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Theodor Valentin PURCĂREA Editorial: SANABUNA International Congress, a good team work to inspire to action, and win-win-win
Victor GREU Observing the Information and Communications Technologies Competition with the Time
Theodor Valentin PURCĂREA Health Value for Sustainable Development, a Real Challenge
George Cosmin TĂNASE The Confluence of Culture and Social Media in Changing Service Expectations
Irina PURCĂREA Entrepreneurship and Higher Education. An Outlook on Some Best Practices in Entrepreneurship Education
Prof. Dr. Klaus Toepfer, Honorable Member 2013, the Hall of Fame of the European Retail Academy
2013 International Conference of the Association Global Management Studies (ICAGMS), March 4th – March 5th, at University of California, Berkeley, USA
Another project started recently by Prof. Dr. Bernd Hallier: Food Waste Management
Book of the Year: “21st Century Global Mental Health”, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012
The responsibility for the content of the scientific and the authenticity of the published materials and opinions expressed rests with the author.
SANABUNA International Congress, a good team work to inspire to action, and win- win-win
There is a direct connection between “SANABUNA” philosophy and our well known expressed opinion concerning the importance of the quality of team relations, as well as the quality of the network in initiating partnerships, along with establishing a fluid and flexible process for planning sequential stages so as to adequately managing the probability to capitalize on the opportunity to satisfy the customers and transforming them in team members. Each new “SANABUNA” step towards a clearer understanding of the transformation context meant a higher motivation to bridge the gap of the timeline and the urgency and to allow to envision new possibilities and encourage emergence, conveying the right message to action and win-win-win (concept approached by us starting from 1991) across multiple levels. As has been noted, the speech and action on this “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing” movement must lead all stakeholders beyond the fragments of understanding, interacting, getting involved, communicating and learning how to realize the proper change of our behavior requiring a new thinking, a new policy, a proper education located in the heart of adaptation, and proving solidarity in building trust. There is no more doubt that nutrition represents the bridge between agriculture and health, and food is one of the greatest contemporary actors on the political scene, as well as the fact that public health aspects are often marginalized amid the competing interests of producers, processors, wholesalers, retailers, caterers and consumers. We are all consumers and we all agree with Tony Blair1 that “growing our economies in a way that creates opportunities for everyone, supplying high quality health and education services, ensuring safety and security” are the biggest global challenges we face, and that is why we must be involve in this actual dynamically changing and ongoing process, and recognizing, re-imaging and re-innovating our direct experience within the “organization”. Starting from the real pressure of the awareness concerning the connections between health, nutrition and the different aspects of businesses and the imperative of identifying the right answers in the confrontation with the welfare reform, we underlined the real need for an adequate Value Chain Management, supply chain visibility being critical for the customers, hence the importance of using a value chain mapping to reduce incertitude in the designed demand. As we highlighted on diverse occasion, the competency of health care service providers to deliver superior outcome to the patient inevitably relies on the capability of engineering, performing, and managing quality of health care services throughout the entire health care service-value network. We have seen that it is essential to fill the research gap due to the complexity of inter-disciplinary issues across health care service marketing, health care service-oriented business modeling, information technologies, and workforce management, by moving the health care system forward by understanding and serving the patient and by designing efficient systems of health care service delivery, while clarifying how health care service affects the marketplace, the economy, and government policy. “Agenda 21” emphasized health as indispensable to sustainable development, health and development as the process of improving the quality of human life being intimately interconnected, the quality of the environment and the nature of development being major determinants of health. There is a strong actual pledge for urgently implement the policies that improve health and promote sustainable development, and to include universal access to health care, health co-benefits from sustainable policies in different sectors, and health-related indicators in the metrics of sustainable development.
Tony Blair – Leading Transformation in the 21st Century, McKinsey&Company - Government designed for new times: A global conversation, MCG_Government_designed_for_new_times.pdf , Thu, October 11, 2012
A proof of the continuity of our involvement with responsibility also constitutes the interest aroused by Professor Eliot Sorel’s proposal to include on the “SANABUNA International 2013” Agenda the topic “Global Cities: Health, Education, Culture & Development” (http://www.cityindicators.org/), making a comparison between Central Europe and South-East Europe (considering as potential, Athens, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest, Chişinău, Kiev, Sofia, Warsaw and Vienna) in partnership with the Bucharest City Hall and big cities (Craiova, Pitesti, Ploieşti, Iaşi etc.) and not only. And this in the context of having other issues discussed in Falticeni (http://www.sanabuna.ro/the-second-international-congress-health-nutrition-fitness-and-wellbeingfor-central-southeast-europe-sanabuna-2012-took-place-on-the-19th-21st-october-at-the-art-museum/) such as: “The local Agenda 21 – local sustainable development plan of Fălticeni Municipality” (Project PNUD ROM 98/012, 0033238 – Technical expertise provided by the National Centre for Sustainable Development– Romania; International consultancy – SiMARC Foundation, Inc USA); project draft “Fălticeni Challenge 2012-2013” (list of activities and objectives; intermediary stage; final stage; results provided per stages); the electronic message sent via the network “European Retail Academy” by Mr. Andres Coca-Stefaniak (http:// uel.academia.edu/AndresCocaStefaniak ), following the „Open Days 2012“ in Brussels (http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/ conferences/od2012/theme.cfm): the new EU funding programmes 2013; Community Led Local Development Concept (http:// ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/conferences/od2012/doc/community_en.pdf; http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/conferences/ od2012/doc/urbact_clld.pdf ) influencing these funds.
Theodor Valentin Purcărea
Editor - in - Chief
Professors Remus Pricopie, Eliot Sorel and Theodor Purcarea at the Second International Congress “Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Wellbeing for Central & Southeast Europe”, SANABUNA 2012
OBSERVING THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGIES COMPETITION WITH THE TIME Prof. Eng. Ph.D. Victor GREU
Abstract The paper analyzes the opportunity to estimate, at the moment of years passage, the contribution of information and communications technologies (ICT) to the challenging aspects of society evolution, which is presented as a competition with the time, as mankind have to face the fading of resources on Earth, among other factors which will determine the future. In the above context the paper presents the main challenges and their links with time, as the fast pace of the ICT evolution is strongly influencing the progress of Information Society (IS) toward the Knowledge Based Society (KBS), providing complex approaches, instruments and concepts for an optimal development of all activity fields. The paper analysis includes the ways these ICT new approaches tend to have a leveraging role in the IS processes, first including innovation and refined knowledge generation. Finally the paper shows how ICT network centric and cognitive approaches, including further implications of their products, services and principles in IS, represent long term and powerful instruments to optimize the resources management in the complex competition with the time, as time is measuring the fading of resources on Earth with a pace depending of our wisdom to define and implement the mankind stable â&#x20AC;&#x153;progressâ&#x20AC;?. Keywords: information/knowledge based society, information and communications technologies, alternative energy technologies, stable progress, and cognitive approaches. J EL Classificatio n: L63, L86, M15, O13, O3
What is A nother Year?
The eve of the New Year is the period when people use, as a psychological reflex, to think, with a special attention compared with the rest of the year, about what they have done and what is gone be. What could be special then and ultimately, what is Another Year? Exploring the Universe scale, a year could be like a grain of sand in the desert, when the wind is blowing. On the other hand, for mankind a year could be a page, in the written or not history of the Earth. One could simply observe that the New Year eve is challenging us to philosophical approaches of the recent events, usually along the last year period and beyond! This is a special feature of most human, which could appear in simpler, traditional or more sophisticated ways of thinking and speaking, as a function of people’s personality.
Lets suppose that we would be capable to imagine now, using actual information, the New Era of some sort of Mayan Calendar! This exercise is just similar with our mentioned approach because the actual pace and complexity that information and communications technologies (ICT) have imposed to the mankind evolution in the last 30 years led to an apogee which could be compared, correcting the scale, with the context the Mayan Civilization had in the past. At that time, that impressive civilization, although having not the actual information, surely had at least an apogee of progress, assuming they did not have some extraterrestrial information. Still there is a remarkable difference between the compared situations if we observe that now we have to face crucial decisions or chose options not after millennium evolutions, but after very fast evolutions in about 30 of the last
relevant 200 years. To be more challenging, the problem is to find survival forecasts not for a millennium ahead, but for about 50 years, when the Earth resources’ fading is possible. This way we have just arrived to the conclusion that ICT is part of a global competition with the time, where the price is humankind life on Earth. Notice that the time is measuring the fading of resources on Earth with a pace depending of our wisdom to define and implement the stable “progress”. Clearly, we intend to shortly estimate only what the actual context (not necessary 2012) of ICT could mean for mankind in the future – not necessary 2013. It is also pertinent to emphasize that the actual stage of mankind evolution is not exclusively depending on ICT, but, among other technologies and factors, it is an evidence that ICT have an
amazing effect on mankind and Earth evolution, by their impressive and dynamic force to change the world we are living in, so the ICT weight is prominent and decisive. Understanding all the above premises, we see why ICT has a main and complex role in the development of the Information Society (IS) toward the Knowledge Based Society (KBS)  . It is impossible to conceive and reach a better future without using and improving the potential, means and benefits of CIT as provider of the IS services. This point of view is very clear expressed at a European Union high level  as: The EU and the knowledge-based society The Internet is changing the world we live in. It is a change no less significant than the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. Over the last two decades, information technologies and the Internet have been transforming the way companies do business, the way students learn, the way scientists carry out research and the way in which governments provide services to their citizens. We also must agree that the actual “knowledge” is fast increasing in complexity, so it will be more and more difficult and time consuming to analyze all its implications on long term and especially to select the optimal solutions . Again we see enough reasons for ICT to be in a fast and complex competition with the time. One thing is still sure, the ICT optimal solutions will have impressive contributions to the new “knowledge”, that is to the stable development of IS/KBS, irrespective the fields (scientific, technical, economic, social etc.). Another obvious certitude is that all mankind creation activities, first including ICT, must be innovation centric and based on systemic analyses of all the possible consequences of IS/KBS development .
