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The Cruising Club of AmeriCA And The royAl bermudA yAChT Club The two clubs have co-organized the biennial Bermuda Race since 1926. Forty of their members serve on the Bermuda Race Organizing Committee, which oversees the race with the assistance of more than 100 other volunteers. Founded in 1922 with the motto, “Nowhere is Too Far” (a message symbolized in the blue wave in its burgee), the Cruising Club of America took on the Bermuda Race because one of the club’s missions is to develop good boats for ofshore sailing. More than 60 living CCA members have sailed 15 or more Newport Bermuda Races. The club awards the coveted Blue Water Medal “for a most meritorious example of seamanship.” The CCA’s membership has no central clubhouse and is organized in stations and posts in many sailing areas.

Contents 4

On to Bermuda by Race Chairman Fred Deichmann

6 8

Letter from the Commodores; Weather Broadcasts & Emergency Contacts Racing Shorthanded to Bermuda by Chris Museler


Newport Bermuda Race Strategy: Navigational Considerations by W. Frank Bohlen


Visionaries, Races, Heroes: The Bermuda Race in the Schooner Era by John Rousmaniere

One of the oldest yacht clubs in the Western Hemisphere, the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club was founded in 1844 and soon became a center of sailing under the Bermuda rig, a parent of the Marconi rig. Besides co-organizing every Bermuda Race from 1906 onwards and taking a lead role in founding the Onion Patch Series, the RBYC runs and hosts the Argo Group Gold Cup international match-race series for the historic King Edward VII Gold Cup. The club’s handsome clubhouse on Albuoy’s Point is the Bermuda Race’s headquarters in Bermuda.


“Steady as She Goes” by Pierre S. du Pont IV


Seasickness: Prepare for It, Treat It by Jefrey S. Wisch M.D.


The Onion Patch Series at 25 by Talbot Wilson


A Checklist for a Safe Passage Home by Sheila McCurdy

bermudA rACe orgAnizing CommiTTee


frederiCk W. deiChmAnn, ChAirmAn Bruce Berriman, Brian W. Billings, W. Frank Bohlen, John F. Brooks, Andrew Burnett-Herkes, Richard D. Casner, Peter L. Chandler, Joe Cooper, Jonathan Corless, Colin E. Couper M.D., P. Leslie Crane, Robert S. Darbee III, Alton J. Evans Jr., Edwin G. Fischer M.D., Brin R. Ford, Henry F. Halsted, Richard S. Hambleton III, Paul Hamilton, Joseph S. Harris, Richard C. Holliday, Paul B. Hubbard, Bjorn R. Johnson, Stephen W. Kempe, Michael H. McBee, Christopher J. McNally, Sheila McCurdy, Lester E. Nick Nicholson Jr., John. D. Osmond III M.D., C.F. Eugene Rayner, Leatrice J. Roman, John Rousmaniere, Gardiner L. Schneider, Leslie Schneider, Stephen E. Taylor, James R. Teeters, Ronald C. Trossbach, John S. Winder, Jefrey S. Wisch M.D. CCA Commodore Frederic T. Lhamon, RBYC Commodore Somers W. Kempe

Rigging and History for (and from) Bermuda by Dr. Edward Harris


At Bermuda


Notice of Race

NEWPORT BERMUDA RACE SUPPORTERS INCLUDE: Bermuda Department of Tourism Gosling’s Rum, Pantaenius American Yacht Insurance, Newport Shipyard, Vineyard Vines, Brewer Yacht Yard Group, Hinckley Yachts, OCENS, The City of Newport, The Corporation of Hamilton The Newport Bermuda Race 2014 ofcial program was edited by John Rousmaniere for the Bermuda Race Organizing Committee and produced by Cruising World. Newport Bermuda Race© and the crossed burgee lighthouse logo are registered trademarks of the Cruising Club of America and the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club. Cover photo: Billy Black


Letter from the ChAIrmAN

On tO Bermuda

from 2014 Bermuda race organizing Committee Chairman fred Deichmann

In the 18 months since the fnish of our 2012 race, we at the Bermuda Race Organizing Committee have been hard at work improving the race in many regards and making the entry process easier to understand and complete. Perhaps the most important of these improvements involved building on the eforts of US Sailing to replace complicated ISAF Ofshore Special Regulations, resulting in the issuance of the Newport Bermuda Race Safety Requirements. Other improvements include a simplifed entry process and, in the interest of ensuring fair competition, the introduction of a performance screen separating the St. David’s and Gibbs Hill divisions competitors. Again, welcome to our, and your, next adventure: the 2014 Newport Bermuda Race. Whether you are a race regular or a frst-time entrant, the race is an opportunity for serious ofshore sailing and the camaraderie enjoyed with like-minded crew and competitors. We wish you a safe, fast, and pleasant ocean race. We look forward to seeing you on the starting line in Newport on Friday, June 20, 2014.

Sincerely, Fred

SCott KINg


elcome to the 2014 Newport Bermuda Race, the 49th “Thrash to the Onion Patch” and, with a beginning traced to 1906, the world’s longest running ocean race. The race is a pinnacle of ocean racing and regularly attracts feets of 150 or more yachts and 1,200 sailors, primarily from the U.S. East Coast but including sailors from across the country and around the world.


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The 2014 Newport Bermuda Race communications plan is diferent from those of past years. Below is how the Newport Bermuda Race Fleet Communications Ofce (FCO) will handle weather briefings and safety-related and other transmissions.

Daily Weather and Safety Briefings

Frederic T. Lhamon

Somers W. Kempe

Once again the Cruising Club of America and the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club are delighted to coordinate and manage this truly magical and classic ocean race for sailors of all ages and from many diferent backgrounds and countries. Countless hours have been committed by a legion of volunteers to the organization of the race. We know that their eforts will provide you and your crew with an amazing nautical experience. We are grateful to be supported by the Bermuda Department of Tourism in helping us put on this Race. Their contribution is invaluable. We wish you a swift, safe, and successful crossing of the Stream!

Commanders’ Weather information and ofcial notices to the fleet will be transmitted at least twice daily in three ways, all containing the same information:

1.Voice mail received by an onboard satellite phone 2.Postings to a virtual notice board, (a low bandwidth text website accessed through satellite connections) 3.Fleet-wide email. Direct Communications with the FCO Yachts may communicate directly with the Newport Bermuda Race Fleet Communications Ofce (FCO) 24/7 throughout the race by either of these two methods: 1.Voice transmission (this number will be announced). Voice messages left for the FCO will be transcribed into text files 2.Email,

While the FCO prefers that routine trafc be conducted using email, voice communications will of course be available for emergency communications. Yachts are encouraged to contact the FCO with any pertinent information. Yachts experiencing problems with transponders will make a prompt check-in.

Frederic T. Lhamon CCA COMMODORE Somers W. Kempe RBYC COMMODORE


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Doing it:

Racing ShoRthanDeD to BeRmuDa


teammate rests. What sailors like Green and others who have taken up the double-handed challenge have found is that the methodical preparation necessary to co-skipper an ocean race is a confdence-building exercise that teaches you to say, “I can do it.” “Doing it” forges tight bonds between and among shorthanded sailors. Before I raced to Bermuda in a Double-Handed Division boat in 2012, I looked at these sailors as wild-haired masochists who thrive on making the predictably harrowing moments of ocean racing even more challenging. I recall thinking that surfng with one arm tied behind my back would be easier. For that very reason, I agreed to sail in the Class 40 Dragon with skipper Michael Hennessy both as a competitor and as a reporter on this remarkable experience.

onathan Green started the 2012 Newport Bermuda Race as a strong contender in the Double-Handed Division. Nearly 48 hours later, he was alone on the J/46 Seabiscuit, hoisting a spinnaker and charging through the Gulf Stream toward St. David’s Light while his co-skipper, Nathan Owen, was prone in the ER of a cruise ship headed for Boston. Owen was so seasick and dehydrated that U.S. Coast Guard and Bermuda Rescue Coordination Center ofcials, in contact with race ofcials, arranged for a cruise ship to evacuate him from Seabiscuit, leaving Green to carry on alone. How many of us could have made that transition from team player to solo ocean racer? But then, how many of us would race double-handed? The reality of double-handed sailing is that you are often alone, managing the boat solo while your


PPl/daniel forster

A veteran of fully-crewed boats takes on double-handed racing for the frst time. By Chris Museler

Both sailors in these boats are co-skippers, which means they must meet the same qualifcations as any skipper in the Bermuda Race feet, from gaining frst aid certifcation to attending safety at sea seminars. They also must make 1,000 miles of training passages, and it was that experience that turned me from a specialist sailor to a wellrounded skipper. As I dove into the details of preparation and the routines of rig inspections, sail trimming, and navigating, my nerves calmed. Halfway to Bermuda, I woke up from an of-watch and thought, “I can do this.”

TEACHABLE MOMENTS switching to shorthanded sailing brings a sailor’s seamanship to a sharper, more intense focus. Boat preparation is taken to a Zen level. the nightmare scenario is waking up from your watch to fnd your co-skipper gone. in 2012 i spent of-watches during my Bermuda race training passage from Mystic, Connecticut, to Charleston, with one eye open. i was unable to sleep as our Class 40 was pounded by waves in a gale of Cape hatteras. all i could think was, “if he goes over, what’s my next move?” seasoned shorthanded sailors know that retrieval is nearly impossible in many conditions. rich du Moulin

lots of Moxie

is a frm believer in clipping in with the safety harness 100 percent of the time. “We lost a lot of cushions doing MoB drills,” says du

The Double-Handed Division was added to the Newport Bermuda Race in 1994 as a response to the growing popularity of shorthanded sailing in races like the Vendee Globe, the Bermuda 1-2, and the OSTAR transatlantic singlehanded race from Plymouth, England, to Newport. This division for two sailors has two top prizes. The Philip S. Weld Trophy (named for OSTAR winner Phil Weld) goes to the skipper with the best corrected time, and the Moxie Trophy (honoring Weld’s trimaran) is awarded to his teammate. One of the sailors in Weld’s wake is Bjorn Johnson, who has sailed in the Bermuda 1-2 and the Bermuda Race DoubleHanded Division, and also in crewed boats. He says that shorthanded racing to Bermuda has changed. “People were bringing their golf clubs to hit the links when they arrived. It’s much more competitive today and they are taking it to the next level, keeping things light, pushing the boats harder. Your frst time is about the experience and the second time you are starting to race.” Johnson chaired the Bermuda Race Organizing Committee in 2010. Rich du Moulin had been yearning to race shorthanded since the inspiring and dramatic 1969 Sunday Times Golden Globe Race, where Sir Robin Knox-Johnston won the grueling, nonstop, single-handed lap of the planet. After du Moulin set his sights on Bermuda Race, he spent the summer of 2001 in New England double-

Moulin. on Lora Ann, tethers are left clipped onto the cockpit sole and hanging in the companionway so everybody comes on deck clipped in. du Moulin continued using this system when Lora Ann was raced fully-crewed in the 2012 Bermuda race. Dragon approaches the fnish line in the 2012 Bermuda Race (opposite page). Skipper Michael Hennessey and teammate Chris Museler were seventh in the Double-Handed Division. Richard du Moulin (left) exits Lora Ann’s cabin already clipped on.

PPl/adaM loory

Working at the nav station, Museler has quick access to the cockpit (far left). The tails of Lora Ann’s jacklines are looped over the transom to be used as a grabline, and a spare tether is secured to the backstay (left).


