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LIV BENEDICTE BREKKE THESIS 2015


CONTENTS

06

THESIS ABSTRACT

10

POINT OF VIEW

14

SCHOOL

1 Pico Island

18

COLOURS AND TEXTURE

28

THE ISLAND

44

UNESCO

56

THE VERNACULAR

64

FACADE

PHOTOGRAPHIC ESSAY

CONTEXT AND REMOTENESS

CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

ARCHITECTURE OF NECESSITY

BLANKNESS AND SHALLOW RELIEF

2 Productive Landscape

72

AGRICULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE

86

TRANSFORMATION

96

GEOLOGY

THE SUBTLE SYSTEM

VINEYARD INFRASTRUCTURE

LAVA TUBES

3 Wine

108

TERROIR

118

PRODUCTION

124

SEASONS AND ECONOMY

COMPARATIVE VINEYARDS

EQUIPMENT AND DIMENSIONS

HOTEL AND RESTAURANT


4 Adega

134

COMPLETING SQUARE

156

LANDSCAPE

174

UNDERWORLD

PLAN AND SECTION

WALLS, BUILDING AND TERRAIN

VAULTS

5 Technology

188

STRUCTURE

194

VAULTS

198

MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION

206

MEP

212

SUSTAINABILITY

216

REGULATORY EVOLUTION

218

GLOSSARY

CONCRETE COLUMNS AND BLOCK WORK

ITERATIVE PROCESS AND SPECIALIST STUDY

1:20 DETAILS

SERVICING STRATEGY

STATEMENT

PORTUGAL AND THE UK

Appendix

A

TECTONIC INTENT

B

DEVELOPMENT

ARTICLE


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THESIS ABSTRACT : COMPLETING A VILLAGE SQUARE Pico Island is known for its long history of wine making and the unique man-made landscape that was created to protects the vines. After the vineyard landscape was protected by UNESCO in 2004, wine production on the island has increased and wine makers on the island are hoping to double production within the next five years. Other than wine production, the island also specialises in fig production, cereal and cattle amongst other. In short, this years brief was to design a winery. However, given the islands diverse nature and interesting settlement the project quickly developed into a project about community and nature, as much as production and economy. The chosen site has 35 h. of vineyard landscape at its disposal, along with small settlements along its edges. South of the site one finds the basalt cliffs leading to the Atlantic Ocean and the majestic horizon. North of the site, the 2350 m. high Pico Mountain dominates the landscape on a clear day. The placement of the ‘adega’ at the edge of a small village settlement, offered the challenge of completing what appears as a small square and mediate this small urban structure to the productive landscape beyond.

Oppsite: Model of vineyard site 1:500


35 hectare


Village square

Opposite: Connecting places with development of new vineyard and community hall Above: Strategy of mirroring existing fabric to complete village square.


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PROFESSIONAL, ETHICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL POSITION It’s a strange thing, having to write about what kind of architect you are, not having received the degree yet or having sufficient experience to competently argue your point of view. So I suppose one has to write about the sort of architect one hopes to become, and welcome the naivety that comes with such a statement. There are certain aspects of architecture that I had an attitude about before I even started the course. However, I kept these opinions to myself, thinking; ‘ That’s not what an architect should think’. Always assuming that what you think is wrong, but these next five years will sort me out. It wasn’t until my third year and a year out in practice that I realised that some of the observations and conclusions I made as a pre- architecture student were in fact what made up my architectural ethos, and these thoughts have only grown stronger over the course of the masters degree we’re about to finish. If I were to select one aspect about architecture that interests, concerns me and worries me, and always has, it would be people. People is everything in architecture. I see architecture as a humanistic subject, one that can never be discussed without discussing people. This is of course because architecture touches on so many parts of our lives and on so many subjects: economy, politics, family, nature,

environment, technology, aesthetics, history, culture. You could go on and on and on. Without people, there would be no need for architecture, and building would be impossible. People are the scale we measure a building against. People live in architecture, work, play and die. People surround architecture, and architecture surrounds us. It’s a truly beautiful relationship really. This is why I always start with people when given a new brief. The people are the context. I used to think I was a ‘contextual’ architect, and I still do, but my understanding of context has somewhat changed. When one talks about architecture, context is the natural, cultural and historical aspects of a site. An architect should aim to be in harmony with the context, by researching and understanding it. One could argue that an architect should spend just as much time researching the existing as designing the new. Is this research carried out as it should, the design will be contextual without even trying to be. One might discover aspects of the design that is so contextual that it could never have happened without a thorough understanding of the site. If one starts with the people, in retrospect everything will make sense.

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Proposal in context Adega mediating landscape and small urban structure


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KINGSTON SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITES This is the third year that Kingston School of Architecture is working with UNESCO World Heritage sites around the world. The sites span from various places in the UK to remote locations such as Pico Island in the Azores. The sites include listed buildings as well as listed landscapes (also called cultural landscapes by UNESCO). The challenge for the students is to design a project that responds to a site that is in a UNESCO or ‘buffer’ zone, addressing issues of conservation, transformation, community and management. How does one modernise an area that possibly has been managed the same way for hundreds of years? What does modernisation mean in listed areas? How does one approach historic buildings, landscapes and cultures with a new design? Criteria (iii) and (v): The Pico Island landscape reflects a unique response to viniculture on a small volcanic island and one that has been evolving since the arrival of the first settlers in the 15th century. The extraordinarily beautiful man-made landscape of small, stone walled fields is testimony to generations of small-scale farmers who, in a hostile environment, created a sustainable living and muchprized wine.

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1 Pico Island

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COLOURS AND TEXTURE PHOTOGRAPHIC ESSAY

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The Island functions as a Machine. - EDUARDO SOUTA DA MOURA

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Photograph by Joseph Lyth


THE ISLAND CONTEXT AND REMOTENESS

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Opposite page: World map showing tectonic plates


30 50 °

60 °

NEW ENGLAND SEAMOUNT’S

70 °

USA


PORTUGAL CONTINENTAL SHELF

20 째

MOUNT PICO

30 째

MID ATLANTIC RIDGE

40 째

CANARY BASIN

Section through Atlantic Ocean and Mount Pico (2350 meter above sea) by Alex Buck


DISTANCE CHART

-/

50 KM FAIAL 1000

1600 KM

--/---/---/---/---/---/2000

LISBON

2600 km

--/---/---/---/---/-

LONDON

3000 KM

--/---/---/-

ICELAND 3800 KM

---/---/---/4000

NEW YORK 5000

6000

6900 KM

--/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/--32

RIO DE JANEIRO


THE AZORES - A GROUP OF ISLANDS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN The Archipelago of Azores is an integral part of Portugal with a political and administrative autonomous status, which characterizes it as an Autonomous Region Situated in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 1500 km from the western coast of the European continent and 3900 km from the nearest coastal point of North America. The Archipelago is composed of nine islands and a few islets, all of volcanic origin. Based on the relative proximity of the islands, they are divided into three groups, the Eastern group including Santa Maria and S達o Miguel; the Central group including Terceira, Graciosa, S達o Jorge, Pico and Faial and the Western group including Flores and Corvo.