2. Explori ng a nd valui ng the i nformatio n technologies a nd commu nicatio n results i n their race agai nst the time Starting from the above premises, we must manage the CIT development and services using policies, strategies, tactical decisions, algorithms and eventually soft programs that are based on very well refined and updated “knowledge” . It is also important and very difficult to provide that this knowledge will reflect both the rational creation of the humankind and the lessons learned from the nature, where all the ecosystems must remain or “comeback” in harmony. A crucial observation at this stage of the analysis is that the “harmony” is always just a “goal”, as the evolution processes in IS/KBS are so complex and dynamic. In other words, the mankind is “navigating” on a stormy weather in a huge “ocean” of events, without even knowing, with precision, for some cases, which are causes and which are effects because of the “loop” processes in the KBS. Thus we need for safe “navigation” not only a “GPS system”, as we have to get from ICT not only new products and services, but also some learned lessons from a success story which shined all the world and still does it, although their lights are also fading as all mankind and the Earth too are going to run dry its resources, beginning with fossils, water, food etc. Still there is an essential question which comes to temperate our optimism toward finding an easy answer to a very difficult problem. The question we have to answer is why ICT could have good solutions for a diversity of problems that mankind and the society have to face now and in the visible future? We have to also learn that ICT could not have all the answers for all the questions, although the artificial intelligence/expert systems and the robots are more and more close to the human brain, while they are now running to see life on Planet Mars better than ever. On the other hand life on Earth is depending on a diversity of factors, but we must first, as always, “follow the money”. Notice that this will not “always” prove to be right! Technically speaking, the market is, in appearance, the main driving factor of ICT, but the diversity and dynamic of their products and services rise some questions around the components of the core that lies behind the market, as human needs, financial interests, political goals, social evolutions/challenges etc. The most crucial factor we may notice here “beyond” the market is the fading of Earth resources, as we have
mentioned before, among them fossil fuels being dramatic and soon expected. On this line, the renewable energy or alternative energy technologies are subject of the highest priority in developing new technologies. Unfortunately, recent opinions show that the alternative energy technologies (wind, photovoltaic, biomass etc.) implementation and use speed are far slower than the previous optimistic scenarios have estimated . For example, a realistic level of 10-15% of total installed power is being foreseen for 2025. An other important large spread opinion of the specialists is that until other mechanisms will become efficient, the power savings is a priority strategy and here is also agreed that human habitudes changes following the bills are less promising that ICT solutions on smart grids, virtual power plants or recent energy market servers . The new paradigm of energy market server is a prove of ICT sophisticated solutions, which could optimize a system including all home appliances design/function, people’s preferences and energy market real-time information on peaks and costs . An important mechanism and example of the NC action is for sure the power/speed/capacity of the chips (processors, storage etc.) challenges. We must notice that the power consumption is one of the ways the “green ITC” could strongly contribute to the world carbon dioxide print reduction, by the systemic mechanism of NC . More than this, ICT product and services are subject to the green technology design, as in the future, any function, any devices, even any bit/sec will be managed to minimize consumption and then carbon dioxide print. Beyond the power, the new green ICT design must include optimization of all products and services aiming efficient materials, time, water, footprint and health for applications and users. Notice that the processors and generally the ITC components are present in all industries and more! They are everywhere, from smart phones, cars to toys. They are billions and they tend to consume all day long and even night time. We have just to imagine and then act, about what could mean at a global scale of billions of users and triple devices, foreseen in 2016 at an exadata age , to reduce with only 10% de consumption and carbon dioxide print, by only intelligent design and use of ICT products and services for all Earth, as ICT has a “network centric” (NC) action for all mankind activities . The European Union has pledged itself to meet a goal of reducing both EU climate emissions and energy
consumption by 20 percent by 2020. The Climate Group made clear : “ICT can enable greater energy efficiency in other sectors of economy and society, with energy efficiency being the most cost-effective means of making quick climate progress. The Smart 2020 report put the potential saving of 7.8 Gt CO2 in 2020, in other words, 15%”. Now the picture of ICT race with time became nearly clear, but the solutions that could increase our chances to win are far from being clearly foreseen and globally agreed. It deserves to mention now, at years passage that our World consist of a diversity of countries, development levels, habitudes and civilizations, which need again “harmony” for an optimal and stable progress. To exit from this situation, a crucial paradigm will be to add, above the mentioned factors, one that influences them all without being independent of them: improving the education by “refined knowledge” which has the potential to generate innovation and sustainable development. Following this paradigm step by step, ICT, as the most dynamic field of IS toward the KBS, provide more and more instruments and concepts generated for an optimized development, which soon could become useful, in generalized forms, for other fields too and generally for IS/KBS. Among the most relevant examples could be “network centric” and “cloud”, for which the reasons and mechanisms of action were presented in . As a huge consequence, the ICT progress has the potential to influence all the activity fields, including the “social impact class”: home working; e-Health; e-Learning; e-Government; Social networking etc. On a further ICT development stage we could observe the proliferation and growth of a new family of approaches, we generally name it “cognitive”, designed to optimize the resources and the development of ICT on real time updated criteria and using environmental information  . These impressive approaches of ICT applications include cognitive wireless communications (an intelligent radio spectrum usage), cooperative/ collaborative communications, context-aware communications, intelligent (context-aware) services, quality of user experience management, integrated context management, semantic services, smart grid (power plants) networks, ubiquitous healthcare, distant learning, social networks etc. The new ICT approaches have some cognitive features which could be further developed in order to reveal
their potential to become generalized approaches/ instruments, in a diversity of forms and applications, useful to leverage the progress of IS and KBS.
Replaci ng co nclusio ns We have to notice that ICT and all other mankind innovating activities, although impressive as pace and complexity, are just competing, far for being winner, in a crucial race against the time, a challenging and dramatic “journey” on a stormy weather, having on their side, as the only sure advantage, the miracle of life evolution on Earth till now, arrived at the human intelligence stage, which could be apogee or beginning of decline. Every day we must remember that the time is measuring the fading of resources on Earth with a pace depending of our wisdom to defi ne a nd impleme nt the ma nki nd stable progress.
REFERENCES  Abdulaziz S. Almazyad and Farooqui N.K., Towards Knowledge Based Society, Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science 2009 Vol II, WCECS 2009, October 20-22, 2009, San Francisco, USA.  Vaclav Smil, A skeptic looks at alternative energy, IEEE Spectrum, jul.2012.  *** DIRECTIVE 2003/98/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 November 2003 on the re-use of public sector information.  Marc Mosko, Victoria Bellotti, Smart conservation for the lazy consumer, IEEE Spectrum, jul.2012.  Greu V., Communications and IT on the long way of the information society towards knowledge based society, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 2, Issue1, Year 2011.  Paul McFedries, The coming data deluge, IEEE Spectrum, feb.2011.  Victor GREU, The network centric and cloud - a new paradigm for the optimization of the technical and human information systems, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine Volume 4, Issue 4, 2011.  Stephen Harper, The European Union Takes the Next Step in Realizing the Energy Efficiency Potential of ICT, February 26, 2010, http://www.smart2020.org  Greu V., Innovating the information â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a modern approach to improve the knowledge based systems, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 2, Issue3, Year 2011.  Glen Anderson et al, Power Efficiency and Sustainable Information Technology, Intel Technology Journal, dec.2008  Greu V., The cognitive approaches of the communication and information technologies â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a leverage for the progress of knowledge based society, Romanian Distribution Committee Magazine, Volume 3, Issue2, Year 2012.
