BARBARA SHIELLS - PERSONAL TRAINING
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RIGHT MINDSET We all know that getting in the right mindset for – ‘the long haul’ is not easy. Making permanent changes about the way we live requires motivation, determination and commitment. Goal Setting: Set a short term goal that is realistic and achievable. Set your first goal 2 weeks from the end of camp, and decide on a reward that you will do if you achieve that goal: Do the same for 1 month, then every following month, use the 2 week diary at the end of this book to help you make a start.
Avoid edible treats – instead go for a manicure or a have an hour out to pamper yourself! Each month make the reward a bit bigger – just to give you that drive – a new pair of jeans or something you have had your eye on for a while! Set yourself your long term goal sometimes this takes the form of weight loss and this is easy because it is measurable – however try to think in terms of inches or cm’s lost, rather than stones or kg’s
Eating as a Reward? The mindset we need to get into is that we eat to sustain life, for our bodies to function properly- a biological necessity. Food cannot / does not provide emotional support for us. We often eat (or don’t eat) as a reward or a punishment – for whatever life throws at us to deal with emotions or feelings. If this results in over eating and therefore weight gain then the eating behaviour comes to be seen as the cause rather than the symptom of psychological distress
The Energy Balance Loosing / maintaining weight is all about the energy balance. In other words balancing the amount of calories you consume to the amount you use in everyday life. So simply put in order to lose weight calorie EXPENDITURE must be GREATER than calorie INPUT - There is a vast difference between reducing calorie intake to lose weight – as mentioned earlier and actually USING the calories for energy in exercise to lose weight. The calorie-expending effects of exercise are cumulative. By using 3,500 calories in exercise it is equivalent to 0.45kg of fat loss, weather the deficit occurs rapidly or systematically over time. Regular aerobic exercise is effective, even without dietary restriction; it brings about favourable changes in body mass and body composition
Planning Exercise When considering exercise for weight loss we need to bear in mind factors such as: Frequency: firstly we have to consider how often we can fit exercise into our daily / weekly lives. It is generally recommended at 3 times a week with the following factors. Intensity: How hard we work during each session. 75 – 85% of our HRmax. It is hard to begin with to monitor the intensity of exercise – going all out for 10 minutes will not be as beneficial in terms of fat loss as working at a lower intensity for longer. Using a Heart Rate Monitor can help to alleviate this problem. In the introduction we calculated our Maximum Heart Rate (220 – age). For the right intensity we should be looking to get our heart rate between 75% and 85% of our HRmax maybe even up to 95% HRmax __________________________________________ 75% ____________________________________________ 95% ____________________________________________
Time: How long we have to spend on each session. 30-60 minutes (x3/ week) is the recommended time but this CAN be split into 3 x 20 minute sessions – however for best results 30 + minutes per session will begin to bring about the metabolism of fat. Type: What sort of exercise will provide the best results? Aerobic exercise: to bring about cardiovascular adaptations: large muscle groups in a rhythmical, repetitive movement with our HR at 75-85% for 30 minutes or more. Anaerobic exercise: to bring about lean tissue development, muscular strength and endurance. Weight bearing exercise for all the major muscle groups.
How? - well this will depend on what is available to us. Going to a gym can be one option. However this is not for everyone – and can be quite demotivating and time consuming. So, firstly let’s think about what we need to achieve. 30 minutes plus of aerobic exercise; this can be achieved by walking / ‘trotting’ /jogging. No equipment needed there. Weight bearing exercises can be performed perfectly adequately with body weight – press-up, triceps dips, squats and lunges. A couple of dumbbells can increase the resistance, however good technique, performed regularly is more important. Moreover what we really should consider is increasing the exercise we can put into every part of everyday life, thus increasing our calorific expenditure. ü Always take the stairs instead of a lift – walk up escalators. ü Leave the car at home for very short journeys – like a quick trip to the newsagents ü Walk to work or get off the bus one or two stops earlier and walk the rest of the way ü Spend lunch breaks outside walk around the shops or park ü Google Earth provides a great means of measuring a circular walking route– this gives you the opportunity of timing how long it takes you each time. ü Every time you have to walk somewhere – no matter how short the time – make it brisk, using the arms to help power you.
c. Calorific Expenditure An added bonus with a heart rate monitor is that it will tell you how many calories you burn in each session. If you have one – try wearing it for doing the housework, washing the car or cutting the grass – you may be surprised how many calories you use – then compare it to a time you have done the same activity with a bit more effort and speed. The next page gives you an opportunity to record your fitness assessments - try to keep them up to date as they will give you firstly a base line from which to work then a monitor of how you are doing!
