי הליכות‬

‫אזור נגיש והליכתי לכולם‬

1:1000 :‫קנ"מ‬

Master plan - walkability This program addressed the physical separation of the various neighborhoods surrounding the crater by turning the area into an inviting place that encourages walking, and connecting the crater to the neighborhoods with pedestrian paths.

065


What civic tools can be used to improve the sense of security in the neighborhood’s public spaces? Yana Feedman Partners

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

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Lighting by residents + municipality

Pruning bushes

Sporting facilities, shade

Renewing walls and pavements

Revitalizing problematic areas through a collaborative process Deserted buildings and ecological resources that are currently a nuisance are being given new uses through a collabortive process operated by the residents and municipality. These are the first steps in establishing mutual trust, and they mark point of change prior to strategic intervention.

067


Local resources Deserted open spaces A sense of security

Local environment Right to the view The artificial crater– an Ottoman quarry – is hidden in the heart of the city as a natural reminder of the place from which the city evolved and the stone from which it is constructed. The natural desert environment in the crater is in direct contradiction to the planned city with the landscape imported from other lands.

069


‫המכתש נוכח באופן טבעי במרקם העירוני‬

‫במקום‬ ‫זה‬ ‫הניחו‬ ‫מיפוי‬ ‫כללי‬

‫שכבות קרקע‬

Topography and geology The artificial crater – a 19th century Ottoman quarry was used for building the old city – now changes the urban landscape and leaves a hole gaping between residential neighborhoods.

070


Beer Sheva as part of the Negev The buried canyon is an underground space shaped like a canyon – a deep channel with steep banks made of tall, erect cliffs. Its dimensions were discovered by underground drilling performed in the Negev for the purpose of finding water and oil. Footprints were found at a depth of 275 meters in Beer Sheva and 1500 meters near

its estuary in the proximity of Gaza. It was discovered to begin near Dimona and extend to the area between Be’eri and Sa’ad and all the way to the Mediterranean Sea south of Gaza. The depression’s estimated length is about 100 km.

071


ient

Anc

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ge

t led

en ntin

nea

Co

ea

ns

ea

ns

Co

rra

ge

t led

en ntin

dite

Me

nea

rra

dite

Me

Anc

river

Ancient river – Oligocene period

Regional peneplain where an ancient river undermines

The Oligocene canyon

As a result of the reduction of sea water level, the ancient river undermined and became a canyon.

rd

nt fio

nt tine

rra

Con

e

ledg

ea

ns

nea

ea

ns

Con

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ledg

dite

nt tine

Me

nea

rra

dite

Me

ie Anc

Miocene fiord – hammer configuration

The rising of sea water level flooded the continent and the canyon became a “fiord” with layers of marine sediments including hammer configuration rocks.

The Messinian canyon

The reduction of sea water level has led to the emptying of the “fiord” of seawater, and later to the layering of its floor. The hammer configuration layers formed on the fiord’s walls were exposed.

Pliocene-Pleistocene – eolianite and sand – sediments from the Nile

072

nt tine

Con

e

ledg

ea

Pleistocene – river sediments

ns

The rising of sea water level in the Pliocene period flooded the continent ledge. Along the coastal plain, coastal sediments were layered on each other, and the canyon was gradually blocked with river sediments. During the Pleistocene period, layers of eolianite and sand were formed, of the kind characteristic of today’s coastal plain.

nea

Canyon blocked with sediments – Pliocene period

rra

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ledg

dite

Me

Con

nt tine

ea

ns

nea

rra

dite

Me

n lai

lp

sta

a co

mer d ham e s o Exp ions gurat confi

ed lock n b ents o y Can sedim with

Exposed hammer configurations

The river channels flowing down to the Mediterranean Sea undermine into the Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments. In channels deeply undermined, a hammer configuration has been exposed.

Late Miocene – hammer" configuration Layers of rock from the surrounding area buried prior to the Oligocene period


The quarry: geological details The rocks sedimented inside the Beer Sheva - Gaza canyon

Depth: 26 meters Width: 200 meters An area of 48,000 square meters Three types of rocks were excavated in this quarry:

Philistine configuration eolianite – light, brittle stone that tends to disintegrate Light colored Sheva configuration chalky marl – stone similar in characteristics to chalky sandstone but a bit harder Ziklag configuration limestone rich in fossils (mainly corals and broken shells) – hard, dark stone, higher in quality than the two other types

073


Allenby Park 1917, the first public park to be planted in the new city of Beer Sheva, located in proximity to the Ottoman government building

A photograph of Beer Sheva from 1938

Excavating for future construction The construction of the city of Beer Sheva was begun by the Ottoman government in 1900. In order to build the new city, it was necessary to locate a place to excavate rocks, and the quarry was selected for this purpose. It was located 3.5 km away from the city – far from the settlement

074

area but close enough to transfer building stones. A close connection exists between the old city and the quarry. Removing the material from the quarry permitted creating the city from scratch. Today this connection is unknown and cannot be identified in space.


