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Berta Linda Navarro

Kansas City International Airport | Kansas City, MO Kansas State University Programming | Fall 2012



Table of Contents Introduction Executive Statement What Passengers Say Goals and Objectives

Design Resources 6-7 8 9

Precedents SFO T2 Airport Signage Sense of Place Design Arcona: Seating Design Venice Marco Polo International Airport, Italy: Airport Branding Retail Amsterdam Schipol Airport, Lounge One, The Netherlands: Food and Beverage

12-21 22-27 28-31 32-37 38-39

Materials Color Biophilia Lighting Day lighting Anthropometrics Ergonomics Standards for Design

68 69-75 76-79 80 81 82 83-84

Annotated Bibliography


40-47 48-51

Site Analysis Location Background Physical Characteristics Existing Conditions Adjacency Diagrams Terminal Layouts

54 55 56-57 58-59 60 61-65





Executive Statement The notion of air travel as a luxury has been neglected over the years. It is time that the journey of air travel becomes an event in itself for people to be keen on to experience once again. A new era demands a new design for the Kansas City International Airport that includes a new plan of one of the terminals. This will help increase revenue and provide passengers with more comfort and higher level of satisfaction. “After the attacks [of 9/11], the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) swiftly transformed airport screening procedures, forcing airports and passengers to adapt. Within weeks of 9/11, stringent and unfamiliar security protocols were in place, airports were crowded, and travelers were agitated and uncomfortable (Hooper).” Before 9/11, security was not a priority. People arrived at the airport 30 minutes before their flight was scheduled for departure. There was no need to create an experience at the airport for passengers when they were hardly there to take it in. With longer waits, the quality of the experience demands for attention. Security and screening procedures have called for “postsecurity spaces that allow passengers to regroup in peace after passing through security (Hooper).” “Since passengers now spend more time in terminals waiting to board their flights, the focus is on providing an environment where everyone can access the amenities they want while staying informed about their flight status. This means designing terminals that offer restaurants, lounges, shops and even mini-spas, all within clear sight of departure gates (Hooper).” “Travelers today carry a multitude of electronic devices, so access to convenient electrical outlets and a variety of seating options are important. Business travelers need places to work at a counter, plug in their phones, and access WiFi. Leisure travelers might want to watch a movie on an iPad while relaxing at lounge seating. Students may want to enjoy a cup of coffee at a


follow, easy to see and which provides some sort of belonging with the rest of the architecture and design will shape the traveler’s journey.


counter while finishing a homework assignment on a laptop (Hooper).” These luxuries along with signage that is simple and easy to

As Kansas City continues to grow, more and more people are drawn to the city from all over the country and world. First

impressions set a tone for people. “Airports are gateways to a country or region, and as such why should they not reflect the local culture, surroundings, and materials (Thomas-Emberson, 58)?” It should fabricate a brand for travelers. Enticing one into the forgotten notion of air travel as a luxury. Travel should be a joyful experience with comfort and ease. The San Francisco International Airport Terminal 2 will be used as a case study. This airport does an excellent job of creating a brand and bringing back the pleasure of travel. Times have changed. The new design will be a model for the comfort of passengers without compromising the functions of an airport for the present and future. The design of the airport for the era it was built for no longer functions well for this era. It no longer provides for the passengers’ needs. These needs are keenly researched and observed for the new design’s success. The design will include the master plan of the terminal with focus on the different stations a passenger would stop or pause at before arriving at their gate for departure. Amenities surrounding a series of gates will also be explored. In addition to the luxuries offered to outgoing passengers, areas for incoming passengers and awaiting hosts will be investigated as well.

Kansas City International Airport Executive Statement


What Passengers Say

Americans say air travel is... Stressful (44%) Frustrating (41%) Exhausting (32%) Fun (18%) Relaxing (7%)



Goal: Improve the function of the airport for the present and future era

Objective: Make shops and restaurants more readily available to passengers while they wait for flights. Objective: Provide better signage to direct passengers Objective: Create separate zones for pick-up and drop-off for passenger Objective: Shorten the wait at security check-point Objective: Eliminate long lines and reduce the need for airline personnel


Goals and Objectives

Form Goal: Create an environment passengers can enjoy

Objective: Provide places for relaxation Objective: Provide entertainment for passengers Objective: Include dynamic lighting Objective: Offer multiple options of receiving flight and tracking information Objective: Provide a higher level of convenience

Economy Goal: Minimize operation costs

Objective: Create a more efficient design Objective: Make use of various forms of energy to power the building

Time Goal: Allow for change

Objective: Provide signage that is easily interchangeable Objective: Introduce different means of display

Aesthetics Goal: Represent Kansas City’s lively nature

Objective: Provide a mixture of retail shops and local restaurants Objective: Provide local art installations