HEALTH VALUE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT, A REAL CHALLENGE
Abstract We are increasingly witnessing changes in values, expectations, codes of ethics, emotions, and we are observing struggles and ongoing debate about how to create business success and ensuring future protection. There is a real pressure of the awareness concerning the connections between health, nutrition and the different aspects of businesses and the imperative of identifying the right answers in the confrontation with the welfare reform, reconfiguring consistent ways with fundamental values, education being in the center of the adaptation, and solidarity could not be neglected. It is known that customer value is given by the perceived benefits minus sacrifices. There is a real need for an adequate Value Chain Management, supply chain visibility being critical for the customers, hence the importance of using a value chain mapping to reduce incertitude in the designed demand. The responsible marketers acting in the health care system are identifying patientsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs and are answering with appropriate products and services, practicing for them prices so as to create patient value and also profit for health care providers. Competition in terms of value for health care consumer requires health care providers being in the business of providing services to patients to embrace a range of strategic and organizational imperatives. Health care providers are facing the challenge of having proper health plans that integrate all individual health needs when there is competition on both, providers and medical condition levels. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Agenda 21â&#x20AC;? emphasized health as indispensable to sustainable development, health and development as the process of improving the quality of human life being intimately interconnected, the quality of the environment and the nature of development being major determinants of health. There is a strong actual pledge for urgently implement the policies that improve health and promote sustainable development, and to include universal access to health care, health co-benefits from sustainable policies in different sectors, and healthrelated indicators in the metrics of sustainable development. Key Words: Health value chain management, patient value, health care providers, sustainable development JEL Classificatio n: I11, I115, I31, M31, Z18
1. The Eco nomy of Ideas a nd Susta ina ble Deve lop me nt. Institutio na l-sp iritua l reco nstructio n of e nterp rises, req u ireme nt for susta ina ble deve lop me nt in the know ledge society It is well known that as Romanian Distribution Committee’s status (C.R.D.) clearly points out the importance of seeking to promote sustainable development (http://www.distribution-magazine. eu/about/), in 2000, CRD organized, together with the “International Foundation Health – Environment – Sustainable development ” and in partnership with “ION RATIU” Romanian Parliamentarians Club , the Symposium “The Economy of Ideas and Sustainable development”, first reported by the Magazine ”Tribuna Economica”, no. 18/3 May 2000). The discussions that took place at the Parliament House, on the occasion of the works of the Symposium on May 16, 2000, were based on a study (“Sustainable development : principles and action”, Beniamin Cotigaru, Theodor Purcarea, coordinators, Millenium Publishing House, May 2000), interdisciplinary research representing a turning point in developing a national strategy for sustainable development (http://www.crd-aida.ro/originsvocation/dezvoltare-durabila/). In this study the focus, from the very beginning, is centered on the need for enterprise reconstruction on the basis of negotiated competency, in the context of spiritualization of economies. It was also discussed, in the context, the opportunity to exploit the model of Product Development Research/CDP in meeting sustainable development, CDP representing product trajectory as a specific methodological instrument. In Annex 1 the Research-Development Program (with 4 subprograms) “Sustainable Development” is presented , coordinated by the “ International Foundation Health – Environment – Sustainable development” and “Romanian Distribution Committee”, non-governmental and nonprofit organizations).
In 2006, the Romanian Distribution Committee, in collaboration with Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies and UGIR 1903 organized the Symposium (launching a partnership project) with the topic “Institutional-spiritual reconstruction of enterprises, requirement for sustainable development in the knowledge society”, a nationwide premiere. Also, the volume that contains this project, which appeared in April 2006 at ASE Publishing House and in which, at page 488, reference is made to „RESPAD Trophy” offered by C.R.D., among other things emphasizing the correlation between real success and the vision of the training team (http://www.crd-aida.ro/originsvocation/comitetul-roman-al-distributiei-trofeulrespad-2006/). In „Additional information regarding the event”, distributed on the occasion of the works of the symposium, the hope was expressed as to what concerns the significance „of a new partnership of public-private interests post-accession in the European Union where the education and research, employers and administration, business governance will find solutions concerning common problems of our lives regarding enterprises competitiveness, pollution of the environment and poverty, the control of risks that the evolution in the new complexity of the world of uncertainties generates…” (http://www.crd-aida.ro/ originsvocation/informatiile-suplimentare-despremanifestare/).
ment of a global standard in the distribution field, the executive management being ensured by the representatives of the ECR and VICS leadership (“Voluntary Industry Commerce Standards”), as well as of some prestigious transnational distributors and producers.
Beniamin Cotigaru, Raducu Filipescu, Constantin Popescu, Theodor Purcarea
Within this framework, it is also important to remember that, starting with 2000, C.R.D. emphasized the impressive European solution to the first key stage of category management (deciding upon the definitions of categories and measurement criteria), as well as the importance of the existence of a complete dynamic picture of the integrated supply chain management of all producers and distributors in a country. C.R.D. analyzed and debated, since its formation, the framework which generated the export of the best managerial practices in the field, including the effects of involving certain global dominators in the food distribution in our country. Otherwise, for example, representatives of Carrefour, Metro and Cora accepted C.R.D.’s invitation, participating on March 13, 2001, at the Parliament Palace, at the International Symposium « The distribution of fresh products », a real professional turning point, with corresponding effects (anticipating “SANABUNA”). The symposium appeared as a turning moment also later, in the weekly journal “European Businesses”, no.21/ 3-9 November 2004, which pointed out, in the context, the outline of the ECR Romania Association’ structuring. Let’s also remember that in 1996 C.R.D. organized the first National ECR Symposium, in partnership with Valahia University in Targoviste, and in 1999,on the occasion of the third National ECR Symposium organized by C.R.D. a Point of view was elaborated (“Modern distribution and information technology as a strategic resource”) and sent to the Parliament, the Government and the academic environment, also taken into consideration by the media. This happened in the context in which in the previous period of time, in the world, working groups were constituted for the develop-
On April 9, 2009, as a result of the partnership , under the patronage of the Academy of Medical Sciences and Bucharest City Hall, between the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” – Bucharest, Romanian Distribution Committee and A.I.D.A. Brussels, the Co nfere nce SANABUNA 2009 was held at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” , which approached the imperative of reflection and responsible action on the issue “Hea lth, Nu tritio n a nd We lfare”, seeking to identify that new necessary direction of attitudes that would allow the establishment of a partnership between the public and the private sector meant to offer p roper so lutio ns for influe ncing the c ha nge in be havior in order to imp rove the eco nom ic – socia l hea lth a nd respo nsibility. The participants at the conference included representatives of the Romanian Parliament, Ministries, Romanian Academy and the Academy of Medical Sciences, Romanian Distribution Committee – A.I.D.A. , several Universities (Romanian American University Bucharest, Lucian Blaga University in Sibiu, Politehnica University Bucharest, Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Artifex Bucharest, Valahia University in Targoviste, George Baritiu University Braşov), as well as economic operators which assume corporate socia l respo nsibility a nd susta ina ble deve lop me nt. The event’s interdisciplinary character allowed covering certain new aspects, starting from the harmonization of the preoccupations related to building a truly better life, in the context of the pressure of the awareness concerning the connections between health, nutrition and the different aspects of businesses and the imperative of identifying the right answers in the confrontation with the welfare reform, reco nfiguring co nsiste nt ways with fu ndame nta l va lues, educa tio n be ing in the ce nter of the a daptatio n, a nd so lidarity cou ld not be neg lected. In May 2009 C.R.D. suggested (http://www. crd-aida.ro/2008/10/%E2%80%9Cpoliticile-publicesi-energia%E2%80%9D-o-provocatoare-tematica-supusa-dezbaterii-in-cadrul-atelieruluistiintific-interdisciplinar-%E2%80%9Cdezvoltareaeconomico-sociala-la-confluenta-dintre/)
organizing a series of debates aiming at the reco nciliatio n of the market with the p u blic po licy asp iratio ns. Restoring the trust relationship between those who govern and those who are governed, seeking to identify ways to ensure the integrity of public policy, it is of real interest in a dramatically transformed world in which neither the markets nor the nonrepresentative systems work alone. The lack of consensus regarding going out of the crisis represents a real drama of the current public policy, being necessary to acquire wisdom of the policy of public choice. Competition is the key leader of performance and innovation which feeds economic growth, thanks to fair and open competition the best product winning and the market forces prevailing. The signals regarding the changing of the nature of competition intensify, that increasingly takes place inside corporate-controlled networks, emphasizing the necessity to apply in the global industrial network of some fresh engineering principles carefu lly bu ilding po litica l ca librated institutio ns a nd fo llowing the app roac h throug h the w ho le system of huma n businesses, both p rivate a nd p u blic. It is necessary that the approach based on the market helps in implementing the ambitions of the social reform. The situation is even more pressing in a global context in which it is considered that calculated dishonesty and the application of the double standard, characteristic to the agreement between the political power and the financial power, raise strong barriers to the responsible intelligent decisions. Between 25 – 27 May 2009, on the occasion of the 56 Co ngress of the Interna tio na l Associatio n of Fre nc h Eco nom ists (AIELF) – « Compétitivité, solidarité et croissance économique mondialisée », organized at Targoviste following Valahia University’s invitation , with the support of the National Agency for Scientific Research, C.R.D. representative (Theodor Purcarea) introduced the topic „La distributio n e n Rouma nie da ns l ’i ntersectio n co ncurre ncecoopératio n et la p rovocatio n rep rése ntée par la p ro blématiq ue « a lime ntatio n – sa nté – bie n -être ». Que lle c ha nce pour le « rêve europée n» da ns le co ntexte de la crise éco nom iq ue mo ndia le?”. It is also wel known that the formation, in 1996, of the Romanian Distribution Committee as a Scientific Association represented a milestone. C.R.D. is mentioned in “European Marketing Infor-