The old city today – its houses were constructed from stones excavated from the quarry

075


District D, 1958 (source: Tuviyahu archive)

The construction of District D Construction began in 1957 and continued until the late 70’s. The neighborhood was planned as a modern district with a variety of residential buildings. Most apartments were identical in size

076


District D, 1966 (source: JNF archive)

077


The Sharon Plan Beer Sheva, also known as “the capital of the Negev”, was planned as a metropolis that would serve Israel’s southern periphery based on modern planning principles such as zoning, separation of uses and transportation relying mainly on private cars.

078


Beer Sheva as part of the Negev Beer Sheva is located in the northern part of the Negev in a semi-arid area bordering the desert. The city is affected by the Mediterranean climate and the desert-wilderness climate. Therefore, it is characterized by low, irregular precipitation, low humidity and intense radiation from the sun. The average annual

precipitation in the area is 195 mm. In Beer Sheva 200 mm of rain occur on average in 36 days. The fluctuations between rainy and arid years are high and unexpected. The measured annual maximum was 339 mm (1964/5) while the minimum was 42 mm (1932/3).

079


December

June

Shade created by buildings in District D Large public areas – particularly residential buildings – are in a state of neglect with little vegetation. The buildings themselves provide partial shade in the summer.

080


081


Eucalyptus

Rusty Leaf Ficus

Pensylvanian Fraxinus Koelreuteria Bipinnata

Ficus

Tipuana Celtis Australis

Mediterranean Pine

Ziziphus Tipuana Tipu spina-christi

Tamarisk

Syrian Mesquite

White Mesquite

Different kinds of Acacia

SHADOWS IN THE DESERT sun and vegetation

Wrinkled Lilti Elephant Ear Tree

Pensylvanian Fraxinus

Tipuana

Mediterranean Pine

Wrinkled Lilti

Elephant Ear Tree Mediterranean Pine

Tamarisk

Ziziphus spina-christi

Tamarisk

White Mesquite

Wisteria Tree

Washingtonia Robusta

Washingtonia palm

Washingtonia palm

Crape Myrtle

Washingtonia palm

Date Palm

Canary Date Palm

Cyprus

Canary Date Palm

Ficus

Cactus

Rusty Leaf Ficus

Pomegranate Tree

Cyprus Nerium Oleander

Ficus

Rusty Leaf Ficus

Koelreuteria Bipinnata

Elephant Ear Tree

Tamarix Aphylla

Wisteria Tree

Ficus

Elephant Ear Tree

Ziziphus spina-christi

Orchid Tree

Pomegranate Tree

Crape Myrtle

Morus Alba

Yellow flowers shrubs

White Bursage

Ficus

Syrian Mesquite

Wisteria Tree

Ziziphus spina-christi

Ficus Blue Jacaranda

Yellow flowers shrubs

Orchid Tree Albizia Lebbek

Pomegranate Tree

White Bursage

Celtis Australis Tipuana

Elephant Ear Tree

Crape Myrtle

Morus Alba Acacia Julibrissin (Mimosa)

Agave

Biological variation and shade Desert vegetation, mostly seasonal, is common inside the crate. Different plants have been planted in the surrounding residential neighborhoods, many requiring intensive irrigation and cultivation.

082

Cactus Yellow flowers shrubs

White Bursage

Agave

Rusty Leaf Ficus

Koelreuteria Bipinnata Pensylvanian Fraxinus

Tipuana Tipu

Tipuana

Tamarix Aphylla Ceiba Speciosa

Oleander

Oleander

Cactus Oleander

Wisteria Tree

Syrian Mesquite

Tamarix Aphylla

Tipuana

Cactus

Nerium Oleander Acacia Julibrissin (Mimosa)

Blue Jacaranda

Cactus

Morus Alba

Ficus

Celtis Australis

Pensylvanian Fraxinus

Pensylvanian Fraxinus

Morus Alba

Koelreuteria Bipinnata

Celtis Australis

Cactus

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus

Cyprus

Pomegranate Tree

Eucalyptus

Washingtonia Robusta

Canary Date Palm

Ficus

Ceiba Speciosa

Blue Jacaranda

Acacia

Date Palm

Tamarix Aphylla

Ceiba Speciosa

Acacia

Date Palm

Tamarix Aphylla

Crape Myrtle

Albizia Lebbek

Different kinds of Acacia

Washingtonia Robusta

Orchid Tree

Different kinds of Acacia

Orchid Tree

Syrian Mesquite

White Mesquite

Acacia of the Negev

Acacia of the Negev

Wisteria Tree

Oleander

Orchid Tree

Pomegranate Tree

Blue Jacaranda

Yellow flowers shrubs

Ziziphus spina-christi

Crape Myrtle

Syrian Mesquite

Ceiba Speciosa

Blue Jacaranda

Albizia Lebbek

Ficus

Ceiba Speciosa

Tipuana Tipu

White Bursage

Morus Alba

Acacia Julibrissin (Mimosa)