Fitness Assessment Date RHR BP Weight (lbs / Kgs) BMI Fat % Waist (cm) Hips (cm) Arm (cm) Thigh (cm) Vo2 Sit-up Test Peak-flow
a. Blood Pressure & Resting Heart Rate Resting Heart Rate (RHR) is the number of beats your heart has to perform each minute in order to supply your organs and muscles with blood. At rest a ‘normal’ RHR should be about 70 bpm. The fitter you are, more blood will be pumped out each beat therefore less beats have to be performed to supply the same amount of blood to the organs. An athlete could have a RHR of around 50bpm. This is one of the first things you will notice as you get fitter. Maximum Heart Rate (MHR) is calculated by 220 – age (this is estimated and can vary between individuals as much
as +-10bpm)). At your MHR your body will want to become horizontal but it will not hurt you. It would be very rare that you would ever get to your MHR. But we do use it to work out the intensity that you should be exercising at. Likewise we can also use your Heart Rate Reserve (HHR) to monitor intensity. This is your MHR – RHR. You could see how this works when you think of a 40 year old, (MHR= 220 – 40 = 180) with a RHR of 75 this would give a HHR of 105. But an athlete of the same age with a RHR of 50 would have a HHR of 130 – this results in the athlete have a much bigger scope before his heart rate gets anywhere near his maximum. One of the long term benefits of exercise is that it will improve Blood Pressure and this can often be seen in the first 2 or 3 weeks!
FITNESS ASSESSMENTS Blood Pressure: Systolic pressure is the pressure put on the artery walls as the blood is being pushed from the heart. This can change throughout the day, rising under periods of stress and exertion. Diastolic pressure is the pressure on the arteries when the heart is relaxing letting the blood flow into the heart chambers. This should not vary throughout the day. A normal blood pressure reading is about (SBP) 120 and (DBP) 80 often seen as 120/80 Your Heart Rate and Blood Pressure will be taken at the beginning of camp, please put the figures in the boxes If you take anything away from training with me – take away that increasing your exercise will improve the way your heart functions. This will improve your energy levels and reduce the risk of Heart Disease.
side so you remember for next time! Measure around the bulk of the muscle at the widest point. This is quite important because as you get fitter you may not lose weight but inches! c. Body Mass Index
b. Measurements Waist to hips ratio is a good indicator of excess abdominal fat associated with Type 2 Diabetes, High Cholesterol & Coronary Heart Disease. If you measure your waist around the tummy button then you will get exactly the same place next time – even though it might not feel like your waist! Measure your hips around the widest point of the buttocks. It is a good idea to measure your upper arm and thigh – always use the right hand
Your BMI is your weight in relation to your height. Remember this is just a guideline for you to work from, generally, in medical terms over 30 is considered obese, however there are many more categories after this. d. Fat Percentage This provides an ‘estimate’ of the percentage of your overall body mass that is fat. This is a test that causes some trepidation – however it can be far more useful than weight, simply because as we get fitter and increase lean tissue this will weigh more than fat. So the scales could say we have not lost weight but a
FITNESS ASSESSMENTS fat percentage test will show that we have in fact lost fat. There are several different ways to estimate this but the one that has proved to be the most accurate without a full laboratory test is one using Fat Callipers. In this test measurements are taken in 4 sites around the body – the biceps, triceps, just above the hip bone and just under the scapula. The figures are added together and using a predetermined scale this figure will be calculated into a percentage of body fat relative to gender and age.
FITNESS ASSESSMENTS e. Cardiovascular Fitness Cardiovascular or Aerobic Fitness – is the ability of our heart and lungs to take on board oxygen and utilise it for energy production in the body. The more efficiently this system works the better able we are to sustain exercise at low intensities. This is quite crucial when it come to burning fat. In order to metabolise fat oxygen must be available. We have 2 main muscle fibre types in our bodies. One is built for quick, powerful response, creating energy from stores of glycogen within the muscle itself. By its very nature this cannot last long. Think of a 100m runner – for top athletes the race is over in 10 seconds. They have time only to breathe out! This is ANAEROBIC metabolism – without oxygen
So think of how that 100m runner looks – can you see large muscle?
records our heart rate in relation to the intensity of the exercise performed.