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THE AZORES MICRO-PLATE The Azores are located at the junction of three major tectonic plates: the North American, African and Eurasian plates. These three large plates are slowly moving away from each other, creating the Azores Microplate. The Azores Microplate has several fault lines which cause the plate to move in all directions and, as a result, has high volcanic activity. The magma from beneath the Earth’s crust escapes to the surface through these fault lines and solidifies when it comes into contact with the sea, which is how the Azores were formed.

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MADELENA

TIMELINE

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/---/ / / /

AZORES FIRST APPEARANCE ON PORTOLAN CHARTS FIRST SETTELERS FROM ALGARVE, PORTUGAL, 1460

UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE 1994


PICO ISLAND Pico is a varied landscape of many different forms. From the main volcamic peak that dominates the island and the smaller cones that jut up along the horizon; to the roling humps along the ridge, and the plateau between the mountains and the sea. Water was scarce when the settlers first arrived, yet the height of the peak encouraged rain to fall, and streals and small watercourses fall down its slopes, hile higher up are several small lakes nestled between the volcanic cones This map illustrated the settlesments along the edge of the island, with the new main road connecting them. Before this road was built, there was only smaller road from the cost up to each settlement.


Church in neighbouring village Adandoned production facilities and manor house

Village square and proposed adega

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MOUNTAIN AND HORIZON One of the reasons for choosing this site, was it’s location on the island. Set on the south side of the island, neither of the neighbouring island are visible from site. This reminds the visitor how remote Pico Island is, and gives a new meaning to the horizon. There is a great power to knowing you are 1600 km away from nearest mainland. This proposal tries to deal with its connection to the neighbouring villages, other production facilities and the abandoned site at the cliff. Sketch As seen from sea


North horizon

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South horizon


UNESCO LANDSCAPE OF THE PICO ISLAND VINEYARD CULTURE

43


Spirit sales

Fig and wine

Distilleries

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Opposite: Diagrams of industry on the island UNESCO and buffer zone (comprises a total of 987 ha surrounded by a buffer zone of 1924 ha) Site in buffer zone


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UNESCO LISTED LANDSCAPES AND ITS CULTURAL AND NATURAL VALUE GROUNDWORK FOR PROTECTION AND MANAGMENT World Heritage Cultural Landscapes, a category adopted by the World Heritage Committee in 1992, has been in a way the precursor of the considerations of the Global Strategy for a balanced and representative World Heritage List of 1994, and of the major considerations by expert groups and the World Heritage Committee in bringing nature and culture closer together in the implementation of the World Heritage Convention. Landscape interpretation and cultural landscape go together, for both are about ideas and meanings, concepts and interpretations, dynamics and dialogues. For the archaeologist, the artefact is important; for historians, the visual or written document of landscape is primarily important; for the artist or traveller, mainly the associative value of beautiful scenery. It is increasingly apparent that the historical identity of individual landscapes is emphasized. Memories and associations are taken away in the mind of the viewer of a landscape. Through the preservation approach the landscape itself remains as a lasting memorial to the past. A cultural landscape may be directly associated with the living traditions of those inhabiting it, or living around it in the case of some designed landscapes like gardens. These associations arise from interactions and perceptions of a landscape; such as beliefs closely linked to the landscape and the way it has been perceived over time. These

cultural landscapes mirror the cultures which created them. Landscapes also exist in people’s memories and imaginations and are linked to place names, myths, rituals and folk- lore. In people’s minds there is rarely a clear distinction between the visible and invisible –or tangible and intangible components of the landscapes. Stories and myths endow landscapes with meanings transcending the directly observable and thereby help to create people’s ‘mental maps’, or awareness of place. Cultural landscapes can be seen as the repository of collective memory. Inspirational landscapes may become familiar to people through their depiction in paintings, poetry or song. But since the advent of industrialization and with global change, many people have realized that they have lost their spiritual connections with, and in, the landscape. The global environmental movement is interested in cultural landscapes because many are important for nature conservation and may contain habitats valuable to the conservation of biodiversity. Even some designed landscapes are now considered important gene pools.

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Infrastructure and ownership structure Roads leading from main road and smaller shelthers spread across the land Owenership divided up into strpios from coast inwards, in order to fairly devide who got the high qualitiy graps along the coast

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HISTORICAL INFRASTRUCTURE, OWNERSHIP AND INTEGRITY BUILDING ON THE LESSONS OF THE PAST TO TRANSFORM FOR THE FUTURE In the area of the vinicultural landscape of the Pico, the fundamental element consists of a unique network of black stone walls, evidence of an intelligent use of the resources available, where one finds namely the “currais”, which are perfectly designed into its system. “It was a painful surprise in those times, to discover that the land did not have farmable soil. Imagine the deception!” (Laranjo, 1972). These words reflect the feelings of the first settlers of Pico upon discovering the lack of soil on the western part of the island, due to the innumerable eruptions occurring close to the mountain, which transformed this area into an immense desert of stone. “one very mountainous island, frightening and unfarmable.” (Padre Cordeiro, 1717). However, this adversity was not enough for the people to surrender, BY using their wits, energy and creativity, they took advantage of the cracks found in the rock, planted vines, and when necessary filed in with clay and used a “marrão” (a typical metal tool, a sort of two-sided hammer) for chipping and therefore, they transformed the rock into wine. The structuring of the territory obeyed the demands of cultivation and the comforts of the landowners, starting from almost nothing, the design of the stone walls were constructed with skill and in measure with one’s conveniences. In this

way, the walls were built in the immediate areas designated for production, with the objective of not enhancing its productivity. The intervention of Man did not affect the natural landscape “because from the stone, upon the same stone, a different arrangement of the stone occurred. Stone it was and a stone it remained.” (Duarte, 2001) The edaphic-climatic characteristics of the island of Pico conditioned the structuring of all of the constructed landscape as well as the quality of the produced wines. The strong winds coming from all quadrants, the salty sea breezes and the heavy rainfall made it necessary to build sheltering walls, using the basalt stone taken of the place. The excellence of the produced wines is due to the spontaneous greenhouse environment, which results from the heat retained in the basalt stone during the day which is liberated during the night, and associated with humidity, which dehydrates the grape berries, therefore, concentrating the sweetness that makes the excellence of the vintage. Therefore, due to the combination of all of the above characteristics, the integrity of the cultivation has been maintained practically intact over the last five centuries.

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Scale and ground Opposite: Measuring the walls Above: Ground section 1:20


Plan fragment

Elevation

The resulting architecture of the vineyard walls was not an accidental occurrence, but was due to the common knowledge of protecting the vineyards. The width of the canadas (narrow pathways) and the height of the abrigos (shelters) have obeyed a calculated balance to serve as air passages and permit at the same time the entrance of solar rays.