Agave

Oleander

Yellow flowers shrubs

White Bursage


A ficus sycamore, upper part of the Kovshim River

An old carob tree, Dudaim Forest

Atlantic terebinth forest, Katef Beer Sheva

Tamarix aphylla, lower parts of the Ashan and Kovshim Rivers

Acacia raddiana, fields of Hammer Basin

Old ziziphus spina-christi, tributaries of Ashan River

European olive, upper part of Kovshim River

Date palm, lower parts of the Ashan and Kovshim Rivers Excerpted from: urban nature survey 2013, SPN

083


Excerpted from

“The Eye of the Cat” Haviva Pedaya A “park” is a magical word that turns some green grass and ugly playground “monsters” in Israel’s periphery into a Disneyland. On a trip to London, in a “real” park, our daughter asks us when we will take her to the park. And when she asks that, surrounded by huge lawns, colorful flowers and faltering geese, she means, “where is the plastic playground?” Our imagination has other plans: to preserve the wadi and cultivate it like a small natural reserve, to construct little dams that would restrain the flow of water in affluent winters that are becoming more and more rare. To direct the water to graduated banks that would preserve the amazing natural vegetation of the desert, magnificent by being gentle, hesitating, modest desert vegetation. Our imagination hopes that squares of ready-made grass that glimmer in green for several weeks – or green grass made of ever-lasting plastic – will not blur the beauty of the desert gray-silvergreen of the orache bush and the gentleness of the tiny flowers and large tubers of the squills. To encourage more desert vegetation on the wadi slopes. The plain covered with dust near the slopes can be turned into lawns that would fit the name “park”.

084


Spur-winged plover

Stone-curlew

Little owl

Shrike

Common kestrel

Hoopoe and crested lark

Hoopoe and crested lark

Lesser kestrel

085


How can the crater’s landscape lead to a turn in the character and identity of the neighbourhood? Giulia Temin ZIP IT

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

086


Progressive landscape An active geological park planned in varying levels of landscape intensity based on climatic characteristics

087


088


A Meeting point between the city and desert A public-educational building that will serve as an entrance gate to the park with an interrelation to its environment. The meeting point between the desert and urban landscape will offer new activities that would reinforce the identity of the surrounding neighborhoods.

089


What mechanism of interrelation between landscape and culture can be developed for the district’s benefit? Yael Cohen and Anat Alon

Nature

Entrances

Sports

Free Square Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

090


A series of events leaving footprints behind them A planning strategy seeks to bridge between the residents’ needs and the municipality’s vision of attracting audiences and holding branded events, by inviting organizations and entrepreneurs to hold events based on an infrastructure tailored to the residents’ needs.

091


Local resources Deserted open spaces A sense of security Local environment

Right to the view Who can have a view of the crater? One of the crater’s unique characteristics is being a monument within the local landscape. Throughout the year, the crater provides magnificent blossoms and a vast open area in the heart of the built environment. However, the ability to see the crater isn’t the same from its various sides. An analysis of the viewpoints to the crater exposes a significant difference in the ability to view the crater’s landscape, with only minimal parts visible from District D.

093


‫במקום‬ ‫זה‬ ‫הניחו‬ ‫מיפוי‬ ‫כללי‬

Views from the neighborhood to the crater Residents living in proximity to the arid crater find it difficult to cross it and use it as an active urban area.

094


Views from the neighborhood to the crater The crater’s depth and steepness makes it possible for anyone to get lost in the city.

095


‫במקום‬ ‫זה‬ ‫הניחו‬ ‫ניתוח‬ ‫אישי‬

‫‪096‬‬


Empty outside, empty inside A view from the heart of the crater, focusing on the facades of the residential buildings around it – closed and quiet. The relationship between the residents and the crater add up to merely a distant look – unrealized expectations

097


Exposed

Private

Degrees of exposure

15 views from the neighborhood to the crater. The steep topography and height differences generate a variety of exposure options within the crater.

098


099


A concise history of my city Alfred Cohen First there was a well And then six more

And then emptiness For 2000 years

And then a neighborhood And another A road

A street A town A city

Immigration

More immigration

Another immigration wave And then Mom and Dad And then me A traffic light

Traffic light removed A square

And another And now

A fountain.

One of the new fountains of the city at the Montreal Square, Ramot District

Beer Sheva’s beach Over the last several years, the municipality of Beer Sheva has invested many resources in developing the city’s public areas. A significant part of its development budget has been invested in a plan for water fountains and moving water elements illuminated with colorful light throughout the city. These elements are mostly located along main

100

traffic routes and are highly visible to the vehicles. However, they are inaccessible to pedestrians and cannot be contacted by the public. Against this background, “Beer Sheva’s Beach” is an interesting phenomenon attracting large crowds of residents who play in the water on sunny days.