Bermuda Governor George Ferguson (left) presents the Essex Station prize to Mireille skipper Hewitt Gaynor (center) and Jay Raymond at the 2012 Newport Bermuda prize-giving ceremony at Government House.

handed distance races, and then proceeded to win Bermuda Race double-handed a year later. “It was a very dynamic Gulf Stream that year,” recalls du Moulin. “There was a gigantic southern meander and we managed to win by two hours.” After he won the 2004 race by a mere two minutes, at the prize-giving ceremony he took the microphone and ofered the runner-up an envelope containing a note that said, “two minutes of corrected time to use at any time.” On his way to four frsts and a third in the Double-Handed Division, du Moulin has discovered the many rewards of racing shorthanded. “The competitors become very good friends. There’s no real secrecy. It is really a shared

adventure.” Competitors in the class are allowed to radio each other, and often do, either to check in or troubleshoot problems. “I love double-handing because you’re so busy doing everything from maintenance to steering to cooking,” says du Moulin, who races his modifed Express 37 Lora Ann. “The biggest challenge is anticipation of events, because things can get away from you quickly.” Sailors in the Double-Handed Division must be profcient in all aspects of an ocean race, and be comfortable (if not thrive) in challenging, solitary situations. With the autopilot on and the teammate sleeping below, the sailor on deck does a lot of sail trimming and preparation on the foredeck. Sail changes are the big back-breakers, despite the use of furlers and spinnaker snufers. Between sail changes, a top sailor is trimming to the autopilot constantly. Below, the sailors take turns making meals and cleaning up. With only two bowls and two cofee mugs, the domestic work is light. The sailors share the navigating using a small, dedicated station. Du Moulin says shorthanded sailors aren’t necessarily masochists or super confdent characters, but they all follow some calm, guiding philosophy. Du Moulin’s is taken from the American alpinist Ed Viesturs: “Getting to



In the photo above, Lora Ann (left) and Hewitt Gaynor’s Mireille duel in the early going of the 2006 Newport Bermuda Race.

John rousManiere

the top is optional. Getting down is mandatory.” Du Moulin agrees: “Managing risk is an exciting challenge. You access risk and address problems on your own.” He believes there is an unfortunate tendency in modern ofshore sailing to call for help when equipment fails. “To me, you do your damnedest to get back to port. The fnish is optional. No matter what happens, I’m coming in on my own steam. Most double-handers think consciously about this.” Like du Moulin, Hewitt Gaynor had a long history of racing in fully-crewed boats with his family before trying double-handing. “I had the best sailing experience of my life,” he says, recalling the fast reach aboard his J/120 Mireille in 2012, when he won the division on corrected time by four hours over second-place Joe Harris’ Gryphon Solo 2. Gaynor has this advice for shorthanded sailors: “Get enough sleep and pace yourself. Get a few winks before rough weather happens.” He adds, “Know your limitations. Get that spinnaker down before it becomes dangerous. If you think you should shorten sail, don’t be lazy and put it of. Do it now.” We in Dragon fnished seventh in DoubleHanded in the 2012 Bermuda Race, about halfway down the division standings. After we had our reunions with our friends in the other boats, I spoke with Jonathan Green, who had brought Seabiscuit in alone. “It wasn’t as bad as I thought,” he said. On paper, his experience would have given me a heart attack, but I started to understand his sense of accomplishment. He was well prepared, he knew how everything worked on Seabiscuit, and as each hour passed after his co-skipper was evacuated, Green gained more confdence that he could do it. After he reached Bermuda, the

Bermuda Race Organizing Committee presented Jonathan and two other skippers (Philip Dickey of Flying Lady, and Scott Jackson of Spirit of Bermuda) special Seamanship Awards for their part in the evacuation. Last year he won the OSTAR in his Oceanis 351, Jeroboam. As for me, I hadn’t thought I could hack it sailing shorthanded to Bermuda. But that’s the exciting thing about this division and the race. Hour by hour, you’re doing it as you focus on the details of sailing the boat. The next thing you know, you’re at St. David’s Light. And then you want to do it again.

four-handed raCing Sailing ofshore with just one other person intimidates many sailors. Now there is a middleof-the-road alternative in the Newport Bermuda Race: the new four-handed trophy introduced this year for the Cruiser Division. “There are a fair number of people who sail with four regularly in the Cruiser Division and we want to encourage that,” says Fred Deichmann, the 2014 Bermuda Race Organizing Committee chairman. When the idea of the new prize came up in 2013, Deichmann’s pitch to the committee was, “Let’s see if it makes the event more fun.” Recalling his own experience racing in four-person crews, he expects that the new Pratt prize for the top four-hander in the Cruiser Division will attract family crews. Deichmann says that with the advent of furling asymmetric spinnakers, electric winches, and intelligent autopilots (all allowed in the Cruiser Division), fewer crew are needed. “I used to have to sail with six people,” says Deichmann. “In some ways this is about keeping the crowd down.”


Not all doublehanders are all-out racers. Gail and Roy Greenwald start the 2010 Newport Bermuda Race in their Valiant 42, Cordelia (above).

Newport- Bermuda race Strategy:

NavigatioNal coNSiderati An oceanographer, veteran of 17 Bermuda Races, and writer of the “Gulf Stream Tutorials” series on the race website tells how to predict the weather and the Gulf Stream. By W. Frank Bohlen


eveloping a winning Newport-Bermuda Race strategy that accommodates variability in weather, ocean current, and sea state requires skippers and navigators to consider a number of factors. Among them are the boat, the crew, the competition, and also the probable tide, weather, and Gulf Stream conditions. The process of analyzing these factors should begin well before the week of the start of the race, which this year is on June 20. We will take as a given that the boat is structurally sound and reasonably well equipped with a suite of instruments that includes GPS, a barometer, sensors that track wind speed and direction, in-water boat-speed

sensors, and a means to measure surface water temperature. Strategic planning begins with consideration of the boat’s performance characteristics using the polar diagrams (Fig.1) and associated tables and data fles in US Sailing’s Performance Package ( Maximizing the utility of these diagrams requires accurate calibration of all instruments.

One concern is the height of the wind speed sensor. The wind speeds indicated in the diagrams are assumed to be measured at 10 meters (about 33 feet) above the water surface. Masthead heights for the majority of ofshore boats are greater. Since wind speeds increase progressively with distance above the surface due to decreasing frictional efects, winds at higher elevations will be stronger than those at 10 meters. If the masthead sensor indicates 6 knots of wind, the boat speed may be noticeably less than indicated on the polars because the wind speed at the 10-meter elevation will be less than 6 knots. A means to correct wind speeds for actual sensor height is provided in U.S. Sailing’s Performance Package. After you gain some confdence with performance predictions, your next concern is sails. Decisions about sail selection and use can be assisted by US Sailing’s Race Optimization Package, which allows evaluations of diferent combinations of sails under a variety of wind conditions and their efect on ORR rating. The program can answer such questions as, “Should I carry a combination of asymmetrical and symmetrical spinnakers? Should they be tacked to the centerline or to a sprit?” This extremely powerful utility also forces you to engage in careful consideration of the wind and sea conditions likely to be encountered on the way to Bermuda.

Fig. 1. ORR 2012 True Wind Polar Diagram (US Sailing Performance Package)


oNS Predicting the Weather The weather along the Newport to Bermuda rhumb line is typically dominated by the BermudaAzores ofshore high, and by the migration of high and low pressure systems across and along the continental United States. This pattern may be complicated by sea breeze conditions at the start in Newport and by island-induced thunderstorms near Bermuda. Tropical developments may introduce further “complications.” Given this variety of factors, it’s not surprising that each Newport Bermuda Race is unique in terms of winds and weather. This necessarily complicates sail selection and optimization. Reviews of past race conditions will help in this process. Analysis of historic weather conditions can include discussions with past race participants, and also examination of the National Weather Service archived forecasts and analyses available at Special emphasis should be placed on two types of NWS analysis: the surface wind/wave analysis, and the 500 millibar (mb) chart. The latter depicts the conditions in the vicinity of 18,000 feet aloft that

typically afect the distribution of the high and low pressure systems at the earth’s surface, and their associated winds. The Newport to Bermuda course typically has a predominance of winds from the south and west, with speeds ranging from light and variable to a solid 30-plus knots. The usual race has a limited amount of reaching and running, but there are exceptions to this (the 2012 Newport Bermuda Race, for instance). Study of the 500 mb patterns over the weeks before the race start should indicate the probability of unusual conditions. In a typical year, May to June is a time of rapid change as spring transitions to summer. Northern hemisphere warming favors a northerly migration of the core of the fows at 18,000 ft. This core is indicated by the 5640 meter contour (shown as 564) on the 500 mb charts. Locations in close proximity to New England often favor a coastal ridge aloft resulting in high pressure at the surface ofshore and south and west winds. As the the core proceeds farther to the north, conditions typically become more benign and less well defned, often resulting in winds difering substantially from the historical norm.

Fig. 2. 500 mb chart before start of 2010 Newport Bermuda Race


Fig. 3. 500 mb chart, day after start of 2012 Newport Bermuda Race

A comparison of the 500 mb charts during the 2010 and 2012 Newport Bermuda Races provides a graphic illustration of what can happen (Figs. 2 and 3). This ofers at least a partial explanation of why the predominantly reaching 2012 race difered so much from the historical norm.

Predicting the gUlF stream With boat preparation and sail selection reasonably in hand, and the crew testing the accuracy of predicted target boat speeds in trials and races, attention during the last two to three months before the race generally turns to probable Gulf Stream and weather characteristics. Although tidal currents afect set and drift

along the entire rhumb line, they tend to be weak primarily afecting near-shore navigation, particularly during periods of near calm. These currents warrant attention during the departure from Newport and arrival at Bermuda. In contrast, there is the Gulf Stream. The Stream typically crosses the rhumb line approximately 200 nautical miles from Newport and displays maximum currents of 5 knots, with directions varying from perpendicular to the rhumb line to parallel to it. Eddies and similar water masses shed from the main body of the Stream can afect a large part of the continental shelf to the north, and the Sargasso Sea south to Bermuda. Knowledge of the Stream, its location, and its

Fig. 4. Sea Surface Temperature chart four days before the start of 2012 Newport Bermuda Race


structure is essential to a successful Bermuda Race strategy. Several websites provide details of sea surface temperature (SST) useful for the determination of the location and structure of the Gulf Stream and its evolution. A list of the principal sites is provided on the race website ( in the Resources tab. There you will also fnd a short primer and an archive of my Gulf Stream tutorials prepared for previous races. While there is an abundance of direct observations of SST (satellites, aerial overfights, etc.) no website provides measurements of Gulf Stream currents, which is the parameter of primary interest. Temperature serves as an indicator of fow intensity, yet the actual location of the fow may be signifcantly ofset from the indicated thermal boundaries. This defciency is best overcome using a combination of direct SST data and modeled Gulf Stream fows. In the past three races and other events, the most accurate representation of the fow was NOAA’s altimetry-based model found at trinanes/INTERFACE/index.html. This model is often of particular value in early June because it uses radar, which sees through the cloud cover that often appears then. Figs. 4 and 5 provide a comparison of SST and model results just prior to the 2012 Newport Bermuda Race. Study of SST satellite imagery during at least one month (and preferably two months) before the start will reveal Gulf Stream structure, including meanders, the location and number of eddies north and south of the main body of the Stream, and the rate at which all these features evolve. Attempts to obtain data during the last two weeks before the race are often frustrated by cloud cover. Starting early is the best way to achieve success.

National Weather Service website. Evaluations of the accuracy of the GRIB results are particularly valuable if these strictly model-based data are to be used in routing software such as Expedition, Deckman, and MaxSea. Beyond developing confdence in the models (and knowledge of their weaknesses), this pre-start exercise is the best way to become familiar with the weather conditions most likely to prevail during the race. This knowledge adds greatly to the value of information provided by professional weather

John roUsmaniere

Understanding the “Weather Breeder” Throughout the race area, surface current conditions are often afected by wind. Conversely, warm water currents such as the Gulf Stream can directly afect regional winds and wind patterns. Many racers have noticed that the Stream is a “weather breeder” (See McKinley, Ocean Navigator, 2013). Such small-area phenomena are difcult to capture in weather models. As with the Gulf Stream, understanding the capabilities of weather models is best obtained by comparing them with direct observation. Proceeding with your analysis over the last couple of weeks before the race, include the NOAA satellite observation or OSCAT data available at OSCATDate.php . These data should be compared to GRIB formatted data showing raw wind strength and direction data without interpretation. GRIBs are at and on the

Models don’t always predict the Gulf Stream “weather breeder.” Squalls on the horizon (top) may soon be overhead (middle, bottom). Sea state varies with current, wind speed and direction.


should be continually refned right up to the start, and to some extent during the race. The success of the process depends on clear communications among the entire crew, who should understand the selected race strategy and the reasons for it before the start, and be informed of changes during the race. The navigator’s instructions must be clear, in easily understood language, and discussed at each change of watch, and possibly more often. This is not a time to be a “riddler”!

services, and it facilitates onboard decision-making should conditions turn out to difer from the forecast.