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Study of vineyard walls in terrain Section of walls for this study are located adjacent to the site. Diagram of how vines are protected from wind and sun in currais


THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE OF NECESSITY

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Opposite: Facade fragment, 1:20 Abandoned wine production facility on site Above: Elevations in Arcos by Natalia Karvouni


RESIDENTAL

Name: Casa da Adega Location: Prainha Material: Basalt and timber

Name: Location: Cachorro Material: Basalt and timber

Name: Casa do Paim Location: Sao Vicente Material: Basalt, timber and render

Name: C/Z House Location: Sao Roque Material: Steel and timber

Name: Casa do Vinha Location: Lajes Material: Basal and timber

Name: Maison de Barro Location: Madelena Material: Basalt, timber, iron and render

WINE CELLARS, DISILLERIES AND FACTORIES

Name: Adega á Barca Location: Madalena Material: Basalt and Timber

Name: Lagido Santa Luzia Location: Sao Roque Material: Basalt and Timber

Name: Adega Via Rapida Barca Location: Madalena Material: Basalt white mortar and Timber

Name: Cooperativa Vitivinícola da Ilha do Pico Azores Location: Madalena Material: Basalt and Timber

WINDMILLS

Name: Ponta Rosa Location: Sao João Material: Basalt and Timber

Name: Coda do Miguel Location: Vila do Corvo Material: Basalt and Timber

Name: Calheta de Nesquim Location: Calheta de Nesquim Material: Basalt and Timber

Name: Calheta de Nesquim Location: Calheta de Nesquim Material: Basalt and Timber

Name: Santa Cruz das Ribeiras Location: Ribeiras Material: Basalt and Timber

LIGHTHOUSES

Name: North Mole Location: Madalena Material: Painted concrete, horizontal red/white bands

Name: Ponta do São Mateus Location: São Mateus Material: Painted Concrete

Name: Ponta da Ilha Location: Baia de Carvela (Eastern point of the island) Material: Painted Concrete

TOURISM

Name: Whaling Museum Location: Lages do Pico Material: Concrete blocks, white render and timber

Name: Whailing Museum Location: São Roque Material: Concrete with white paint

Name: Gruta das Torres (entrance) Location: Cracao Velha Material: Concrete with black finish and basalt

Name: Wine Museum (Pavilion) Location: Madalena Material: Timber painted red

RELIGIOUS

Name: Church of Santa Maria Madalena Location: Madalena Material: Basalt, white render and timber

Name: Church of St. Vincent Location: Sao Roque Material: Basalt, white render and timber

PUBLIC

Name: Community hall Location: Prainha

58Material: Basalt, white render and timber

Name: Monastery of St. Francis in Lages do Pico Location: São Roque Material: Basalt, white render and timber

Name: Hermitage of São Vicente Location: São Roque Material: Basalt, white render and timber

Name: Church of São Alberto Location: Santa Amaro Material: Basalt, white render and timber


BUILDING SIMPLY; ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE OF COLONIZATION, NECESSITY AND INDUSTRY Pico island is engaged in a struggle for its own identity, no longer an imported style of the colonial past, but something that comes from the island itself. The architecture on the island is mainly on that is derived out of necessity. Some manor houses and the churches are certainly more ambitious in terms of architectural language, some even quite pleasing, yet the overall experience of architecture on the island can be quite confusing and placeless. In the coastal areas of the Island, small agglomerates of cellars emerged at the same time vine-growing and wine-making cultures were developed, relatively far and independent from main agglomerates located away from the coast and closer to cultivating land. These areas were inhabited seasonally, during the time when a more intense labour was needed, that is, during the grape-harvest festivals. Describing these agglomerates in a general way, one can clearly notice their location along coastal paths and wider “canadas”, parallel and perpendicular to the coastline, respectively, in accordance with the topography of the territory, which, in these cases, is composed of extensive lava fields. In these agglomerates, surrounded by vineyard and fig tree “currais” with a “very rural” image, there are several cellars, distilleries and warehouses, some manorial houses and a chapel, which although not

being a big structure, is usually located in the centre of the agglomerate, due to its religious importance. Occasionally, along these agglomerates, there are tidal wells that used to be the source of water supply, a scarce resource before construction of the said wells. Another important feature of these agglomerates is the existence of small harbours and lading docks, essential at a time when land transportation was harder than by sea, due to hard or in-existent roads and paths. This proposal aims to suggest an elevated architectural language for the island, one that allows industrial buildings to be beautiful and productive buildings. If the island is moving towards a future of increased wine production, these production spaces will start to dominate the small island. It is then key to challenge the traditional notion of an industrial space, one that can address the public and community, perhaps function as a tourist attraction/community hall/venue in its self.

Opposite page: Typology diagram 1:500

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Plan fragment 1:20 1 2 3

1.Terracotta roof tiles 2. Timber board 3. Timber truss 4. Timber lintel

Envelope 1:20

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Pico’s viniculture is as old as its people and originated a landscape with unique features, with interlacing black-stone walls that define the “currais”, associated to manors, cellars, chapels and small harbours. Coastal agglomerates are heavily marked by a concentration of relatively small blackstone buildings emerging in the middle of “lajidos” and fields of vineyard “currais”. These types of structures are built with basalt stone and have a wooden structure roof covered in traditional clay tiles. They are usually rectangular, one or two-storey, depending on the type of building. Most of them are called “adegas”, one or two-storey buildings used as cellars and presses and simultaneously as a seasonal

home over summer. In the cases where the cellar is used as a home simultaneously, the latter is on the top storey, and the cellar and press on the ground floor. 75 Distilleries are usually autonomous onestorey buildings, sometimes comprising annexes, such as tidal wells and watertanks to supply the necessary water for its functioning, and warehouses containing barrels and vats in which fermenting fruit is stored for later “burnings”. The warehouses are very similar to the described buildings, only with a volumetric difference: they are longer and have fewer openings.

Manor house and production facilities on site Section through distillery Details 1:20


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Religion, a fundamental aspect of the Azorean people, is strongly present through a large quantity of religious monuments throughout the island. The area in appreciation is not an exception, being quite frequent the oratories, the above mentioned country churches, where exceptionally beautiful works of basaltic stone masonry are encountered. In the proposed region, the constructions are naturally related to the vine activity, and it is possible to see structures outstanding in the landscape, due to their dimension and prime looks – the manorial homes. “(...) discovering the potentials of lava soil for the newly-planted vines, originated a remarkable economical activity with its golden period lasting from the beginning of the eighteenth until the middle of the nineteenth century, (...) wealth and dynamics were developed in this period, by noble families of Faial, (...) concerning landlords, semi-absent, who only visits their estate in the summer having a steward in charge of the exploration of the estate, (...)” (Inventário do Património Imóvel dos Açores – Real Estate Patrimony Inventory of Azores – Madalena Pico, 2001). Common features of these Manors can be withdrawn: usually built in extensive vinegrowing and winemaking properties, stone ground, near the coast, have a patio/garden with a tidal well located in front or behind

the main building, have a tall and wide wall that delimits the patio/garden and behold an incredible view to the vineyard culture. The attention that has been paid to religious buildings along with manor houses and some governmental buildings is the same care that ought to be given to new developments on the island. In times of environmental crisis, no place can afford to build without considerable care taken to not only the durability of a new development, but also the aesthetic expression. New architecture on Pico seems to want to be stoic and strong in expression, with its qualities expressed in the details.