Kansas City International Airport What Passengers Say and Goals and Objectives





SFO T2 San Francisco International Airport Terminal 2

$383 million project State-of-the-art domestic terminal Home to American Airlines and Virgin America 640,000 square feet with capacity for 5.5 million enplaned passengers per year 14 gates expected to serve predominantly narrow-body aircraft, but with the capability of ac-

commodating a Boeing 747 - 400 sized aircraft

30,793 square feet of retail development, including 12 restaurants, 9 retail stores, a

gourmet marketplace with a wine bar and a spa

A pedestrian bridge to AirTran Major works and exhibitions of public art in partnership with the San Francisco Arts Commission Sustainable features, including paperless ticketing and preferential parking for hybrid cars

LEED Gold Certification The first


airport dining program in the country to recruit food vendors offering whole-

some fare from local sources that is prepared in a healthful manner

“Creating a facility that provides travelers with an easy and memorable experience while capturing the spirit of the local San Francisco community.”

6,000 sq. ft. recomposure zone Gates designed with a living room feel

Comfortable furniture evocative of top area

hotel lobbies

Laptop plug-in stations Three large double-height naturally illu-


Overview and Vision

minated spaces aid in wayfinding at key decision-making points

Colorful meet-and-greet lobby before bag-

gage claim Baggage claim re-imagined as a hybrid piece of “kinetic art”

Two distinct children’s play areas A soothing and atmospheric color palate A sculptural ceiling in baggage claim Glass canopies and curtain walls allow natural day lighting to come in and reduce the use of electric lighting. Low emission glass regulated both heat and glare. The transparency also allows one to easy find their way to airline counters.

As one approaches the terminal , one is greeted with Norie Sato’s artwork, titled “Air Over Under”. It was inspired by ones relationship to clouds and flight. The sky is a key design theme of Terminal 2. Artwork from local and national merit artist is displayed throughout.

SFO T2 Overview and Vision



The SFO T2 has a great open floor plan with more lanes at the security screening for shorter wait in line.




Bold signage and clean lines help locate the check-in counter and gates. A displacement ventilation system is used maintaining the temperature at 70 degrees. It is self-regulated and corresponds to the temperature outside.

SFO T2 Architectural and Interior Elements



After going through security an area with plenty of seating is used to gather ones things, put shoes back on an regroup with people in ones traveling party.




LEED Gold Certified. The SFO T2 makes use of a hydration area to refill water bottles, has a waste reduction program implemented, as well as a reclaimed water reuse program.

SFO T2 Recompose and Sustainability


Dining and Shopping

Dining and shopping are a reflection of the local San Francisco area which is made up of many diverse neighborhoods. Materials and color palettes subtly change throughout. A “club room� feel for everyone to enjoy sets this airport apart from others.



Children’s Area

Areas for children to play contain artwork and interactive kinetic sculptures like this backdrop made out of plywood and this butterfly wall.

SFO T2 Dining, Shopping, and Children’s Area



Gensler has done an impeccable job addressing issues found in airport design for today’s era. They have taken the functions an airport is supposed to have and turned them into an experience along with providing a memorable experience. Gensler has supplied a soothing atmosphere through the use of local and national merit artwork as well as a reproduction of the spirit of San Francisco for one to enjoy and be a destination in itself.




SFO T2 Conclusion


“Travelers need consistent, concise, accurate and timely information when they are in the airport environment. If a traveler is unable to find their way it can lead to frustration and a poor experience (Australian Customs and Border Protection Service).�

Airport Signage


There are

four design principles when placing wayfinding in an airport terminal.


Airport Signage

Dubai International Airport

Flughafen Z端rich AG

1_Entrance Points Los Angeles International Airport

At whatever point you enter the airport, the entrance should be signified in a special and recognizable way that is consistent and conveys a sense of welcome.

Airport Signage 1_Entrance Points


Airport Signage

Madrid-Brajas Airport Dublin Airport

2_Processing Points

Within the airport environment, a consistent language should draw you towards and prepare you for the key processing points. Warsaw Chopin Airport


Singapore Changi Airport


Airport Signage

Gatwick Airport

Curacao Airport

3_Exit Points Flughafen Z端rich AG

When leaving an exit processing point or the airport building, that exit should be signified in a reassuring way that is consistent and conveys a sense of completion.

Airport Signage 2_Processing Points and 3_Exit Points


Airport Signage

Puerto Vallarta Airport

4_Exit Information

Exit routes should be clearly distinguishable from all other information on static signs to help travellers easily locate them in emergency situations.


Frankfurt Airport

Budapest Airport

Ve n ic e M ar c o Pol o Int erna t i o na l A i rpo rt , Italy


Airport Signage


“The overall [of the Venice Marco Polo International Airport] provides not only an elegant vista over the lagoon for arriving passengers,

but has its architectural style firmly anchored in

Italian tradition

(Thomas-Emberson, 54).� A i r p o r t s i g n a g e s h o u l d b e s i m p l e t o f o l l o w, e a s y t o s e e a n d p r o v i d e s o m e s o r t o f s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e a n d d e s i g n . Ve n i c e M a r c o P o l o I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s a p r i m e e x a m p l e .