Predicting sea state In addition to their individual value, the wind and current data you acquire and analyze will help you make accurate estimates of sea state, which is a very important factor in race strategy. The amplitude and steepness of ocean wind-driven waves can be altered by interactions between wind and current. Wind blowing against the current results in a signifcantly larger wave amplitude and shorter wavelength than what appears when wind blows with current or when there is no current. Steep conditions with breaking waves are often observed in the Gulf Stream and in areas of strong tidal currents. US Sailing’s Performance Package does not include consideration of the wind-current interaction. There are, however, several graphical methods that can be used to correct wind/wave estimates to account for this efect. A good aid here is William G. Van Dorn’s book Oceanography and Seamanship.

race Strategy, SuggeSted timeliNe Fall-Winter Before Race • Boat Preparations - Check of hull, rig, sails and systems (including all navigational instruments) January - February • Review past race conditions, see http:// • Obtain polars and consider optimization ORR/Performance_Products.htm March - April • Launch Boat • Initial tests of polar predictions • Finalize instrument calibrations and fnalize sail selection May • Crew training trials and races • Begin analyses of Gulf Stream conditions (see for tutorials)

Fig. 5. Altimetry Based Model Results Showing Currents and Sea Surface Heights

commUnicate clearly Acquisition and analysis of these data allow the development of an initial strategic plan. By combining the probable position of the Gulf Stream and associated eddies with anticipated wind conditions and an estimate of the boat’s and crew’s capabilities, the skipper and navigator can select one or more routes to take. Some navigators use a routing program to assist in this process, but others fnd this unnecessary given the short duration of the race and the sometimes less than adequate model representations of winds and currents, particularly in the vicinity of the Gulf Stream. Whichever method you employ, your strategy


June • Continue Gulf Stream analysis • Begin analysis of probable race weather conditions ( om/marine/home.htm) • Develop initial routing strategy, revise as forecasts improve within 96 hours of race start • Finalize strategy following Captains Meeting and weather/GS briefngs and present to crew with details June 20 - Race start

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Visionaries, races, Heroes The Bermuda Race in the Schooner Era


hen a small sloop and a slightly larger yawl pounded across the Gulf Steam in the frst Bermuda Race in 1906, the race course quickly gained a reputation for both rough going and some reaching. “Schooner weather” it was called, and so big schooners made up the feet until interest faded after the race’s ffth running, in 1910. After World War I, American ocean racing was revived when Herbert L. Stone reinvented the Bermuda Race. The editor of Yachting magazine and a visionary (he once characterized the America’s Cup as “a synonym of things brave and big and famous”), Stone believed that the future of sailing lay in part in ofshore racing. “There is nothing,” he wrote, “that develops all-around seamanship and resourcefulness as much as a long-distance ocean race that keeps the contestants going night and day.” Stone’s ideal ofshore type was the handsome, seakindly, fast gaf-rigged schooner of many sizes designed by John Alden. Someone once said of an Alden schooner that she “looked so warm and friendly that we thought of her as alive,” but the type’s

Yachting magazine editor Herbert L . Stone revived the Bermuda Race in part because he was so impressed by Alden schooners.


appeal did not end with its appearance. After helping Alden deliver his 42-foot Malabar II through a gale in the spring of 1922, Stone told his readers, “For ease of handling, she has anything I have ever been on beaten, coming and going.” To the modern eye, the rig looks complicated, with the fsherman staysails, but it was fexible and small enough to be managed by just a few hands. In 1923 Stone organized a Bermuda Race with the assistance of the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club and the Cruising Club of America. As the 22 boats crossed the starting line at New London, Stone recalled, “an instinctive cheer, releasing pent-up enthusiasm, broke from the crew of every boat, to be echoed by the spectators.” Most of those boats were schooners, which for years were identifed with the race. John Alden won in his Malabar IV and later won two more Bermuda Races in Malabars, in 1926 and 1932. At this time the Bermuda Race fathered two other important ocean races. In the 1923 race, Stone sailed as navigator in a schooner, Lloyd C. Berry, chartered by members of the Bayview Yacht Club, of Detroit. The Midwesterners went home and founded their own race to Mackinac Island. This historic relationship with Midwestern sailors is one reason why the Bermuda Race this year is introducing Regional Prizes awarded to the top fnisher from the Great Lakes, as well as the top boats from Chesapeake Bay, the West Coast, the Deep South, and Canada. The Fastnet Race in England was also inspired by the Bermuda Race. After a British yachting journalist, Weston Martyr, raced to Bermuda, he founded the Fastnet in 1925. The winner of the frst Fastnet, Jolie Brise, then sailed across “the pond” and raced to the Onion Patch with Herb Stone as navigator. Her owner, E. G. Martin, said he wished to thank Stone and other Americans for stimulating ocean racing. Jolie Brise was back in 1932 for the Bermuda Race with a new owner, Bobby Somerset, and crew that included two other founders of ocean racing, Paul Hammond and Sherman Hoyt. The frst night out, Somerset spotted a fare astern, turned back,

rosenfeld collection/mystic seaport

By John rousmaniere

rosenfeld collection/mystic seaport

and found a schooner, Adriana, in fames. Clarence Kozaly at the wheel of Adriana held position as Somerset brought Jolie Brise close alongside under sail. Ten of Adriana’s sailors piled onto the cutter’s deck, but Kozaly made his jump a moment too late. He is the only fatality in the race’s history. The Cruising Club of America awarded Somerset its Blue Water Medal for his “remarkable feat of seamanship and courage.”

commodore fales and Niña Yawls took over the Bermuda Race (many of them designed by one of John Alden’s crewmembers, Olin Stephens), but there often were a few schooners in the race. The best known was the 59-foot Niña, designed by W. Starling Burgess with a Marconi staysail rig. Fast upwind, she was a terror on a reach under her “Monster” or “Grand Monster” gollywobblers. Besides speed, she and her owner, New York Yacht Club Commodore De Coursey Fales, embodied all the

love of ceremony of the traditional “capital Y” Yachtsman. “I remember seeing Niña at dawn one morning on the 1963 Annapolis to Newport Race,” recalls Bob MacKay, a longtime Long Island sailor. “Half a dozen of us were lining the rail on a 40-footer after a long wet night as she went by like a freight train just as her watch changed. Commodore Fales came on deck in full yachting regalia, straightening his tie as he took the helm.” In the 1962 Newport Bermuda Race, Niña fnished within sight of the scratch boat, a 72-footer, and won overall on corrected time. The victory by the oldest skipper in the race inspired a love fest. “If I couldn’t have done it, I’m glad it was the Commodore,” many other skippers told Bill Robinson of Yachting. Fales was a true, traditional Commodore who delighted in doing things right. After fnishing at St. David’s Head, Niña was put smart with a harbor furl and polished brass. Once she was through Two Rock Passage and anchored of the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club, Fales called his crew below


Most people were sure the schooner era had ended by 1932, but that year John Alden’s 58-foot Malabar X (sometimes called simply, “Ten”) won the Bermuda Race.

for a gathering conducted on the principle that while any other race is merely a race, a Bermuda Race is a voyage and any proper voyage must end with a few toasts. Some captains preferred rum. Commodore Fales’s favorite libation was the martini. “We didn’t call for the launch ashore until the shaker was empty,” recalled a Niña crewmember, Rad Daly.

A follow-up: Schooner sailing has returned to the Bermuda Race in the three-master Spirit of Bermuda. The heroic Jolie Brise sails on. In 2013 she celebrated her 100th birthday by racing to Fastnet Rock, crewed by students of Dauntsey’s School, in Wiltshire, England. Alas, Niña disappeared last year in a storm of New Zealand with the loss of her family crew and their friends.


rosenfeld collection/mystic seaport

A young Olin Stephens (in the white sweater, standing) raced to Bermuda with Alden, at the helm (above). Jolie Brise and her crew saved 10 lives in the 1932 race (far right). Malabar IV was the frst of three Aldendesigned Bermuda Race winners, in 1923 (right).

Like any sailboat, Niña and other racing schooners had a routine combining seamanship and sheer pleasure.

“Steady aS She GoeS” This story, which originally ran in Herb Stone’s Yachting magazine in 1956, describes a watch when “your ship and the night were your world.” Author Pierre S. “Pete” du Pont (later Governor of Delaware) was no doubt inspired by a Bermuda Race in the schooner Barlovento as the crew tracked the wind


hree bells. He pushed back his oiler and heavy sweater and glanced at his watch; right on time, 0130. Still another half hour at the wheel. The beam of his fashlight fickered across the dial in the corner of the cockpit. “What are we doing?” “Three and a half.” “Not bad.” “No.” Silence. The dim glow of the binnacle light illuminated the helmsman’s face. His eyes were fxed on the compass card, but he was vaguely conscious of three forms in the dark beside him. Stars dotted the sky with pinpoints of light, and a lop-


sided moon hung low over the sea in the west. The water hissed and burbled softly as it slipped by the ship’s smooth hull. Not a light on the horizon — or was that a red gleam to starboard? Couldn’t be sure. “That a light to starboard?” Oilers crinkled as a form moved in the darkness. “Where?” “Abeam.” “Mmm, could be. We’re too far out for much company, though.” “Bolero maybe!” The fare of a match lit the speaker’s face for a moment, and the trace of a

rosenfeld collection/mystic seaport

and the competition. By pierre s. du pont iV

smile showed about his pursed lips. The cigarette glowed as he inhaled. Dreamer! Quiet again. The helmsman glanced up. The masts swayed gently in front of the stars; white sails outlined the sharp black silhouettes of spreaders and rigging. It was beautiful — and serene. He smiled. Many times he had sailed on nights like this, with a big moon in the sky and a gentle breeze blowing across the water. But it wasn’t all this easy; there were nights of thick, wet fog, and biting cold, and days of hot sun with a glassy ocean forming an empty circle around their ship. They had staggered into crimson dawns, smashing with monotonous regularity into steady seas, and they had hurled themselves into slate sunsets at 10 knots with all canvas set. It was all part of the game, and the bruised shins and wet clothing and sleepless nights were but payment for tranquil moments like this. The wind felt stronger on his face; he eased her up a touch. Sailing through the night with the rush of the dark wind and the slap of the black sea on the hull gives you a feeling of power, and of separation from the rest of the world. He and the other men on the port watch guided the ship through the night, and except for the moon and the stars they were utterly alone. They were in complete control, and not the salesman, nor the tax collector, nor could anyone bother them. Your ship and the night were your world; you could think, or dream, or anything. “You’re a bit high . . . a bit high!” “Right, bearing of.” “Steady as she goes.” Steady . . . Four bells. “My trick next I guess.” “Right. Course 225. Don’t hold her too high— keep her driving. I’ll check the log.” As he moved aft, one of the three in the cockpit disappeared below. The light over the chart table threw a block of yellow on the deck. “Course 225, wind 270 ·at 10 miles per hour, and let’s see, average speed for the hour ’bout three and a half I guess.” “Right, what’s your log read?” “Four-eight point six.” “Check . . . . ’Bout 45 miles ofshore.” The light went out. “Cofee up there?” “Sure, all around.” The cofee was strong enough to part your hair, but it was hot, and damn good. Funny how much hot cofee did for you . . . . The jib lufed slightly. “You’re light.” “Bearing of. . . .” “Still light.” “Think this is our shift?” A puf of wind made the water hiss as the ship gathered speed. The jib lufed again. “Feels like it. Think we ought to tack?”