mation Sourcebook, 1st edition, Euromonitor International”, page 132. Following, reference is made to C.R.D. in the study “Marketing issues in transitional economies”, Springer, 1st edition, August 31, 1999, Rajeev Batra, William Davidson Institute, Business & Economics, page 167. 2. The dime nsio ns of va lues, the attitu des based o n the fu nctio na l va lues, a nd the imperative of the a deq uate app roac h of the Va lue Cha in Ma nageme nt. Redesig ning hea lth care system in order to create va lue If values create energies, great achievements are the expression of high values in responsible action. From the point of view of the consumer, according to V. A. Zeithmal 1, the perceived value represents a consumer’s overall assessment of the utility based on perceptions of what is received and what is given. According to J. N. Sheth, B. I. Newman, B. L. Gross2, there are five dimensions of value (five consumption values making differential contributions in specific choice contexts): functional value (attributed-related/utilitarian benefits), social value (social/symbolic benefits), emotional value (experiential/emotional benefits), epistemic value (curiosity-driven benefits), conditional value (situation-specific benefits). Functional value, for instance, is concerned with the utility derived from the product quality and product performance, being measured on a profile of choice attributes (functional value being presumed traditionally to be the primary driver of consumer choice). And we also have to take into account the opinion of Daniel Katz3, who developed the functional theory of attitudes and identified four attitudes based on the functional values: utilitarian function, value-expressive function, ego-defensive function, and knowledge function. It is known that customer value is given by the perceived benefits minus sacrifices. In other words, customer value is that net value given by customer beliefs, that customer buying / using the product or service, the perceived value consisting in savings in nonmonetary costs (time, effort, psychological costs and so on). And this within the context in which the end customers have at least three different perspectives on value: economic value, market value, the relevance 1 V.A. Zeithaml - Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means-end model and synthesis of evidence, Journal of Marketing, 1988, 52(3), pp. 2–22 2 J. N. Sheth, B. I. Newman, and B. L. Gross - Why we buy what we buy: A theory of consumption values, Journal of Business Research, 1991, 22(2), pp. 159-70 3 Daniel Katz - The functional approach to the study of attitudes, Public Opinion Quarterly, 1960, 24(2), pp. 163-204
value (it is estimated that relevance precedes increasingly more economic and market values of traditional purchase). As perceived by the customer, value means benefits (solution to customer problem) minus costs (financial and opportunity costs) less risk (unfulfilled promises). The allocation and use of resources in a manner that allows: the addition of more value (process effectiveness), at a lower cost (process efficiency), faster than the competition (responsiveness), in a responsible corporate manner (economic, environmental, ethical/social) is a definite challenge. Hence, the need for an adequate Value Chain Management approach defined as: “The integration of key business processes from end user throug h original suppliers that provides products, services and information that add value for customers”. In other words and in this perspective: a coordinated response to an increasingly dynamic and uncertain market, regulatory and technological environment; a collaboration within and between businesses in the value chain, the purpose of which is to improve the competitiveness of the value chain as a whole; a development of new value added products/services for distinct customers and targeted consumer segments. Recent studies have confirmed that within the economic environment of recent years the supply chain visibility is critical for the customers, being necessary to have a value chain mapping to reduce incertitude in the designed demand, because the real time sharing of information enables rapid response (agility) and efficient operations (lean), and greater understanding of consumer behavior enables alignment of innovation process with consumer demand; executives expect environmental concerns to be a more significant issue for supply chains in the years ahead, being wise to prepare to respond quickly to any sudden shifts in environmental expectations and requirements ; it is critical that the enterprise consider the cross-functional marketing and supply chain interactions of value-added processes, in order for a firm to promote a sustainability agenda to its markets, long-term enterprise sustainability requiring an integrated perspective incorporating both marketing and supply chain considerations. The responsible marketers acting in the health care system are identifying patients’ needs and are answering with appropriate products and services, practicing for them prices so as to create patient value and also profit for health care
providers. Marketing concept is the philosophy of serving and mutual benefit. Competition in terms of value for health care consumer requires health care providers to embrace a range of strategic and organizational imperatives. It was found that a growing number of health care providers have started to address more imperatives, but there are very few that addresses all these imperatives, even though the transition to value-based model is self hardener.4 in psychology, Martin H. Fischer, said that “the patient is not interested in the scientific knowledge of the p hysician, what he wants to know is if the p hysician can cure him.”According to Michael E. Porter and Elizabeth Olmsted Teisberg5, in order to create value and effective competition, the health care system must be redesigned, by starting from redefining the relevant business around medical conditions (patient centric) seen over the full cycle of care, considering the fact that: health care providers (who must understand the geographic market or service area over which it is competing, and correctly define the set of medical conditions in which it participates) are in the business of providing services to patients; it is important to have a clear view of how value is created as a precondition for excellent performance; patient value (which may be greater if preventive care and advice is provided over time) in health care delivery is determined by how well providers deliver care in each medical condition, given their particular patient mix, skills, and other circumstances, and adequately matching the complexity and acuity of the conditions diagnosed and treated, by concentrating on products and services that create unique value for patients. In this view, it is required to have health plans that integrate all individual health needs when there is competition on both, providers and medical condition levels. A system based on value to the patient keeps health plan outside supplier, and suppliers compete at the level of the medical condition. Health plans play an important role in encouraging medical records because they help run a higher value in the health care system. Health care, concludes Michael Porter, is a coproduction of p hysician and patient. A specialist
4 Florian Popa, Theodor Purcarea, Monica Ratiu, Victor Lorin Purcarea – Marketingul serviciilor de ingrijire a sanatatii, Editura Universitara Carol Davila, Bucuresti, 2007, pp. 187-211 5 Michael E. Porter, Elizabeth Teisberg Olmsted - Using Competition to Reform Healthcare, HBS Working Knowledge, June 5, 2006, An excerpt from Redefining Health Care: Creating Value-Based Competition on Results
3. Respo nsible partners hip in the co ntext of the know ledge society a nd susta ina ble deve lop me nt. A stro ng p ledge for urge ntly imp leme nt the po licies that imp rove hea lth a nd p romote susta ina ble deve lop me nt. There has been more often or less often the question of how people feel the world in which they take their daily lives on and which is their motivation model, considering that the baseline standards is given by the building of a better world for everyone. 6 We are increasingly witnessing changes in values, expectations, codes of ethics, emotions, and we are observing struggles and ongoing debate about how to create business success and ensuring future protection, about guarantees to make the daily trip in the right direction, within the huge pressure to rebuilding trust in business, markets and investment analysis due to increasing in force recession, step by step. Life makes us cherish the hope, as a state of mind, in producing knowledge for wisdom, recognizing the moment of truth and becoming architects of conversation generating responsible action. In 2005, I discussed with the distinguished Professor Beniamin Cotigaru7 about the possibility of a dynamic partnership in the context of the knowledge society and sustainable development, based on several considerations, such as: our approach aimed to promote interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research aiming at a sustainable enterprise that takes into account the core values of sustainable development; the question was how we could respond responsibly - to this compelling challenge - by an action for capacity building to address and to rethink the enterprise so as to stimulate the initiative of the true builders and users, by benefiting from a proactive national policy, by articulating appropriate initiatives, by participatory planning and focusing on socio-cultural variables; in a vision of participatory governance and building of democracy actors, establishing the public-private-citizen partnerships (tomorrow challenge) implies identification, testing, evaluation and dissemination of successful partnership combinations, placing the issue of commitment in ethics in human service on the Man-City-Nature quality alignment; in the public space - as a manifestation of interconnection of the policy decisions and their consequences on social and economic resources for development – the interdependence between state, market actors and different sectors of civil society is emphasized; democracy is an attitude and solidarity is not just a quality of the democracy but a constituent part of its duration; so we are in the situation of accepting a challenge consisting of change management targeting a reconstruction model considering: the globalization of cultural patterns due to the globalization of economic relations, the opportunity for a transfer of models from natural sciences in the phenomenological framework of the economy and sociology, the identification of the transfer methodology; none of the life spheres, neither human activities cannot be independent of ethics, one of the constant concerns of humanity. Note that since the aforementioned Symposium, organized by the Romanian Distribution Committee in May 2000 at the Parliament House, we emphasized the importance of understanding that the society is at the heart of sustainable development and adaptation of business, focusing on social trajectories (being aware of the problems; social movements, building sustainable communities: Local Agenda 21) and received responses (response indicators reflecting achieved progress). As we know, “Agenda 21” emphasized health (defined by World Health Organization8 as a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity) as indispensable to sustainable development, health and development (as the process of improving the quality of human life) being intimately interconnected, while sustainable development encompassing environmental (the quality of the environment and the nature of development being major determinants of health) and economic sustenance and sociodemographic and health dimensions. We also see today that there is a strong pledge (such as of Mario Raviglione9 and colleagues) for urgently implement the policies that improve health and promote sustainable development. In June 2012 WHO released a set of thematic briefings on measuring health benefits of sustainable development in relation to the key themes (such as: sustainable cities; agriculture, food and nutrition security; jobs; water; energy; and 6 Theodor Purcarea - Responsabilitatea si performanta sociala corporativa sub presiunea imperativului restaurarii increderii in dezvoltarea durabila, in Volumul „Responsabilitatea sociala corporativa: de la relatii publice la dezvoltarea durabila”, Editor Facultatea de Comunicare si Relatii Publice – SNSPA, 2010 7 Theodor Purcarea, Beniamin Cotigaru - Este posibil un parteneriat dinamic in contextul societatii cunoasterii si al dezvoltarii durabile?, Economistul, nr. 2021/2022/8 decembrie 2005 8 http://www.who.int/en/ 9 http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(12)60923-4/fulltext