Airport Signage 4_Exit Information and Venice Marco Polo International Airport


“Airports are gateways to a country or region, and as such why should they not reflect the local culture, surroundings, and materials (Thomas-Emberson, 58)?�

Sense of Place Design


Bradley’s Country Store

Many airports are starting to i n c o r p o r a t e l o c a l p r o d u c t s . A i rport marketing coordinator Ryan Betcher said “retailers saw a boost in sales when they began offering a greater percentage of Ve r m o n t p r o d u c t s , a n d e v e n m o r e a r e e x p e c t e d o n t h e a i r p o r t ’s store shelves soon (Midura).” Skinny Pancake a local favorite i s s e t t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o B u rlington International Airport later t h i s y e a r. As a first initiative in the Ta l l a h a s s e e R e g i o n a l A i r p o r t , B r a d l e y ’s S a u s a g e D o g s w a s a d d ed to the food court menu. “Supporting local businesses demons t r a t e s t h e a i r p o r t ’s c o m m i t m e n t t o i t s c o m m u n i t y. T h i s i n i t i a t i v e may have a limited impact on the l o c a l e c o n o m y, b u t a s a c o l l a b orative effort, it is instrumental in demonstrating the importance of thinking locally to our entire c o m m u n i t y, ” s a i d S u n i l H a r m a n , D i r e c t o r o f A v i a t i o n ( C i t y o f Ta l l a hassee Release).


Sense of Place Design


Sense of Place Design Local Products in Airports


Sense of Place Design

Fresh local produce is even being added with a supermarket section. “Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport now has a farmer’s market selling basil, cilantro, thyme and other fresh herbs grown inside the airport’s aeroponic garden, fresh fruit from a local produce vendor, healthy snacks and to-go meals and, soon, products made with honey harvested from the airport’s apiary (Baskas).”


D ane C oun t y Reg i o n a l Airp o rt , M a d i so n W i sc o n s i n , US A


Sense of Place Design

The design for the Dane County Regional Airport started based on the region of its location. “Inspiration was to come from such elements as local architecture, native landscapes and place-specific connections (Thomas-Emberson, 58).” The Prairie School character was incorporated to mimic the Midwestern landscape. Regional materials showcase local craftspeople and Frank Lloyd Wright influence is seen within the design to create a more local feel. A section is dedicated to Madison’s very own local goods to further give one the sense of what Madison has to offer.

Sense of Place Design Local Products in Airports and Dane County Regional Airport


“If you thought airport chairs were for sitting on, think again! They are for standing on, supporting luggage, common receptacles for food and beverage leftovers, and if you are in some airports in the world that have a problem with unwanted guests, an object on which to vent your hatred (Thomas-Emberson, 78).”

Arconas Seating Design

“Arconas has installed its hold room seating in more than 160 airports around the world including Dallas-Fort Worth, Los Angeles, Boston, Ottawa, Lisbon and Hong Kong. Our dedicated

Airport Solutions Team

works closely with terminal operators, airlines, architects and designers to help achieve each airport’s unique objectives. We are committed to enhancing the overall passenger experience in ways that celebrate aesthetics, safety, convenience and comfort (ARCONAS).”


Seating Design Precedent


Seen in over 100 airports, the Flyaway collection has a classic design. It offers high backs, effective lumbar support and thick, cushions, footrests and drink holders. Seat and back cushion can be easily replaced for low-maintenance. Different cushion options as well as optional foot rests and cup holders make it easy for a designer to make provide the luxuries passengers need.

Seating Design ARCONAS: Introduction and Flyaway


BERNĂ™ Seating Design

BernĂš is more contemporary in style and offers more material options like wood and polyurethane surface which comes in a variety of styles. Curved or straight beams can be selected for straight or curved walls respectively.


SETZ and LANDINGS Precedent

Seating Design

Setz and Landings offer comfort and flexibility. They both offer upper-back support with the angled seating position. Both Setz and Landings are available in single line configurations and back-to-back configurations as well as without arms.

Seating Design ARCONAS: Bern첫, Setz, and Landings


AEREA Seating Design

Aerea offers the comfort of seating in VIP lounges along with the durability of high-traffic areas. Aerea can be set up with or without arms as well as with free-standing or attached tables.


OUTLETS Precedent

Seating Design

Arcona Corporation has also included the option of adding charging stations or outlets to the seating. Seating Design ARCONAS: Aerea and Outlets


Venice Marco Polo International Airport, Italy Airport Branding

JHP Architects has taken the Venice Marco Polo International Airport and created a

brand. As a vacation

destination, Venice has an identity perceived throughout the world. JHP has translated this identity into the brand of the airport to show passengers what this destination has to offer (Thomas-Emberson, 98).