Now think of a marathon runner, they, predominantly have the other muscle fibre type. This type is built for endurance – it has a mass of capillaries that allowing high efficient gas exchange and the muscle to gain its energy from aerobic metabolism. It is not powerful but will last a long time – more or less as long as oxygen is available.
The result gives us a value of ___ mls O2/kg BW/min, which is; millilitres of oxygen per kg of bodyweight per minute.
Again – unfortunately most of our muscle fibre type is genetically determined – we can, however, train them, to a certain extent, to become more efficient aerobically. The higher our aerobic capacity – the longer we can sustain low intensity exercise – the more fat we will burn. A test to estimate our aerobic fitness is the Chester Step Test, a gradual test that
f. Muscular Endurance This is the ability of a muscle group to execute repeated contractions over a period of time. This is usually done as an abdominal test as poor abdominal strength and endurance is linked to lower back pain. The test is performed for 1 minute with feet secured and arms crossed over the chest – a full sit-up should be executed with shoulder blades touching the floor to elbows touching the knees.
PS I T C I S A B E M SO DO:
ü Make changes gradual – only make one nutritional (N) and one exercise (E) change each week. ü Use smaller plates – this will help you stick to portions sizes easily ü Occasionally take the time to measure things like rice and porridge so you start to learn how much to use. ü Snack on nuts & beans cut out high sugar snacks ü Drink plenty of water ü Consider if you’re full before finishing all food on plate
ü Consider 5 fruit AND 5 vegetable portions per day ü Limit Alcohol intake ü Rope in the family – go out for a walk together. ü Eat at regular times without allowing more than 4 hours in between meals. Don’t: Beat yourself up if you waver – if you have an extra piece of cake –DON’T feel bad and
Regular exercise and a balanced diet can do more than just manage weight, other benefits are: Ø Control / Reduce Blood Pressure Ø Reduce Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Ø Boost HDL (good) Cholesterol
think ‘I’ve gone off the rails, so I might as well give up today’. Think instead – I’ll go out at lunchtime for a walk to use the energy I have gained from the cake!
Ø Reduce Risk of Stroke Ø Reduce Risk of Diabetes Ø Protect Against Osteoporosis
All enzymes are proteins, controlling all chemical reactions and some hormones are proteins – such as insulin. Because of this we may think that we need to consume a lot of protein. Not so. Proteins are made up of amino acids – some of which can be made by the body.
HEALTHY EATING We hear lots of things about what we should and shouldn’t be eating. One simple way to look at it is that the food you put in your body is the fuel that makes it work. However you might look at it, your body is an unbelievable machine, far more complex than any manmade machine!
Excess protein can lead to kidney damage and accumulation of ammonia – but most importantly excess protein is stored on the body as – FAT!
In order for this machine to work at it’s most efficient we must fuel it with adequate amounts of the essential nutrients. ü WATER ü PROTEINS ü FATS ü CARBOHYDRATES ü VITAMINS ü MINERALS
Fats: Water: First because it is arguably the most important! Just by increasing our water intake by 500ml a day we will notice the difference in how we feel and look almost immediately. At rest we use about 2 ½ litres of water each day, however our input is much more variable. We do get some from food, however many of the drinks we take containing caffeine act as diuretics accelerating the loss of water from our bodies. Proteins: These are essential for growth, repair and maintenance, because protein is part of every living cell in the body.
These are important to the health of the human body – some fats are absolutely ESSENTIAL! Fat protects the internal organs, acts as a thermo regulator, insulates nerve cells, takes and stores fat soluble vitamins, is an energy source and helps growth and repair of body tissues! It’s the type of fat that is important: Saturated Fat – mainly from animals is usually solid at room temperature and should be no more than 25% of our total fat intake. Unsaturated Fat – mainly from plants is liquid at room temperature. It is advisable to try to include Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty
Cholesterol: This is required by the body for the cellular integrity of membranes that surround all the cells, it makes bile salt which help with the absorption of dietary fats and ALL steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol. Or to put it in more understandable terms- We need it!!! The body produces cholesterol naturally at different rates depending on how it is needed. And we do need it, however it is all down to the type of cholesterol... Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) these are bad ones! If fat intake remains high, LDLs accumulate in the blood stream and can settle down on the artery walls where they can become toxic – making more and more LDLs stick to them – eventually causing a blockage. High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) these are the good ones! These help breakdown any LDLs that have attached themselves to the arteries – HOWEVER we cannot improve HDLs by our diet – but one simple way to increase the HDLs in our blood stream is to EXERCISE!