disaster risk management) 10 discussed at the UN Conference for Sustainable Development (UNCSD, or Rio+20), stressing the importance of measuring health benefits as a way to assess progress on the three pillars of sustainable development since many achievements directly benefit public health. According to the last study cited above the Rio+20 conference 11 must put the link between health, the environment, and sustainable development at its center (and of course re-examined, a healthy environment being a prerequisite for healthy people and vice versa). In the same time there has been saluted the correct suggestions made by WHO that universal access to health care, health cobenefits from sustainable policies in different sectors, and health-related indicators must be included in the metrics of sustainable development. It was also underlined that Rio+20 must contribute to a new era for human wellbeing rooted in principles of equity, social justice, and sustainability. The international campaign “Beyo nd 201512”, aiming to kick-start and accelerate the post-2015 (and post Millennium Development Goals) planning process, brings together more than 280 organisations (in over 70 countries). Its target is to become a legitimate and effective global development framework as part of the post-2015 United Nations Development Agenda’ as stressed in Para 108, and in this respect “Beyond 2015” have identified four principles which must be the foundation for the Sustainability Development Goals: holistic (capitalizing on synergy across different sectors, and understanding and responding to the complex interrelations between global development challenges); inclusive (process through which the goals are formed must be open and participatory, recognizing access to information and decisionmaking as the foundation of good environmental governance, through consultation of vulnerable communities and people impacted by poverty); equitable (ensuring that the targets achieve reductions in inequality both within and between nations, give priority to meeting the challenges faced by the most disadvantaged within each nation, and that fair allocation of resources is given to both poor people and poor countries to allow a just transition to a developed world); universally applicable (all countries, whether developed or developing, have obligations, ownership and accountability through a global framework). We face today, both at the national and global level, a real serious challenge with “Health, Nutritio n, Fitness a nd Wellbei ng” requiring a more rapid adaptation to changing economic trends and new thinking. This “Health, Nutritio n, Fitness a nd Wellbei ng” philosophy of action about how shared intention and action should be understood, demanding something from all of us to all of you had a good start. Ten years ago, M. K. Smith13 said that he believes that the very process of rediscovering our engagement in groups makes the endeavor worthwhile. Of course, we all know that “To see far is one thing, going there is another”, as said by the famous Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi. We also know that it is said that: as the world is changing, we can either prepare or react, our brains being constantly busy collecting and filtering information; the world is moving so fast these days that the man who says it can’t be done is generally interrupted by someone doing it; our selective perception is the door through which we choose to let the world into our conscious, our engagement is smashing through the selective perception filter, and our emotion is fundamental to our engagement. In deed, for example, „Eat well to stay healthy” is a well-known agreed European message, within the context of determination to understand consumer choice through consumer science, an essential basis for any policy-making on diet and nutrition. Let’s remember the words of Seth Godin14: “Ideas that spread throug h of people are far more powerful than ideas delivered at an individual… Movements are at the heart of change and growth… The opportunity is to note the distinction between an old style organization and a powerful movement. Either choice can work, as long as you in fact make the choice and commit.” Let’s conclude by citing Patrick Dixon15: “Biggest ethical test for every culture and every nation: creating a better world, imp roving life for peop le. This core va lue drives every po litica l de bate, u nderwrites a ll laws, a nd is the basis of a ll team lea ders hip. It is impossible to lead effectively for long without using this principle: will the world be a better place as a result of this activity or not? It is the key to all effective management, marketing and motivation.”
10 11 12 13 14 15
http://uncsd.iisd.org/news/who-releases-briefing-series-on-measuring-health-gains-from-sustainable-development/ http://www.uncsd2012.org/ Beyond_2015_SDG_MDG_relationship.pdf M. K. Smith - Globalization and the incorporation of education, The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, 2002 Seth Godin - Meatball sundae, Piatkus Books, UK, 2009, pp. 229-230 Patrick Dixon, http://www.globalchange.com/secret-of-business-success-most-important-value-in-the-the-world.htm
THE CONFLUENCE OF CULTURE AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN CHANGING SERVICE EXPECTATIONS by George Cosmin Tanase
Abstract Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s consumers are increasingly using technology as an effective tool in their shopping experience. Social media can be defined as Internet-based applications that carry information posted by end users. End users utilize several online formats (e.g., blogs, podcasts, social networks, bulletin boards, wikis, newsgroups, and chat rooms) to express their opinions about a product, service, brand, and/or organization. In addition to sharing ideas about a given product, service, or brand, end users utilize social media to reach out to other consumers, who are seen as more objective information sources than firms themselves. This information, produced by people who were assumed to only use or consume online content, is termed consumer-generated content (CGC). Likewise, consumer-generated media is defined as any positive or negative statement about a product or service, created by potential, actual, or former customers, and made available to a multitude of people and institutions via the Internet. Keywords: consumer-generated content, media technology, social networks, purchase intention, buying habits, information sharing, cultural impact JEL Classificatio n: L81, L86, M31
The proliferatio n of Social Media as a decisio n maki ng factor for compa nies Shopping has always been a social experience and social media allows consumers to interact with others – many of whom are probably total strangers. Social media not only has transformed the research and purchase consideration phase for shoppers but also offers a platform from which they can advocate for the products and stores they love. Advocacy has always existed, but social media has made this stage even more critical, by amplifying the size of the potential audience that each advocate can reach. By the same token, social media offers companies an opportunity to learn about consumer needs and increase customer satisfaction through proactive outreach and timely response. It also provides firms with creative and effective ways to obtain insights not previously available. Furthermore, social media has migrated from the margins to become a mainstream phenomenon: one that has even started influencing culture. Even though cross-cultural differences exist and impact the way people use social media, all told, this phenomenon indubitably promotes connection and information sharing with others. Consumers are increasingly turning to social media in order to gather information for decision making. The power of social media is progressively pervasive, with activities ranging from economic (e.g., shopping) and marketing (e.g., brand building) to social (e.g., MySpace.com) and educational (e.g., distance education). The otherwise fleeting form of wordof-mouth communication, formerly targeted to one
or two friends, has been transformed into enduring messages visible to the entire world indefinitely. Social media allows organizations to track customer sentiment, customer service problems, and indications of dissatisfaction in their customer databases. There is a greater sense of urgency for retailers to integrate this emerging medium into their marketing plans and create a social media-based strategy that is true to their brand and allows them to control the service experience of their customers. Retailers are utilizing currently available technology to sell products or services online, respond to customer questions, suggest additional products and services based on previous purchases, and evaluate customer satisfaction with regard to their offerings – all without having to deal with the customer in person. However, it is important to note that social media is no panacea. Retailers should simply consider the medium as a catalyst for innovative thinking on how to improve service in the digital age. Social media has put power in the consumers’ hands and is forcing companies to deliver on their promises. The use of social media by retailers to shape their service strategy is still an emerging area that needs further investigation, especially since the alignment of social media strategy with service strategy is crucial for business success. Similarly, consumer usage of social media for information, brand recognition, and opinions about brand and/or retailers is fundamentally influenced by cultural background. Research has indicated that consumers differ in their expectations of service quality, subject to their culture. In general, consumer cultural values affect expectations and perceptions of products or services, and, therefore, by extension, purchase choices and buying behavior. Using deductive knowledge, it can be asserted that culture will also influence the usage of social media. Social media has given rise to the “culture of sharing”, with individuals providing feedback on products and services for all to see. Given the impact that culture may have on the way people behave and interact, it is imperative to examine cultural influence on social media websites where much of the information is typically user generated. To date, little or no research has been undertaken to examine cultural influence on social media that is increasingly used by consumers for sharing both good and bad experiences. In addition, usage of social media is increasing at a tremendous rate and is influencing how people share knowledge across the globe and, yet, there is similarly a lack of information on how this new media, coupled with its international appeal, is influencing service perceptions.
