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■ Powerstroke Coolant Concerns A

MAGAZINE

■ Early Alcohol-Based Fuels

■ Great Bear Auto’s Mama Bear

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Diagnostic Dilemmas: Building a Diagnostic Plan

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CONTENTS 16

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Emissions Update

Service Solutions

EGR Diagnostics For consistent driveability, it is desirable for the amount of exhaust gas flow to be proportional to the throttle opening. In his article on EGR diagnostics, Carl Fedele addresses this component and its importance to the vehicle’s emissions system.

Powerstroke Cooling System Tips Maintaining the coolant system is just as important as an oil change — in fact, the coolant condition in a diesel engine may even be more important than in a gasoline engine. In this article, Bob McDonald provides tips to better service your customer’s Powerstroke cooling system.

Editor Edward Sunkin, ext. 258 email: esunkin@babcox.com

Graphic Designer Dan Brennan, ext. 283 email: dbrennan@babcox.com

Managing Editor Jennifer Clements, ext. 265 email: jclements@babcox.com

Publisher Jim Merle, ext. 280 email: jmerle@babcox.com

Technical Editor Larry Carley

Ad Services Director Cindy Ott, ext. 209 email: cott@babcox.com

Contributing Writers Gary Goms, Scott “Gonzo” Weaver, Bob Dowie and Randy Rundle

Circulation Manager Pat Robinson, ext. 276 email: probinson@babcox.com


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DEPARTMENTS

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Columns

6 Gonzo Toolbox

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12 Aftermarket Update 42 Tech Talk: Oil Issues

HOME OFFICE 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, Ohio 44333-8318 330-670-1234 FAX 330-670-0874 www.babcox.com PRESIDENT Bill Babcox bbabcox@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 217

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80 Test Drive

Editorial advisory Board Brent Crago, owner Top Tech Automotive Cleveland, Tennessee

Marvin Greenlee, owner Meade & Greenlee Inc. Salem, Oregon

Marc Duebber, owner Duebber’s Auto Service Cincinnati, Ohio

Anthony Hurst, owner Auto Diagnostics Ephrata, Pennsylvania

Audra Fordin, owner Great Bear Auto Repair Flushing, NY www.womenautoknow.com

Roger Kwapich, owner Smitty’s Automotive Toledo, Ohio

Sean Donohue sdonohue@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 206

Rick O’Brien, technician Coachworks Portland, Maine Tom Palermo, general manager Preferred Automotive Specialists Jenkintown, Pennsylvania

Paul Stock, owner Stock’s Underhood Specialists Belleville, Illinois Michael Warner, owner Suburban Wrench Pennington, New Jersey

Van Pedigo, owner Richfield Automotive Center Richfield, Ohio

Glenn Warner gwarner@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 212 John Zick jzick@babcox.com 949-756-8835 List Sales Manager Don Hemming dhemming@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Classified Sales Tom Staab tstaab@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 224

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UNDERHOOD SERVICE (ISSN 1079-6177) (July 2013, Volume XVIII, Number 7): Published monthly by Babcox, 3550 Embassy Parkway, Akron, OH 44333 U.S.A. Phone (330) 670-1234, FAX (330) 670-0874. Periodical postage paid at Akron, OH 44333 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Please send address changes to UNDERHOOD SERVICE, 3550 Embassy Parkway Akron, OH 44333. UNDERHOOD SERVICE is a trademark of Babcox Media, Inc. registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. All rights reserved. A limited number of complimentary subscriptions are available to individuals who meet the qualification requirements. Call (330) 670-1234, Ext. 288, to speak to a subscription services representative or FAX us at (330) 670-5335. Paid Subscriptions are available for non-qualified subscribers at the following rates: U.S.: $69 for one year. Canada: $89 for one year. Canadian rates include GST. Ohio residents add current county sales tax. Other foreign rates/via air mail: $129 for one year. Payable in advance in U.S. funds. Mail payment to UNDERHOOD SERVICE, P.O. Box 75692, Cleveland, OH 44101-4755. VISA, MasterCard or American Express accepted.

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» Gonzo’s Toolbox By Scott “Gonzo” Weaver

Who’s the Boss? Deal with the Person in Charge

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here’s a boss in every family, and sometimes you might think it’s you, but your spouse may have a different opinion. For example, there have been countless times I’ve had a car in the shop where a wife or husband has dropped the car off and the repair is done, paid for and sent on its way, only to have the other spouse call and give me an earful because they weren’t told what had transpired. (As if that’s my fault!) Whether it’s because of the cost, the time it took the work that was done or the fact they weren’t informed, somehow I’ll be the person blamed for all of their misfortunes. On one particular occasion, I had a car in for restoration. These “project” cars arrive in all kinds of conditions. Some are a complete car and the owner has a clear idea what they want done, while others literally come in baskets. This particular job could definitely be categorized as a “basket case.” The car had been taken down to the last nut and bolt nearly five years earlier, and by the time it made it to my shop, nothing but the steering wheel was in place. There were no doors, glass, deck lid, hood, interior, dash, seats or an engine to be found.

“I need an estimate on what it would take to rewire this car,” the owner tells me. All I had to go on was the year, the make and the condition to evaluate the potential cost. The car was an older VW Super Beetle. “I see you’ve got an aftermarket harness in this box, but it’s not complete. Do you have any of the other harness sections for it?” I asked. “They don’t make a harness for it, this is all they offer,” my new customer told me. “Well, I think there are some better choices than this aftermarket harness you’ve brought. This is a harness for a dune buggy, not for a streetcar. A lot of things are omitted on them that you’ll need for a streetdriven car, such as turn signals, horn, etc.” I gave him a price based on reusing the original harnesses that were bundled up in another box. When I pulled them out of the box, I was in for a shock. They were all cut into several small pieces rather than in the usual sections. I quoted for installing a factory harness, not building one! In the meantime, we went up to the front desk to fill out some paperwork, and I went online and did some of my own searching for a replacement harness. It didn’t take but a few clicks before I had a “useable” harness that

“Did you bring him any of the lights, dash gauges or any of the other electrical stuff so he can see if they work? NO? Well, you’re just an idiot!”

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» Gonzo’s Toolbox would work with only a little adaptation to the Super Beetle fuse box and ignition. “Once I see this kit, I can give you a better idea of final cost,” I told him.

said to go with this. So I did, and I’ve already started on it.” That’s when the husband jumped back into the mix with his 2 cents, remarking how his five-year-long attempt at doing

“Here’s my personal cell number and my name. From now on, please call me directly. This has taken far too long to get done, and I want my car back together.” A week later, he was back with the aftermarket harness. The harness wasn’t a perfect match as I mentioned earlier, but it was useable with a few modifications. No biggie, it would just involve a lot more time compared with putting a good factory original harness back in. I gave him an updated estimate for the work, which, in turn, prompted him to give me the go-ahead to get started. Over the next few days, I had already started putting in the front harness and part of the interior wiring. And, then, he showed up with his wife and I knew something was up. “I think I’m going to take the car. Your price is too high,” he told me. At that point, the wife jumped into the conversation. “My husband told me you raised the price on him once we got you the harness you wanted,” she told me. “Yes, the original estimate was to put a ‘factory’ harness in. Now I’m putting in an aftermarket harness that I have to make do with. Rather than trying to find a perfect fit, your husband 8 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

it was only a minor setback in the restoration. Then, his wife leaned over the counter to me, “Here’s my personal cell number and my name. From now on, please call me directly. This has taken far too long to get done, and I want my car back together.” She snapped at her arrogant husband, “Did you bring him any of the lights, dash gauges or any of the other electrical stuff so he can see if they work? NO? Well, you’re just an idiot!” (I could tell me and the “Mrs.” were going to get along just fine.) Completely ignoring her husband, she pulled out a pad and pen and starting jotting down notes on what components I needed, and told me she would have them over to the shop that afternoon and out of her house for good. After all was said and done, they ended up with a pretty cool restored Bug out of the deal, and I got one happy customer. When dealing with repairs as complicated as this one, it pays to deal with the boss. And, in this case, it wasn’t the hubby. ■


» Directions Di r ect i ons

By Edward BYSunkin Edwar| EDITOR d

SAE CLEARS THE AIR On Honeywell’s Refrigerant — 11 Automakers Agree

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oneywell has reported that SAE International has deemed its new lowglobal-warming-potential mobile air conditioning refrigerant — HFO-1234yf — safe for use in motor vehicles. SAE made the recommendation following an expanded and extensive evaluation. According to Honeywell, SAE established a new Cooperative Research Project (CRP) to review the safety of the refrigerant following concerns voiced last year by Daimler and Volkswagen executives regarding the flammability of the product. On Sept. 25, the German automotive manufacturer Daimler issued a press release suggesting that new testing conducted by the company had shown R-1234yf to pose a greater risk of vehicle fire than was estimated by the CRP1234 analysis. To address the Daimler claims, the new CRP (CRP1234-4) was organized in October and all of the OEMs were invited to attend. The SAE International CRP stated that all 11 global automakers that participated in the project “have indicated agreement with these conclusions” (of the product’s safety,) and called testing conducted by Daimler late last

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year that raised questions about the refrigerant’s flammability “unrealistic.” “After extensive testing and analysis, the new CRP concluded that the refrigerant release testing completed by Daimler was unrealistic,” the SAE CRP said in its final summary. “Their testing created extreme conditions that favored ignition while ignoring many mitigating factors that would be present in an actual real-world collision.”