“Mmm. Don’t know. Don’t want to come around too soon, may only be a puf.” “Feels like it’s coming in stronger. I’m for tacking. Want to check with the skipper?” “No, let him sleep, he needs it.” Again the ship fell of as the helmsman altered course for the new breeze. “Let’s bring her around.” “Right.” He threw his cofee and cigarette over the rail and moved forward. “Get that fsherman down . . . . Ready on the head.” “All set aft, lower away.” The sail bellied out to leeward and was pulled to the deck as it collapsed in the lee of the foresail. “All clear. Make sure those shackles are closed . . . . Watch your head on the foresail boom.” “Ready about!” “Ready about.” He slipped around the foremast and ran aft to the windward jib sheet cleat. “Hard a-lee!” The night was flled with the snapping of canvas and the rattling of blocks as the helmsman swung the wheel hard over. “Let go to leeward.” “All clear here.” He began to pull, slowly at frst and then faster as the ship came around. He snapped three turns around the winch. Already he could hear the after winch clicking as they set the backstay taut. He pulled a handle from the bracket and began to crank the jib sheet. “Easy on the jib. Hold it. A little more now—okay, make fast.” The three men scrambled forward and began pushing the fsherman over the dinghy to the lee side. “Watch it now, don’t cross up. Hold it, you’re snagged on the cleat. . . . Okay.” “Ready forward.” “Check, got the sheet?” “Right, hoist away any time.” “Easy now. Hold it, you’re caught on something. Lower a bit . . . . Damn it, lower a bit forward! Right, now you’re clear. Hoist away.” “Halyards made fast.” “Okay. Aft, there, sheet her in.” “Easy does it. That’s good; make fast.” “Made fast.” He stood up and wiped the sweat of his forehead. “Hot work!” “Good job though. At least the other watch won’t have anything to complain about.” “Just wait, they’ll think of something.” “No doubt.” They moved aft to join the helmsman in the cockpit. He glanced up and smiled as they sat down around him. “Nice job, fastest yet!” “Umm . . . .” There was a moment’s silence. “A trife high.” “Right.” “Steady as she goes.” He lit a cigarette and lay back on the deck. Steady as she goes. He stretched, and smiled, and gazed up into the blackness above him. The masts were swaying gently against the background of the stars. Five bells.



PrePare for it, treat it The Bermuda Race’s medical advisor guides you stage by stage through a common, potentially life-threatening illness, and its treatments. By Jeffrey S. WiSch M.D.


he medical reports submitted by crews after the 2012 Newport Bermuda Race include 54 cases of seasickness. I suspect that this number signifcantly underestimates the actual incidence of this illness. Seasickness may present itself in a full range of stages, varying from slight queasiness to severe nausea and vomiting, so it is likely that mild cases were not formally logged and that some of the cases occurred without any thought toward preventative measures. As a community, we pride ourselves in taking

seriously as they should and yet is much more likely to occur. That is the maritime version of motion sickness we know as seasickness. Make no mistake about it, seasickness can be life-threatening. In the 2012 race, seasickness precipitated evacuation of a dehydrated crewmember from a competing boat, and another vessel on the return trip was also abandoned with seasickness playing a major role in the event. As mariners know all too well, seasickness is a malady that causes misery. But seasickness also is a danger not only for the victim but for the rest of the crew, too.

You have wet gear, a safety harness, electronics, emergency gear, and plenty of spare fuel. But have you and your crew taken the time to prepare for seasickness?

safety seriously. Vessels and crew must comply with strict requirements in order to be certifed to participate in the Newport Bermuda Race. Race participants and organizers spend considerable time preparing for events that are unlikely to happen but that (should they occur) could be catastrophic. Potential problems include such scenarios as dismasting, blown sails, failed through-hulls, sinking, losing one’s rudder, and man overboard situations. While preparation for the Newport Bermuda Race usually is detailed and labor intensive, there is one problem that sailors do not seem to take as

Nobody is completely immune to motion sickness. It may occur in aircraft, automobiles, buses, your favorite carnival ride, trains, and boats of any size. This sickness occurs when our visual cues are mismatched with what our brain perceives. It is caused by the brain’s inability to properly process sensory information, particularly from the inner ear (the labyrinth apparatus), which is responsible for our sense of balance and position in relation to the rest of the environment around us. This is precipitated when we are unable to anticipate or line up visual cues with a particular, or perceived, motion. An excellent example is when sailors have to spend time in the bilge, say, while repairing an engine. Our brain senses a motion (the vessel’s movement) but the associated visual cues are absent. Add the smell of diesel fuel and the rest is readily predictable. Motion sickness can also affect an individual in the absence of motion, as may occur while viewing an action packed video game. Additional factors that contribute to seasickness include: lack of sleep, anxiety, poor hydration, foods difcult to digest, certain smells, and learned behavior. When one crewmember becomes seasick, the likelihood of others on board developing the illness increases. Continued seasickness may lead to severe dehydration, an inability to function, and, if untreated, shock and death.


John rouSManiere

cauSeS of Motion SickneSS

Line up visual clues by focusing on the horizon. Do not try to read or do close visual work.

SyMptoMS anD prevention

SeaSickneSS Prevention

Symptoms of motion sickness include apathy, inability to focus, cold sweats, anorexia, excess salivation, yawning, belching, headache, pale complexion, and fnally, nausea, severe vomiting, and dehydration. Victims might also feel a sense of impending doom. Although thresholds vary from person to person, given the right circumstances, everyone is susceptible. It is also very difcult to predict who will and will not become ill. The illness may be recurrent during a voyage, although most people will adapt to conditions after 36 to 72 hours at sea.

Before heaDing out

John rouSManiere

How do you prevent seasickness? Knowing your limitations and propensity for seasickness is critical. Because seasickness is exponentially more prevalent than the more dramatic disasters we prepare for, you and your crew should plan ahead on how to deal with it prior to heading out. The captain, watch captains, and medical ofcer should have a well thought-out management plan that includes careful planning by the entire crew. Pride should never prevent you from using preventative medications or acknowledging the onset of seasickness. I know many well-respected sailors who routinely take preventative medications for the frst 24 to 48 hours of a voyage. Crewmembers owe it to themselves and to their crewmates to try their preventative medications prior to going ofshore in order to choose the medicine with the most tolerable side efects. Individuals prone to seasickness should have a very low threshold to begin a regimen of medications. Begin dosages prior to embarking, continue for at least the frst few days, and be on the lookout for signs and symptoms of early seasickness even if a form of medication is already being used.

MeDicationS Before severe nausea and vomiting occur, get a jump on things by using a medication (which you should already have tested on shore). Taking the most efective preventative medication prior to embarking on a voyage, either coastal or ofshore,

• Be honest about your personal threshold to get sick • Be well rested prior to going ofshore • Trial seasickness remedies before going ofshore checking for side efects • Start your choice of medication the night before sailing • No alcohol the night before sailing • Eat easily digestible foods the night before sailing and for the frst 24 hours • Try to remain topside as much as possible when not getting rest for the frst 24 hours • Adhere to a strict watch schedule and get plenty of sleep when of watch • Stay well hydrated

When You Feel Sick • Go topside and hook your safety harness tether to the boat • Let your watch captain know you feel sick and inform them of any other personal illness • If you are not taking any seasick medications, start immediately • Try to focus on the horizon and if possible and appropriate take the helm • Do not try to read or attempt close visual work • Try hydrating slowly with an electrolyte solution such as Gatorade or Pedialyte • Saltines, ginger ale, and Coca Cola may help settle your stomach • Stay attached to the vessel in the event that you need to vomit • If you need to vomit try to do so on the leeward side • Crewmates help secure the afected individual


SeaSickneSS that reSiStS treatment (reFractorY vomiting) • Assess the victim’s condition • If the pulse is weak, or if the victim feels as if he or she will pass out upon sitting or standing, or if there is a change in mental status – then consider evacuation and contact the U.S. Coast Guard or other emergency service • While awaiting advice, keep the victim lying down in a secure place with head slightly elevated and turned to the side in the event that they vomit • Do not force oral fuids • Keep the victim warm • Reassure the victim that you are getting help

iF You Become SeaSick and vomit • Try using a rectal suppository such as Phenergan or Prochlorperazine • If not available try a small sip of an electrolyte solution with a pill (Stugeron, Dramamine etc.) • Try chewing the seasick pill and let the pieces melt in your mouth and under your tongue. This may help absorption into your system if pills are vomited up • Apply a Scopolamine Patch if suppositories/pills are not available or if you vomit the pills up. However, take care so as not to overmedicate with pills and a patch • Try to lay down and if possible attempt to sleep in a secure place • Do not try to take fuids or eat anything until you feel better and have given the medications a chance to work.(Usually within 30-60 minutes) • Be reassured that most people improve within 24-48 hours

has been demonstrated to be efective and the best preventive treatment available. Anti-seasickness drugs include scopolamine patches as well as medications like Dramamine, Bonine, and Stugeron (cinnarizine). Scopolamine patches may cause dry mouth, headaches, blurred vision, urinary retention, and hallucinations. Dramamine and Bonine are extremely sedating. Stugeron, a very efective agent (available only in or from Bermuda, Canada, and the UK) also has potential side efects such as drowsiness and tremors. My personal favorites are scopolamine patches and Stugeron, but they may not be your favorites, too. Before choosing a medication, try several of them out on land prior to the voyage to see how they afect you as an individual. In addition, check with your physician to see if there are any contraindications to any of the drugs depending upon your personal medical history.

I strongly suggest that each crew member and the boat’s medical ofcer familiarize themselves with the potential side efects of medications, and have that information available onboard in order to recognize a problem, should it occur. Alternative remedies that have been advocated include the use of ginger, wristbands, acupuncture, and magnets. I believe these interventions are of limited efcacy. One should not rely on them as the sole source of treatment. For those captains and crewmates who stubbornly choose to ignore the possibility of seasickness until their time comes, they might take to heart my favorite quote as they look for the silver lining in the storm cloud of this humbling experience: “This is one of the compensations of the seasick,” said James Owen Hannay, back in 1926, though his words may still ring true. “The extraordinary humiliation which accompanies their suferings is very good for their moral characters.”


John rouSManiere

A big rolling sea can be extremely unsettling. Hook your tether on, get your rest, stay hydrated and take your meds.




473 Thames Street Newport, RI 02840 401.848.9215

59 Front Street Hamilton, Bermuda 441.295.3961

Invictus (foreground), the U.S. Naval Academy Sailing Squadron’s TP52 crewed by midshipmen, fnished third in the 2012 Onion Patch Series after leading through the frst two stages.

The OniOn PaTch SerieS aT 50


skipper planning the 2014 racing schedule should be sure to include the 50th Anniversary Onion Patch Series. A challenging but enjoyable triathlon of sailboat racing, the series is open to racers and cruiser-racers, pros and amateurs — all competing against each other both in three-boat teams for the Onion Patch Trophy, and as individual yachts for the Henry B. du Pont Trophy, which goes to the top boat overall. Recently, from 2006 through 2012, an average of 33 boats have raced in the Onion Patch Series as individual entries or as part of teams representing the New York Yacht Club, Indian Harbor Yacht Club, Storm Trysail Club, Southern Yacht Club, Naval Academy Sailing Squadron, Chesapeake Bay, and other clubs and sailing areas (there have also been a few independent teams of friends). All skippers and crews competing in the 2014 New-

port Bermuda Race in the St. David’s Lighthouse Division or the Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division are invited to enter. The Onion Patch Committee’s aim is to have 50 boats on the starting line for the 50th anniversary of this unique North American regatta. The Onion Patch Series is a set of fve races in three events sailed under IRC. Stage 1 consists of the frst race each day at the New York Yacht Club’s 160th Annual Regatta, on June 14-15. Stage 2 is the 635-mile classic Newport Bermuda Race, starting on June 20. The last stage is the two-race Royal Bermuda Yacht Club Anniversary Regatta on June 27, ending with the famous “Tour of Bermuda” race that fnishes in Hamilton Harbour. The inspiration came in 1963 from three Bermuda sailors who were in Cowes, England, sailing in the Royal Ocean Racing Club’s Admiral’s Cup


TalBoT Wilson

By TalBoT Wilson

Series. Dedicated to competition between threeboat national teams, the Admiral’s Cup included day racing in the powerful tidal currents of the Solent, overnight racing in the English Channel, and the long Fastnet Race (which was itself inspired by the Bermuda Race). “The concept to involve international competition was put together equally by Jerry and Shorty Trimingham and was discussed extensively in England when we participated in the Admiral’s Cup,” Warren Brown says. “The formula was to use the Admiral’s Cup as a guide.” The Royal Bermuda Yacht Club backed the idea and deeded the Onion Patch Trophy to be competed for by national teams of three yachts each entered in the Newport Bermuda Race, which the RBYC has co-organized for many decades.