Opposite: Pico church by Olugbenga O Fagbewesa Above: Basalt engraving


North facade


Facade illustration South facade of propoosed adega in context Shallow relief in detail on next page


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Opposite: Facade fragment, 1:40 Indent made render using a finer render mix. Above: Previous year plaster cast of shallow relief on Sigurd Lewerents Mausoleum in Stockholm Relief in basalt stone on Pico Island


2 Productive Landscape

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AGRICULTURAL INFRASTRUCTURE THE SUBTLE SYSTEM

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Overgrown Opposite: Site at the time of site visit Above: Vegetation being cleared on site at time of visit


Agricultural potential Group work

Agricultural limitations Group work

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Site map - existing vineyard walls and agega proposal 1:3500 Uncovered vineyards walls adjacent to site and hypothetical study of how the walls on site might currently be arranged underneath the vegetation


Vegetation mapping Group work

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Site map 1:3500 Study of dense vegetation on site


Map illustrating the scale of production 35 hectare

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MANAGING A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE DEFINING MANAGEMENT AND SETTING A FRAMEWORK “The purpose of management of cultural landscapes inscribed on the World Heritage List is to protect the outstanding universal value for present and future genera- tions. It is the role of management to guide change in the cultural landscape while retaining important values. In order to achieve this purpose, a management framework can be used to inform and guide many related actions over multiple years�.

production.

- Cultural Landscape Management Framework p. 33

Management Process: Landscape Assessment, Planning, Implementation, Monitoring and Adaptive Management In addition to describing this cycle, this section includes discussion on obtaining a thorough understanding of the property and full involvement of partners and stakeholders.

Effective management involves a cycle of long-term and day-to-day actions to protect, conserve and present the World Heritage property. The proposal in this document suggest that the structure of the walls on site has to adapt to modern machinery, while at the same time conserve the integrity of the original structure. The walls built around the proposal and along the coast will be based on what is already there and will therefor not be suitable for vehicle access. While more work, these areas help conserve the islands UNESCO listing on a whole. The rest of the landscape has been adjusted to modern needs, and will help the farmers to sustain

UNESCO suggest these as guiding principles: The approach to management should be directly related to the value and characteristics of the cultural landscape in question. A set of principles can be used to guide planning and other activities for management.

Sustaining Management: This section focuses on management and governance capacity, funding strategies and capacity buildings.

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Quinta do Portal Douro Valley Left: Site map Right: Terrain map

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STUDYING VINEYARDS AROUND THE WORLD TO UNDERSTAND THE FABRIC AND GRAIN OF SUCH AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE AND HOW IT MIGHT MODERNISE Places may have several cultural values at once. A place can be important for social, scientific, historical and aesthetic reasons, or any other combination of values, depending on the features and the layers of history and associations attached to these features. For example, the HallstattDachstein cultural landscape (Austria) has relics of salt mining from the Bronze Age through to this century coupled with sublime Romantic landscape which has inspired Austrian poetry and music. These complexities must be understood and documented in the analysis stage if all the values in the landscape are to be protected. Agricultural landscapes can be therefor be important for many reasons, and this is why many agricultural landscapes are today recognized as a cultural landscape by UNESCO. Amongst these there are many vineyard landscapes, such as areas of the Douro Valley in Portugal. The Douro Demarcated Region spreads along 250.000 hectares along the Douro River basin. A powerful river with 927kms since its spring in Picos de Urbi처n until it meets the Atlantic Ocean in the city of Porto. In its way it passes by several wine regions, being the Douro Demarcated Region the most impressive with its deep valleys and narrow canyons. The soils are mainly derivative from schist, with a granite geologic formation in its borders. The region has very cold Winters and very

hot and dry Summers. Due to the wide variety of micro-climates, the region is divided in 3 sub-regions that differ greatly from each other in terms of temperature, rainfall, dimension of the property, planted area, etc.: Baixo-Corgo, Cima- Corgo and Douro Superior. The quintas are all located in the Pinh찾o river valley, in the Upper Corgo subregion. The Pinh찾o river is a small tributary of the Douro that flows from North to South through steep terraced hillsides. Having vineyards in the East and West banks of the river with altitudes ranging from 200 to 550m and almost all possible solar exposures allows us to produce a diversity of quality grapes to create exceptional wines. The total vineyard area rounds 100 hectares. The wine production is based on the diversity of the Douro. A big variety of grapes, different altitudes, different solar expositions, soils with different compositions, etc. In the field we apply cultural practices that allow us not only to achieve our quality objectives but also to respect the plant and its fruit. In our winery, the work scheme is based on the respect for the grapes and the musts we have to process, using gravity in the various operations. This allows us to achieve better quality and at the same time reduce the energy consumption.

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Site map 1:3500 Pockets of uncovered walls around site Hypothetical study of wall arrangement on site, that was overgrown at the time of visit.


L.S. Lowrey


TRANSFORMATION VINEYARD INFRASTRUCTURE

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Introducing a grid to allow fields of vineyard walls

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Linking village square to facilities on the cliff


Secondary infrastructure

Fields of walls Grape of different qualities and pockets of greenery

Vineyard landscape Transformation strategy


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1400 mm Fragment study of a field of walls Allowing for tractors to spray pesticide Average wall heigh max. 1200 mm


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Iterations of infrastructure


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Final infrastructure proposal Opposite: Sections illustrating site fall, driving the infrastructure proposal to go diagonally across the site for vehicle access Above: Final diagram of infrastructure proposal


Lava tube Visitor center by Sami Arqiuitectos


GEOLOGY LAVA TUBES

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THE ARCHITECTURE OF LAVA TUBES NATURES VAULTS A lava tube is a natural conduit formed by flowing lava which moves beneath the hardened surface of a lava flow. Tubes can be actively draining lava from a volcano during an eruption, or can be extinct, meaning the lava flow has ceased and the rock has cooled and left a long, cave-like channel. A broad lava-flow field often consists of a main lava tube and a series of smaller tubes that supply lava to the front of one or more separate flows. When the supply of lava stops at the end of an eruption or lava is diverted elsewhere, lava in the tube system drains downslope and leaves partially empty cave-like conduits beneath the ground. Gruta das Torres, the lava tube system of the Azores, are amoungst the most well known in the world. The cave doesn’t have a date of discovery but the first scientific exploration was in 1990. The cave’s uniqueness lies in its impressive drainage pattern, which can be shown by the presence of more than seven layers on the walls, with lateral benches and three cornices. Gruta das Torres is one of the 17 caves (out of 28 found here) in Pico Island of the 30 caves chosen for Azores as a whole (from an overall list of for inscription under the UNESCO List of World Heritage Sites proposed by the Government of Azores

Lava tube ‘construction’: 1. Lava flows from volcanic eruption 2. The overflows of lava in the channels often cool and solidify, creating stacked layers of lava around the flow. 3. After many hours or days the lava melts downward into the ground giving the tube a taller, more narrow cross-section. 4. A solid crust can form overhead and enclose the tube. The tube then insulates the flowing lava within, allowing it to flow great distances. 5. After the eruption subsides and the flows harden, these lava tubes become a cave, sometimes with remnants of the ebbing lava flow preserved.