OEs in agreement with the CRP1234-4 evaluation: Chrysler/Fiat Ford General Motors Honda Hyundai Jaguar Land Rover Mazda PSA Renault and Toyota. “The conclusions from SAE’s latest expanded evaluation, combined with years of extensive testing in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere, again leaves no doubt that HFO-1234yf is safe for automotive applications,” said Ken Gayer, vice president and general

manager for Honeywell Fluorine Products. “The fact that all 11 global automakers participating in the project agreed with the SAE CRP’s conclusions is further proof that this product can be used safely.” HFO-1234yf was previously the subject of comprehensive testing conducted by an SAE CRP from 2007 to 2009. That CRP, which was sponsored by 15 global automakers — including all leading German automakers, major suppliers and 18 international, independent research institutes — concluded that HFO-1234yf is safe for use in automobile applications. SAE said its latest CRP’s evaluation was expanded “with input from Daimler ... to realistically address” Daimler’s concerns. SAE said the CRP also reviewed and analyzed extensive new data from automakers and used “conservative assumptions” to ensure its analysis “would be more likely to overestimate rather than underestimate the actual risks” of the refrigerant igniting. Even with those assumptions, the CRP found “risks are still very small compared to the risks of a vehicle fire from all causes and well below risks that are commonly viewed as acceptable by the general public.” ■


» Aftermarket Update

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BendPak-Ranger Introduces New Spanish Language Website In an effort to better serve its growing international customer base, BendPakRanger recently launched a Spanish language version of its English website. BendPak’s Spanish website, www.bendpak.com.mx, is a direct adaptation of their English version and is the culmination of more than eight months of dedicated effort. To translate the site into Spanish and keep it updated, rather than outsourcing, BendPak hired a dedicated in-house Spanish language marketing staff to oversee content creation and adaptation. “Whether a prospective customer is building a new shop or updating their current workplace with new

equipment, we know that the Internet is often the first resource he or she will turn to for guidance,” said Jeff Kritzer, senior vice president of sales and marketing. “Our goal with the new Spanish website is to provide efficient, native language guidance and easy-to-find information for the most common needs of our Spanish-speaking site visitors.” The expanding Hispanic market in the United States and further expanding Latin markets are important business segments for BendPak-Ranger. The new Spanish website includes everything from catalogs and videos, to installation and maintenance manuals, allowing Hispanic customers to find the information they need quicker and easier.

Advance Auto Parts Professional Partners with AVI to Offer Commercial Garages Flexible Online Training Solutions Advance Auto Parts announced a new partnership with AVI to provide shops with an expanded offering of online automotive training courses. Advance Shop eLearning powered by AVI features online video content covering topics from basic automotive concepts to advanced technical diagnostic training. All content is available to shops 24/7 through the purchase of training bundles that can be tailored to meet a shop’s specific needs. “AVI has long been recognized as a great solutions provider for training to the automotive aftermarket,” said Walter Scott, vice president of eCommerce and eServices for Advance Auto Parts. “The partnership through Advance Shop eLearning allows us to deliver the wide range of industry-leading online

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content that our shops need to stay on top of current technologies and better serve their customers.” Online training bundles available from Advance Shop eLearning powered by AVI include basic automotive systems for new service technicians, management courses geared toward shop owners, ASE test preparation, advanced diagnostics, working with hybrid or diesel vehicles, and much more. Shops can select content most relevant to their businesses on an individual basis. Additionally, a Learning Management System allows shop owners and managers to view and track their staff’s progress through the eLearning courses, and includes access to pre- and posttraining tests. “Training is a universal need in the aftermarket,” said Paul Louwers,

CEO at AVI. “We’re excited to partner with Advance to provide ondemand training solutions that help serve commercial garages on a shop-to-shop basis.” In addition to Advance Shop eLearning powered by AVI, Advance offers commercial customers MotoLogic, a web-based repair and diagnostic tool; and DriverSide, an online marketing suite that helps shops attract new customers, optimize their online reputation, and increase customer service frequency and retention. To learn more about Advance Shop eLearning powered by AVI or other eServices available from Advance Auto Parts Professional, visit eservices.advancecommercial.com or call 855-222-1632.


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» Aftermarket Update ASE Launches Maintenance and Light Repair Certification The National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) has launched a new certification test aimed at those technicians primarily involved with vehicle maintenance and light repair services. The Auto Maintenance and Light Repair (G1) test is now available as part of the ASE certification program. The new test was developed in response to requests from the industry for a certification category aimed at technicians performing scheduled maintenance and common bumper-to-bumper repairs. Registration for the new Auto Maintenance and Light Repair certification test is now available, with testing in July and August. “Since about 70% of all work being performed in repair shops across the nation is maintenancebased, this new test category will focus on the knowledge necessary to successfully perform the most common maintenance and light repair tasks,” said Tim Zilke, ASE president and CEO. “If you are a technician performing maintenance and light repair services, the new ASE Maintenance and Light Repair (G1) certification is for you.” Developed by industry experts and the certification professionals at ASE, Auto Maintenance & Light Repair is somewhat different from other ASE certifications. The new test will have a oneyear requirement of hands-on work experience in maintenance and light repair to qualify, and half of that requirement may be met by appropriate vocational 14 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

training. It will also have a unique, smaller shoulder patch. However, like all other ASE certifications, the credential will be valid for five years and will be available through the more than 400 ASE testing locations across the country. Upon passing the G1 test, a technician will receive a shoulder insignia, display certificate and wallet card. The new G1 certification provides an assessment of an individual’s technical knowledge of bumper-to-bumper maintenance and light repairs in the critical areas of engine systems, automatic transmission/transaxle, manual drivetrain and axles, suspension and steering, brakes, electrical, and heating and air conditioning. There are 55 scored questions on the test, plus 10 unscored research questions, and those taking it will have 90 minutes to complete it. The questions, written by service industry experts familiar with all aspects of maintenance and light repair, are entirely job-related. Like any other ASE certification, G1 tests the things you need to know to do the job. Theoretical knowledge is not covered. You can download a free copy of the Maintenance and Light Repair (G1) Study Guide on the ASE website at www.ase.com. The Study Guide contains the test specifications and the task list to provide you with a map of the topics that will be covered on the test. To register for the test and schedule an appointment, go to www.ase.com/register.

Mevotech Inc. Recognized with 2013 Polk Inventory Efficiency Award Mevotech Inc. was honored recently with the 2013 Polk Inventory Efficiency Award at the Global Automotive Aftermarket Symposium (GAAS) in Chicago. “On behalf of Mevotech, we are pleased to receive this prestigious award from Polk, and it is a validation to the hard work of our employees,” said Ezer Mevorach, president of Mevotech. “We’re humbled to join previously honored industry leaders and serve as a role model for others striving to better their inventory efficiency practices.” The Polk Inventory Efficiency Award is given to aftermarket companies for process improvements in supply chain and inventory efficiency. A significant factor for Mevotech in improving efficiency has been its Excellence in Inventory Strategy (EXIST) program to address the issues of limited warehouse space and maintaining accurate inventory. The program manages the product lifecycle from engineering through supply chain and ultimately to the customer. Mevotech’s EXIST program has provided a substantial business and parts business impact. The inventory strategy decreased order turn times by nearly 60%, increased fill rates by seven percentage points and improved product time-to-market. EXIST also reduced warehouse inventory by 20% and increased inventory accuracy by 10 percentage points. For more information about Mevotech Inc. or the EXIST program, visit www.mevotech.com. ■


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» Emissions Update

EGR DIAGNOSTICS

Diagnosing EGR By Carl Fedele, contributor

E

mission controls on cars and trucks have one purpose: to reduce the amount of pollutants and environmentally damaging substances released by vehicles. In this column we will take a look at exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), one of the four major basic system control components used on all systems today. In subsequent issues, we will highlight the other three main internal combustion engine emission system control components — positive crankcase ventilation (PCV), air injection reactors (AIR) and the catalytic converter.

Exhaust gas recirculation is the dilution of the air/fuel mixture to control amounts of exhaust gas. Since exhaust gas does not burn, this lowers the combustion temperatures and reduces NOx emissions from the engine. At lower combustion temperatures, very little of the nitrogen in the air combines with oxygen to form NOx. Most of the nitrogen is simply carried out with the exhaust gases. For consistent driveability, it is desirable for the amount of exhaust gas flow to be proportional to the throttle opening. Driveability is also improved by stopping EGR when the engine is started up cold, at idle and at full throttle.

Early EGR The first EGR valve appeared in 1973 on General Motors cars. Bolted to the intake manifold next to the carburetor, it had ports to

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the intake and exhaust manifolds. It had a diaphragm that pulled open a valve stem, which allowed exhaust to enter the intake manifold when ported vacuum was applied to it. Ported vacuum increases with throttle opening. A thermal vacuum switch prevented vacuum from reaching the EGR during cold engine starts. This system, however, had problems. It would often open too soon or too much, which caused a hesitation with acceleration as massive amounts of recalculated exhaust hit the combustion chamber. Many people simply disconnected it when it began to cause a problem. By 1975, if you unplugged an EGR valve, you’d end up having an engine ping driveability Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com




» Emissions Update complaint. Manufacturers of that era experimented with vacuum orifice restrictors and vacuum delay valves to try to find a happy medium between clean air and performance. By 1981, closed loop computer controls were in place. EGR flow was now more carefully controlled with dual diaphragm and backpressure EGR valves. The flow of vacuum was further controlled by solenoids that blocked the vacuum ported until certain criteria were met, such as engine temperature, rpm and manifold absolute pressure (MAP). As the vehicle manufacturers began to use these complex schemes with vacuum amplifiers, delay valves and solenoids, they added a lot of “spaghetti” to the engine compartments. Plastic vacuum connections would break or rot with age and were not reliable. Vacuum diagrams were invented and became essential to the smog driveability technicians of the day. As these systems evolved, they had fewer parts and less vacuum tubing. This was achieved by the use of pulsewidth modulated EGR solenoids. The PCM controlled EGR flow through the use of these solenoids to modulate vacuum to the EGR valve instead of just turning it on or off periodically. Once the PCM receives its inputs, such as rpm, throttle angle, coolant temperature and MAP, it then calculates a response based on the software program that is embedded into it. Next, it makes its decision and sends a command in the form of a pulse-width modulated signal to turn the EGR solenoid on and off rapidly. The EGR solenoid has two vacuum nipples. One side gets either manifold or ported engine vacuum. The other nipple goes to the EGR valve. Its default position is to block vacuum to the EGR valve. A vent is incorporated to bleed off vacuum when the solenoid is being pulsed. Vacuum flows to the EGR in rapid on-off pulses as the solenoid is commanded by the PCM. With each succeeding year, EGR designs in OBD I systems became more refined. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) liked GM and Chrysler’s