Vitamins & Minerals: The best way to look at our intake of these is to consider that vitamin deficiency is VERY very rare. With a healthy balanced diet containing fruit and vegetables we will get everything we need. Leafy green vegetables provide us with most of the vitamins and minerals we need. Taking supplements can only result in a deficiency in your pocket rather than your body so just think about your diet! I would recommend that a woman around 40 - 45 might be looking at some Glucosamine and Chondroitine, and maybe for hormonal reasons some evening primrose, cod liver oil capsules and omega 3 /9 but if you have a diet rich in fish and seafood than really you have nothing to worry about!
CARBOHYDRATE Basically how it works is this: 1. We eat a food that produces a high blood sugar level (High GI) with a quick release of energy. 2. We do not use this food for energy production. 3. Our bodies then react by quickly producing insulin to bring the sugar in our blood down to normal levels, because the energy has not been required.
Latest Research indicates that the best way to look at how our bodies deal with Carbohydrate is using the Glycaemic Index. The Glycaemic Index
the food has on our blood glucose (sugar) levels. Some starchy foods such as white bread and potatoes cause a much bigger rise in your blood sugar levels than some sugar rich foods such as milk, yoghurt and
In the past nutrition specialists separated
even certain types of fruit. So
Carbohydrates into starches - complex
carbohydrate rich foods are now
carbohydrates and sugars – simple
separated into low, medium or high
carbohydrates, because of their structure.
categories according to their blood sugar
These days we look at the Glycaemic Index (GI) of the food – this is the effect
4. The insulin remains in the blood stream until after the sugar levels have gone down and actually bring the sugar levels down BELOW the normal level. 5. This makes us feel hungry again very quickly 6. Because of this hungry feeling we opt for the instant energy food and the cycle begins again So we need to reset our eating habits so we don’t get the highs and lows in Blood Sugar. By eating food that releases its energy slowly – we still get a slight increase in blood sugar, but not the ‘sugar rush’ that stimulates the release of huge amounts of insulin. However what we will get is a feeling of being full and satisfied whcih will last for longer periods.
So how do we put all this information together to form a nutrition plan that will provide us with all the essential nutrients? Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) This is the rate at which our bodies use up energy at rest and is equal to about 20 calories per kg of bodyweight per day (20cals /kg BW / day) – this is just to maintain normal function. So for someone weighing 60kg BMR would be 60 x 20 = 1,200 cals per day. Whilst there are several things that can influence BMR and several different ways of estimating it, this value is simple and will not be far wrong for most people. One of the main influences on BMR is Body Composition as even at rest a muscle cell is metabolically more active that a fat cell. More calories will be needed to fuel daily activity, and this is the bit that is difficult to predict, generally though it is suggested that:
INFORMATION OVERLOAD! ‘Moderately Active’. Professional sports people training every day, maybe twice a day would be ‘Very Active’. Someone who drives to work, and watches TV all evening would probably be classed as sedentary. So let’s put these figures to use: Remember your ideal weight that we calculated earlier? We can now use those figures to calculate the calories your body needs at rest. So the calories you should be consuming per day is between: BW(kg) _______ x 20 = ______ cals BW(kg) _______ x 20 = ______ cals Add the two figures together and divide by 2 to give you the average of : _______________Calories per day Now add on between 20 - 50% to allow for your daily activity ___________Calories per day
Daily calorific needs are broken down into : 60 % Carbohydrate (Low GI), 10 % from Protein, 30% from Fat. So with this we can work out how much of each nutrient you need each day, it takes: 4 kcals to burn 1 gram of carbohydrate,
Sedentary Lifestyle = +15% Moderately Active = + 15 - 35% Very Active = + 75% People who exercise regularly 3-4 times a week for about an hour or more would be classed as
9 kcals to burn 1 gram of fat 4 kcals to burn 1 gram of protein So we can now calculate these calories into grams of food:
FOOD FACTS My daily Carbohydrate intake should be:
My daily Fat intake should be:
My daily Protein intake should be:
_______Cals or ______grams
_______Cals or ______grams
_______Cals or ______grams
People get confused about carbohydrate, thinking of Pasta and Potatoes as the only carbohydrate source. When we begin to see what foods contain carbohydrate and in what quantities – then we realise how we can easily build up an excess of carbohydrate in our daily consumption. Don’t forget carbohydrate excess to our energy needs gets stored on the body as fat!
We all do the same thing we look at the labels that offer us “less fat” and think that it’s ok because it is low in fat. To work out the calorific value of 1 gram of fat (9 Calories) you can now begin to look at food labels differently.