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Lava tube Gruta das Torres Iteration of vaults in vineyard


Basalt Rimless crater

‘Skylight’

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Breakdown debris

Collapsed trench


Opposite: Lava tube section Above: Cast vaults resembling cast in-situ concrete with basalt aggregate 1:20


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Opposite: Exploded wormseye view: how the proposed vaults sit in the adega Above: Early iteration of proposal Vault supporting ground level and creating a dense underworld


3 Wine

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TERROIR COMPARATIVE VINEYARDS

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Terroir Terroir

what makes the terroir?

HIGH

MID

LATITUDE

ALTITUDE

LOW

HIGH

WATER RETENTION

COOL

WARM

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GOOD

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ROOTS

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MANUAL

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SHALLOW

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SPACING

NARROW

WIDE

ROW FORMATIONS

SLOPE

three selected vineyards

qualities of the grape

F

LIGHT

what makes the bottle?

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-Ripe Grape -Lower Sugar Concentrate -Grassy, Limey Flavors

-Ripe Grape -Mild Sugar Concentrate -Fruity, Flowery Flavors

FULL

BODY

e

r

yeast

SUBTLE

<

m

LUSH

AROMA

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sugar

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=

CRISP

t

-Overripe Grape -Higher Sugar Concentrate -Tropical, Peachy Flavors

a

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alcohol

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+ acid

SWEET

DRY

SWEETNESS

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HIGH

MEDIUM

ALCOHOL PERCENTAGE

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VALLEY

TERRACED

PROTECTIVE WALLS

PLAIN


TERRIOR: QUALITY BASED ON THE SPECIFIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF A PARTICULAR PLACE. TERRIOR IN WINE, TERRIOR IN ARCHITECTURE Basic definitive elements of terroir: Interaction of factors determining habitat, such as climate, hydrology, topography, and physical and chemical soil composition; the vintner’s influence, the style of a wine through choice of variety, or specific cultivation and vinification techniques. Terroir encompasses more than just soil. Terroir means “to taste where the wine is from”. There are a highly complex set of circumstances which initially gave rise to the notion of terroir. The concept of terroir encompasses not only climate, geology, topography and soil science but also the monitoring and control of the viticultural ecosystem, grape handling and vinification. Ultimately, cultural and socio‑economic factors play a part too, and these may be termed “terroir awareness”. Wine quality is also the result of the interaction of countless other components which range from factors such as natural biology, cultivation and cellar technology, set against the background of the social and economic fabric. More specifically, this means that wine quality is determined by the grapes and their maturity processes and these depend upon the interaction of soil and plants, as well as modifications made by the vintner’s viticultural techniques. In other words, the vintner can influence the expression of terroir in his wine, but by the same token, it can be observed Opposite: Terroir diagram by Natalia Karvouni

in every distinct wine‑growing region that all wines of that region achieve a similar standard, as long as the cultivation conditions are comparable. This brings to mind something interesting Vauban, a French politician and gentleman said, “Le meilleur terroir ne diffère en rien du mauvais s’il n’est cultivé.” [“The best terroir is no different from an inferior one, if not cultivated”] (Sotés, Gómez‑Miguel, Pérez, 2010). This year we have established that the quality of wine will differ drastically based on the circumstances where the vines are grown, bringing up the importance of place. By examining the culture of wine, the notion of place seems to not only have to do with soil qualities and other physical conditions. Aspects such as economy, culture and tradition play an important part of the term ‘terroir’, liking the word even more so to architecture. The notion of place has become an important part of this proposal, aiming to design a project that is responsive yet sensitive to its context, both natural and built. Building on the qualities of what makes up the island as a place, both in details and holistically, the project aims to illustrate how contextual design can be of a place, of the terroir, without mimicking the existing architecture.


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Opposite: Soil diagrams and sketch of Douro Valley terraces, an important aspect of Douro Valley wine â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;terroirâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Above: Quinta do Portal Vines plan


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Opposite: Climate diagrams Diagram illustrating increased greenhouse effect in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;curraisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Above: Proposed site infrastructure


35 H


100 H


PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT AND DIMENSIONS

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1. Grape Reception Area

2. Tank room

3. Barrel ro

Covered, not closed Min. height: 4m Min. area: 150m2

Open for visitors Min. height: 4m Min. volume: 800 m3

Open for visitors Min. height: 2,5m Min. volume: 700 m3

Press x 2 (L:4,55 D:1,55 H:2,35)

Setteling tanks x 10 (1000 l. capacity each) (H: 3,1 D: 0,70)

White wine barrels x 80 (0, (H: 0,3 D: 0,9) Sorting table x 1 (L:4,5 D:1,0 H:1,1)

White fermentors x 10 (2500 l. capacity each) (H: 3,1 D: 1,10)

Conveyor belt x1 (L:5,0 D:0,7 H: max. 3) White fermentors x 5 (5000 l. capacity each) (H: 3,3 D: 1,5) Long conveyor belt x1 (L:10 D:0,6 H: max. 6)

Cooling system compressor x1(outside) (L:4,0 D:1,5 H: 1,6)

Red wine barrels x 80 (0,44 (H: 0,3 D: 0,9)

Blend tank x 1 (10 000 l. capacity each) (H: 3,7 D: 2)

FortiďŹ ed wine barrels x 400 (H: 0,3 D: 0,9) Cooling system tank and pumps x1(outside) (L:x D:x H:x)

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Red fermentors x 1 (7500 l. capacity each) (H: 3,4 D: 2)


oom (cellar)

4. Botteling and labeling

5. Warehouse

Min. height: 2,5m Min. volume: 135m3

Min. height: 3m Min. volume: 3m3

3 Palettes Finished goods Containers Dry goods Labelling x1 (L: 2 H: 2 D: 1,5 ) approx.

Pallets (L: 1,2 H: 0,14 D: 0,8)

,441 m3)

41 m3)

0 (0,441 m3)

Washing x1 (L: 2 H: 2 D: 1,5 ) approx.

Containers/compost (L: 1,3 H: 1,4 D: 1,2)

Botteling x1 (L: 2 H: 2 D: 1,5 ) approx.

6. Other Tasting area: 20-50 m2 Shop: 20-50 m2 OďŹ&#x192;ces: 20-50 m2 Lab: 20 m2 StaďŹ&#x20AC; facilities: WC, wardrobe, cantine

Equipment diagram


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1. Harvested from â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;curraisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 2. Delivered to vineyard in crates 3. Sorted and selected 4. Washed and destemmed 5. Crushed to juice (red wine with skins, white wine without) 6a. Fermentation (with skins) or settling (just juice) 6b. Crushed juice with skins pressed to juice

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7. Storing 8. Ageing 9. Blended 10. Bottled 11. Labeled

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10

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biques da Ilha do Pico, Açores – Sistemas técnicos, Património e Mu

Fig.11 – Pipas. Núcleo Museológico do Lajido. Santa Luzia

Opposite: Process diagram Above: Barrels in Pico private adega


SEASONS AND ECONOMY RESTAURANT, ROCK-POOL AND HOTEL

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Dormant period

Jan

Feb

Flourishing period

Mar

Apr

May

First leaves are sprayed with herbicides to protect them against fungus due to the increase in temperature and humidity. This is repeated every two weeks until flourishing Pruning and spraying against fungus and bacteria

Season of wine production Group work

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Jun

Dormant period

Maturing of grapes Harvest

Jul

Aug

Nurturing of the vines: removal of some leaves to provide more sun for the grapes, rocks are placed under the branches to ventilate the plant better

Sept

Oct

Nov

Taking out the stones and fertilising the soil until next pruning

Beginning of wine production

Dec


PROPOSED ALTERNATIVE INCOME FOR ADEGA IN OFF-SEASON The old wine production facilities can be renovated to become a restaurant and venue for hire. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proposed that the distillery becomes the entrance to the restaurant with some serving, while the restaurant can function as main seating area. The location for the old press would be renovated to a kitchen, that can provide food for the restaurant and catering for the vineyard and hotel. On the west side of this complex it is proposed a timber deck with showers installed along the basalt wall. From here a path and stair case will lead to a new rock pool, sheltered by the cliff that sticks out of the cost.