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onboard diagnostic systems. In 1988, CARB required that all cars sold in California be equipped with an onboard diagnostic system and a check engine light to notify the driver of emission system failures. By this time, all manufacturers had to have an EGR system that was capable of alerting the driver if it wasn’t working. OBD I diagnostics and trouble codes were added in to flag opens, shorts and sticking solenoids. OBD II requires that EGR systems be monitored for abnormally low or high flow rate malfunctions. The EGR is considered to be malfunctioning when an EGR component fails or a fault in the flow rate results in the vehicle exceeding the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) by 1.5 times. FTP is the government-mandated drive cycle smog test that all new cars must pass and adhere to. Depending on the system it is used in, the design of the EGR valve may change. Often these design changes incorporate some of the system controls. Types of designs included positive backpressure, negative backpressure, ported and pulse-width modulation. The positive backpressure EGR valve has a bleed port and valve positioned in the center of the UnderhoodService.com 17


Âť Emissions Update diaphragm. A light spring holds this bleed valve open, and an exhaust passage is connected from the lower end of the tapered valve through the stem to the bleed valve. When the engine is running, exhaust pressure is applied to the bleed valve. At low engine speeds, exhaust pressure is not high enough to close the bleed valve. If control vacuum is supplied to the diaphragm chamber, the vacuum is bled off through the bleed port and the valve remains closed. As engine and vehicle speed increase, the exhaust pressure also increases. At a preset throttle opening, the exhaust pressure closes the EGR valve bleed port. When control vacuum is supplied to the diaphragm, the diaphragm and valve are lifted upward, and the valve is open. If vacuum from an external source is supplied to a positive backpressure EGR valve with the engine not running, the valve will not open because the vacuum is bled off through the bleed port. In a negative backpressure EGR valve, a normally closed bleed port is positioned in the center of the diaphragm. An exhaust passage is connected from the lower end of the tapered valve through the stem to the bleed valve. When the engine is running at lower speeds, there is a high-pressure pulse in the exhaust system.

However, between these highpressure pulses there are lowpressure pulses. As the engine speed increases, more cylinder firings occur in a given time and the high-pressure pulses become closer together in the exhaust system. At lower engine and vehicle speeds, the negative pulses in the exhaust system hold the bleed valve open. When vacuum from an external source is supplied to a negative backpressure EGR valve with the engine not running, the bleed port is closed and the vacuum should open the valve.

Over time, electrical EGR units have been introduced into late-model vehicles. The most common of the three electrical EGR valves is the digital EGR units found mostly on GM vehicles. A digital EGR valve contains up to three electric solenoids that are operated directly by the PCM. Each solenoid contains a movable plunger with a tapered tip that seats in an orifice. When any solenoid is energized, the plunger is lifted and exhaust gas is allowed to recirculate through the orifice into the intake manifold. The solenoids and orifices are different sizes. The PCM can operate one, two or three solenoids to supply the amount of exhaust recirculation required to provide control of NOx emissions. When testing a digital UnderhoodService.com 19


» Emissions Update

EGR valve, you can use a scan tool to activate the valve. The rpm should drop for each activation period. An EGR valve that’s plugged or not working will show no change. According to Standard Motor Products, a manufacturer of emissions components, the EGR passages on the engines that have digital EGR valves are very prone to clogging. EGR codes may be set that appear to indicate an electrical problem with the valve when in fact the real problem is clogged EGR passages in the intake manifold. Another style is the linear EGR valve, which is basically a pulse-width modulated solenoid valve where the valve is spring-loaded closed. General Motors was the first to use these linear EGR valves. The computer varies the pulsewidth command to the valve to control the amount of opening. A position sensor is integrated into the valve. The sensor generates a signal, very similar to a throttle position sensor, to indicate to the computer exactly Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

20 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

EGR DIAGNOSTICS

how open or closed the EGR valve is. This feedback signal allows the computer to more accurately control the amount of EGR flow. You also will encounter a stepper motor EGR valve, which is designed to work very similarly to GM idle air control motors that have been around for a long time. Here, the valve has two separate sets of coil windings. The PCM sends alternate, coordinated pulses to each winding to “step” the motor open or closed in small increments. Unlike all other vacuum and electrical design EGR valves, stepper-type EGR valves remain in the last commanded position even when disconnected electrically. They do not “spring” closed when disconnected. According to Standard Motor Products, the following tip is important — If the valve is disconnected electrically while open, then it will remain open and could lead to a technician incorrectly condemning the valve as defective.


Âť Emissions Update When diagnosis of a negative backpressure EGR valve is needed, you must bring the engine up to normal operating temperatures. With the ignition off, disconnect the vacuum hose from the EGR valve and connect a hand-held vacuum pump to the fitting on the valve. Supply 18 inches of vacuum to the EGR valve and vacuum should hold steady for 25 seconds. If the valve does not open or cannot hold the vacuum, it must be replaced. If the valve holds steady, start the engine and the vacuum should drop to zero and the valve should close. When diagnosis of a positive backpressure EGR valve is needed, the same basic test is used like the negative type but with opposite results. When the engine is idling, apply vacuum to the EGR valve and you should not be able to build up a vacuum in the valve and the EGR valve should not open. Turn off engine and disconnect the vacuum supply hose from the throttle body. Connect a long

vacuum hose from the EGR vacuum port on the throttle body directly to the EGR valve vacuum port. Use a tee fitting to connect a vacuum gauge in the vacuum hose to the EGR valve, start the engine and bring it up to 2,000 rpm. Watch the vacuum gauge, vacuum should be present and the EGR valve should open. On digital EGR valves, the resistance of the valve can be checked. By connecting an ohmmeter across the terminals on the valve, the windings can be checked for opens, shorts and high-resistance readings. If readings are not within specs, replacement of the EGR valve will be needed. Also, make sure that the EGR passages are not restricted or plugged. You will have to remove the valve to make this visual check. You can also use an exhaust gas analyzer to check an EGR system. Looking at the NOx readings at 2,000 rpm, the readings should be below 1,000 ppm. â– 

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» DiagnosticDilemmas

BUILDING A PLAN

Building a Plan for Diagnosing

Electronic Problems By Gary Goms, contributing writer

E

very once in a while, I hear the topic of a diagnostic check sheet come up on the International Automotive Technician’s Network (iATN) or other industry media. Most often, the question is asked by a shop owner or service writer who is trying to simplify his life by devising a “canned” step-by-step approach to solving various electronic diagnostic problems. Although a canned procedure is a good place to start, it’s not a sure-fire way to solving electronic problems because, 1) we’re generally seeing fewer occurrences of pattern failures in modern vehicles, 2) we’re now dealing with networked systems that share information via bus communications links, and 3) most important, nobody can predict the number of twists and turns that a specific diagnostic procedure can take. With that said, I’ve always taken a methodical approach to solving electronic diagnostic problems by using a procedure rather than a diagnostic checklist. This procedure includes thoroughly interviewing the customer, learning how the system in question works, checking the basics and building a diagnostic strategy. The details of any procedure will obviously vary according to application, but this basic framework should provide a positive approach to solving difficult electronic diagnostic problems.

warmup drive of about six miles followed by a 10-minute heat-soak with the ignition switch off. The problem could be solved by turning the key off to “reset” the computer and waiting 10 minutes. After a reset, the transmission might perform perfectly for weeks, which is why no other shops in the area wanted to touch the problem.

Case In Point This month’s Diagnostic Dilemma perfectly illustrates how a well-developed procedure solved a recent case study involving an intermittent transmission failure complaint on a 1994 Plymouth Voyager equipped with the 3.3L engine. According the owner, the automatic transmission would default to second gear after an initial

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Unlike most vehicles of its vintage, this ‘94 Plymouth Voyager is very well maintained.


» DiagnosticDilemmas As I advised the owner, the difficulty of duplicating the problem not only made the actual diagnosis more challenging, but also made it nearly impossible to verify the completed repair. And it was with this disclaimer that I agreed to pursue the problem. Fortunately, time wasn’t a problem and the owner was willing to spend what it took to repair the vehicle because, although the Voyager had 250,000 miles on the odometer, it was very well maintained and served well as general utility vehicle. According to its service records, the transmission had been replaced at 168,000 miles. After the second-gear default first appeared, our local transmission shop retrieved a diagnostic trouble code (DTC) 42, which indicated an electrical failure in the 2-4 shift valve circuit. With that bit of information, they “chased” the failure into the winter months, replacing the 2-4 shift solenoid, overdrive solenoid and transmission wiring connector. After the transmission shop exhausted its resources trying to solve what, at best, could be described as a random failure, the owner was referred to me.

Interviewing the Customer In journalism school, a student is always taught to find the “who, what, when, where and why” of a story. If I were to write a diagnostic check sheet, “who, what, when and where” is how I would begin. What makes this case study interesting was that the lady who owned the van had taken auto mechanics in high school and therefore had a basic understanding of mechanical procedures. So,

during our initial phone conversation, I asked her to assemble all of her service records. During our first interview, she not only presented the service records and owner’s manual, but also produced an OE repair manual for the Voyager. I also had her take me for a test drive with my scan tool attached. I confirmed that the transmission control module (TCM) was communicating correctly, that the DTC 42 was still present, and that the mechanical part of the transmission worked perfectly. She also told me that the failure never occurred in cold weather, but occurred more frequently in warm weather. So much for the “who, what, when and where” of the problem. The “why” part was now up to me.

Since relays are a wearing part, replacement was justified at 250,000 miles.

Gathering a Systems Knowledge The hardest part of being a diagnostic technician is understanding how a system works (systems knowledge). As in any tough diagnostic case, most of us can spend hours studying wiring diagrams and diagnostic charts before we understand how an especially difficult intermittent failure complaint might occur. The fact also is that any shop should include research time in their basic diagnostic charge, since it is a necessary function of the diagnostic process. In this application, the transmission is controlled by a separate TCM. Like many later systems, the TCM shares information, such as vehicle speed and throttle position, with the engine control module (ECM). The TCM receives key-on voltage from the ignition UnderhoodService.com 25


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switch via a 10-amp fuse #16 located in the instrument panel (I/P) fuse box. The #16 fuse also powers the ECM and several other electronic devices. The TCM receives battery voltage for its keep-alive memory from the ignition off discharge (IDO) 15-amp fuse located in the underhood power distribution center (PDC). The IDO fuse is identified by a bright yellow fuse holder that allows the vehicle owner to temporarily disconnect the fuse to prevent battery drain via the ECM and TCM during long periods of storage. The #12 fuse located in the underhood PDC provides B+ to the TCM relay. Because that fuse wasn’t included in any available wiring diagrams, I had to “reverse engineer” that function by testing all of the TCM circuits with the fuse alternately installed and removed. As a routine part of any diagnostic procedure, I log into my hotline database to check for any pattern failures and technical service bulletins addressing the initial complaint. In this case, the database indicated that the TCM relay caused the majority of DTC 42 problems. The last items I checked were the enabling criteria for DTC 42 covered in the OE shop manual, which turns out to be a “voltage spike” that occurs when the 2-4 shift solenoid engages. If the TCM didn’t “see” the voltage spike, it would store the DTC 42. So much for gathering systems knowledge, at least for the moment.