50th AnniversAry OniOn PAtch series All boats racing in the combined St. David’s Lighthouse or Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Divisions of the 2014 Newport Bermuda Race that are scored under IRC are eligible to race. Entries must qualify for all three events that comprise the series.

TalBoT Wilson

alWays a Team Race Warren Brown and the Triminghams represented Bermuda in the frst series in 1964 against one team each from the United States and Argentina. In the frst race (a 25-miler of Newport organized by the Ida Lewis Yacht Club), Argentinian Germán Frers was frst to fnish in his yawl Fjord V. A yacht designer and the father and grandfather of other yacht designers, Frers corrected to second, missing the win by only two seconds behind Tom Young’s Shearwater. Then came the Bermuda Race, after which the nine boats sailed a 25-mile race of Bermuda’s south shore. The U.S. team won that frst series. Over subsequent decades, Britain, Canada, Argentina, the United States and Bermuda all sent three-boat teams before competition was thrown open in 1994 to more than one team per country. Onion Patch Series founder Warren Brown likes the new format. “Allowing multiple teams from each country makes it a success,” he said. In the most recent Onion Patch Series, in 2012, the Carkeek HP40 Decision, owned by Steve Murray of New Orleans, La., was the best fnishing Onion Patch boat in the Newport Bermuda Race under IRC. With her performance in Friday’s Royal Bermuda YC Anniversary Regatta, Decision edged out Lawrence Dickie’s Ptarmigan by 0.5 points to win the Henry B. du Pont Trophy. The U.S. Naval Academy Sailing Squadron’s TP52 Invictus, crewed by midshipmen, was third. “Doing the Onion Patch Series has been a dream of mine since I was 12,” Murray said afterwards. “Burt Keenan, who was from New Orleans, did the series and I had heard about it as I grew up sailing. I’m really excited at being able to win it now. This Carkeek 40 is really fast in the conditions we had in the RBYC Anniversary Regatta. We are having a great time in Bermuda.” The New York Yacht Club Red Team of Rives Potts’ McCurdy & Rhodes 48 Carina, Andrew Weiss’ J122 Christopher Dragon, and Jim Bishop’s J44 Gold Digger won the team competition and took the Onion Patch Trophy. “The Onion Patch is a tough series to win as an individual entry,”


HoW To enTeR: enTRies close on June 7. Entry for the series and the New York Yacht Club and Royal Bermuda Yacht Club events may be made on the NYYC website: The Onion Patch Series Notice of Series, and results, photos, and news will be posted at: Boats all enter individually to compete for the Henry B. duPont Trophy and are encouraged to form three-boat teams to race for both the Onion Patch Trophy as teams and the Henry B. duPont Trophy as individual entries. In addition to any specifc rules for each event found in the individual NoRs, the Onion Patch Notice of Series is posted at:

Chris Otorowski’s Rocket J. Squirrel races in the NYYC Annual Regatta, the frst Onion Patch stage that’s then followed by the Bermuda Race and the RBYC Anniversary Regatta.

The Class 5 start of the 2010 Royal Bermuda Yacht Club Anniversary Regatta is the Onion Patch’s third stage. In the two-race regatta, the frst race is windward-leeward in Great Sound and the second is a “Tour of Bermuda” starting in Great Sound and fnishing in Hamilton Harbour, off the RBYC.

said Potts. He and Carina won the St. David’s Lighthouse Trophy in the 2010 and 2012 Newport Bermuda Races, but fnished ffth and eighth in the two Onion Patch series. “You have to be very good in all conditions and on all types of race courses. Not many boats or crews excel at both. The guys that do well in the Onion Patch have a lot to be proud of. They prepare their boats right, are able to shift gears from long-legged races to shortlegged races, and have very good sailors on board. To win as a team is even more difcult. All three boats on the team have to do very well in all three phases of the series. The winning team is usually the team that makes the fewest mistakes and is consistent throughout.” That’s a challenge for all racing sailors, and well represents the high standards and traditions of the historic Onion Patch Series. TalBoT Wilson

Stephen Murray’s Decision had a great day in the third stage of the of the Onion Patch Series, the 2012 Royal Bermuda Yacht Club Anniversary Regatta. She won the Henry B. du Pont Trophy as top boat in the series. The New York Yacht Club Red Team won the team competition and took the Onion Patch Trophy.


Preparations for the return delivery should begin long before you clear Bermuda – in fact, they should begin before you race down.

A CheCklist for A sAfe PAssAge home A veteran of 15 Bermuda races and many deliveries (and a former Cruising Club of America Commodore) ofers tips for a safe trip home. by Sheila McCurdy fortable point of sail, and use the engine. On the precautionary side: The crew may not know the boat or each other. Preparation is compressed into a couple of days. Delivering a boat is easier than racing to BerFewer crew may mean less redundancy in experimuda, but not by much. On the positive side: ence and skills. There are fewer crew to organize. One crew member incapacitated by seasickness One can adjust for a favorable weather window. can impact the remaining crew’s ability to respond The pressure is of: You can reef early, choose a com- to developing problems.


JOhN rOuSMaNiere


his quick reference is for delivery crews bringing sailboats back to the U.S. from Bermuda, once the festivities have concluded.

The skipper’s humbling responsibility is to prepare the crew and the boat for a range of conditions and possible risks to the safety of the crew and the vessel. The crew’s responsibility is to take initiative and cover as many bases as possible. The priorities for the skipper and each crew member are: Keep yourself healthy and safe. Keep the crew alert and safe. Keep the boat comfortable and safe. These tenets are best accomplished by thinking ahead, encouraging cooperation, and showing leadership by training the crew in prudent routines and best practices. Select your crew based on ofshore experience and special skills. Have the crew submit brief medical histories, including current health issues and medications. Encourage personal supplies of well-tolerated seasickness medication. Balance the watches by skills, strength, and personality.

Inform the crew of what gear to bring for a comfort range of 50 to 90 degrees. Assign crew members primary responsibilities like navigator, engineer, “ship’s doc,” damage control, and provisioner. Each can train others to help them. Complacency is a hazard. In 2012 a boat raced to Bermuda without trouble, only to lose the rudder on the trip back. Some of the crew were seasick resulting in a risky decision to abandon the yacht, which was salvaged safely and at great expense, days later. The more preparation done before leaving the dock and the more time spent doing COB and other drills. and practicing shortening sail in protected water, the smoother the trip will be. The crew should review Safety at Sea Seminar and other seamanship topics. The Newport Bermuda Race Safety Regulations are a good reference. Safety equipment, care and maintenance Life jacket and life raft, accessories and use Crew overboard prevention and recovery Hypothermia Electronic communications and emergency signaling devises

JOhN rOuSMaNiere

The designated “ship’s doc” keeps an eye on everybody’s health. Dehydration is a risk when sailing to and from Bermuda. A jug of water in the cockpit and nearby assigned mugs are efective and environmentally friendly.


engine. Be sure everything stays in good working order.

Fire prevention and suppression Search and rescue resources and giving assistance Weather forecasting Storm sails and heavy weather sailing

Give fair warning of boat rules to the crew. Tidiness, essential for morale as well as safety Use of life jackets, harness, tethers, and jack lines The beneft of double-checking your own work and others’ Circumstances for which to alert the skipper: ship, squall, illness, other potential problem

Boat preparations are an excellent time to engage the crew with their assignments and review details. Ship’s documents, insurance riders, crew documents, and arrival protocols Users manuals for engine, electronics and other systems Navigation and log-keeping requirements Electronics in good working order Tools — location and applicability Spares — location and applicability Repair kits — location and suitability Safety equipment — personal and boat — suitability and use Delivery sails, storm sails and running rigging Rig inspection — masthead to mast step, bow to stern Fuel range and the need for extra fuel Diagrams of fre extinguishers and through hulls for emergency response Labeling of switches, valves, breakers, etc.

Instill a proper sense of seamanship. Look out for anomalies: ships getting larger, lines chaffing, any new sight, noise or smell on deck or below. Inspect regularly the deck, bilge, and

Provisioning is essential both for welfare and morale. Water capacity, use per day; remember a bottled water reserve

Don’t allow routines and safety concerns to become so obsessive that they detract from the many pleasures of the voyage.

JOhN rOuSMaNiere

Prepare pre-departure written briefngs, diagrams, walk-throughs and practice: Shortening sail: reefng, storm sails Engine and key systems operation Going aloft and anchoring Emergency drills: Crew overboard, steering loss, dismasting, fooding, fre, abandon ship Communications equipment: radio, AIS, EPIRB, sat phone, tracker, and other signaling devises Safety equipment — location and use.


JOhN rOuSMaNiere

Food and drink for hot, cold, rough and calm conditions; main meals and snacks Consideration for allergies and intolerances Paper goods, garbage bags, plastic storage bags, and other sundries First Aid kit restocking Underway routines that are well-defned and explained contribute to the cheerful organization of the crew. On watch and of-watch should have regular duties. Emphasize steering the course and horizon scanning. Prepare for sail changes and tidy up afterwards. Deck and rig inspection are a must. Monitor and service boat systems: fuel, water, bilge, batteries, engine. Keep navigation and radio communications updated and logged. Ensure weather forecasts are received and compared with local conditions. Assign meal preparation and clean up duties as well as cabin and head clean up duties. The skipper, watch ofcers and “ship’s doc” should keep an eye on things that afect crew

morale and good judgment: Sun exposure Fatigue Dehydration Seasickness Hypothermia Other illness or conditions Injury: minor to major The entire crew should have the mindset to be thinking through “what-ifs” of things going wrong on board or nearby. Medical emergency that needs response, stabilization and possible evacuation Man overboard response — as the person in the water or the crew on deck Damage control for steering loss, dismasting, fooding, fre, etc. Abandoning ship to a ship, helicopter, or life raft Coming to the aid of another vessel or assisting in search and rescue Just as the crew is mastering the routine and enjoying each other’s company, land will loom ahead and the work turns to cleaning up for arrival and checking in with Customs.


You’ll know your preparations have paid of if everybody cheerfully chips in to clean up the boat when you reach home.

Rigging and HistoRy foR (and fRom) BeRmuda The Director of the National Museum of Bermuda offers evidence that the modern rig originated in the Onion Patch. by Dr. EDwarD Harris “One impressed visitor marveled in 1670 that Bermuda boats ‘lie so near the Wind, that they will fetch the same place they look upon, close hal’d (hauled) even with a heavy load of tobacco chests.” -- Michael J. Jarvis, In The Eye of all Trade, 2010


he start of the 2014 Newport Bermuda Race is drawing near, and skippers and crews will soon be rigging their boats for the sprint to St. David’s Head. As the boats approach the starting line, some may not be aware that they all carry a major piece of Bermudian heritage in “the cut of their jibs,” as it were—or rather in the fundamental arrangement of their fore-and-aft sail design. This is the Bermuda rig, perhaps better known as the Marconi rig. In the view of many, this threesided mainsail rig was the greatest innovation in sailing technology after the invention of the squarerigger of western Europe. While improved by various means over the centuries, this rig is unlikely ever to be replaced except by the most

rarifed boats. Some years ago Bermudian Eldon Trimingham (one of the many sailing Triminghams who sailed in Bermuda Races) made sail to investigate the origins of this rig. He was of the opinion that it was invented at Bermuda. Since Eldon’s time, a manuscript drawing of sail types of the world has come to light at the Pepys Library, at Cambridge, England. In the left-hand corner of the drawing on page 38 is a triangular sail identifed by the words “Bermoodes Saile.” The drawing has been dated to before 1674, which means that the Bermuda rig (in shape and name) is at least that old, too. Its spread globally was slow. In 1885 it was so



unusual that the Victorian-era yachtswoman Lady Brassey referred to it as “that peculiar rig.” Yet it certainly was not peculiar in Bermuda, where competitive sailing in small Bermuda-rig sloops on Great Sound began in the early nineteenth century at the instigation of several Royal Navy ofcers who were to found the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club in 1844. The boats of that era live on in two classic Bermuda craft. One is the small over-rigged keel boats called Bermuda Fitted Dinghies, which Eldon Trimingham fondly called “those lovely anachronisms.” The other Bermuda rig classic is the trading vessel known locally (despite their three-masted rig) as the Bermuda Sloop. The most recent of these craft is Spirit of Bermuda, launched in 2006. Spirit has participated in ocean races that, fttingly, fnish at Bermuda. Writing in 1990, Eldon Trimingham concluded his discussion on “The Development of the Bermuda Rig” with these words: “When Bermudians look at the massive America’s Cup challenger New Zealand or the simple Finn dinghy and consider the infuence that Bermuda, out of all proportion to its size, has had on the development of sailing, they should feel a justifable pride.” He went on, “Perhaps because Bermuda was so remote, the existence of this achievement remained obscured for so long. Ironically, it was probably the advent of scheduled steam shipping to the island a hundred years ago, bringing with it vacationers such as Nathanael G. Herreshof who fnally ‘pulled aside the veil.’” So as we Bermudians at St. David’s Lighthouse observe the 2014 Bermuda Race boats coming over the horizon to make their landfall, it may feel like


we are seeing returning relatives, all decked out in fne variant liveries of the Bermuda rig. Welcome home, participants of the 2014 Newport to Bermuda Race!