Remember too much protein is stored in the body as fat!
There are 2 things we must consider when planning the carbohydrate in our meals – 1. Use the Glycaemic Index is a way of choosing carbohydrates that are going to keep you feeling full and satisfied after a meal with bags of energy. 2. Consider all the food in that meal and look for other sources of carbohydrate, - do you really need to add MORE? 3. To include the amount of other nutrients (Fat & Protein) you get in the SAME food source!
For instance, let’s look at Hellman’s Mayonnaise. The ‘full fat’ version states on the food label that it has : 722kcals with 79g fat! 79 x 9 = 711 This is 711 FAT calories in 100g. This means it is about 98% FAT Now for the ‘light’ version: 297kcals with 29.8g fat (29.8 x 9 = 268) So there are 268 FAT calories there are in 100g this means it is over 90 % FAT! Many food manufacturers get away with saying it is low fat because all it has to be is LOWER in fat to qualify for this title.
The Food Pyramid It is recommended that a healthy balanced diet should contain more vegetables – ie in proportions on a plate it should be half the plate, as laid out in the food pyramid below: The pyramid shows that the highest proportion of foods we should be eating are in the base of the pyramid, whilst the ones we should be eating a smaller amount of are at the top.
Y R A I D D O O F KEEPING A The following pages contain your Food Diary. Try to fill it in as honestly as you can! Choose ALL your meals and snacks from the recipes in section 6; adding up your calories as you go along and remembering to include the water. Try to balance the day – if you have an evening meal planned with high calorie content then reduce you snacks. Remember calorie content of recipes is only accurate IF you get the portions size right! 1.
With an ideal weight of : 65 kg, my basal metabolic rate is 1300 then I add on 35% as I consider myself to be reasonably active and I think I can use about 400 or more calories each day in exercise.
2. I need to balance this between 60% carbohydrate; 10-15% protein and 25-30% fat, this leaves me with 263g of Carbohydrate, about 45g protein and about 50g fat 3. One of the best ways to find out nutritional content of food if you’re not sure is to go on Sainsbury’s or Tesco’s website and look
at the food label or just put it into a Google search – it’s worth doing at least once a week so you start to get an idea of the values of food you eat regularly. 4. So I roughly have an idea what I am going to eat that day as I have all the ingredients for my meals so I can measure the portions & check the nutritional content. 5. Now this is the interesting bit...... have a look on the page opposite – WHAT in the list of what I eat on this day would you immediately recognise as a carbohydrate food?? Now look at the amount of carbohydrate I have consumed – surprised? 6. So I then need to think about the extra energy I consumed by way of the 35% extra – I up the ante with the housework, putting the music on to work to and get it done in half the time – with time to clean the inside of the windows. Then I go for a walk for 45 mins using a HR monitor to keep my pace quick enough to raise my heart rate to about 80% of its max.
Challenges: On at least 1 day a week take the time to actually measure out your food and list the nutritional content of each item, especially the carbohydrate. Wear a heart rate monitor for a day! See how many calories you burn in an ordinary day – then compare it to one where you increase exercise! Have a cook in day – include all the family – buy your groceries and have a day making healthy soups and snack from the recipes ready for the week ahead.
Nutrition – Energy IN ........Example Food
1 200 ml glass of Orange Juice
Berry Porridge with raspberries & blueberries
small handful of mixed nuts & seeds
Chunky Healthy Soup (264cals)
1 med Banana(90cals)
Wholemeal fruit bar (homemade)
Cheats Spaghetti Bolognese
Sugar snap peas
Baked Apple with fruit & Nuts
__1500_ mls+ 3 x lemon & ginger tea
& 1 large glass white wine
Total Energy Input
Breakfast (Snack Optional) Lunch (Snack Optional)
Exercise – Energy OUT ....Example Exercise Walking – Med Pace - 3 km with HR monitor Cleaning including inside windows with music & briskly
Time 45 mins 40 mins Total Energy Output
Calories 300 160 460
Day________ Date_____________ Nutrition – Energy IN Food
Breakfast (Snack Optional) Lunch (Snack Optional)
(Snack/ Dessert) Water Other Total Energy Input Required Energy
Exercise – Energy OUT Exercise
Total Energy Output
Barbara Shiells -Personal Training 18 Staithe Street, Bubwith Tel: 07500839218 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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WRITTEN BY: BARBARA SHIELLS
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