Checking the Basics Checking the basics means that I test the battery, starter and alternator to ensure that the heart of the 28 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

BUILDING A PLAN

electrical system is working correctly. To illustrate, a weak battery can erase the adaptive memories on many older Chrysler products including the adaptive memories associated with fuel control and occasionally the adaptive memories that Chrysler uses to compensate for clutch and band wear in their transmissions. More than once I’ve solved a coldstart driveability or cold-start transmission shift quality complaint by simply replacing the battery. The next step in any diagnostic check list is to go through the power and ground systems. In this case, one of the B- cables is grounded to the engine and the other to the body. The body ground was corroded, so I cleaned it just to eliminate the possibility of a temperature-sensitive grounding problem. Because this vintage of Plymouth didn’t use weather-pack connectors on its underhood wiring connections, I removed the TCM connector, cleaned the hardened anti-corrosion grease from the terminals, checked the drag on the connector pins, and re-greased and re-installed the connector. Although cleaning and inspecting connectors sounds like extra work, it had paid off just a few weeks before when solving an intermittent transmission shifting complaint on a ‘94 Dodge Diesel. At this point, I had assembled vital information by interviewing the customer, gathering a systems knowledge and checking the basics.

Building a Diagnostic Strategy The next step in my diagnostic procedure is to

Because back-probing generally won’t damage non-weather pack connectors, I pin-tested this connector to gather necessary diagnostic data.


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BUILDING A PLAN

build an effective diagnostic strategy that will reveal why the DTC 42 was so dependent upon ambient temperature. Going back to systems knowledge, the enable criteria indicated that the TCM would confirm the 2-4 shift by looking for a voltage spike in the 2-4 shift solenoid circuit. The question, of course, is how to determine when the TCM is grounding the 2-4 solenoid circuit.

Because the thumb-wheel scrolling feature is handy when test-driving, I used an old MT 2500 scan tool to display the few data lines available on this ‘94 Voyager.

Obviously, since the TCM is pulling the circuit to ground through a resistance provided by the 2-4 shift solenoid, the voltage would be reduced on TCM pin #59 when the 2-4 shift solenoid was activated. To measure that voltage drop, I attached a small alligator clip to one end of a 6’ length of 18-gauge insulated wire and a small loop terminal to the other end. When connected to the 2-4 solenoid terminal at the TCM, this wire allowed me to monitor the 2-4 circuit through a DVOM connected to the receiving end of the wire during a test drive. In addition, I connected my old Snap-on MT 2500 scan tool to indicate the gear and torque converter clutch engagements. In this case, I preferred the MT 2500 because it has a thumb-wheel scroll, which is easier to use during a test drive. With that done, I waited until ambient air temperature reached about 70° F. and then drove the vehicle eight miles to thoroughly warm up the transmission oil and to monitor transmission performance. The voltage on pin #11 would drop from about 13.8 charging volts to about 10.5 volts when the 2-4 shift solenoid was Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com


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» DiagnosticDilemmas activated, which indicated that the 2-4 circuit was a pulse-modulated circuit. The DVOM’s min/max feature indicated that the voltage would momentarily drop to about 7.0V, which appeared to indicate a potential circuit problem. The transmission worked perfectly and, after returning to the shop, I parked the Voyager as described by the customer for about 10 minutes. After waiting 10 minutes, the TCM immediately shifted to a default position during the second road test, which meant that the transmission remained in intermediate gear. Returning to the shop, I kept the engine running and immediately tested the TCM’s surface temperature, which was 84° F, which in my opinion, shouldn’t have caused a heat-related problem. On the other hand, the KOER voltage from terminal #16 in the I/P fuse box to the TCM terminal #11 was only 8.4 volts. Obviously, when the TCM senses a failure in its electrical system, it immediately defaults to second gear by discontinuing power to the transmission solenoids. Going back to the wiring schematic, fuse #16 in the I/P fuse box is powered directly from the ignition switch. With the engine still running, I jiggled the fuse just enough to restore B+ voltage to TCM pin #11. Through nearly 20 years and 250,000 miles of use, the pins on fuse #16 had obviously developed enough electrical resistance to affect TCM functions. Had I visually inspected fuse #16, I would have dismissed terminal corrosion as a problem. But, by carefully following a thorough diagnostic procedure, I had found a “smoking gun” that evidently was causing the intermittent shift control problem. As a precaution, I replaced all of the fuses supplying the TCM with voltage. In addition, I replaced the ASD and the TCM relays, both of which are wearing parts. The most important aspect of the fuse issue is that a very mysterious problem can be caused by a relatively simple failure. Forty miles of driving under various conditions led me to believe that the problem was solved, which it wasn’t.

Three Weeks Later Of course, the phone rings and I’m graciously informed by the owner that the problem had not only reappeared, but had manifested itself by suddenly down-shifting to second gear at highway speeds. Here again, the difficulty with this diagnosis 32 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

BUILDING A PLAN

was duplicating the problem. Thanks to the problem being temperature sensitive, I had originally suspected a problem with the TCM. But, in the real world, finding a TCM for this vintage of vehicle can be difficult and expensive. So it wasn’t an option that I wanted to pursue until the evidence confirmed the need for replacement. At this point, I resurrected an old industrial lab scope I’ve had for many years that uses two horizontal buttons to adjust time base and two vertical buttons to adjust amplitude, which makes it easier to adjust during a test drive. Thanks again to old technology, the waveform confirmed that the 2-4 solenoid is indeed a pulsemodulated circuit. Although I could never get the transmission to fail, I did see some irregularities in the waveform indicating that the TCM’s 2-4 solenoid driver might be causing a very random failure of the 2-4 shift solenoid circuit.

Because of its simplicity of operation, using an old labscope for test-driving can be good. In this case, the glitches in the pulse-modulated waveform indicated a problem in the TCM 2-4 solenoid driver.

Fortunately, I have a very persistent parts lady who actually found four of these modules on the back shelf of an East Coast ignition parts warehouse. Due to an intervening holiday, it took about a week for the remanufactured TCM to arrive. After re-inspecting the TCM and transmission wiring harness for defects, I replaced the transmission control module. As of this writing, the ‘94 Voyager has been on the road for over two months and the phone hasn’t rung yet. The “moral” of this story is that, while a diagnostic check sheet might be a good place to start, it can’t predict the ultimate destination of any diagnostic journey. ■


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COOLANT CONCERNS

Cooling System Tips for the 6.0L/7.3L Powerstroke By Bob McDonald, diesel specialist

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ne of the most overlooked preventive maintenance items in a diesel engine is the coolant system. Maintaining the coolant system is just as important as an oil change — in fact, the coolant condition in a diesel engine may even be more important than in a gasoline engine. I often wonder why so many owners aren’t more concerned with the condition of the coolant in their engines. I don’t know if it’s the price of the coolant that tends to scare them away or what. Most mid-size truck diesel engines take approximately six gallons of coolant to fill the system. That would be three gallons of concentrate mixed with three gallons of distilled water.

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The condition of the engine coolant in a diesel engine should be inspected every six months.


» ServiceSolution

COOLANT CONCERNS

In actuality, the biggest reason for neglect is probably that owners simply don’t understand how important it is to periodically check the coolant’s condition. The condition of the coolant means everything to engine longevity. Today’s antifreezecoolant isn’t just for freeze protection in the winter months, but the correct formulations contain chemical properties that help protect diesel engines from common cavitation issues. Diesel engines often suffer from cavitation caused by the extreme pressures encountered in the combustion cycle of the engine. The diesel combustion cycle creates distortion. On the intake stroke, air is introduced into the cylinder. The intake valve Tiny air bubbles can attack a cylinder liner with a force as closes and the piston starts traveling up the much as 60,000 psi. bore, compressing the air that was just ingested. Right before the piston reaches TDC (top or SCAs. dead center), diesel fuel is injected into the cylinder. The SCA will not stop the formation of bubbles, but Then a massive explosion happens and starts forcing will provide a protective barrier between the liner the piston down in the bore. This massive explosion and the cavitation-causing bubbles. SCAs generally causes what is called a “jarring effect,” which can’t form a barrier with the use of nitrite, the level of be seen by the human eye, but does actually happen. which needs to be monitored in the cooling system This “jarring effect” is found mostly in wet liner on a regular basis. As the cavitation bubbles ping engines, those diesel engines that have replaceable against the liner, they remove the layer of nitrite cylinder liners. When the explosion occurs, the liner rather than the liner itself. The layer of nitrite is then distorts and rocks inside the block, actually moves replenished by the SCA. So it is a regenerative cycle, away from the engine block, ingesting a small but can be depleted quickly. amount of air into the cooling system. This small In order to combat cavitation problems, some vehiamount of air makes tiny bubbles that form around cle manufacturers install coolant system filters, the cylinder’s liner and these tiny bubbles can then which not only filter the coolant, but also have nitrite attack the cylinder liner with a force sometimes as in the filter media. By servicing the coolant filter at much as 60,000 psi. certain intervals, the nitrite in the system should This amount of pressure from the bubbles actually always be constant. When running a coolant filter, pings the liner and starts shearing away the liner the use of an SCA is not necessary. This would only microscopically. After a period of time, this shearing increase the concentration of nitrite, causing other will cause small pin holes to appear in the liner, problems. which eventually make their way through to the The ideal amount of nitrite in a diesel cooling syscylinder bore. tem (big diesel engines like over-the-road trucks When this happens, coolant will start to enter the and heavy equipment as well as mid-size truck cylinder bore and eventually the oil pan. The cusdiesel engines) is around 800 ppm (parts per miltomer will complain of losing coolant while the oil lion). If levels drop below this the protection of the level is rising. While it may sound hard to believe, cylinder liners is compromised. However, if using a this problem has been around for years. Luckily, little is good, it doesn’t necessarily mean that a lot is there is a solution — supplemental coolant additives better. If the concentration of nitrite is greater than 36 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com