Information technology is dramatically modifying both economic activities and the social landscape. Social media is emerging as a new domain, where consumers can communicate, connect with friends, and learn about new trends. Today, the Internet makes it possible for consumers to share experiences and opinions about a product and/or service via consumer-generated activities. It is important to appreciate that social media is a cultural evolution that continues to metamorphose. The Internet and its virtual communities have transformed consumers, societies, and corporations by extending widespread access to information, better social networking, and enhanced communication abilities. In the context of social media, the distinction between brands and friends is becoming increasingly blurred. Hence, it is becoming progressively crucial for organizations to manage consumer expectations in a timely manner in order to maintain their popularity among end users. Having recognized the benefits of social media, organizations are beginning to invest more time and effort in developing a social media presence in order to capitalize on the growing user population that is interested in creating, retrieving, and exploring CGC. Social media provides a win–win situation for both organizations and consumers, with optimal results arising when social media strategy is aligned with customer service strategy. Organizations stand to benefit immensely from a large membership of users that can provide resources, including marketing insight, cost savings, brand awareness, and idea generation, while users benefit from the ability to fulfill personal needs and interests. Thus, a company’s ability to understand how social media influences shopping behavior and changes service expectations would clearly be a tremendous asset in a competitive business context. Culture influences lifestyle and in turn lifestyle influences the way individuals communicate and interact with new media technologies. Online social networks have become a modern-day cultural phenomenon. Social networks, such as Facebook and MySpace, have witnessed a rapid growth in their membership. With this increase in popularity of social networking websites, one can safely assert that the world is becoming “smaller” and people are becoming more interconnected now than at any time in the history of mankind. The social aspect of shopping has long been ingrained in consumer culture, with shopping considered very much a social outlet. Asking someone where she got that great outfit, hearing about the latest sale from a friend, or socializing at the shopping mall are all integral parts of a consumer culture. Social media has enabled consumers to utilize technology to seamlessly “social shop” online. It is crucial to understand the influence that culture has on the usage of social media, especially with the widespread, and rapidly growing, popularity of this technology.
Culture a nd Social Commu nicatio n i n a Digital Enviro nme nt Culturally, every region of the world is different, so it is imperative to ascertain whether social media has homogenized culture and created consumers across the globe who think and behave alike. Culture has been shown to influence marketing, including advertising, marketing strategies, and buying habits, but relatively little theoretical and empirical research is available on the cross-cultural adaption of the emerging technology represented by social media. Culture as a predictor for online buying has produced mixed findings regarding its impact on online purchase behavior. Social media, a relatively recent phenomenon, is transforming communication patterns and interpersonal relationships. Social media’s proliferation and growing cultural impact are confirmation of the growing influence of technology on the consumer decision-making process. Social media grants organizations with an attractive alternative to the more traditional communication tools, by permitting companies to engage in timely and direct end-consumer contact more efficiently and at relatively low cost. Consumers acting via social media are exerting a progressively profound influence over culture and the economy and are prompting various industries to transform the way they do business. The retail industry is a prime example of this phenomenon, where over 81% of customers refer to consumer reviews before making a purchase decision. Social networks are providing retailers with an opportunity to reach a new breed of consumer. Organizations are capitalizing on this situation by creating groups and fan pages which allow users to post direct links to the retailer’s website. Thus, it can be asserted with confidence that both culture and the usage of social media are influencing customer service expectations on this new, evolving digital landscape. Social media has changed the perception of service quality and service expectations of consumers, regardless of their cultural heritage. Consumers have now come to expect service 24/7, as they utilize a variety of social networking tools to keep themselves and others “like themselves” aware of their interaction with a product and/or service.
Social media does possess abundant merits, including its wide reach and capacity to spread information virally. Thus, it can be stated that social media marketing can be one of the most promising and profitable ways to build a business; however, it can equally elicit deleterious results if not used properly. Whether retailers employ a culturally specific or global approach in their marketing, it is vital that they recognize the more pressing issue of incorporating social media into their infrastructure. Social media usage has fundamentally altered the consumer landscape, and for brands to remain relevant in this environment, they need to adapt without delay to both emerging technologies and shifting consumer behavior. Hence, retailers’ online efforts should focus primarily on reaching shoppers by participating in and encouraging conversations through thirdparty tools, such as social networks, where online shoppers tend to congregate.
Co nclusio ns a nd Implicatio ns Although retailers recognize the power of online research and online shopping, many are focusing more on social networking than customer-generated content. Customers are looking for data they can use to make an informed purchase, not for how many followers a retailer has accumulated. Information generated by consumers on a social media platform represents considerable added value for other users and a lack of such information on a retailer website would cause them to seek information, and possibly products, elsewhere. Thus, it can be clearly stated that not incorporating social media in the marketing mix is not only poor customer service but also a surefire way to lose business. Social media has become a critical piece of the marketing puzzle, based not only on consumer demand for it but also on the sales it delivers. By virtue of these reasons, social media merits further investigation, and examining how consumers utilize social media to form purchase intention and eventual shopping behavior will prove indispensable to the survival of twentyfirst century retailers. Culture has not been given its due with regard to how it impacts new technology. Successful marketers are progressively recognizing culture as the most powerful determinant of consumer attitude, lifestyle, and behavior. Utilizing a study that incorporates culture as both predictor as well as mediator variable to new technology acceptance will add crucial new information and theory to this emerging area of research. Retailers must listen to and engage their customers through social media by participating in and encouraging conversations. The end result will improve customer service and help turn loyal customers into passionate advocates. As more organizations jump on the social media bandwagon, it is important to understand that social media is no longer a fad: it is here to stay and has grown and intertwined itself with every aspect of the business. Successful implementation of social media strategy requires that organizations become an integral part of consumer daily lives, by enabling them to connect, interact, and benefit from like-minded consumers. Social media is an essential tool for consumer enjoyment, providing immediate contact, as well as customer interaction. References  Kaplan, A. M. & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media. Business Horizons , 53 (1), 59–68.
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Korean Journal of Communication & Science Studies, 7 (1), 319–350. N. M. & Ismail, S. (2009). Investigating the complex drivers of loyalty in e-commerce settings. Measuring Business Excellence, 13 (1), 56–71.  Kueh, K. & Voon, B. H. (2007). Culture and service quality expectations: Evidence from Generation Y consumers in Malaysia. Managing Service Quality, 17(6), 656–680.  Tung, R.L. (2008). The cross-cultural research imperative: The need to balance cross national and intra-national diversity. Journal of International Business Studies , 39 (1), 41–46.  Brandtzæg, P. B. (2010). Towards a unifi ed Media-User Typology (MUT): A meta analysis and review of the research literature on media-user typologies. Computers in Human Behavior, 26 (5), 940–956.  Tate, M. & Evermann, J. (2010). The End of ServQual in Online Services Research: Where to from here? e-Service Journal, 7 (1), 60–85.  Sohn, C. & Tadisina, S. K. (2008). Development of e-service quality measure for Internet-based financial institutions. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 19 (9), 903–918.
ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND HIGHER EDUCATION. AN OUTLOOK ON SOME BEST PRACTICES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION
by Irina Purcarea
Abstract The paper looks at some of the different perspectives on entrepreneurship education, with an emphasis on several entrepreneurship education trends in higher education institutions at European and international level. It also looks at the relationship between universitites and the business environment in the development of entrepreneurship education along with some potential directions for public policy involvement in university entrepreneurship support. Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial universities Jel: A2, I2, I25, M13
The e ntrepre neurial u niversity Universities are now increasingly recognized to have a broader role in the economic development and entrepreneurship. For a university to become entrepreneurial, it must acquire the kind of organization that allows it to be in a state of continuous change and adaptiveness, and allows its members to be more effective. This new kind of university has two key features: transforming elements and sustaining dynamics (Clark, Burton R., 2004). Using the triple helix model, outlines an emergent entrepreneurial paradigm in which the university plays an enhanced role in technological innovation. In this new model, a third mission of economic development joins research and development (Etzkowitz, H. et al., 2000). There are many mutual benefits to a close relationship between a university and an industrial firm. Firms gain access to not only leading edge technologies, but also highly trained students, professors and university facilities. Involvement of the firms in the academic programs of the universities is a major mechanism for knowledge transfer. Often students work on corporate problems for their theses and dissertations in many technical universities in Finland. Cooperative education programs, internships and job placements for students and recent graduates provide means for knowledge transfer.