Airport Branding

Airport Branding Venice Marco Polo International Airport, Italy



successful airport then it is effective commercial masterplanning. Get this wrong, or do not do it at all, and “If there is one factor above all others that makes for a commercially financial disaster is imminent (Thomas-Emberson, 100).�




direct all passenger flow past all shops. It is not always possible but it should be the priority

“1. The goal should be to (Thomas-Emberson, 100).�

Retail Multiple Examples



“2. Make sure that retail is


visible from key passenger routes (Thomas-Emberson, 100).�




Integrate seating areas, which could be food and beverage facilities into the masterplan to assist in encouraging passengers to remain amongst the commercial space rather than moving off to gates (Thomas-Emberson, 100).� “3.

Retail Multiple Examples



“4. If, through site constraints, it is necessary to trade on more than one level, catering should be on the upper level. Passengers are more likely to ‘travel’ to that area than to retail (Thomas-Emberson, 100).”




variety depths

“5. Shops should have a of to the units to enable retailers with their optimum without wasting valuable commercial frontage (Thomas-Emberson, 100).�

different trading formats to retail to Retail Multiple Examples



“6. In order to hold passengers in retail-led lounges, adequate flight information screens should be planned to

keep people

informed in the trading area (ThomasEmberson, 100).�




A mixture of

both local


global retail should be incorporated

into the design. “The mix of the local and global was based on a strategy that gave importance and credibility to the local offer within the retail mix as a whole (ThomasEmberson, 108).�

Retail Multiple Examples


Amsterdam Schipol Airport, Lounge One, The Netherlands Food and Beverage

“Food and beverage are absolutely critical to the travelling public. If you are delayed, it helps to soothe the nerves and spend the time. (Thomas-Emberson, 140).” Amsterdam Schipol Airport, Lounge One, renovated their food and beverage department to better provide for their multinational traffic. The notion of


ing is different in every culture. What people eat or drink at certain times of the day vary. For

example, breakfast for those from the UK is from waking up until about 10 o’clock. Coffee is drunk around 11. Lunch after midday followed by high tea from three to five. Dinner from six to nine and anything after nine is supper. Here in the U.S. people eat and drink whatever and whenever they want (Thomas-Emberson, 142). Ten concepts were conceived as a result. When designing the food and beverage department of the airport designers not only thought about the different nationalities passing through, but the time slots people had to catch their flight.

Three different groups were distinguished: those who had around 10 minutes, those who had a little more time at around 20 minutes, and the biggest group at about 42 percent of passengers having hours between flights. These considerations proved to be essential when sales increased 41 percent (Thomas-Emberson, 140-151).”



Food and Beverage

10 minutes

Group 1: People who have very little time to catch their next flight will only buy something if it is quick, on their way, and easily portable. Refreshments for this group should be in the flow area with no seating and minimal standing tables available for people to linger.

Food and Beverage Amsterdam Schipol Airport, Lounge One, The Netherlands


Food and Beverage

20 minutes

Group 2: People having a little more time will venture out a little further for something they are looking for or to have a short moment of relaxation. Goods for this group can be out of the flow area, but still visible from the main circulation.



Food and Beverage


Group 3: 42 percent of people travelling through Amsterdam Schipol Airport, spend hours waiting for their flights. These people need an area out of the way of traffic flow with comfortable seating, different meal selections, the choice of picking out the food yourself and even full service with a waiter.

Food and Beverage Amsterdam Schipol Airport, Lounge One, The Netherlands






25 min from Downtown Kansas City


Right off of I-29 and I-435 interstate highways.

The site of the Kansas City International Airport is located Northwest of Kansas City. It consists of three terminals.

The site is located not far from K a n s a s C i t y, r a n k e d b y F r o m m e r ’s


top tourist d e s t i n a t i o n s in the world in Population 459,787 2011. It is home to K a u f f m a n White persons 59.2% Center for the PerBlack persons 29.2% forming Arts, National Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin 10% World War I Museum, Native American 0.5% Sprint Arena, Power Asian persons 2.5% and Light District, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 0.2% Sea Life Kansas City Persons reporting 2 or more races 3.2% Aquarium and LegoWhite persons not Hispanic 54.9% L a n d , Tr u m a n S p o r t s Other 4.5% Complex, LiveStrong Climate Sporting Park, Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, as one of the



along with multiple shopping


districts. Seasons range fro

treme cold h o t w e a t h e r.


Analysis Location and Background


Physical Characteristics

The site rests nestled in the middle of

flat plains adI-29 and I-435 interstate The Berlin Reservoir

hundreds of acres of jacent to

highways. provides a charming backdrop for passengers as they arrive at the airport.