AN EArly BErMuDA rAcE TrOPhy Bermuda entered the international yachting scene in 1906 when the Bermuda Race was founded by Thomas Fleming Day, editor of the American sailing magazine Rudder. The history of the race, which is the oldest regularly scheduled ocean race, is the subject of a large room of mementos at the National Museum of Bermuda. Located at the former Royal Naval Dockyard (a short ferry ride from Hamilton and St. George’s), the museum has in its collections many artifacts of the island’s important naval, commercial sailing, and yachting history, as well as profles of the many people who have lived and worked on the island. As a visit to the museum proves, most boats in the Bermuda Race were gaf-rigged until the 1930s, when Dorade and other modern yachts with their variant on the ancient Bermuda rig proved their speed. Recently, a memento of the old schooner racing days has appeared. This is a trophy for the fourth Bermuda Race that was rescued from being melted down for its silver content. Thanks to Bermuda Race veterans William and Ann Westerfeld, this elegant trophy has a home at the National Museum of Bermuda. The trophy was made by Reed & Barton, the prominent American silversmith, and presented after the fnish of the 1909 race at the award ceremony. Standing 14½ inches in height,

About 1920, a photographer snapped an image of a yacht with a classic Bermuda rig heading into Dolly’s Bay, St. David’s Island. The image inspired local artist Bessie Gray to make this watercolor (opposite page).

Small boats with the Bermuda rig race in the mid-1800s in Great Sound under the newly constructed Gibbs Hill Lighthouse (above). The race was won by Pearl, to the left of Waterloo, both heading upwind. This painting is from the Fay and Geofrey Elliot Collection.

Among the National Museum’s many exhibits is the Bermuda Race Room, with its many models and stories of the Newport Bermuda Race (above).

it is decorated with a foral pattern in relief and has three handles. In one of the cup’s panes are the crossed fags of the two organizers of the 1909 race, the Atlantic Yacht Club of Brooklyn, N.Y., and the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club. The cup was donated to serve as an award for completing the race by an American industrialist and yachtsman named George S. Runk, who himself raced down in his 93-foot schooner, Margaret. She won the race, but Captain Runk obviously wished to share the glory because this cup, which bears his name, was presented to another entry, the schooner Restless, owned by another American, Dr. Leedom Sharp.

The manuscript drawing from the Pepys Library, dating to 1674, includes the “Bermoodes Saile,” or Bermuda rig, among the 10 rig types in the world then known (below). This drawing indicates the Bermuda connection and its early appearance.


This cup in the collection of the National Museum of Bermuda was awarded to an entry in the fourth Bermuda Race, in 1909.


Prepare for a Thrash to Bermuda! Judel/Vr Jude l/ rolij o jkk & Co. Co 72 72, 2 Bell B a Me Mente nte Phot Onne Photo: Phot nne n van der de Wall

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Sunrise over the feet can seem magical in more ways than one (top). Sheets, sails and often much else needs a day of drying in the Bermuda sun (above, left). At the 2012 prize ceremony up the hill, Bermuda Governor George Ferguson presents Peter Rebovich and Sinn Fein frst place in Class 1 (IRC) (above). Later, Sinn Fein was nearly totaled by Superstorm Sandy. At press time Pete said there was a good chance she would race again in 2014. A Bermuda Dark ’n Stormy welcome is prepared for Speedboat at RBYC after her elapsed time victory in 2010 (far left). “So where did you cross the Stream?” That’s a commonly asked question as sailors gather post-race (left).


John rousmaniere, talbot wilson (middle, leFt, lower right), PPl (middle right)

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Newport Bermuda race

NOTICE OF RACE Starting June 20, 2014 Incorporating Amendment No. 1

The Newport Bermuda Race is open to eligible yachts whose Captains have been invited to participate by the Bermuda Race Organizing Committee. The frst warning signal is scheduled for 1250 EDT, Friday, June 20, 2014. The race, scored using ORR and IRC, is a major part of the Onion Patch series and a qualifying event for the Northern Ocean Racing Trophy and New England Lighthouse Series. The ofcial time-zone for the race is North American EDT; all fees USD via major credit card. 1. MANAGEMENT 1.1 The Organizing Authority (“OA”) is the Bermuda Race Organizing Committee (“BROC”) through the joint eforts of The Cruising Club of America and the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club. 1.2 The OA shall have the authority to interpret the conditions governing the event, accept or reject entries, and assign yachts to divisions. 2. RULES The Newport Bermuda Race will be governed by the following: 2.1 The rules, as defned in The Racing Rules of Sailing (“RRS”), including US Sailing prescriptions thereto, except as modifed by the Sailing Instructions; 2.2 The Class Rules for yachts participating in designated one-design classes; 2.3 The 2014 IRC Rule (“IRC”), for yachts so entered, including the US Sailing Prescription to IRC Rule 21.6.1(b); 2.4 The 2014 Ofshore Racing Rule (“ORR”); 2.5 The 2014 Newport Bermuda Race Safety Requirements (“NBRSR”), a copy of which is available on the race website, and any amendments thereto; 2.6 This Notice of Race (“NoR”); and 2.7 The Sailing Instructions, including any changes to the rules that appear therein, e.g.: a.) RRS Part 2 will be replaced by Part B, the Steering and Sailing Rules, of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (“COLREGs”) between the hours of local sunset and local sunrise; b.) RRS 41, Outside Help, will be modifed to allow the reception of certain satellite radio products to be defned in the Sailing Instructions; c.) RRS 44, Penalties at the Time of an Incident, will be deleted and replaced with: If a yacht causes injury or serious damage, or gains a signifcant advantage in the race by her breach of a rule, her penalty shall be to retire. The jury may impose suitable penalties other than disqualifcation, including time penalties, for breaches of a rule. This will change RRS 44 and 64.1(a); and d.) RRS 51 and RRS 52 will be modifed for certain divisions, as further defned below; 2.8 Succeeding rules in the enumerated list above shall take precedence where there is a confict. This changes RRS 63.7. 2.9 Rules documents will be posted or linked on the race website: 2.10 The Ofcial Notice Board will be located at Race Head-

quarters (NoR 18), and on the race website during racing. 3. ADVERTISING In accordance with RRS 80, advertising on yachts shall comply with ISAF Regulation 20. Yachts shall provide a brief description of any advertising carried during the race upon Entry. The OA will reject any advertising not compliant with ISAF Regulation 20.2.3. 4. ELIGIBILITY 4.1 Yacht Eligibility a.) Except as otherwise provided herein, yachts eligible for entry must be monohull sailing vessels that have: i.) applied for a valid Full Measurement ORR rating certifcate; ii.) an ORR “SI” (stability index) of at least 115.0; iii.) an ORR “L” of at least 27.5 feet; iv.) specifcations, equipment, and crew that comply with the NBRSR to the satisfaction of the Chief Inspector; and v.) a minimum complement of four persons consisting of a captain and crew who have demonstrated and documented recent competency in ofshore yacht racing or passages to the satisfaction of the OA. b.) Yachts with an age or series date of December 2009 or earlier shall supply evidence of compliance with NBRSR 1.8 (scantlings) by proof of American Bureau of Shipping or European Recreational Craft Directive Category A status. In the absence of such evidence, the OA may consider the qualifcation of a yacht by virtue of its ofshore history and/or a current survey specifcally addressing characteristics of design, construction and maintenance that determine the suitability of the yacht for ofshore/ocean racing. c.) Upon application, the OA may, at its discretion, waive the minimum ORR “L” of 27.5 feet for yachts that have previously participated in the Newport Bermuda Race, and the maximum LOA herein specifed for the Open Division. d.) Yachts with movable or variable ballast need not have an ORR “SI” of at least 115.0, but must provide written evidence of compliance with NBRSR Appendix 2 to the satisfaction of the OA not later than 1700, June 6, 2014. 4.2 Crew Eligibility a.) The terms “crew,” “sailor” or “competitor” as used in this NoR and other race documents, mean any person who will be aboard an entered yacht during the race, including the Captain. b.) The term “Captain,” as used in this NoR and other race documents, means the person, whether or not the owner of the yacht, who is designated on the entry form as “Captain” and who is the Person in Charge of the yacht during the race, including for purposes of RRS 46 and NBRSR 1.2. The Captain is responsible for at least: (1) the yacht; (2) her handling and safety; (3) the conduct of her crew before, during, and after the race; and (4) compliance with the rules. See NoR 14.1. c.) Captains shall be current members of their Member National Authority (“MNA”). d.) The Newport Bermuda Race is not a race for novices. All Captains and crew should have experience sailing a yacht of-


Notice of race shore and be prepared to encounter heavy weather. The Captain and Navigator shall have successfully completed the 2010 or 2012 Newport Bermuda Race in their respective capacities. Otherwise, the OA may require the Captain, Navigator and/or Watch Captain(s) to provide evidence of ofshore experience. e.) All Captains and crew must maintain a valid ISAF Sailor Classifcation for the duration of the race in accordance with ISAF Regulation 22. See NoR 5.6 and 8. 5. ENTRY & FEES 5.1 The Newport Bermuda Race is an invitational event. The OA reserves the right to accept, reject, or invalidate the entry of any yacht, Captain or crew, and limit the total number of entries accepted. Entry is conditioned on the yacht’s satisfactory and timely measurement, inspection and crew list with time being of the essence in all respects. See NoR 12.4 (time penalties). 5.2 Step 1. A Captain desiring to enter a yacht may, after January 13, 2014, request an invitation by completing an Application for Entry (“AFE”) and paying a non-refundable $50.00 fee on the race website before 1700, April 1, 2014, after which late penalties begin to apply. 5.3 The OA will evaluate the AFE and may require the Captain, Navigator and/or Watch Captain(s) to submit an Ofshore Experience Form pursuant to NoR 4.2(d). Upon determining Eligibility of the yacht and her crew, the OA may invite the Captain to enter the race, and in such case will grant the Captain further access to the online entry system. 5.4 Step 2. Invited Captains may enter the race using the online entry system and by fling the following supporting documentation with the OA no later than the Entry Deadline of 1700, May 16, 2014, via, fax: (401) 537-9157, or online form, if applicable: a.) Supplemental Information Form: online form b.) On-Shore Contact Person: online form c.) Special Trophy Information optional: online form d.) Onion Patch Entry Form optional: online form e.) Captain’s Waiver: online form f.) Details of Advertising Carried, if any: NoR 3 g.) Evidence of scantlings compliance, if applicable: NBRSR 1.8 h.) Stability Calculations for Movable Ballast Yachts: NBRSR 2.2.3 5.5 Step 3. Yachts shall pay an entry fee of $1,200.00 plus $65.00 per crew member via the online entry system before the Entry Deadline: 1700, May 16, 2014. 5.6 Step 4. All Captains and crew shall use the online entry system to complete and execute a Crew Information and Waiver Form, including their valid ISAF Sailor ID (expiration not before June 28, 2014), by the Crew Deadline: 1700, June 1, 2014. The OA will use information collected on these forms to determine the eligibility of the Captain’s yacht for certain divisions/trophies, and populate Crew Lists for publication. 5.7 After the Crew Deadline, amendments to Crew Lists may be made upon written application and personal appearance by the Captain to the Race Chairman evidencing exceptional circumstances (e.g., death, illness, injury, bonafde business interruption, family obligations, etc.). Such amendments shall not constitute an automatic waiver of penalty under NoR 12.4.