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COOLANT CONCERNS

800 ppm, other things are compromised. Sometimes greater concentrations of nitrite can cause the O-rings that seal the liners to deteriorate. Most truck repair facilities monitor the nitrite level to ensure reliability of the coolant system and the effects it may have for future repairs. Test strips that tell the condition of coolant along with the level of nitrite are available at most auto parts stores or truck repair facilities. Technological advances in the automotive industry have extended to antifreeze as well. I’m sure you’ve heard of extended-life coolants. These types of coolant are made up of different compounds other than glycol, along with different protection additives from those found in regular green antifreeze. That is why most extended-life coolants are dyed colors such as red, gold and pink. The chemical properties that make up these coolants help combat the cavitation bubbles in a different way — the compounds take the place of nitrite and offer the same protection, so with an extended-life coolant, there’s no need for a test strip test on the coolant’s condition. The nitrite protection should remain until the coolant needs to be changed. Powerstroke engines, along with other mid-size diesel pickup trucks, have what is known as dry liners. These liners are a part of the cylinder block like A conventional on a gasoline engine. But, hydrometer coolant that doesn’t mean that tester is used to measproblems are not present. ure the specific gravity Cavitation can occur anyof the antifreeze. where in a diesel engine due to the violent explosion of combustion. It’s a good idea to perform periodic checks to the nitrite level along with the condition of the antifreeze. The best thing to do is service according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. For diesel trucks using green antifreeze, the recommendation of coolant service is usually around two years or 30,000 miles. For diesel engines running extended-life coolant, service is around five years or 38 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

100,000 miles. To be on the safe side, periodically check the antifreeze every six months. One crucial often-overlooked component of the coolant system is the radiator cap. The radiator cap on the Powerstroke engine is rated at 16 psi. This is for both the 7.3L and 6.0L versions. When performing a periodic inspection, make sure the radiator cap is up to par. Have the cap tested to make sure that the coolant system is maintaining the correct pressure. The cap is what maintains the coolant system’s pressure to prevent boil over. There are several ways to test the antifreeze in a diesel vehicle. One is with a conventional hydrometer coolant tester that can be purchased at your local parts store. This is basically a plastic tube with colored discs inside along with a squeeze bulb on top and a siphon hose at the bottom. The coolant can be drawn into the test tube created by suction from the bulb. The object is to see how many discs will float once the coolant is drawn into the tube. This is a measurement of specific gravity of the antifreeze. The degree of freeze protection is determined by how many discs float in the concentration of

The refractometer measures the way light bends as it travels through the engine coolant.


» ServiceSolution antifreeze. A low-tech device, the only variable in testing antifreeze this way is that the hydrometer can be temperature sensitive. A difference of up to 10° F can be seen if the antifreeze being tested is hot or cold. So test the vehicle’s antifreeze as close to the same temperature every time. Another device for testing the antifreeze is more complex. The refractometer actually measures the way light bends as it travels through an object, which in this case is antifreeze. This device is often preferred because it is known to be more accurate — but it can change with temperature just like the hydrometer, so readings could be different depending on the temperature of the antifreeze. One complaint about the hydrometer is that if the coolant being tested has some oil content in it, this can coat the discs inside, causing an incorrect reading. Once the oil has coated the discs, the hydrometer may read other cooling systems wrong. With the refractometer, the glass is wiped clean with each sample and will be more accurate. Keep in mind though, that the refractometer is a bit more expensive. A good hydrometer will cost around $20 — a refractometer can cost

as much as $200. Remind your customer that the cost to maintain their cooling system is cheap compared to the price for you to work on their engine. They may not pay attention to mileage, but money can be a different story. ■

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OIL CONSUMPTION

Breaking Down Why Engine Oil Breaks Down By Roy Berndt, engine specialist

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irst off, all oil breaks down. That generally will include base stocks and additives. Without focusing on performance characteristics, the most significant difference from one oil to another is how quickly breakdown occurs. Although there are many factors that contribute to the breakdown of an oil, heat is one of the most important. Depletion and decreased effectiveness of oil additives are also important, but that will be discussed later. Petroleum oil begins to break down almost immediately. A high-quality synthetic, on the other hand, can last for many thousands of miles without any significant reduction in performance or protection characteristics. Synthetics designed from the right combination of base stocks and additives can last almost indefinitely with the right filtration system. Flash point is the temperature at which an oil gives off vapors that can be ignited with a flame held over the oil. The lower the flash point, the greater tendency for the oil to suffer vaporization loss at high temperatures and to burn off on hot cylinder walls and pistons. The flash point can be an indicator of the quality of the base stock used. The higher the flash point

the better — 400° F is the absolute minimum to prevent possible high consumption. Even the best petroleum oils will have flash points only as high as 390° and 440° F. Some actually have flash points as low as 350° F. For today’s hot-running engines, this is not nearly enough protection. Just about any synthetic you come across will have a flash point above 440°. Premium synthetics can have flash points over 450° F with some even reaching as high as 500° F. That’s a big difference.

Getting Burned It’s important to understand how petroleum and synthetic oils burn off. As a refined product, petroleum oil molecules are of varying sizes. So, as a petroleum oil heats up, the smaller, lighter molecules begin to burn off first. Since the ash content in many petroleum oils is higher than synthetics, deposits and sludge are left behind to coat the inside of the engine. Detergent and dispersant additives are used to keep these deposits to a minimum, but only so much can be done. Unless you’re changing a petroleum oil every 2,000 to 3,000 miles, some deposits are going to be left behind.

VISCOSITY RETENTION — Shear stable viscosity index improvers help premium synthetic motor oils maintain their viscosity in the range appropriate to each grade over extended drain use. Conventional oils formulated with easily sheared viscosity index improvers often drop out of viscosity specification relatively quickly — sometimes even before the end of a 3,000-mile oil drain interval. Viscosity loss leaves oils incapable of protecting engines from metal-to-metal contact and wear in high temperatures.

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OIL CONSUMPTION

In addition, as smaller particles burn off, the larger, heavier molecules are all that is left to protect the engine. Unfortunately, these larger particles don’t flow nearly as well and tend to blanket engine components, which just makes the heat problem worse. Synthetic oils, on the other hand, because they are not purified, but rather designed within a lab for lubrication purposes, are comprised of molecules of uniform size and shape. Therefore, even if a synthetic oil does burn a little, the remaining oil has nearly the same chemical characteristics that it had before the burn off. There are no smaller molecules to burn off and no heavier molecules to leave behind. Moreover, many synthetics have very low ash content and little if any impurity. As a result, if oil burn off does occur, there is little or no ash left behind to leave sludge and deposits on engine surfaces. Obviously, this leads to a cleaner burning, more fuel-efficient engine. Synthetics do a much better job of “cooling” engine components during operation. Because of their unique flow characteristics, engine components are likely to run 10-30° cooler than with petroleum oils. This is important, because the hotter the components in your engine get, the more quickly they break down. Most techs understand that at cold temperatures, an oil tends to thicken up, and many techs know that synthetics do a better job of staying fluid. However, many don’t realize Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

Internal Contributors to Excessive Oil Consumption • Worn Valve Stems and Guides: When wear has taken place on valve stems and valve guides, the vacuum in the intake manifold will draw oil and oil vapor between the intake valve stems and guides, into the intake manifold and then into the cylinder where it will be burned. If this condition is not corrected when new piston rings are installed, an engine is likely to use more oil than it did before because the new piston rings will increase the vacuum in the intake manifold. When gum or deposits on the valve stems are removed, the seal previously formed will be removed and leakage will be more pronounced. This is particularly true on overhead valve engines where loss of oil may occur on the exhaust valves as well as on the intake valves. Reaming the valve stem can frequently cure high oil consumption caused by too much valve guide clearance. In some cases new valves may also be required. • Worn Front or Rear Main Bearing Seals: Worn front or rear main bearing seals almost always result in oil leakage. This can only be determined when the engine is operated under load conditions. Bearing seals should be renewed when worn because a slight leak will result in extremely high oil consumption just as it would with an external oil leak. • Worn or Damaged Main Bearings: Worn or damaged main bearings throw off an excessive amount of oil, which


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OIL CONSUMPTION

why petroleum oils tend to thicken up. More importantly, though, they don’t realize that this thickening process can wreak havoc on their oil. Because most petroleum oils contain paraffins (wax), they tend to thicken up considerably in cold temperatures. Therefore, in order to produce a petroleum oil that will perform adequately in severe cold temperatures, additives called pour point depressants must be used in high quantities. These additives are designed to keep the wax components of a petroleum oil from crystallizing. This maintains decent flow characteristics in cold weather for easier cold starts.