Shany Eliyahu Park on the border of District D and the Ramot District in the Northern entrance to Beer Sheva

101


How can the area’s resources be distributed more equally? Bar Mussan Levi Abundance and leftovers

Low income large number of immigrants

Medium income Freeof Square average number immigrants

Dots Graph Paper from http://incompetech.com/graphpaper/squaredots/

High income few immigrants

Redefining the boundaries of Beer Sheva’s neighborhoods There is a direct connection in Beer Sheba between the number of immigrants in each neighborhood to its socio-economic status and respectively to the degree of municipal investment. One statutory revision can change everything.

102


The plan for the cafĂŠ

Section

Changes in the land

Commerce Access Water reservoir

Exposure to new publics Using the range of exposure at the crate as a means for locating commercial functions requiring a high level of visibility

103


THE QUARRY BEER SHEVA CIVIL ARCHITECTURE STUDIO. BEZALEL 2014

Editing

Arch. Liat Brix Etgar Arch. Bat-el Yossef Nisan Almog Arch. Robert Ungar Yana Feedman Design

Avigail Roubini Arch. Robert Ungar Ohad Hadad Instructors

Arch. Liat Brix-Etgar Arch. Dan Hasson Arch. Matanya Sack Arch. Bat-el Yossef Nisan Almog Quarry Project Curators

Prof. Arch. Yael Moria Arch. Jonathan Cohen-Litant Project Coordinator

Noam Martin Students

Michal Lilienthal Yael Cohen Anat Alon Nitzan Eliahu Arierl Pila Bar Mussan Levi Yana Feedman Diana Avshalomov Hadas Salame Yamit Ashkenazy Tamar Shoshan Stav Rabinovich Yitzhak Cohen Saban Giulia Tamin Debora Willems Yann Doduik Gioditta Nacamulli Guidia Marchisio Special Thanks

Arch. Yossefa Debra, Arch. Meirav Morad, Dr. Gili Baruch, Yehuda Alush, Moran Selkmon, Yehonatan Yifrach and neighborhood residents who shared their vast knowledge openly and patiently. This project has been made possible by Bracha Foundation and support from the Council for Higher Education

‫המכתש ובאר שבע‬ ‫סטודיו אדריכלות אזרחית‬ 2014 ‫בצלאל‬

‫עריכה‬

‫אתגר‬-‫אדר' ליאת בריקס‬ ‫אל יוסף‬-‫אדר׳ בת‬ ‫ניסן אלמוג‬ ‫אדר׳ רוברט אונגר‬ ‫יאנה פידמן‬ ‫עיצוב‬

‫אביגיל רוביני‬ ‫אדר׳ רוברט אונגר‬ ‫אוהד חדד‬ ‫צוות הוראה‬

‫אתגר‬-‫אדר׳ ליאת בריקס‬ ‫אדר׳ דן חסון‬ ‫אדר׳ מתניה ז״ק‬ ‫אל יוסף‬-‫אדר׳ בת‬ ‫ניסן אלמוג‬ ‫אוצרי פרויקט המכתש‬

‫פרופ' אדר' נוף יעל מוריה‬ ‫ליטאנט‬-‫אדר' יהונתן כהן‬ ‫מרכז הפרויקט‬

‫נועם מרטין‬ ‫סטודנטים‬

‫מיכל לילנטל‬ ‫יעל כהן‬ ‫ענת אלון‬ ‫ניצן אליהו‬ ‫אריאל פילה‬ ‫לוי‬-‫בר מוסן‬ ‫יאנה פידמן‬ ‫דיאנה אבשלומוב‬ ‫הדס סלמה‬ ‫ימית אשכנזי‬ ‫תמר שושן‬ '‫סתיו רבינוביץ‬ ‫יצחק סבן‬ ‫ג'וליה טמין‬ ‫דבורה ווילמס‬ ‫יאן דודוביק‬ ‫ג'ודיתה נקאמולי‬ ‫ג'ודיה מרכיסיו‬ ‫תודות מיוחדות‬

‫ ד"ר גילי‬,‫ אדר' מירב מורד‬,‫אדר' יוספה דברה‬ ‫ יהונתן יפרח‬,‫ מורן סלקמון‬,‫ יהודה אלוש‬,‫ברוך‬ ‫ותושבי השכונה שחלקו איתנו את הידע הרב‬ .‫שלהם בפתיחות ובסבלנות‬ ‫עבודה זו התאפשרה בזכות קרן ברכה וסיוע‬ ‫הות"ת לקורסים משלבי עשייה חברתית‬


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