Physical Characteristics

O n a v e r a g e , t h e w a r m e s t m o n t h i s J u l y. T h e h i g h e s t r e c o r d e d t e m perature was 112째F in 1954. January is the average coolest month. The lowest recorded temperature was -19째F in 1989. The maximum average precipitation occurs in June.

Analysis Physical Characteristics


Existing Conditions

The Kansas City International Airport terminals currently have one main circulation path creating a datum for gates, restaurants, and shops. There isn’t a sense of distinction among the different transition points or spaces within the terminal; all the spaces seem to blend together. The signage used also blends in with it’s surroundings. A lot of blue and green is used to bring spaces together, but nothing is used to provide passengers with a clear direction where they need to go.



Existing Conditions


Three terminals are not needed in order for the Kansas City International Airport to operate. One single terminal with 30 gates is all that is needed. This would cut down tremendously on operating and maintence costs.

Te r m i n a l

Gate # (# of gates)

Air Canada


23-30 (6)

Air Tran


32 (1)

Alaska Airlines


50-60 (7)

American Airlines




50-60 (7)



81-85 (5)



37-45 (7)



23-30 (6)

US Airways


6-8 (3)

Share gates

76-79 (4) Share gates

Analysis Existing Conditions


Adjacency Diagram 1 1 Service Functions 2 Ticket Sales 3 Restrooms 4 Waiting/Resting 5 Baggage Check/Claim 6 Security 7 Flight Info 8 Boarding/Deplaning 9 Mail/Light Cargo 10 Corridors, Elevators, Escalators 11 Passenger Convenience 12 Newsstand/Gift Shops 13 Restaurant 14 Car Rental 15 Air Carrier Operations 16 Communications Center 17 Ground and Air Crew Ready Rooms 18 Maintenance 19 Air Traffic Control 20 Ground Traffic Control 21 Airport Administration 22 Fire Protection 23 Utilities


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Terminal Layouts

Pier/Finger Advantages

Centralized resources human, facilities, amenities Facilitates pax management Economical to build Effeicient use of land


Long walking distances Curbside congestion Limited expansion capability Reduced aircraft circulation and maneuverability Limited compatability of furture aircraft design development

Analysis Adjacency Diagram and Terminal Layouts


Terminal Layouts

Linear Advantages

Shortest walking distance Clear orientation Simple construction Adequate curb length Shorter close-out times Lower bagage systems costs (conveying/sorting) using decentralized system


Duplication of terminal facilities/amenities Longer minimum connecting time Longer walking distances for transfer passengers Special logistics for handling of transfer bags Less flexibility in terminal and apron for futrure changes in operations eg. aircraft design, airlines



Terminal Layouts

Tr a n s p o r t e r Advantages

Easy compatibility of terminal/apron geometry and furture aircraft design development Ease of aircraft maneuverability Ease of expansion capability for aircraft stands Simple and smaller central terminal Cost saving


Higher instances if passenger delays Early closed-out times High capital, maintenance and operating costs Susceptible to industrial disputes with vehicle drivers Increased vehicular monements on airside with aircraft Curbside congestion Increased minimum connecting times

Analysis Terminal Layouts


Adjacency Diagram

Satellite Advantages

Centralized resources human, facilities, amenities Facilitates pax management Additional satellites can be designed to accomodate future aircraft design developments


Requires high technology, underground transportation system High capital, maintenance and operating costs Curbside congestion Limited expansion capability at main terminal Increases minimum connecting times Early closed-out times



Terminal Layouts

C o m p a c t M o d u l e U n i t Te r m i n a l Advantages

Short walking distance Late closed-out times Longer curb length than convetional central terminal Capital investment is commensurate with demand Simple passenger and baggage transportation/sorting system within each module Low baggage mishandling potential


Multi-compact module units require passenger and bag transfer systems between terminals Duplication of facilities, higher operating costs

Analysis Terminal Layouts



Design Resources



Wall materials should generate harmony through color and texture. Color theory should be used to select colors that are c a l m i n g f o r t h e a n x i o u s p a s s e n g e r s . Te x t u r e d w a l l t r e a t m e n t s in moderation shall be used to allow for visual and touchable v a r i a b i l i t y. F l o o r i n g i s t o b e d u r a b l e f o r t h e m a n y p a s s e n g e r s a n d l u g g a g e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h e a c h d a y. T h e u s e o f v i n y l w o o d planks provides the look of wood floors with the durability of c o m p o s i t e m a t e r i a l s f o r c i rc u l a t i o n a n d t r a n s i t i o n s p a c e s . C a rpet tiles which provide acoustic control are suited for waiting areas by the gates.


Red Red is the color of extremes. It’s the color of passionate love, seduction, violence, danger, anger, and adventure. Our prehistoric ancestors saw red as the color of fire and blood – energy and primal life forces – and most of red’s symbolism today arises from its powerful associations in the past.