6. MEASUREMENTS 6.1 Ratings a.) Yachts shall request ORR and/or IRC measurement, if necessary, by email to an approved measurer and Ofshore@ not later than 1700, May 7, 2014. Such email shall indicate when the yacht will be ready for measurement and request an acknowledgement email from the measurer for this purpose. b.) Yachts shall submit a completed application, renewal, or amendment, including all measurements, to US Sailing for a “Full Measurement” ORR certifcate refecting the use of spinnakers before the Measurements Deadline: 1700, May 22, 2014. Yachts entering a division with dual scoring and electing to race under both ORR and IRC shall also submit a completed application, renewal, or amendment, including all measurements, for an “Endorsed” IRC certifcate to their MNA before the Measurements Deadline. c.) If a yacht has design features not permitted by ORR, such yacht may apply to the OA for the use of an Experimental ORR certifcate. If the OA determines that the yacht’s design features can be fairly rated, the OA may petition the Ofshore Racing Association (ORA) to consider approval of an experimental rating certifcate, and recommend the approval of same to US Sailing. Such certifcates will be issued for entry in the Open Division of the 2014 Newport Bermuda Race only. d.) Sail Measurements. The Measurer Verifed sail measurements for ORR or IRC ratings may be declared and submitted in advance of building and measuring the sails. Once built, but not later than 1700, June 6, 2014, the measurer must acknowledge to US Sailing (or the yacht’s rating MNA) receipt of sail certifcates confrming that no sail exceeds the declared measurements. e.) Sail Inventories. Except as otherwise provided herein or in the Sailing Instructions, all yachts shall comply with the sail restrictions specifed in ORR 10.02.1 and, if she is entered in IRC, by IRC 21 and the US Sailing Prescription to IRC Rule 21.6.1(b). Sails other than those permitted by these rules may be aboard provided they are stowed separately and marked clearly: “not for racing.” f.) The US Sailing Ofshore Ofce will inform the race committee if a yacht fails to meet any of the measurement deadlines defned herein. The Ofshore Ofce will also identify those yachts that, in spite of timely scheduling and presenting the yacht for measurement at the appointed time, failed to meet the deadline because of (1) foul weather preventing measurement or (2) measurer unavailability. See NoR 12.4. 6.2 Inspections. Yachts are subject to inspection and reinspection both before and after the race, including immediately after fnishing. A yacht’s failure to be in compliance may result in the invalidation of her entry before her start or protest after her fnish. a.) A yacht’s entry is conditioned on her having been inspected to the satisfaction of the Chief Inspector according to the rules before the Inspections Deadline: 1700, June 6, 2014. Such inspections shall be made in accordance with the procedures outlined in the inspection documents published by the Chief Inspector. b.) It remains the Captain’s responsibility to comply with the rules and arrange with a race inspector a mutually acceptable time and place for the pre-race inspection. Pre-race inspec-


Newport Bermuda race

tions should take place as soon as possible after the yacht’s entry fee is paid. c.) A yacht failing to meet the Inspections Deadline may be subject to a penalty (NoR 12.4). Yachts will not be eligible for Newport Check-In (NoR 13.1) before all inspection defciencies have been resolved to the satisfaction of the Chief Inspector. d.) The race committee or inspectors shall endeavor to re-inspect some percentage of the feet immediately after fnishing, including at least all potential prize-winning yachts. e.) Required On Board Documentation. All yachts shall have the following documents aboard in paper copy from 0800 on the day of her start until 48 hours after fnishing: i.) ORR Certifcate: NoR 4.1(a)ii, NBRSR 2.2.1 ii.) IRC Certifcate, if dual-scored: NoR 6.1(b) iii.) Life Raft Inspection Certifcate(s): NBRSR 3.39 iv.) 406 EPIRB Registration(s): NBRSR 3.16.1 v.) Safety-at-Sea Participation List: NBRSR 5.2 vi.) On Board Training Certifcate: NBRSR 5.3 vii.) CPR and First Aid Certifcates: NBRSR 5.6 viii.) ABS/CE Builder’s Letter, if required: NoR 4.1(b) ix.) Stability Calculations for Movable Ballast Yachts: NBRSR 2.2.3 7. DIVISIONS 7.1 The OA will use the following division descriptions as guidelines to assign yachts to appropriate divisions and ensure even competition. The OA shall have complete authority to determine the suitability of any yacht for entry into any division, and may divide any division into classes at its discretion. Division assignments by the OA are fnal and are not subject to protest or redress. 7.2 The OA will use the Newport Bermuda Race Performance Screen (“Performance Screen”) and the Classifcation limits under NoR 8 below to divide yachts between the St. David’s Lighthouse and Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Divisions. The Performance Screen does not apply to any other division. a.) The Performance Screen is calculated by taking the ratio of two performance parameters: the Sail Area/Displacement Ratio divided by the Displacement/Length Ratio. The Performance Screen is calculated using the upwind sail area frst, then the downwind area. The average of those two screens is taken as the Performance Screen. The values for sail area, displacement and length are taken from the ORR certifcate, on which the Performance Screen will be printed. Preliminary Performance Screens may be obtained from US Sailing’s Ofshore Ofce. b.) Yachts with Performance Screens above 0.72 may enter only the Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division, and must satisfy all other requirements of that division. Yachts with Performance Screens below 0.48 may enter only the St. David’s Lighthouse division, and must satisfy all other requirements of that division. Yachts whose Performance Screen is between 0.48 and 0.72 may enter either the Gibbs Hill or St. David’s Lighthouse Division, and must satisfy all other requirements of the division in which she is entered. 7.3 Yachts in the St. David’s Lighthouse Division and the Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division will compete for the fastest elapsed time record. 7.4 St. David’s Lighthouse Division a.) Eligible yachts shall have the following: i.) ORR GPH not less than (faster than) 400 seconds per mile;

ii.) LOA not greater than 100 feet (30.48 meters); and iii.) Performance Screen less than 0.72. (Note: Yachts with Performance Screens greater than 0.48 but less than 0.72 may elect to enter either the St. David’s or Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division.) b. Yachts in this division may elect to be scored under IRC in addition to ORR. 7.5 Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division a.) Eligible yachts shall have the following: i.) ORR GPH not less than (faster than) 340 seconds per mile, nor greater than (slower than) 600 seconds per mile; ii.) LOA not greater than 100 feet (30.48 meters); and iii.) Performance Screen greater than 0.48. (Note: Yachts with Performance Screens greater than 0.48 but less than 0.72 may elect to enter either the St. David’s or Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division.) b.) Yachts in this division may elect to be scored under IRC in addition to ORR. c.) At the discretion of the OA, yachts with rated movable water ballast that have previously competed in the Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division of the Newport Bermuda Race may be granted a waiver to participate in this division in 2014. 7.6 Cruiser Division a.) Eligible yachts shall have the following: i.) ORR GPH not less than (faster than) 400 seconds per mile; ii.) LOA not greater than 85.3 feet (26.000 meters); and iii.) ORR rating for “centerline asymmetric spinnakers.” b.) Yachts in the Cruiser Division will be scored using their ORR ratings for centerline asymmetric spinnakers. However, yachts may carry only one declared spinnaker for use while racing. The tack of this spinnaker shall be attached at the centerline of the yacht. The tack may be at the stem, end of a bowsprit, or end of a sprit permanently installed at the bow of the yacht for the purpose of tacking down an asymmetrical cruising spinnaker. The sail must be made of nylon or polyester. Sail measurements and tack point shall be declared in the ORR certifcate application. c.) Power-driven winches and furlers, and mechanical and electro-mechanical steering devices will be permitted. This modifes RRS 52. d.) Cruiser Division yachts shall not carry a light staysail as defned in ORR 10.02.1. Only one jib may be set on a given forestay at a time. Lufs of jibs must be fully attached to a forestay. e.) Yachts may carry a pole for winging-out a jib. (This paragraph supersedes ORR Rule 9.05.1.b.) If a pole is carried aboard the yacht, it shall not be used to shift the tack of the spinnaker, nor may it be used for sheeting the spinnaker. A winged-out jib shall not be fown at the same time as the spinnaker. f.) Poles longer than “J” are not permitted for winging-out jibs. Headsails shall not be winged-out on the same side as the mainsail. 7.7 Double-Handed Division a.) Eligible yachts shall have the following: i.) ORR GPH not less than (faster than) 520 seconds per mile; ii.) LOA not greater than 65.6 feet (20.00 meters); and iii) total crew of two persons. b.) Power-driven winches and furlers, and mechanical and electro-mechanical steering devices will be permitted. This modifes RRS 52. Yachts shall comply with RRS 51, except


Notice of race RRS 51 will be modifed to allow the moving of declared water ballast only. 7.8 Open Division a.) Eligible yachts shall have a LOA not greater than 100 feet (30.48 meters), unless waived under NoR 4.1(c). b.) Power-driven winches and furlers will be permitted. This modifes RRS 52. The use of power-driven winches and/or furlers shall be declared at the time of entry, and will result in a rating adjustment to be determined by the OA and applied to the yacht’s ORR rating. c.) Open Division yachts shall comply with RRS 51, except that RRS 51 will be modifed to allow the moving of declared water ballast and cant keels only. 8. CLASSIFICATION The following classifcation rules shall apply (see RRS 79): 8.1 The ISAF Sailor Classifcation Code (ISAF Regulation 22) applies to all Captains and crew in all divisions. Both the OA and the ISAF Classifcation Commission strongly caution sailors to understand the specifc implications herein concerning classifcation, especially with respect to Group 3 sailors, as defned in the ISAF Sailor Classifcation Code. ORR Rule 4.03 entitled “Crew Limitations on Professionals” shall not apply. 8.2 Crews in the St. David’s Lighthouse and Cruiser divisions shall comply with NoR 5.6 and may include Group 3 sailors within the following limits: a.) St. David’s Lighthouse Division yacht crews: Total Crew:


















8.7 When the race committee believes that a yacht or her crew may have committed a breach of NoR 8, it shall protest such yacht. 8.8 Penalties for breaches of NoR 8 shall be determined by the International Jury and may well include disqualifcation and action under RRS 2 and/or RRS 69, subject to the following provisions: a.) The penalty for breach of NoR 8.2(a) or 8.2(b) following a classifcation protest may be disqualifcation, and such protested yacht, her Captain, and her Navigator shall be ineligible for any trophy, prize, or award; b.) The penalty for each breach of NoR 8.2(c) shall be not less than one hour of elapsed time or ten times the duration of each breach, whichever is greater; c.) The Captain’s ignorance or mistake of a sailor’s ISAF classifcation status, as published by ISAF and refected on the yacht’s entry documents at the time of starting, shall not be a defense to a protest under NoR 8; and d.) The Captain shall be presumed to possess a general familiarity with his or her crew, including personal details that afect a sailor’s ISAF classifcation status, but such presumption shall be rebuttable. 9. START The race will start in the vicinity of Castle Hill in Newport, Rhode Island, with a frst warning signal scheduled for 1250, Friday, June 20, 2014. 10. COURSE The course will be from the Start to the fnish of St. David’s Lighthouse, Bermuda, leaving the Islands of Bermuda to starboard, and as further defned in the Sailing Instructions.

b.) Cruiser Division yacht crews: Total Crew:


















c.) Group 3 sailors shall not steer a yacht in the St. David’s Lighthouse or Cruiser divisions while racing unless that sailor: i.) has at least a one-third partner fnancial interest in ownership of the yacht; or ii.) is steering while giving all possible help to any person or vessel in danger, provided that such steering is documented in detail with the yacht’s timely-fled Certifcate of Compliance. See NoR 13.3. 8.3 One Group 3 sailor per yacht is permitted in the DoubleHanded Division. Both sailors may steer while racing. 8.4 There are no classifcation related crew limits or steering restrictions in the Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division or Open Division. 8.5 Classifcation Protests. Yachts may be protested with respect to one or more of their crew’s ISAF Sailor Classifcation(s) before the Classifcation Protest Time Limit: 1700, Friday, June 13, 2014. The OA or Jury Secretary will post such protests on the Ofcial Notice Board by 0900, Saturday, June 14, 2014. The time limit for Classifcation Protests, other than by yachts, shall be 1700, June 27, 2014. 8.6 For purposes of ISAF Regulation 22.5.6, the “commencement of the event” shall be the Crew Deadline: 1700, June 1, 2014. See NoR 5.6 and 5.7.