Figure 1: Knowledge Exchange between University and Industry Source: Alok Chakrabarti and Mark Rice, 2003
Chakrabarti and Rice present a theoretical framework based on social capital and knowledge management literatures describing the knowledge generation and transfer processes for universities. They focus on two research questions, namely: What are the roles of universities in regional economic development with respect to knowledge generation and transfer processes and how are these role changing? and 2. How do these roles and trends differ between the U.S. and. Finland? The paper concludes that Finland has been successful in building a tripartite collaborative relationship among universities, corporations and the public agencies. In the US, some regions have attempted to do so with limited success in sustaining that effort. In the UK, the Entrepreneurial University of the Year Award is a recognition of HE excellence in demonstrating how institutional leadership and a strong entrepreneurial culture can create the policies and practices that are conducive to the development of enterprising and entrepreneurial mindsets and behaviours throughout the organisation The criteria used in the assessment include:
1. Institutional Environment a. How has the university transformed its culture to provide environments conducive for supporting student enterprise and graduate entrepreneurship? b. How is institutional leadership for driving enterprise and entrepreneurship throughout the institution demonstrated? 2. Student Engagement a. How are students and graduates demonstrating their ability to apply the enterprising and entrepreneurial mindsets and behaviours learnt through their university experiences? b. How has the student experience enhanced a positive attitude towards enterprise and entrepreneurship as a career and life choice? 3. Innovative and Entrepreneurial Staff a. How have staff demonstrated innovation and growth in their approach to the design and delivery of the institution’s enterprise and entrepreneurship offerings? b. How are staff incentivised and rewarded for developing excellence in enterprise and entrepreneurship practice? 4. Entrepreneurial Impact a. What impact has the institution had on the entrepreneurial outcomes of staff, students and graduates? b. What step-change has been achieved in the delivery of regional and national entrepreneurship goals? c. What enterprise and entrepreneurship good practice and effectiveness has been demonstrated? d. In what ways has the institution’s experiences influenced policy and practice in the wider environment? Best practices i n e ntrepre neurs hip educatio n The Berger Entrepreneurship Program was approved by the University of Arizona Board of Regents in 1983 and is one of the oldest entrepreneurship programs in the country. The curriculum for the Berger Entrepreneurship Program includes core courses in competitive advantage, venture finance, market research and business plan development. Additional courses in MIS, management, finance and marketing are recommended. A combination of tenuretrack and business-adjunct faculty teaches the course offerings. Undergraduates are eligible for a major in entrepreneurship and MBA students can select entrepreneurship as an area of concentration. Most students select joint majors and areas of concentration, such as Entrepreneurship/MIS, Entrepreneurship/Marketing and Entrepreneurship/Finance. All students receive scholarships, and many are placed in internships with newly started firms or venture capital organizations during the summer just prior to entering their formal period of entrepreneurship study. Germa ny The Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation BIEM CEIP was founded by the University of Potsdam in 2004 with the objective of grouping existing university entrepreneurship initiatives and to increase their impact. Its activities go beyond University borders and include financing partners (banks, VC, Business Angels), business support organisations and local firms. It is part of the BIEM network. Activities: Beyond initial information and counselling activities, BIEM CEIP is active in coaching and mentoring. In the “Senior Coaching Services” it collaborates with Siemens AG. In 2007, the GO:INcubator, located in the Golm Science Park, was launched as a special support infrastructure for high-tech start-up projects. The GO:Incubator is part of the Potsdam Science-Cluster that includes 3 universities (University of Potsdam, HFF Film & Television Academy, University of Applied Sciences Potsdam), 3 Max Planck Institutes (Gravitational Physics, Colloids and Interfaces, Molecular Plant Physiology) and more than 20 additional research institutions. The incubator has broadly outreached to the scientific community in Potsdam. The
BIEM CEIP acts as a broker and link between technology and management know-how in Potsdam. The BIEM CEIP runs a particular entrepreneurship education programme (including innovation management), which is integrated into bachelor and master courses, and offers additional courses for post-graduates, natural scientists as well as a full MBA programme. Research is the third pillar of BIEM CEIP’s main activities. Research projects focus on: Business foundation and international entrepreneurship, strategic planning, innovation process, change management and consulting, open innovation, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial career development (e.g. for women). Fra nce The “Educating Entrepreneurs for the World” initiative was started by Patrick Molle, the President of the EM Lyon Business School in 2003. The initiative is part of a broader set of activities to train and support students allowing them to act as entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs or entrepreneur managers in different geographical and cultural contexts. The educators’ team is part of the EM Lyon’s Strategy & Organisation Pedagogy and Research Unit. Activities. Activities include education and teaching (seminars, Masters degree courses and extra-curricular activities), entrepreneurship research and entrepreneurship educational research, and start-up support through provision of infrastructure (business incubator), support programmes, and access to networks. 2 ntrepreneurship research centres have been established and in 2008 the World Entrepreneurship Forum was held at the EM Lyon. U nited Ki ngdom Creative Women Entrepreneurship (CWE), set up in 2007, is a postgraduate research- based initiative of the School of Entrepreneurship and Business (SEB) at the University of Essex. The aim of this programme is to increase the interest, knowledge of and competencies in entrepreneurship and innovation amongst creative female students and early stage female entrepreneurs in the creative industries. The CWE programme is part of a rich portfolio of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes centred around entrepreneurship and innovation. It is based on ‘actionlearning’ and is divided into ‘blocks’ of studies, linked to the business agenda of participating entrepreneurs (Credits: 30/ECTS 15). The aspiring entrepreneurs learn from more experienced entrepreneurs in a confidential environment. Participants engage with each other in projects and work towards the development of international linkages with other creative female entrepreneurs. A key feature of the programme is the development of a personal development plan centred round the intellectual and emotional responses to stimuli in the wider environment. Activities include education and teaching (seminars, Masters degree courses and extra-curricular activities), entrepreneurship research and entrepreneurship educational research, and start-up support through provision of infrastructure (business incubator), support programmes, and access to networks. 2 entrepreneurship research centres have been established, and in 2008 the World Entrepreneurship Forum was held at the EM Lyon.
South Africa Entrepreneurship education at the University of the Western Cape started in the late 1980s. The entrepreneurship Stream initiative was started in 2001 by the Department for Management Studies at the University of Western Cape. It is a one-year intensive study programme that foresees student teams to start-up an on-campus micro business within 4 semesters.
Teaching includes theory, opportunity recognition, business plan development, marketing studies and business survival and growth strategies. Activities. The Entrepreneurship Stream runs in 4 terms of 7 weeks each over the duration of one year. 1st term: Introduction in theory and its practical application. The objective is to raise interest in entrepreneurship as a viable professional career and to teach first steps of business plan preparation. 2nd term: Teambuilding and preparation of intensive team working. Each team agrees in a “Charter” a set of regulations and distributes responsibilities amongst its members. A consensus-based evaluation allows team members to monitor the team’s performance as well as that of individual members. By the end of the semester a business plan should be ready and contacts made with potential investors. 3rd term: The actual business start-up can be launched. The objectives are for students to gain a first experience in running a business, that they learn to identify success factors and likely pitfalls as well as short-term development and growth goals. 4th term: The teams dedicate a full semester to the development of their businesses. U nited States Concept2Venture (C2V) was established in 2005, by Prof. Rod Shrader of the University of Illinois-Chicago (UIC) as an annual event to identify student-created business start-ups with high potential for success. This allows the university to strategically invest resources to assist students who are likely to succeed as entrepreneurs, to solicit resources from the business community, and to showcase the best work of top students. The focus is on student-created businesses. However, students often work with professor-inventors to create companies that commercialise the inventions of professors. This had led to a special focus on biotechnology firms. Activities. A one-day business plan competition is organised annually. Winners of morning semi-finals advance to afternoon finals. A formal luncheon featuring a key note address and a fast pitch contest take place between semi-finals and finals. The day ends with a reception and an awards ceremony. The event gives students an opportunity to compete for awards exceeding USD 55 000 for their business ideas (cash plus in-kind services). A series of workshops help students prepare for the day of the event. A recent study on several German universities point out that the entrepreneurship support in universities is under development and suggests a series of directions for public policy involvement in university entrepreneurship support, including: · Strategy: Public policy can facilitate the introduction of clear incentives and rewards for professors, researchers and students in order to help them to engage. This can be done by adding ‚entrepreneurship support’ to the list of performance criteria. · Resources: It is the balance between a minimum long-term financing for staff costs and overheads and the openness to private sector involvement in the financing of Entrepreneurship Chairs and incubation facilities which proves to be successful. · Support Infrastructure: Universities will need to find their place in existing start-up and entrepreneurship support systems. Networking and incentives for clear referral systems can be useful to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of start-up support and to reduce duplication, confusion and waste of resources. · Entrepreneurship education: Improvement and innovation can be achieved with the help of the exchange of good practice in creative teaching methods . Universities need to have a genuine interest in such exchange, but public policy can facilitate the creation of platforms, publications, teaching material, etc. Another important area for public policy intervention is curricula development and the integration of entrepreneurship courses, such as creativity classes. · Start-up support: private sector collaboration represents a key success factor for university
entrepreneurship support. This way, universities can create a protected environment for nascent entrepreneurship. This can be an important stimulus for students and researchers to make a first step towards the creation of a venture. Yet, in order to avoid ‚over protection’, early exposure to market conditions is advisable. · Evaluation: Public policy organisations and universities will need to work ‚hand in hand’ in developing a monitoring and evaluation system which demonstrates the socio-economic impact of university entrepreneurship support and reveals needs for changes. Refere nces: Universities, innovation and entrepreneurship -criteria and examples of good practice, OECD (2009), http:// www.oecd.org/regional/leed/43201452.pdf Hofer, A. et al. (2010), “From Strategy to Practice in University Entrepreneurship Support: Strengthening Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development in Eastern Germany: Youth, Entrepreneurship and Innovation”, OECD Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Working Papers, 2010/09, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5km7rq1xvnxp-en Alok Chakrabarti and Mark Rice, 2003, Changing Roles of Universities in Developing Entrepreneurial Regions: The Case of Finland and the US, http://web.mit.edu/ipc/publications/pdf/03-003.pdf Clark, Burton R. (2004). “Delineating the Character of the Entrepreneurial University.” Higher Education Policy 17, 355‐70. Etzkowitz, Henry, Andrew Webster, Christine Gebhardt, et al. (2000). “The Future of the University and the University of the Future: Evolution of Ivory Tower to Entrepreneurial Paradigm.” Research Policy 29, 313‐330. Alberta Charney, Gary D. Libecap, Impact of entrepreneurship education, INSIGHTS –A Kauffman Research Series, http://www.unm.edu/~asalazar/Kauffman/Entrep_research/e_ed_grow.pdf Entrepreneurial University of the Year 2010/2011, http://www.ncee.org.uk/publication/entrepreneurial_university_ of_the_year.pdf
PROF. DR. KLAUS TOEPFER, HONORABLE MEMBER 2013, THE HALL OF FAME OF THE EUROPEAN RETAIL ACADEMY
The European Retail Academy appointed the well-known Prof. Dr. Klaus Toepfer, the founder of the Kyoto - and Rio Protocols as Honorable Member 2013 of the Hall of Fame. Prof. Dr. Klaus Toepfer had been Minister in the German Federal Government from 1987-1997. After that he was working as an Executive Director for the United Nations.