Design Resources


Red is also a magical and religious color. It symbolized super-human heroism to the Greeks and is the color of the Christian crucifixion. Red was almost as rare and as expensive as purple in ancient days – a fact that may explain its magic and power. Paradoxically, today’s intense red dyes come from crushed insects (the lac beetle and the cochineal).

Global Meanings Red is one of the top two favorite colors of all people. Red is the most popular color used on flags in the world. Approximately 77% of all flags include red. Red is the international color for stop. Red districts sell sex and pornography in every European culture. The history of languages reveals that red is the first color after black and white. (All languages have words for black and white. If a third hue exists, it is red.)

How Red Affects Vision Red captures attention. It is one of the most visible colors, second only to yellow - which explains why it is used on fire engines and stop signs to trigger alertness. Red focuses behind the retina which forces the lens grows more convex to pull it forward. Therefore, we perceive that red areas are moving forward. This may explain why red captures attention. Note: Eight percent of the male population has a red-green color vision deficiency and cannot see red at all

Analysis Materials and Color


Color Ye l l o w Yellow is the most luminous of all the colors of the spectrum. It’s the color that captures our attention more than any other color. In the natural world, yellow is the color of sunflowers and daffodils, egg yolks and lemons, canaries and bees. In our contemporary humanmade world, yellow is the color of Sponge Bob, the Tour de France winner’s jersey, happy faces, post its, and signs that alert us to danger or caution. It’s the color of happiness, and optimism, of enlightenment and creativity, sunshine and spring. Lurking in the background is the dark side of yellow: cowardice, betrayal, egoism, and madness. Furthermore, yellow is the color of caution and physical illness (jaundice, malaria, and pestilence). Perhaps it’s no coincidence that the sources of yellow pigments are toxic metals cadmium, lead, and chrome - and urine.

Global Meanings In almost every culture yellow represents sunshine, happiness, and warmth. Yellow is the color most often associated with the deity in many religions (Hinduism and Ancient Egypt) Yellow is the color of traffic lights and signs indicating caution all over the world.

How Red Affects Vision Yellow is the most visible color of the spectrum. The human eye processes yellow first. This explains why it is used for cautionary signs and emergency rescue vehicles. Peripheral vision is 2.5 times higher for yellow than for red. Yellow has a high light reflectance value and therefore it acts as a secondary light source. Excessive use of bright yellow (such as on interior walls) can irritate the eyes.


Blue Blue is the favorite color of all people. It’s nature’s color for water and sky, but is rarely found in fruits and vegetables. Today, blue is embraced as the color of heaven and authority, denim jeans and corporate logos. It is cold, wet, and slow as compared to red’s warmth, fire, and intensity.

Design Resources


Blue has more complex and contradictory meanings than any other color. These can be easily explained by pinpointing by the specific shade of blue. Dark blue: trust, dignity, intelligence, authority Bright blue: cleanliness, strength, dependability, coolness (The origin of these meanings arise from the qualities of the ocean and inland waters, most of which are more tangible.) Light (sky) blue: peace, serenity, ethereal, spiritual, infinity (The origin of these meanings is the intangible aspects of the sky.) Most blues convey a sense of trust, loyalty, cleanliness, and understanding. On the other hand, blue evolved as symbol of depression in American culture. “Singing the blues” and feeling blue” are good examples of the complexity of color symbolism and how it has been evolved in different cultures.

Global Meanings Blue is the #1 favorite color of all people.

A dark blue suit is professional business attire.

53% of the flags in the world contain blue.

Blue jeans are worn all over the world.

Blue is the most commonly used color in corporate identity.

Aristocracy is blue-blooded in all European languages.

How Red Affects Vision Blue is sharply refracted by the eyes. This causes the lens to flatten and to push the blue image back. We perceive that blue areas are receding and smaller. The same refraction causes visual fog if used excessively in interior spaces.

Analysis Color


Color Green Green is no longer just a color. It’s now the symbol of ecology and a verb. Since the beginning of time, green has signified growth, rebirth, and fertility. In pagan times, there was the “Green Man” - a symbol of fertility. In Muslim countries, it is a holy color and in Ireland, a lucky color. It was the color of the heavens in the Ming Dynasty. Today’s greens can be found in a wide range of objects: pea soup, delicate celadon glazes, sleazy shag carpet, sickly bathroom walls, emeralds, wasabi, and sage. The English language reflects some strange attributes: Would you rather be green with envy, green behind the ears, or green around the gills? (Idiomatic American English for extremely envious, immature or nauseated.)

Global Meanings Green is universally associated with nature. Green symbolizes ecology and the environment. Traffic lights are green all over the world.

How Red Affects Vision Approximately 5% - 8% of men and 0.5% of women of the world are born colorblind. People who are protans (red weak) and deutans (green weak) comprise 99% of this group. Some European countries have outlined certain traffic light colors so that it is clear which is green and which is red, by the color that has a rectangle around it. Some states in the U.S. have placed diagonal lines through green traffic lights as an aid for the colorblind. Green exit signs have an important advantage when there is smoke in the air (in other words, when a fire is burning). With red exit signs, it looks like a fire - firemen have actually rushed into burning buildings and tried to put out the signs! With a green sign, people know it isn’t the fire itself but the way to safety.