The idea of a supporting means of income is fundamental for this proposal, as wine production not necessarily provides income and jobs throughout the whole year. Pico Island is speculated to become a more popular tourist attraction, especially if the wine industry evolves as predicted. Wine is a major branch of tourism, and the wine makers on the island could take that opportunity to provide more jobs on the island to encourage self sufficiency on the island. The site currently has limited options for tourists, and this aspect of the proposal aims to challenge that.

It is proposed that the kitchen will have a hatch facing west, open to the deck and the rock pool visitors. This kiosk would provide simple refreshments.

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2

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A

3

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B

1. Manor House / holiday home 2. Garden 3. Abandoned press 4. Abandoned warehouse 5. Abandoned distillery 6. Eira (traditional cereal work area) 7. Stone wall

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4 5 6


B B

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Section C through courtyard (press and warehouse), Section A looking south at distilliry Section C through courtyard (press and warehouse), looking south at distilliry

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Section A, Section B looking north at excisting production buildings and Manor House Section A, looking north at excisting production buildings and Manor House

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Manor house and abandoned wine production facilities Opposite: Site plan, 1:1000 Above: Sections,1:1000


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1. Hotel/bed & breakfast 2. Garden 3. Kitchen (for on site restaurant and adega) 4. Restaurant 5. Restaurant 6. Sun deck with hatch to the kitchen to buy drinks/icecream 7. Rock pool

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Sketch proposal for restaurant, hotel and rock pool at the cliff Wedding ceremony in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;eiraâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;


4 Adega

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SQUARE ON THE EDGE OF A VILLAGE CLUSTER

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Roof plan 1:500


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Mirroring the village View of Adega from East


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Early massing iteration


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Ground floor Public

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Lower ground floor Production

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Cellar Private

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PUBLIC, PRODUCTION, PRIVATE BEYOND THE PRODUCTION FACILITIES The brief asks for a winery, primarily a place of production. However, beyond this, the brief calls for projects that considers the community and the wider context. The adega should consider the public of the village, the neighboring villages and even the island as a whole. It should consider how it can link to other villages, facilities or industries. Furthermore the proposal should aim to consider the economy of Pico Island as a growing place of wine making. How can the new adega take advantage of this growth to sustain jobs for people on the island through out the year, for years to come? The adega proposed here aims to link the new village square to the neighboring village and the abandoned production

facilities at the cliff. The former production facilities would be renovated as hotel and restaurant and service the adega with food and accommodation to for its guests. 1. Townhouse 2. Office/lab 3. Toilets/wardrobe 4. Shop (water tower) 5. Public hall/venue 6. Vat/tasting 7. Stair/pendentive vault 8. Production hall 9. Private dining 10. Staff space/storage 11. Private dining 12. Barrels/wine storage 13. Warehouse

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Devloping updated village structure


Ground floor Public

Lower ground floor Production

Cellar Private

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Vehicle On foot

Plans 1:500


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Wine, food and production Interior model and early sketch


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Public Opposite: Public hall//venue, rendered white walls and oak details Above: Initial model of interior, when idea of a public hall was first introduced


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Public Opposite: Interior collage, public hall as cinema Above: Plan fragment


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Square Opposite: From North on festival day Above: Interior collage. Bringing the colour and texture of the characteristics of the village to the interior


LANDSCAPE WALLS, BUILDING, TERRAIN

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Ground floor plan in context 1:1000


Lower ground floor plan in context 1:1000


Cellar floor plan in context 1:1000


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Proposal at the scale of the mountain


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Section A through public hall, vat hall and barrel cellar 1:300


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Sections 1:500


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Axonometric Showing where vaults sit in the project and their relationship to the walls


UNDERWORD VAULTS

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Public world over dense vaulted underworld

Section B through stair case going around vault/privat dining 1:500 175


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Section F through cellar and staff space where two vault jump up one floor 1:500


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Opposite: Scale diagram of vaults, 1:200 Above: Vaulted wine cellar, Tuscany


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Wormseye view of adega Showing how vaults sit hidden in the underworld of the project


Opposite: Vaulted interior sketch and floor detail Above: Reflected ceiling plan (collage made from photographs of cast vaults) Level -2 (cellar), 1:100


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Vaulted cellar Aging cellar and private dining


5 Technology

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103.680 m2

51.046 m2 103.680 m2

51.829 m2

111.573 m2

95.200 m2

23.120 m2

252.124 m2

51.046 m2

51.840 m2

103.680 m2 51.829 m2 631.435 m2 111.573 m2

95.200 m2

23.120 m2

252.124 m2

51.840 m2 51.046 m2 51.829 m2

73.667 m2

631.435 m2 51.829 m2 406.784 m2 111.573 m2

95.200 m2

23.120 m2

252.124 m2

51.840 m2 51.829 m2

73.667 m2

406.784 m2

631.435 m2

51.829 m2

51.829 m2

382.831 m2 73.667 m2

406.784 m2 51.829 m2

382.831 m2

Tasting area/public hall/venue for hire

51.829 m2

Office/lab/staff Shop/watertower Production core (vats and barrels) Townhouse Tastingdining area/public hall/venue for hire Privat Office/lab/staff Warehouse Shop/watertower needed Kitchen/toilet/water

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Production core (vats and barrels) Townhouse

382.831 m2


51.829 m2

Tasting area/public hall/venue for hire OďŹ&#x192;ce/lab/staďŹ&#x20AC; Shop/watertower Production core (vats and barrels) Townhouse Privat dining Warehouse Kitchen/toilet/water needed GSEducationalVersion

106.401 m2

Areal diagrams 1:500


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Plan diagrams Structural grid Isolated columns 1:500


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Opposite: Axonometric structural/loadbearing elements only


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Opposite: Details, 1:40 Illustrating block work and pre-cast vault as window lintel


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VAULTS TYPES Types of vaults 1. Corbel vault 2. Barrel vault 4. Annular vault 5. Groin vault 6. Ribbed vault 7. Fan vault 8. Lunette vault 9. Sexpartite vault 10. Starry vault 11.Vaulted cistern/Throught vault 12. Dome 13. Cloister vaul 14. Catalan vault 15 Pendentive/Domical vault

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VAULTS CONSTRUCTION The system of vaults in the adega are designed to incorporate and conceal much of the servicing needed to transport the wine. A construction system of pre-cast concrete panels are proposed for the ground floor and lower ground floor, while the vaults in the cellar are cast in-situ. It is proposed that the construction site might have their own mould to cast these vault elements, or that they come in four pieces for easier transportation. When four or two pieces are used, an extra column would hold the weight of the week point in the middle, and removed after a light weight concrete mixed are poured to hold and strengthen the construction.