Prof. Dr. Bernd Hallier, President of the European Retail Academy together with Prof. Dr. Klaus Toepfer, and W. Dornscheidt at Messe Duesseldorf Source: http://www.european-retail-academy.org/ERM/
2013 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OF THE ASSOCIATION GLOBAL MANAGEMENT STUDIES (ICAGMS), MARCH 4TH – MARCH 5TH, AT UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY, USA
Professor John Saee, Chairperson of Global Divisions, Association of Management and International Association of Management, and Editor-in-Chief of the International Association of Management Journal (Journal of Management Systems, USA). In his capacity as President of 2013 International Conference of the Association Global Management Studies (ICAGMS), March 4th – March 5th, at University of California, Berkeley, USA, he extended a cordial invitation to participate in this important International Conference (http://www.association-gms.org/Conferences/index. html ). The 2013 ICAGMS features: Keynote Address on Innovation and Management leadership by the Dr. Richard Lyons, Hass School of Business, UC -Berkeley, Editors’ Panel (with editors of 6 journals), Business Excellence Forum, and high-quality research paper presentations in concurrent sessions which cover most of the key areas in management and interdisciplinary studies. The 2013 ICAGMS will have very broad appeal, drawing many scholars and colleagues from around the globe. Accepted papers are to be included in the 2013 ICAGMS Conference Proceedings. Authors of selected full-length papers will be given the opportunity to revise their papers for possible inclusion in 2 highly regarded and indexed academic/professional journals (International Journal of Global Management Studies and International Journal of Global Management Studies Professional) according to the guidelines for publication and editorial decision as specified in each journal. The 2013 ICAGMS registered delegates will have opportunity to meet F2F with editors of 6 academic journals. Co nfere nce Theme: Glo ba lizatio n, Innovatio n a nd Ma nageme nt Sc ho lars hip Important Dates: • • Abstract/Paper Submission Due: January 15, 2013 (All submissions MUST be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org. The conference registration can be done online via http://www.association-gms.org/Cart/index.html ) • • Conference acceptance notification: Rolling acceptance until January 20, 2013 • • Final version due: February 10, 2013 • • Early Registration: Until January 15 (USD 495; Student Registration Fee USD 250) • • Regular Registration: January 16 onward (USD 595; Student Registration Fee USD 275) • • Conference Dates: March 4 - 5 • • Doctoral Students’ Workshop: March 5 Online Registration with Payment: The 2013 ICAGMS conference policy requires authors to be registered for each paper accepted for presentation and publication. If you are an author or co-author on more than one accepted paper, a registration would be required. Venue and Accommodation: Conference will be held at the premises of the University of California, Berkeley, Clark Kerr Center. Situated in the heart of UC - Berkeley. Berkeley is a university town. There are two hotels where you could make your accomodation arrangement for the conference – Hotel Durant and Claremont Resort & Spa. Doctoral Students’ Workshop will be held on March 5. The workshop provides a great opportunity for doctoral students, young researchers and postdocs to gain new knowledge and skills on academic writing for publishing scientific papers in international journals.
ANOTHER PROJECT STARTED RECENTLY BY PROF. DR. BERND HALLIER: FOOD WASTE MANAGEMENT Prof. Dr. Bernd Hallier, President of the European Retail Academy, has launched at the end of November 2012 another project (in eight languages): Food Waste Management (www.european-retail-academy.org/ERM). This topic also fits well in the perspective of “Expo 2017” orga nized in Asta na/Kaza khsta n. World exhibitions (Expo) are drivers for innovation. The first Expo was started in 1851 in London being proposed by Prince Albert; famous became Paris in 1889 when the exhibition was connected with building the Eiffel–Tower; after World War II Brussels was building the Atomium as a brand for the Expo 1958 – the last big one – was in Shanghai 2010, the specialized one 2012 in South Korea, 2015 is planned in Italy (Milan).
Enviro nme nta l Reta il Ma nageme nt is part of a Glo ba l House of Harmo ny - combining ecology, economy and ethics. Within a Global House of Harmony these three columns of economy, ecology and ethics have to be in balance with each other. In times of crisis within ethics the field of food waste management gains importance: how to organize food recovery and how to optimize waste reduction during food-processing. Source: http://www.european-retail-academy.org/ERM/
BOOK OF THE YEAR: “21ST CENTURY GLOBAL MENTAL HEALTH”,
an effort to prevent disease and promote health. It is also worth to highlight the educational objectives of the American Public Health Association: to define the roles of the public health community in responding to the influences of physical, economic and social environments; to identify lessons learned and best practices in addressing general public health issues; to increase knowledge of public health issues and how they are affected by immediate world factors; to improve the competencies of public health practitioners through skills building; to increase knowledge, competence and performance for health outcomes. 1
Firmly convinced, among others, of the central place occupied by Hig her Education within the society (Eliot Sorel, Editor – 21st Century Hig her Education: Quality, Leadership, Innovation, The Bucharest Consensus Autumn 2010), Professor Eliot Sorel convinces through his new book – “21st Ce ntury Glo ba l Me nta l Hea lth” – that mental health issue is fundamental to the overall health issue. Allow us to remember that, in our opinion, Professor Eliot Sorel proves again his passion, skills and value: to stimulate knowledge generation, innovation, research, human capital development; to close the development gap between the region and the rest of the world, and to open up new major opportunities for collaboration among students, scholars, policymakers and professionals across disciplines and continents; to deliver innovation, education, research projects and policies of mutual benefit, leading to a free, peaceful and prosperous flow of people, ideas and goods; to connect action to thought and implementation to formulation.
Book of the Year: “21st Ce ntury Glo ba l Me nta l Hea lth”, Jones & Bartlett Learning (1 edition August 14, 2012) The disti nguis hed Professor Eliot SOREL, MD, DLFAPA, George Washington University, Washington D.C., School of Medicine & School of Public Health, Founder Conflict Management Section WPA, Co-Chair of the Scientific Committee WPA 2013 Bucharest and Honorary President of the SANABUNA International Congress ,,Hea lth, Nutritio n, Fitness a nd We llbe ing” (http://www.sanabuna.ro/ ), an internationally acknowledged medical leader, educator, health systems expert and practicing physician, has lau nc hed o n Octo ber 29, 2012, in Sa n Fra ncisco, a new boo k: “21st Ce ntury Glo ba l Me nta l Hea lth”, Jones & Bartlett Learning, o n the occasio n of the 140th APHA (American Public Health Association) A nnual Meeti ng & Exposition, the oldest and largest gathering of public health professionals in the world (attracting more than 13,000 national and international physicians, administrators, nurses, educators, researchers, epidemiologists, and related health specialists). Let us remember that APHA’s meeting program addresses current and emerging health science, policy, and practice issues in
Allow us to also mention that Professor Eliot Sorel is a strong supporter of the Public-Civic-Private Partnership which can restore trust in life and in the market, including in the “Pilot Station” Fălticeni and an assumed challenge: “Bu ilding a n East Europea n Reg io na l Mode l of Thinking a nd Actio n”, taking Note of the Real Interest Proved in Fălticeni and in Suceava County in Promoting Public-CivicPrivate Partnership, Considering the Entire Range of Potential Benefits: Health Benefits, Social Benefits, Direct and Indirect Economic Benefits, Environmental Benefits.