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flows along the crankshaft and is thrown up into the cylinders. The amount of oil throw off increases rapidly when bearing wear increases. For instance, if the bearing is designed to have 0.0015” clearance for proper lubrication and cooling, the throw off of oil will be normal as long as this clearance is maintained and the bearing is not damaged in any way. However, when the bearing clearance increases to 0.003”, the throw off will be five times normal. If the clearance is increased to 0.006”, the throw off will be 25 times normal. When the main bearings throw off too much oil, the cylinders are usually flooded with more oil than can be controlled by the pistons and rings. This causes burning of the oil in the combustion chamber and carboning of pistons and rings. In a conventional, full-pressure lubricated engine, a large loss of oil at the main bearings may starve the downstream connecting rod bearings of lubrication to such an extent that sometimes, especially at low speeds, insufficient oil may be thrown on the cylinder walls. This will cause the pistons and rings to wear to such an extent that they will not be able to control the oil at high speeds. The effect of main bearing wear will be high oil consumption. • Worn or Damaged Connecting Rod Bearings: Clearances on connecting rod bearings affect the throw off of oil in the same proportions as mentioned for main bearings. In addition to this, the oil is thrown more directly into the cylinders. Worn or damaged connecting rod bearings flood the cylinders with such a large volume of oil that the pistons and rings, which are designed to control a normal amount of oil or a reasonable increase in the normal amount, are overloaded to such an extent that some oil escapes past them to the combustion chamber and causes high oil consumption. Note: Insufficient bearing clearance can also produce piston, ring and cylinder damage as well as damage to the bearing itself. • Worn or Broken Piston Rings: When piston rings are broken or are worn to such an extent that the correct tension and clearances are not maintained, they will allow oil to be drawn into the combustion chamber on the intake stroke and hot gases of combustion to be blown down the cylinder past the piston on the power stroke. Both of these actions will result in burning and carboning of the oil on the cylinders, pistons and rings. Broken rings are especially damaging because their loose pieces with jagged ends are likely to cut into the sides of the piston grooves. This causes land breakage, which results in the complete destruction of the piston assembly. Instead of reinstalling worn rings during engine overhaul, it is always advisable to replace them. New rings have quick-seating surfaces that enable the rings to control oil instantly, unlike rings that have been used in the past. Used rings, even those that have been only slightly worn will still have polished surfaces that will not seat-in properly and will lead to excessive oil consumption. Source: AMSOIL


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OIL CONSUMPTION

In areas where the temperature remains below zero for any period of time, these additives are used up very quickly because petroleum oils are so prone to wax crystallization. As a result, the oil begins to flow less easily in cold weather temperatures. Of course, the result is harder cold starts and tremendously increased engine wear. Thus, the oil must be changed in order to provide the cold weather engine protection that is necessary. Synthetic oils, on the other hand, contain no paraffins. Therefore, they need no pour point depressant additives. In addition, even without these additives, synthetics flow at far lower temperatures than petroleum oils. For instance, very few petroleum oils have pour points below -30° F. Many synthetic oils, without any pour point depressants, have pour points below -50° F. That’s a big difference. There is, in fact, one oil on the market that has a pour point of -76° F. Since synthetics do not have any pour point

depressants, there is no chance of these additives breaking down or being used up over time. There are no additives to break down. Therefore, synthetic oils maintain their cold temperature flow characteristics for a very long time. As a result, there is one less reason to change the oil if using synthetic as opposed to petroleum.

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OIL CONSUMPTION

Another part of cold weather driving that is extremely tough on an oil is condensation. Because it is so cold, it takes a fairly long drive to get the engine warm enough to burn off the condensation that occurs inside the engine. Consequently, vehicles routinely driven short distances in cold weather will build up condensation within the oil. If left to do its dirty work, this water would cause acids to build up within the oil and corrosion would begin within your engine. So, there are additives in the oil that are designed to combat these acids. Generally, the Total Base Number (TBN) value of an oil will be a good determination of how well and for how long an oil will be able to combat these acids. Most petroleum oils have TBNs around 5. Most synthetics have TBN levels over 8 or 9. Premium synthetic oils (especially those designed specifically for extended oil

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drains) will have TBNs around 11 to 14. This allows for much better acid control for a much longer period of time, thus decreasing the need for an oil change due to cold temperature condensation. It is true that the additives in many oils begin breaking down after only a few thousand miles. What needs to be recognized is that there are different quality “grades” of additives just as there are different quality grades of just about any other product that you buy. There are also different combinations of additives that tend to work for better and for longer when combined than when used individually.

Controlling Contamination Oil will be contaminated in three major ways. One will be through debris that comes in through the air intake. Once it makes it through the air filter, it ends up in an engine’s oil. Once in the


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OIL CONSUMPTION

oil, it starts damaging the engine. The second source of contamination will be metal shavings from the inside the engine. The lesser the quality of the oil, the higher percentage of these shavings because there will be more metal-to-metal contact inside the engine. The third source of contamination will be from combustion byproducts. Combustion byproducts will generally raise the acidity of the oil, which causes corrosion in an engine. In addition, they will be left behind as the engine oil burns off and will collect on the inside of your engine as deposits. To maintain the viability of the oil as well, as protection of the engine, the contaminants have to be removed/neutralized. And that, my friends, would be an article on filtration, and covered in a future issue. â– 

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» TalkingShop

GREAT BEAR AUTO REPAIR

Auto Repair’s Mama Bear Puts Her Own Flourish on Long-time Family Business By Cheryl McMullen, contributing writer

A

udra Fordin, the fourth-generation owner of Great Bear Auto Repair and Auto Body Shop, in Flushing, NY, is known as “Mrs. Fix It.”

“Some were born with a silver spoon, I was born with a lug wrench in my mouth,” said Fordin, who also serves as an Underhood Service advisory board member. Founded in 1933, the shop has been in the family, and, in the same location, for 80 years. Like many owners in the business, Fordin learned about car repair as a child spending her weekends and vacation days taking it all in at the shop, then run by her father, Bill Fordin. “When I was small, I was fortunate to work with both my dad and my grandpa. I learned from the best, first hand,” she said. In fact, under Fordin’s care since 2007, the key is still service. And service is much the same now as it was back then. “We are a small, community-based, mom and pop — correction — daughter and pop auto repair shop,” she said. “What I like best is it’s the same as it was 80 years ago when my great-grandfather and grandfather started our family business, Great Bear. It’s the people and the service aspect that fuels me on a daily basis. “People are people, and they are the same today as they were when I was a kid. There is a huge misconception that auto repair is a sales business. That is way wrong. It is about service.” Repairs are the nature of the beast, she said, and the shop gets more customers by taking care of people and their auto service needs. But the changes she’s made, also, are clear. “Since I took over, I have revolutionized the business by bringing it up to date, and listening to my neighbors’ wants and needs,” she said. In fact, in 2008, as the auto industry took a hit, many shops were going out of business. Great Bear felt the impact and Fordin came up with a solution to stay afloat in trying times. That’s when Women Auto Know was born. www.womenautoknow.com It’s a free membership website based on “The

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» TalkingShop Pledge” that takes the fear out of auto repair. “Through education, community feedback and peer-topeer support, Women Auto Know provides women everywhere with the confidence they need to save money and increase their automobile’s performance,” said Fordin. “Now, auto shops across the country are taking ‘The Pledge’ to transparency,” she added, “letting our members know they take the responsibility of car repair seriously. Our members become their customers.” Still, Fordin says, the biggest challenge facing the shop is educating consumers. Misleading advertising and a general lack of accessible information can reflect negatively on the entire repair industry. “I have seen and can understand why people have untrusting instincts when they seek service,” Fordin said. “They feel slighted, scammed, not sure what they bought or if they even got what they bought if they needed it. What’s up with that? There’s no good reason for it. At least not one that I can understand.” It was this mistrust of the industry that lead Fordin to change her motto and her philosophy of doing business to “tell, not sell.” For the past three years, Fordin has taken the motto everywhere from the shop, to the Girl Scouts, to the air waves with free monthly workshops also called “What Women Auto Know,” teaching hundreds of women how to change a tire and fix a tail light (above). This leadership has brought new customers, helping Great Bear stay the course during the tough economy. 58 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

GREAT BEAR AUTO REPAIR

“By tuning into the consumers’ wants and needs, by actually listening to what concerns they have, I have revived my family business and nearly tripled sales.”

She also offers car repair tips on Verizon Fios TV Channel 1 and on the Auto Lab, a call-in radio show streaming throughout the web on “the Auto Channel” and broadcast in the tri-state area. Fordin’s philosophy has brought Great Bear some welldeserved recognition both in and out of the industry. In July 2011, Fordin was awarded the 2011 New York City Neighborhood Achievement Award for Small Business of the Year. The award, presented by New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg (below), honors businesses that demon-

strate excellence in enhancing NYC neighborhoods by fostering economic opportunity. That same year, the Women’s Board of the Car Care Council also recognized Fordin as the first recipient of the Female Auto Shop Owner of the Year award. In addition to the awards, Fordin’s been featured on “The Today Show,” “Anderson Cooper” and other popular shows. “All of the recognition I have gotten over the past few years has confirmed that there is a tremendous need for change in the auto repair industry,” she said. “I don’t get an excited feeling. It’s more like a feeling of strength in my stride to keep pushing this movement forward.” What keeps Fordin coming back to the shop each day? “I just love it,” she said. “Demystifying the car is beautiful thing. Watching the light bulb ‘turn on’ for drivers, empowering them to have confidence in their cars is very gratifying for me.” Fordin says there’s nothing she’d rather do. “It’s about quality of life, right? Well, this is the road I am happiest traveling on.” One more challenge facing the industry today is finding qualified technicians, Fordin says. If there was one thing she’d want to say to a young tech starting out, it’s that there’s a lot of money in the auto repair industry. “The evolution and revolution of the auto industry has gone from mechanical to technical and today’s techs are IT people,” she said, adding techs today need to read scanners and decipher codes to troubleshoot electrical wiring and sensors.


» TalkingShop

GREAT BEAR AUTO REPAIR

“We are like doctors. There is no more old stereotype that it’s a job for a high school dropout with dirty hands and that it’s a man’s job.” In fact, continuing education is a must at Great Bear. The shop has 11 bays and five techs. “We’ve grown and transformed by keeping up with the new technologies of today’s car by bi-annual certification updates and mandatory, ongoing training.” Shop employees keep up with the latest in the industry on the tech

side. “Computers, scanners, lasers, hi-tech equipment and software updates have kept us up to date with new cars that come in for service,” Fordin said. With new cars and technology in mind, Great Bear carries parts for fixes and repairs for hybrids and electric cars, and is in the process of getting a charging station on site. Great Bear is the first certified hybrid service station in Queens. As for the fate of the family-owned business, Fordin and her husband for 15 years, Ed, have three children — Samantha, 12, Olivia, 10, and Andrew, 6, (above) who may one day choose to carry the torch. “Children of a family-owned business are born into it. So, if my legacy is one they want to follow, that will be great,” Fordin said. “They certainly hear me ‘talking car,’ understand the lingo and come to work with me all the time, just like I did when I was a kid. “As a parent,” she said, “I only want my children to be happy.” ■

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» MemoryLane

ETHYL GAS

Looney Gas Fuels a Panic By Randy Rundle, contributing writer

ith all of the current controversy about alcohol being added to gasoline, I thought it would be fun to take you back to the 1930s where an almost exact situation was taking place, and there were some big players involved. Please read on… After revolutionizing the auto industry with his electric self-starter, Charles Kettering (below) turned to another problem that he himself had a personal stake in. Cadillac engineers were complaining that Kettering’s newly introduced self-starter and battery ignition system were making spark plugs misfire, causing engine knock in the cylinders.