Purple Purple’s rarity in nature and the expense of creating the color and has given purple a supernatural aura for centuries. Purple is also the most powerful wavelength of the rainbow – and it’s a color with a powerful history that has evolved over time. In fact, the origins of the symbolism of purple are more significant and interesting than those of any other color. Taking all aspects of purple’s past and present into consideration, purple symbolizes magic, mystery, spirituality, the sub-conscious, creativity, dignity, royalty – and it evokes all of these meanings more so than any other color.

Design Resources


Variations of purple convey different meanings: Light purples are light-hearted, floral, and romantic. The dark shades are more intellectual and dignified. The negative meanings of purple are decadence, conceit, and pomposity. Purple is also a color of mourning.

Global Meanings Purple tends to be a color that people either love or hate. Among Mediterranean people, purple was reserved for emperors and popes. The Japanese christened it “Imperial Purple” Purple is the color of mourning or death in many cultures (U.K., Italy, Thailand, Brazil) Purple is not a common flag color. Only two flags contain purple.

How Red Affects Vision Purple is the hardest color for the eye to discriminate.

Analysis Color


Color Orange Orange is vibrant. It’s hot, healthy, fruity and engaging – but it can be abrasive and crass. It’s a polarizing color. People either love it or detest it. Orange is the only color of the spectrum whose name was taken from an object, the popular fruit - the orange. In nature it’s the color of vivid sunsets, fire, vegetables, flowers, fish, and many citrus fruits. In our contemporary world, orange is the color of marmalade, Halloween, traffic cones, life rafts, cheetos, and Halloween. Orange symbolizes energy, vitality, cheer, excitement, adventure, warmth, and good health. However, pure orange can be brass; however, it may suggest a lack of serious intellectual values and bad taste. It’s worth noting that there are many shades of orange – and different meanings. Some may be more appealing to those who find orange difficult: terracotta or cayenne – a dark orange, persimmon - a red-orange, pumpkin - a pure orange, mango - a yellow orange, salmon - a pink orange, melon - a light orange. Darker oranges offer a sense of comfort; some are spicy, some are earthy. Lighter oranges are soothing and healthy.

Global Meanings Orange evokes the taste of healthy fruits, bursting with juice. Orange is associated with vitamin C and good health. Orange is symbolic of autumn. Children all over the world are drawn to orange. Orange is the color of life rafts, hazard cones, and high visibility police vests.

How Red Affects Vision “Safety orange” is used to set objects apart from their surroundings, particularly in complementary contrast to the azure color of the sky. It’s used for hunting and construction zone marking devices.


Design Resources


Conclusion Neutrals will be used to bring the design together as a whole and keep passengers from experiences the different extremes associated with different colors. Nature brought in through the use of natural day lighting as well as plants incorporated into the design will bring a pop of color as well as a therapeutic environment to keep passengers calm.

Analysis Color



Green Spaces In an article titled, “Human Benefits of Green Spaces,� Parks, garden spaces, street trees and landscaped traffic islands reduce

stress and induce a feeling of tranquility as well as improved concentration. Physical benefits include enhanced health, more rapid healing, and improved environmental conditions overall. Social benefits comprise of crime reduction, increased workplace productivity, safer driving, economic stimulation, and positive effects on children.


Design Resources


“The biophilia hypothesis suggests that there is an instinctive

bond between human beings and other

living systems,” as said by Terrapin. ‘Biophilia’ literally means ‘love of life.’ Terrapin believes that the built environment can be designed to help people feel and perform better through closer connection with the natural world. “ Biophilia, a concept first described by biologist E.O. Wilson, is humanity’s innate response to nature and connection to natural systems. Biophilic design is about recognizing humanity’s place in nature and using the built environment to maintain, restore, and enhance our physiological and psychological connections to the natural world.”

Analysis Biophilia



Benefits for human performance in: Productivity Emotional well-being Stress reduction Learning Healing


Three common facets of biophilia: Nature in the space

spaces feel better when they are thoughtfully filled with fresh air natural daylight, water features, and plant life

Natural analogs

the use of natural materials and natural forms in the design, ornamentation, and furnishings of a space

Nature of the space

a series of preferred spatial patterns, two of which are referred to as ‘Prospect’ and ‘Refuge’. Experiences of ‘Prospect’ - being able to look out from a high vantage over unobstructed space - are complemented by those of ‘Refuge’ - finding comfort in a small, protected, enclosed area.