Concrete

Opposite: Vault detail 1:40 Illustrating how services might be concealed in vault shells. Above: Models of one, two or four pre-cast panels


Pre-cast concrete element, coloured white Damp proof course Zink sheet GPR Roof Drainage/protection mat Polymeric roo Vapour barrier Screed laid to falls

Concrete slab

Screed

Pre-cast concrete element Concrete beam

Timber frame

Glass railing

Double glazed

Seal Glass

Concrete Sliding bearing

Wall tie Render Concrete block 190x390 Ventilated cavity Waterproof membrane Insulation

200

l


Envelope detail 1:20


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ETH rammed earth vault The vaulted roofs were rammed resting on their faces and then rotated during the assembly process. This technique was the result of tests undertaken by us that showed that the compressive strength is generated irrespective of the direction in which the rammed earth layers runs. After drying the elements were erected within the space of three days on the campus of the ETH Hรถnggerberg to form a durable pavilion. The project was the first time that load-bearing rammed-earth vaulting was constructed using pre-fabricated elements. Source: http://block.arch.ethz.ch/brg/teaching/ rammed-earth-vault

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Indoor drainage

Concrete slab

Insulation Vapour barrier Industrial Flowcrete,

o

i

Concrete retaining wall Weep holes, drilled Waterproof plinth render

Cast in-situ monolithic concrete with basalt aggregate

Geotectile mat,

e

Coarse gravel

Drainage, perforated pipe

Slope to side of excavation

Construction joint with waterbar

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Ground slab

Lean concrete


Envelope detail, basement and cellar vaults 1:20


Ventilation need and restrictions diagrams, 1:1000 Given the size of this proposal, most of the spaces would be naturally ventilated. However, considering that a large part of the project is underground, some of the spaces require other means of ventilation. For health reasons, it is considered an advantage to mechanically ventilate wine production facilities.

Naturally ventilated Mechanically ventilated


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Daylight Shade

Daylight need and restrictions diagrams, 1:1000 The proposal has multiple functions, which needs different lighting strategies. Considering the main function of the building, wine production, many of the spaces would in fact benefit from less daylight. The main principle for the public areas is to light the restaurant and public main corridors with low hung ceiling lamps, where as the shop, restaurant kitchen and bathrooms will be fitted with spotlights. The restaurant kitchen would also be need extractor fans and mechanical ventilation, which would be hidden with a lowered ceiling.


Water Wine


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Opposite: Water and wine axon Illustrating the flow of water and wine in the building. Wine will need to be transported from vats to barrels for storing. In stead of a an elevator, a system of servicing is proposed. Above: Vault detail 1:40 Illustrating how services might be concealed in vault shells


Tidel wells on Pico Island Priscilla Chan

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RAINWATER COLLECTION The island has a long history of rainwater collection in tidal wells and cisterns. Almost every house on the island has its own cistern. This is due to the shortage of clean water on the island, and the adega will need its own system for water collection and distribution. Rainwater collection is something that has become more and more important the past decades, UK in particular will see an increase in rainwater collection systems due to heavy rainfall.

neighbours.

Acoording to Pelsmakers book The Environmenta Design Handbook, ‘less roof area is available per household and only a small percentage of a household’s water needs will be met from rainwater. This makes rainwater dual pipework costly for little return.’

Harvesting rainwater for domestic uses: an information guide, tank size: effective collection area (roof ) x drainage coefficient (based on roof angle, 0.8 for pitched roofs) x filter efficiency (typically 0.9) x annual rainfall (apx 850mm) x 0.05 (5% guide)

‘Harvesting also reduces the strain on storm water or combined sewers. Rainwater tanks are usually sized to store 5% of yearly collected rainwater. However, given the changing climate, storage tanks should be increased to bridge dry spells’ According to RIBAs Sustainability Hub an average new household uses 150 l of water each day. It is difficult to estimate how much water the adega would use, but most likely the water tank is bigger than needed. This is because the proposal aims to give back to the neighbouring community by collecting enough water to distribute to its

The size of a rainwater tank should be based on water demand, annual rainfall and the size of the catchment area (roof and/or paving). Current British Standards indicate that the tank should be large enough to contain: 5% of the non-potable water demand or 5% of the annual rainwater yield, whichever is the lesser. The average annual rainfall in Scotland is1650 m/yr in.


SUSTAINABILITY STATEMENT FLEXIBILITY, DURABILITY AND LIFE SPAN

Sustainable design has to be the dominant approach to architecture and urban design, not an aesthetic trajectory. In fact, one will find the building industry at the centre of the environmental crisis, along with transportation, consumption of goods and production of food. In the light of this, one can argue the need for a holistic approach to architecture that considers the scope of the building industry’s effect on the environment. It will become clear that architecture’s role and responsibility in this global problem is almost immeasurable. However, it is crucial to examine the current practice of architecture and urban design in order to progress to a sustainable future. If sustainability can be defined as a process that can be maintained and continued, hypothetically speaking, forever, durability plays a crucial part in this definition.

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We define something as durable when it is made to last for the duration of its purpose. With these definitions in mind, it seems that sustainability is not possible with out durability. Marie Antoinette Glaser writes in her essay ‘Durability in Housing- The Aesthetics of the Ordinary’: “Architecture consists of phenomena that we perceive consciously and unconsciously through habitual use over time. From this results an aesthetic position that defines the notion of beauty as a process of long-term habituation and use. Durability signifies a specific kind of beauty in architecture that stems from the intimate traces of long-term use: unperturbed, unexceptional and unfaddish.” As this suggest, one can argue that a notion of beauty can come from durability, function and can be developed over time. The notion of form that follows


function is not new to the field of architecture, as it was introduced with Modernity. Durability, flexibility and life span has been the main focus in the development of this project. The concrete structure is not only durable, it’s also the material that is easiest to get a hold of on the island/in the Azores. There’s expertise available for concrete construction, most of the buildings on the island being constructed with a load bearing block work construction method. Concrete and fired bricks, have exceptionally high-embodied energy, meaning that the production of these materials can be seen as highly unsustainable. Cement alone is responsible for 8% of global carbon dioxide production.15 However, it is not irrelevant to point out that these materials are

well known for being remarkably durable and supporters point to their high thermal mass. Today materials are often imported from other parts of the world, meaning even sustainable materials can lead to unwanted energy use if they are sourced from a great distance. Pico Island is located 1600 km away from nearest mainland (ref. p. 32). Therefore, the aim in this proposal has been to work with materials that are short travelled and familiar to workers on the island. Another important aspect in the process of selecting materials is their suitability for reuse, which concrete, for instance, is not. If we are moving towards a cyclical process such as the one described in ‘Cradle to Cradle,’ materials need to be part of a system that encourages reuse and repurposing. In this project it has been considered more beneficial