W

However, Kettering suspected it was a problem with the gasoline. New engines were being designed that would compress the fuel/air charge, resulting in a higher compression ratio. The result was more power from the fuel. However, the greater the compression, the greater the engine knock, Kettering determined. The higher compression was causing the fuel to ignite before the spark. So…it was

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pre-ignition that was causing the knock. The more efficient high-compression engines were necessary not only to make cars run faster, but also because the “experts” had determined in 1915, that the world’s oil supply would be depleted by 1940. Many popular cars of the day, such as the Ford Model T (below), had low compression engines that used an adjustable carburetor and a mechanical spark advance that made it possible to switch from gasoline to alcohol to kerosene as needed. Despite Henry Ford’s later support for alcohol fuel in the 1920s and 1930s, the only fuel the Ford Motor Company actually offered for sale was “Fordsol,” which was a mixture of benzene (from Ford factory coking operations) and regular gasoline.

Some early auto manufacturers, such as the Olds Gas Power Company, offered a simple mixer attachment for alcohol and claimed in their advertising that “under actual operating conditions... the fuel consumption per horsepower is about the same, pound for pound, whether using alcohol or gasoline.” Kettering, who had become General Motor’s vice president of research and the president of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), noted two directions in fuel research in a 1919 speech to the society.


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» MemoryLane

ETHYL GAS

There was, he said, a “strong move in the direction of blended fuels, with blends of up to 20% or more of benzene or alcohol added to gasoline; the other was a ‘low percentage’ additive, such as iodine, which was too expensive to be practical but points to the possibility of other additives…” Kettering and his research assistant Thomas A. Midgley immediately began intense research into fuel additives using DELCO light plant generators, and World War I airplane engines as test subjects. In a report on the war research committee, Midgley wrote: “Engineers have heretofore believed knocking to be the unavoidable result of too high a compression, and while the fact that (ethyl) alcohol did not knock at extremely high compressions was well known, it was (erroneously) attributed to its extremely high ignition point.” Around 1920, Kettering came to believe that alcohol fuel from renewable resources would be the answer to the compression problem and the possibility of an oil shortage. “Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) never knocked, it could be produced by distilling

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waste vegetable material, and it was almost pollution-free.” (Remember, this is 1920.) At Kettering’s urging, General Motors began to consider just what would be involved in a total switch from petroleum to alcohol fuel. One GM researcher determined that some 46% of all foodstuffs would have to be converted to alcohol to replace gasoline on a BTU-for-BTU basis. That was a cause for concern. Despite advantages of cleanliness and high antiknock rating, there were supply problems. In 1921, about 100 million gallons of industrial alcohol supply was available. In reality, enough corn, sugar cane and other crops were available to produce almost twice the 8.3 billion-gallon per year demand for gasoline. Thus, the supply of an alcohol-based additive would not have been the problem that GM engineers apparently assumed that it would have been. To promote the idea of alcohol-blended fuels among automotive and chemical engineers, Midgley drove a high compression ratio (for those days) automobile from Dayton, OH, to Indianapolis, IN, for an October 1921 SAE meeting using a 30% alcohol blend. This occurred just two months before tetraethyl lead was discovered. “Alcohol has tremendous advantages and minor disadvantages,” Midgley told fellow SAE members in a discussion. Advantages included “clean burning and freedom from any carbon deposit... (and) tremendously high compression under which alcohol will operate without knocking... Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com




» MemoryLane Because of the possible high compression, the available horsepower is much greater with alcohol than with gasoline...” Minor disadvantages included low volatility, difficulty starting, and difficulty in blending with gasoline “unless a binder is used.” In a formal part of the presentation, Midgley mentioned the cellulose project. “From our cellulose waste products on the farm such as straw, cornstalks, corn cobs and all similar sorts of material we throw away, we can get, by present-known methods, enough alcohol to run our automotive equipment in the United States,” he said. The catch was that it would cost $2 per gallon. (Gasoline was selling for about 28 cents a gallon at the time.) Meanwhile, leaded gasoline was perfected on Dec. 9, 1921, at the GM research labs in Dayton. During the time, Kettering and Midgley researched anti-knock fuels (1916 to 1925), and especially after tetraethyl lead was discovered in December 1921, there were two “ethyls” on the horizon for GM: The first ethyl “premium” gasoline went on sale in Dayton in the spring of 1923. GM formed the General Motors Chemical Co. with Kettering serving as chairman and Midgley as president. GM then approached Standard Oil of New Jersey and the two companies formed the Ethyl Gasoline Corp. Since DuPont was a one-third owner of GM at the time, the three major corporations all had a hand in the development and marketing of leaded gasoline. Interestingly, Kettering and Midgley came up with another fuel called “Synthol” in the summer of 1925, at a time when the fate of leaded gasoline was in doubt. Synthol was made from alcohol, benzene and a metallic additive — either tetraethyl lead or iron carbonyl. Used in combination with a new high compression engine much smaller than ordinary engines, Synthol would “revolutionize transportation.

“Looney Gas” However, an explosion at a Standard Oil Research Lab in October 1924 left 35 men seriously ill from breathing tetraethyl lead fumes. Eight men went to the hospital, where five of them died, one in a straightjacket. He had gone madly insane.

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Newspapers across the country headlined the effects of “Looney Gas” and a nationwide panic ensued. The state of New Jersey immediately banned the sales and manufacturing of the new ethyl gasoline. Sales across the country collapsed. To make matters worse, rumors began to circulate about motorists who had literally gone insane while motoring. The series of events began to have an effect on the national economy. Besides the technology advances, the gasoline market was extremely lucrative. GM and Standard hesitated, hoping to ride out the storm of controversy. Meanwhile six more men died from injuries related to the explosion. GM quickly ordered production stopped and all sales of the product halted immediately. Scientists at the DuPont Company were well aware of the danger in manufacturing the new ethyl gasoline, but also had determined it was safe for the customer in its diluted form as used in gasoline (which was 1/10th of 1% by volume). A federal committee was appointed to investigate came to the same conclusion. DuPont was willing to accept the risks and there was no danger to the general public. Within a year, an intensive advertising campaign was launched and ethyl gasoline was back on the market. When ethyl leaded gasoline was permitted to return to the market, Kettering and Midgley dropped the Synthol idea. By the mid-1930s, the alliance between General Motors, DuPont Corp. and Standard Oil to produce ethyl leaded gasoline succeeded beyond all expectations: 90% of all gasoline sold in the U.S. at that time contained lead. Public health crusaders who found this troubling spoke out in political forums, but competitors were not allowed to criticize leaded gasoline in the commercial marketplace. Ethyl lead additive became the additive of choice for automotive gasoline and who remain as the additive of choice for the next 50+ years. Finally, the lead would be removed in gasoline beginning in the 1970s, although not because of the lead itself. It would be because of the exhaust emissions and air pollution standards. Sometimes the new ideas are not all that new… ■ UnderhoodService.com 65


» TechTips

Chrysler / Ford / Mercury / Subaru This month is sponsored by:

Chrysler’s Engine Experiences No Crank/No Start Condition Due to Electronic Lockup of WCM / SKREEM This bulletin involves the replacement of the Wireless Control Module (WCM), and if equipped, the replacement of the Electric Steering Column Lock (ELV). The WCM is also referred to as the Sentry Key Remote Entry Module (SKREEM).

Models: 2006-’08 Chrysler PT Cruiser (PT) 2007-’08 Ram Truck (1500/2500/3500/ 4500/5500) (DR/DH/D1/DC/DM) Wrangler (JK) Sebring (China) (J1) Avenger/Sebring (JS) Nitro (KA) Compass/Patriot (MK) Caliber (PM) 2008 Liberty/Cherokee (KK) Note: This bulletin applies to vehicles built on or before May 5, 2008 (MDH 0505XX).

Symptom/Condition: The customer will experience a no engine crank and a no engine start condition. Also, the remote keyless entry (RKE) system will not operate. This condition may be due to an electrostatic discharge (ESD) from the ignition key into the WCM, causing the WCM to electronically lockup. This condition may occur more frequently in dry and/or cold weather conditions where a sufficient electrostatic charge is more easily produced. This condition is corrected by the replacement of the WCM.

Diagnosis: 1. With the condition present (i.e. the vehicle in the no-crank/no-start condition), connect the scan tool to the vehicle. 2. Turn the ignition switch to the On position, and power up the scan tool. 3. If the WCM is electronically locked up, the scan tool will display the WCM as being “off bus.”

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1. Slide the ring of the SKREEM/WCM (2) over the lock cylinder housing (3) and engage the retainer fingers in the recesses formed on the lock cylinder housing. 2. Install the screw (1) fastening the SKREEM/WCM (2) to the lock cylinder housing (3). Tighten the screw to 3.5 N·m (31 in.-lbs.).

4. If the no-crank/no-start condition is present, and the WCM is “off bus,” then reset the WCM by temporarily removing the IOD fuse (with the key out of the ignition switch), wait for 10 seconds and then reinstall the IOD fuse. 5. With the IOD fuse reset having been performed, verify that the vehicle will now crank, start and run. 6. If the condition is temporarily corrected by performing the above steps, and if the part number of the WCM is earlier than the part number of the WCM listed in the part reference table in the Parts Required Section on page 68, then perform the Repair Procedure.


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» TechTips

Chrysler

Part Number

Keyless Entry Module

05026070AP 05026071AQ 05026072AQ 05026073AR 05026074AQ 050260800AD 05026157AP 05026162AP 05026164AO 05026165AP 05026216AM 05026218AM 05026219AG 05026220AN 05026221AN 05026222AM 05026223AN 05026224AN 05026225AM 05026226AM 05026228AM

JK JK/KA/KK/K1 KA/KK/K1 JK/KA/KK JK/KA/KK KJ/KA/KK JS/J1 JS JS/J1 JS/J1 MK/PM MK/PM/PT/P3/P5 DH DC/DM DR/D1/DC/DM MK/PM/PT DC/DM DR/DH/D1/DC MK/PM/PT MK/PM/P3 MK/PM/PT

Note: Always refer to the parts manual to determine the correct part number. Make certain that the correct WCM is ordered the first time for the specific vehicle in question.