Visual Connection with Nature Physical Connection with Nature Non-rhythmic Movement/Sound/Smell Dynamic and Diffuse Daylight Access to Water Natural Ventilation Connection to Natural Systems Frequent, Repeated, or Spontaneous Contact with Nature

Design Resources


Biomorphic/Mimicking natural form Fractals and Patterns Complexity and Order Material Connection with Nature (natural, local materials)

Prospect Refuge Enticement/Mystery Risk/Peril Analysis Biophilia



Lighting in between the warm and cool spectrum will be used to promote a relaxing atmosphere, but still enhance concentration for workers.


Design Resources

Day lighting

Shading devices on the south facing windows should limit heat gain and glare while allowing for effective day lighting. Louvers should be used to reflect light toward the ceiling.

Analysis Lighting and Day lighting




Design Resources


Analysis Anthropometrics and Ergonomics


Standards for Design


Design Resources

Standards for Design

Analysis Standards for Design



Annotated Bibliography


Annotated Bibliography Arconas Corporation. Airport Seating. Ontario: Arconas Corporation, n.d. PDF.

Arconas has installed public seating in over 160 airports. Their contemporary and clean designs go well with the aesthetic of airports. Functionality and maintenance are also key components.

Baskas, Harriet. “Chicago O’Hare Airport Gets Very Fresh | Stuck at the Airport.” O’Hare Airport Gets Very Fresh with Passengers. WordPress, 7 Sept. 2012. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <>.

Harriet Baskas shares her account of the growing sector of fresh food in airports, specifically the O’Hare Airport.

“Biophilia.” Terrapin Bright Green. Terrapin. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. Terrapin illustrates the biophilia hypothesis and how designing with this in mind can benefit human performance. Three facets of biophilia are nature in teh space, natural analogsm and nature of the space. Boone, Dennis. “Why Kansas City?” Ingram’s Apr. 2012: 101. Print.

This article illustrates what Kansas City has to offer as one of the world’s top tourist destinations according to Frommer’s in 2011. It illustrates the diverse variety of attractions for different ages, interests, and times of the day and night.

City of Tallahassee Release. “Tallahassee Regional Airport Supports Locally Sourced Products.” Tallahassee Regional Airport Supports Locally Sourced Products. WCTCtv, 2 Aug. 2011. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. < Regional_Airport_Supports_Locally_Sourced_Products_126596103.html>.

This news report demonstrates an example of locally known food presented in airports. This denotes a display of local pride and a glance of what the city has to offer beyond the walls of an airport.

Edwards, Brian. The Modern Terminal: New Approaches to Airport Architecture. London: E. & F.N. Spon, 1998. Print.


Brian Edwards analyzes the issues that need to be addressed when designing an airport. Case Studies of airports around the world are used to illustrate current design solutions. Edward also presents the design of airports for the future.

Gensler. SFO T2. N.p.: Gensler, n.d. PDF.

San Francisco International Airport’s Terminal 2 exemplifies a model for airport design of this era and for the future. The design provides passengers once again with the joys of travel. Sustainable advances have been taken into account in the design and have been awarded LEED Gold Certification.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography

Hackelsberger, Christoph. Munich Airport International/Flughafen München, Terminal 2: Koch + Partner. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäus er, 2004. Print.

The Munich airport provides a clean and functional design for passengers. Its well-lit and efficient design offers room for expansion while shops and dining options cater to the passengers’ needs.

Hammer, Nelson R. Interior Landscapes: An American Design Portfolio of Green Environments. Gloucester: Rockport, 1999. Print.

This book addresses the benefits of interior landscapes, which include: the reduction of stress, the increase in productivity, and the incentive to remain longer in indoor spaces. Case studies showcase a wide variety of interiors that use green environment which include: commercial, corporate, hospitality, institutional, residential, and special.

Malitz, Jerome, and Seth Malitz. Interior Landscapes: Horticulture and Design. New York: Norton, 2002. Print.

This book presents the how and why of interior landscapes. It explores the different aspects of designing and preserving an i nterior landscape. It is a source of plants presented in landscape themes.

Midura, Kyle. “Local Food to Land at Burlington International Airport.” Local Food to Land at Burlington International Airport. WCAX TV, 02 Oct. 2012. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. <>.

This article demonstrates airport owner’s desire to represent their city within the airport. Alleged reports of growth in sales have been seen when local products are offered.


Annotated Bibliography Thomas-Emberson, Steve. Airport Interiors: Design for Business. Chichester: Wiley, 2007. Print.


This book, a collection of case studies by Steve Thomas-Emberson, has taken a look at the development of the airport business and elements that make up the best airports around the world. The case studies delve into the dynamics of the airport ranging from wayfinding to shopping behavior of passengers. Also discussed are the effects 9/11 had on airports and why airport operators are looking at the interior spaces as their greatest business asset.

Annotated Bibliography

Annotated Bibliography


KCI Airport Terminal Research  

Capstone Project Research for KCI Airport Terminal Redesign

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