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to use concrete however, due to its durability and availability. The proposal also aims to be flexible, having considered what happens if wine production isn’t viable anymore. There is possibilities to create more windows and turn the complex in to a school or similar. Servicing is not new to architecture, and has in fact been in the forefront of architectural discussion for centuries, even before mechanical engineering. Hawkes writes: “There is no simple, single answer to the question, ‘How do we give services their place?’”.9 Today most buildings are mechanically serviced, but one can argue that a building does not need to be dominated by technology to make a comfortable indoor environment. To this end, Hawkes,

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who has written several books on the topic of architecture and the environment, presents his reader with two modes of architecture: the ‘exclusive’ mode and the ‘selective’ mode. The exclusive mode can also be described as the mechanical mode, and is defined by mechanical servicing. The idea is that humans can replace all of the elements of the natural environment in a building with mechanical or electrical tools. This proposal has had an aim to not use mechanical servicing more then necessary, working with the natural environment to adjust indoor environment. One of the main concerns in this project was how to keep the indoor climate to the right temperature in order to create the right environment for wine production. This sort of production needs a stable, cool temperature, and this is


achieved through placing the main production area and barrel storing in the lower ground floors. Another natural resource that is at the centre of the environmental crisis is water. Although it may seem as if we have enough water, as it covers about 70% of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface, the amount of fresh water available to us is considerably less. 97.5% of the water on earth is salt water, leaving only 2.5% as freshwater, while 70% of this is frozen in the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland. According to Sofie Pelsmakers, 40-50% of our water usage is for the operation and construction of buildings. In the UK in particular, another problem associated with water is flooding, and will become one of the primary considerations as the climate continues to change. It is expected that the UK will see an increase in flooding, due to

predicted extreme levels of rainfall. Pico Island has a long tradition of tidel wells and cisterns, and this proposal has incorporated a water tower/large cistern to relieve the project of the problem of water, and hopefully collect enough water to give back to the small village where its located. Today, sustainable architecture to many appears to be a style rather then a holistic philosophy which it should be. The danger of sustainable architecture is that it can become yet another spectacular aesthetic trajectory competing for attention in the commodified aesthetic economy. In fact, it can be argued that there is no coherence in architecture today, certainly not in sustainable practice. One can ask: does architecture today express a desperateness about the current state of the world?

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MODERN PORTUGUESE REGULATIONS

Regulations: The Portuguese Building Regulation was published since 1951 and has been no major revision for the past 60 years, only a small adjustment has been made. The following extract from the Internal Journal of Law in the Built Environment Vol.1 No.2, 2009, essay title The Portuguese building regulation system: a critical review. The following extract from the international journal of law in the built environment, essay titled â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;The Portuguese building regulation system: A critical reviewâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; available online. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the building regulations and the building control system in Portugal. The organisation, content, and authorities

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responsible for building regulations are described and an overview is provided of the main stages of the building permit procedure. Design/methodology/approach The paper reviews the relevant legal and regulatory provisions and discusses these in the context of commentary published by the various professional associations. Findings: The Portuguese building regulation system has undergone significant changes in the last 20 years. Almost all building regulations currently in force are approved during that period. Some of these are resulted from the implementation of European Directives. Others are changed due to advances in scientific knowledge. Changes in the building control system have mainly been driven by the changing demands of present- day practice, in particular, the absence


of sufficient municipal technicians, and the need to expedite building control procedures. The solution has been to move away from public building control and to make private parties responsible for compliance with building regulations. The paper concludes that, although there have been significant improvements in the building regulation system over recent years, two structural problems nevertheless persist. First, building regulations continue to be complex and fragmented, and second the qualifications of technicians are still not adequately defined.

improvements are suggested. Organisation: In Portugal there is no single Building Act which serves as a legal basis for building regulations and procedures, and defines the duties and responsibilities of the parties involved. The general building regulation is the main national building regulation, which sets out general provisions for building, regarding construction, health, safety, and aesthetics. This regulation has been in force since 1951 and, despite several minor amendments, no fundamental revision has been approved.

Originality/value: A structured overview of the system is provided and the main weaknesses are identified. The proposals for change are suggested by professional associations are summarised, and possible

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GLOSSARY PORTUGUESE TERMS USED ON THE ISLAND Abrigos Shelters in the vineyards. Very small and usually made wih lava rocks. Adegas (Wine) Cellar. Taditionally where the wine was made and stored. Along with the Adega, you will often find other agricultural tools and sheds, such as the Eira. Also referred to as the construction made in the winery’s own vineyard to store the wine and provide shelter. Today, most adegas are used as summer houses and/or holiday homes. Atafona Agricultural building, with two floors, whose name derives from the mill to grind grain, animal traction (the atafona itself ), which has, or had, on the ground floor. The designation was extended to buildings whose function is limited to the storage of implements and agricultural products and fodder for animals. Bagacina Nutrition viticulturists often add to what’s often called “biscuit” (rocky soul with frank texture, sandy with lots of loose stones and little depth). Releases potassium that favours production of a greater number and heavier grape bunches per vine. Not desired in wine production on Pico.

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Canadas Narrow pathways, mostly refers to the pathways in between the ‘currias’. Casa de Espejos Compartment of a building construction or independently for storing a product or earth and small implements, as in most cases, objects discarded. This use is often associated with areas that also no longer serve the function for which they were constructed (See Popular Architecture of Azores, AAVV, the Architects, Lisbon, 2000 peg.557). Casa Rural Term used for the complex consisting, in a rural setting, the house-family house and the buildings and spaces attachments to support domestic and agricultural activities. Cerrado Area of ​​land originally intended for the cultivation of cereals, surrounded by walls of dry stone masonry low height. Combro Reduced height of side walls surrounding a floor.


Currais de Vinha Agricultural partitions formed by walls of loose stone, usually rectangular, for the cultivation of vines under the sea winds. Eira Circualar shape of basalt stone, which houses an open work space where farmers traditionally worked with their findings. Today these are mostly unused, but many of them are listed in the cultural heritage inventory. Fumeiro The kitchen area where are the home and the oven (or the oven mouth), with sobrelevado roof for the remaining compartment cover that in these cases, has no chimney. The smoke is released through the tile and sometimes via openings in the short portion which closes the gable lug between the two parts of the roof. Gaiola Existing wooden balcony on the windmills spinning sometimes porch, providing a transitional space between the access ladder, also of wood, and the gateway to the mill. The assembly comprising the cage for the ladder and the two side rods that link the base of the ladder to the base of the movable part of the mill, this rotates together

with the rudder and shape of the airfoil orientation with respect to the wind direction. Gateira Dormer window (window high on the roof ) low and wide with a triangular front. Império Small building that resembles a chapel, where they are holding part of the ceremonies of the Feast of the Holy Spirit and in which, during this period, if the insignia expose this cult. Lar Place the kitchen where it lights the fire and cook food. In the most basic version, corresponds to a simple stone countertop (fireplace, poial or pial) (Cf. Popular Architecture of Azores, AAVV, the Architects, Lisbon, 2000 pág.558). Palheiro Building support to agriculture for the storage of tools and agricultural and fodder for animals. Often includes a proper space to house the oxcart. Torre Same as “turret” / dormer window.

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LIV BENEDICTE BREKKE MArch THESIS  

Vineyard on Pico Island

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