11. SAILING INSTRUCTIONS Sailing Instructions will be available on the race website before the Captains’ Meeting. 12. PENALTY SYSTEM 12.1 An International Jury will be constituted in accordance with RRS Appendix N. 12.2 Decisions of the International Jury will be fnal in accordance with RRS 70.5. 12.3 The International Jury may impose suitable penalties, which may include time penalties, for breaches of a rule. See NoR 8.8. 12.4 The race committee may protest any yacht that has failed to meet any deadline specifed in NoR 4 (Eligibility), 5 (Entry and Fees), 6 (Measurements - Ratings and Inspections), 13.1 (Newport Check-In), and/or 13.3 (Bermuda Check-In). Such protests shall be subject to the following penalties: a.) The penalty for each breach shall be the addition of at least 10 minutes to the yacht’s elapsed time for each 24-hour period or any part thereof for which the yacht failed to meet each deadline; and b.) Penalties shall be calculated such that each late document or act is an independent breach subject to its own penalty. 12.5 Any yacht that sufers accidental damage after the fling of her measurement certifcate that requires her to apply for and fle a new certifcate after the Measurement Deadline (NoR 6.1) may request a waiver of the penalty in NoR 12.4,


Newport Bermuda race

provided that, for other than the accidental damage, she would have been able to comply in all respects with the dates specifed in NoR 6.1. The new certifcate must be fled not later than 1700, June 17, 2014. 12.6 All time penalties shall be applied consecutively, not concurrently. 13. REGISTRATION 13.1 Newport Check-In. Each Captain, or his agent bearing the Captain’s express authorization, shall report to Race Headquarters in Newport for Check-In after noon, Sunday, June 15, 2014, but not later than 1600, Wednesday, June 18, 2014. a.) The following tasks shall be completed at Newport Check-In: i.) Submit all outstanding documents and fees; ii.) Receive OA supplied/rented transponder upon agreement; iii.) Attest to reading, understanding and accepting this NoR, its Appendix A, and the Inspection documents; and iv.) Receive two tickets to the Captains’ Meeting. b.) Neither the OA nor the race committee shall check-in any yacht whose entry and inspection procedures are incomplete. c.) Captains and crew should pre-clear Bermuda Immigration at Race Headquarters in Newport to avoid delays doing so upon arrival in Bermuda. In any event, Captains must clear their yacht with H.M. Customs Bermuda upon arrival. 13.2 Captains’ Meeting. The OA and race committee will hold a Captains’ Meeting at 1700, Thursday, June 19, 2014, at Jane Pickens Theater in Newport (tickets required). Not more than two (2) sailors from each yacht shall attend the Captains’ Meeting. 13.3 Bermuda Check-In. Each Captain shall report to the Race Headquarters Duty Desk at the RBYC as soon as practicable, but not more than 18 hours after fnishing, and present the following: a.) H.M. Customs Bermuda forms; b.) Passports and immigration documents for all crew; c.) Outbound travel documents (e.g., e-ticket) or ship-transfer letters for non-resident crew not leaving Bermuda aboard the yacht on which they arrived; d.) Bermuda Department of Tourism Survey; e.) On Board Training Certifcate (if not already fled in Newport); f.) OA supplied transponder in good working order; and g.) Certifcate of Compliance. 14. RESPONSIBILITY, LIABILITY, AND MEDIA 14.1 All Captains are solely responsible for the structural integrity of their yachts and their ftness to undertake a safe ocean voyage. In addition, all Captains are under a continuing obligation to ensure that their yacht and crew comply with the rules before the Start, during the race, and after Prize Giving, including correcting errors made during the Entry, Measurement, or Registration processes, lest they jeopardize their entry and future invitations or face protest. 14.2 Misconduct Afoat or Ashore. In the event of a serious breach of conduct by a competitor while in Newport, Bermuda, or in between, the pertinent yacht may be subject to protest by the race committee and penalties or disqualifcation. 14.3 Risk. Competitors participate in this race entirely at their own risk. See RRS 4, Decision to Race. The Bermuda Race Organizing Committee, The Cruising Club of America,

Royal Bermuda Yacht Club, race sponsors, afliated companies, and their employees bear no responsibility for accidents, damage or injuries to yachts or their crew arising from any cause during the race or related activities, including their negligence. The Captain’s responsibility is as set out in the NBRSR and defned on the Entry Forms, including the Captain’s Waiver. 14.4 Waiver of Liability. As a condition of entry, the owner or charterer of an entered yacht and each sailor shall submit a signed Crew Information & Waiver Form to the OA by the Entry Deadline (for Captains) or the Crew Deadline (for crew). See NoR 5.6.  14.5 Media and Commercial Rights. Competitors shall acknowledge on the Crew Information & Waiver Form that the OA owns all media and commercial rights to the Newport Bermuda Race. Competitors will further grant to the OA the unrestricted and perpetual right to use and publish any biographical information, text and images arising from the Newport Bermuda Race. The OA will exercise these rights in its sole discretion or as it may agree with the race’s sponsors.  Newport Bermuda Race; The Cruising Club of America; Royal Bermuda Yacht Club; club burgees; the lighthouse race logos; certain other logos and marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club and The Cruising Club of America in the United States and other countries. All Rights Reserved. Use is prohibited without written permission from the pertinent club. 15. SCHEDULE The OA will maintain an ofcial race and social schedule on the race website, including: 1700, April 1: Application for Entry (AFE) Deadline 1700, May 7: Deadline to request rating measurement (NoR 6.1(a)) 1700, May 16: Entry Deadline (Forms, Fees, Docs. and Capt’s Waiver) 1700, May 22: Measurements Deadline (rating data to MNA) 1700, June 1: Crew Deadline (Crew Information & Waiver Forms) 1700, June 6: Inspections Deadline and sail measurement confrmation 1700, June 13: Classifcation Protest Time Limit June 15-18: Newport Headquarters Open for Check-In 1700, June 19: Captains’ Meeting 1250, June 20: First Warning Signal (as scheduled) June 22-27: Bermuda Headquarters Open for Check-I 1800, June 28: Prize Giving 16. SCORING 16.1 The Newport Bermuda Race will be scored using ORR. Yachts in certain divisions may elect to be scored under IRC too, as provided herein. 16.2 Scoring will be in accordance with RRS Appendix A. 16.3 Corrected Times for all ORR yachts will be calculated using Performance Curve Scoring (PCS) for Bermuda Course. 16.4 Time allowances for IRC yachts will be calculated using the yacht’s TCC on a Time On Time (TOT) basis. 16.5 The course distance for scoring all Divisions will be 635 nautical miles.


Notice of race 17. PRIZES 17.1 Prize Giving will be on Saturday, June 28, 2014. Attendance is by invitation only. 17.2 Corrected Time Class Prizes. The OA will present class prizes for up to the frst four places on corrected time in each ORR class, depending upon the number of yachts in that class. The OA will present frst in class prizes in the St. David’s Lighthouse and Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Divisions for yachts submitting Endorsed IRC certifcates. 17.3 Corrected Time Division Prizes. The OA will present the following prizes for First Place on corrected time in each division under the scoring system noted: a.) St. David’s Lighthouse Division: St. David’s Lighthouse Trophy (ORR) b.) Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Division: Gibbs Hill Lighthouse Trophy (ORR) c.) St. David’s & Gibbs Hill Divs. Comb’d: North Rock Beacon Trophy (IRC) d.) Cruiser Division: Carleton Mitchell Finisterre Trophy (ORR) e.) Double-Handed Division: Phillip S. Weld and Moxie Prizes (ORR) f.) Open Division: Royal Mail Cup (ORR) 17.4 Elapsed Time Prizes. The OA will present prizes to the frst yacht to fnish in these divisions: a.) St. David’s & Gibbs Hill Divs. Combined: The Corp. of Hamilton Trophy b.) Cruiser Division: The Herbert L. Stone Memorial Trophy c.) Open Division: First to Finish Prize 17.5 Additional prizes will be ofered and awarded as detailed in the fnal Prize List issued by the OA and available at 18. FOR MORE INFORMATION Bermuda Race Organizing Committee Entry Documents Filing: or fax: (401) 537-9157

Race Chairman: Fred Deichmann Participation: Dick Holliday Qualifcations: Joe Harris Safety: Ron Trossbach Chief Inspector: John Winder Media: John Rousmaniere Webmaster: Rush Hambleton Race Headquarters – Newport June 15-20 Bermuda Race Organizing Committee c/o New York Yacht Club Sailing Center, Harbour Court 5 Halidon Avenue Newport, RI 02840-3815 (401) 537-9156 Telephone (401) 537-9157 Fax Race Headquarters – Bermuda After June 20 Bermuda Race Organizing Committee c/o Royal Bermuda Yacht Club 15 Point Pleasant Road Hamilton HM DX, Bermuda (441) 294-6706 Telephone (441) 295-6361 Fax


The rewards for a speedy sail across the Stream include the three major Newport Bermuda Race trophies: The Gibbs Hill Lighthouse, North Rock Beacon, and St. David’s Lighthouse.


It’s Not the Size of the Boat but the Hunger of the Sailor

Come to Fourways Inn and tell your server “fne dining with a breeze” and receive: THE SAILORS SPECIAL Bermuda Fish Chowder or Caesar Salad 12 oz Surf & Turf | Bermuda Fish & Beef Tenderloin Dark and Stormy Souffle


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LITTLE VENICE Celebrating over 40 years of fabulous food and fne wine, with classic and contemporary regional Italian specialities. Spectacular wine list and an ambiance that sparkles with zest. Great outdoor dining on the terrace. Our Wine Bar has the ONLY Wine Spectator Award of Excellence in Bermuda! Mingle at this cosy spot next to our restaurant. 32 Bermudiana Road, Hamilton | T 441-295-3503 | F 441-295-8977 E | WWW.LITTLE VENICE .BM

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Compete for the Bermuda Ocean Cruising Yacht Trophy This special combined competition trophy goes to the captain who has the best performance in consecutive Marion and Newport Bermuda races. Amateur crews in monohulls in the Marion race and in the Cruising Division in the Newport race are eligible for the trophy. The Marion Bermuda Race is open to racers of monohulls up to 80 feet LOA. New simpler safety requirements! Join us in Marion on June 19, 2015 to be eligible for this trophy. Marion Bermuda Race information is available at





ARE YOU READY? Landfall has everything you need to go for the pin end off Castle Hill: Safety gear from

Mustang, Winslow, McMurdo, and ACR. NOAA paper charts and GPS and AIS units from Garmin, Raymarine, and Watchmate. Hardware and lines from Harken, Ronstan, Marlow, New England Ropes, and FSE. Foul weather gear from Musto, Henri Lloyd, Slam, Gill, and Helly Hansen. Before you make the thrash to the onion patch, seek Landfall. We’ve been providing outfitting gear and advice to Bermuda racers for over 32 years. Call or click for a free catalog or monthly e-mail. Shop online anytime. ASK US ABOUT TEAM OUTFITTING

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BREWER ... for winning results! Whether you’re racing ‘round the buoys – or enduring the rigors of a long-distance regatta – Brewer Yacht Yards can ensure your boat competes in race-ready condition! Brewer guarantees the best service work from Maryland to Maine, setting the highest standards in the industry, with experienced ABYC certified technicians. Brewer’s reputation, convenient East Coast locations, and commitment to quality care will make Brewer your #1 choice! WIN with Brewer!

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“BERMUDA IS THE PERFECT YEAR ROUND YACHTING DESTINATION.” With our crystal clear ocean, favourable winds and perfect sailing conditions, Bermuda is so much more. Bermuda Tourism is proud to sponsor the 2014 Newport to Bermuda Race. For more information visit

Official 2014 Newport Bermuda Race Program  
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