Repair Procedure: Note: If the vehicle (a JS model vehicle in certain International markets) is equipped with an ELV, then the WCM and the ELV (P/N 05026132AC) must be replaced. Replace the WCM and then the ELV. Next program the WCM and at least one ignition key before programming the ELV. Important: Not following this repair process correctly will cause the new ELV to fail. Note: Insert the ignition key into the ignition lock cylinder. This will move the shaft lock module locking bolt to the unlocked position. Leave the key in the lock cylinder while the shaft lock module is being removed. 1. If vehicle is equipped with a Steering Shaft Lock Module (JS – Avenger I Stratus, some International Markets), then the Shaft Lock Module will require replacement.

68 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

Note: The shaft lock module cannot be removed from the steering column while the locking bolt is in the locked position without irreversibly damaging the column. Before attempting service, the ignition key must have been inserted into the ignition lock cylinder. Then, rotate the steering wheel from side to side. If the steering wheel can be rotated, the locking bolt is in the unlocked position. Leave the key in the ignition lock cylinder until shaft lock module removal has been completed. If the steering wheel cannot be rotated, test and repair the wiring circuits between the module and the ignition switch as required. If no problem is found in these circuits, the module has failed with the locking bolt in the locked position and both the module and the steering column must be replaced with new units. 2. Replace the WCM/SKREEM. Note: Obtain the vehicle PIN prior to programming WCM/SKREEM or ELV. Note: If during the following steps the PIN is properly entered but is rejected, then re-enter the PIN again until it is accepted. 3. After both the WCM/SKREEM and the ELV (if equipped) have been replaced, program the WCM/SKREEM as follows: a. Turn the ignition key to the On position, (engine off). b. Connect the scan tool to the data link connector and turn the ignition to the Run position, (engine off). c. Select “ECU View.” d. Scroll down and select “WCM” in the list of modules. e. Select “Misc. Functions.” f. Scroll to “WCM Replaced.” g. Press “Start.” h. Press “Next.” i. Select “Show Keyboard.” j. Enter the vehicle PIN. k. Select “Next.” l. Verify PIN is correct. m. Select “Next.” n. Follow on-screen prompts to complete WCM function programing for Tire Pressure Monitoring (TPM) and so on.


» Spotlight

PHILIPS

GOOD LIGHTING MAKES ALL THE DIFFERENCE.

If you’re looking for a powerful worklamp that’s as durable as it is portable, look no further than the Philips Rechargeable LED Worklamp. This advanced LED technology is built to hold up against the most demanding rigors of dailyuse and all the dust, chemicals, water, solvents, and shop fluids that comes with the job. Despite its small size, the Worklamp can pack a real punch. It features 15 powerful LEDs that deliver 1,200 lux at up to 4.5 feet. Because it uses an LED light source, it always remains cool to the touch, regardless of how long it stays lit, and does not break when bumped or dropped. The Philips Rechargeable LED Worklamp delivers a powerful, bright white light designed to fit your daily needs. It uses a minimal power consumption of 1.5W, and is powered by a high-performance battery that can last up to six hours on a single charge. The rechargeable docking station can put the lamp back in service in less than 3.5 hours. The worklamp measures a compact 9.1" x 2.3" x 2.2”, which makes it ideal for use in tight engine compartments and undercar applications. It also includes an integral UV light for A/C leak detection. The Philips Rechargeable LED Worklamp comes with a retractable hook and a flexible magnetic clip-on bracket, making for easy mounting on hoods, fenders, and undercar frames. Light your way to profitability with the reliable, long-lasting Philips Rechargeable LED Worklamp. For more information, visit www.philips.com/automotive or call 1-800-257-6054

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ADVERTORIAL

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» TechTips

Chrysler / Ford / Mercury

o. Turn the ignition key to the Off position. Wait 30 seconds. p. Turn the ignition key to the On position, (engine off). q. Select “ECU View.” r. Scroll down and select “WCM” in the list of modules. s. Select “Misc. Functions.” t. Select “Program Ign. Keys” and follow onscreen prompts. u. Select “Complete.” v. Verify ignition key will start the vehicle and the RKE functions operate. Caution: If the vehicle is equipped with a Shaft Lock Module, then at least one ignition key must have been programmed to the new WCM before the new Shaft Lock Module is “married” to the

new WCM. 4. Is the vehicle equipped with ELV? a. Yes >> Proceed to step 5. b. No >> Repair is complete. 5. Program the ELV as follows: a. Select “ECU View.” b. Scroll down and select “WCM” in the list of modules. c. Select “Misc. Functions.” d. Scroll to “ELV Replaced.” e. Press “Start.” f. When complete, verify the steering shaft lock mechanism is operating. Remove and insert the key from the ignition lock cylinder and listen for solenoid “click” at the lower end of the column. Courtesy of ALLDATA.

White Smoke Blowing From Tailpipe? A classic sign of a head gasket problem is when the vehicle is blowing white smoke from the tailpipe. This indicates that water/coolant is entering the combustion chamber and is then burnt off as steam through the exhaust. The white “smoke” is water vapor as the steam condenses when it hits the colder atmosphere. With older vehicles, the owner’s budget or the value of the vehicle means a full head gasket repair is simply not a viable option, yet in many cases the owner needs to keep the vehicle on the road. In this case, a dedicated head gasket sealant could be the economical solution. Ceramic formulas offer the best chances of making a successful repair, but look for a formula that is antifreezefriendly as these are easier to apply and can remain in the cooling system after treatment has been completed. This solution is brought to you by K-Seal. Visit www.kseal.com.

Ford/Mercury’s Engine Stalling on Engagement/Stopping Some 2005-’08 Ford Escape and Mercury Mariner vehicles equipped with a CD4E automatic transaxle and built from Aug. 1, 2004 through Feb. 15, 2007, may exhibit an engine stall when coming to a stop or when engaging the transmission into drive or 70 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

reverse. This condition may be intermittent and often occurs after extended drives. There may be no diagnostic trouble codes stored. This may be caused by internal wear in the torque converter, which prevents it from unlocking.


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» TechTips

Ford / Mercury / Subaru

Service Procedure: 1. Inspect and repair all non-transaxle codes. 2. Monitor the PIDs (parameter identification) for TC_SLIPACT as the stall is occurring. a. If the slip is greater than 20 rpm, the stalling is not transaxle related. Repair following PC/ED procedures for engine stalling condition. b. If TC_SLIPACT is less than 20 rpm with the transmission in park or neutral, torque converter internal failure is the most likely cause, proceed to

step 3. 3. Remove the transaxle assembly and check the rotation of the torque converter in the bell housing. A failed converter will be difficult to rotate. 4. Remove the torque converter, drain the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) and refill the CD4E transmission assembly using MERCON V ATF. 5. Install a new torque converter and reinstall the transaxle assembly. 6. Back-flush the transmission cooler system. Courtesy of ALLDATA.

Subaru’s A/T Temp Light Flashing, But No DTCs Stored, Erratic Shifting Complaint If you encounter a late-model D4AT-equipped vehicle with an erratic shifting complaint, and possibly a DTC P0712 in memory, there may be a poor connection in the transmission wiring harness. There have been cases of open circuits or high resistance isolated to the white plastic passthrough section of the transmission harness or the harness itself. It’s important to note that the P0712 may not be set when the condition occurs. One way to check for trouble in the transmission harness is to road-test the car with the SSMIII connected and data for the transmission fluid temperature (TFT) sensor selected. It’s best to check this after a cold start. Normally, the temperature should read at or close to the ambient temperature when the vehicle is started cold. While road-testing, if you see the TFT readings are way out of line or fluctuating up and down as the vehicle comes up to temperature, it’s likely that the transmission harness would be a good place to start your troubleshooting.

Service Procedure: 1. Disconnect the transmission harness connector at the bulkhead connector. “Wiggle test” the harness and the harness pass-through while monitoring the resistance of the TFT circuit with a DVOM. Pin locations and connector numbers will be different, depending on the model. Always refer to the applicable Subaru service manual’s wiring diagram for circuit identification. If the resistance changes while wiggling the harness, 72 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

further investigation of the circuit should be done. 2. SSMIII — You can also perform the wiggle test while monitoring the transmission fluid temperature with the SSMIII. Look for any fluctuations in the transmission fluid temp while wiggling the harness at the pass-through. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove the transmission pan and split-half each leg of the TFT sensor circuit individually. It should also be noted that depending on the condition of the circuit, a check engine light may or may not be triggered. In another case, the customer stated, the “transmission has a harsh shift and is slipping.” In this instance, the excessive resistance in the transmission harness caused an incorrect TFT input to the TCU. This resulted in the TCU never “seeing” a fluid temperature above 68°, therefore, the operational characteristics were never adjusted accordingly once the fluid reached normal operating temperature. This incorrect input resulted in the customer’s concern, but did not set a check engine light. By recording transmission data with the SSMIII while duplicating the concern, it was easy to identify a fault with the TFT circuit. Further investigation revealed the harness problem. The above are not the only causes of DTC P0712. It’s important to use proper diagnostic methods to fully check the entire circuit from the TCU to the TFT sensor. Courtesy of Mitchell 1. ■


» Spotlight

ACDelco

XX SEE WHY ACDELCO SHOULD BE YOUR ONLY STOP FOR BRAKES When your customers need a quality brake job, the only stop you need to make is ACDelco. The ACDelco family of brake products is all about choice. ACDelco recognizes that while your customers have different needs, priorities and budgets, especially given today’s economics and older vehicle fleet, they still want a safe, quality product. ACDelco provides you and your customers with three tiers of products that all proudly wear the ACDelco brand name, which means even your budget-minded customers get a break from no-name pads and rotors. ACDelco Original Equipment Service (OE Service) premium friction products and brake rotors are uniquely formulated and designed to follow original equipment service specifications for durability and performance on Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, Cadillac and other brands in the General Motors family. ACDelco Professional DuraStop is premium line of aftermarket friction products and rotors covering most makes and models – about 95 percent of the North American car and light truck population. ACDelco Professional DuraStop brake products are a high-quality alternative to original equipment products, and are D3EA tested and certified to 90 percent of sales. ACDelco Advantage aftermarket friction products and rotors offer fit, form and function for most makes and models similar to other high-quality aftermarket brake parts but at a more attractive price for

ADVERTORIAL

budget-conscious consumers. ACDelco Advantage brake products are tested using industry BEEP analysis because when it comes to your customers’ cars, we don’t believe “good enough” is good enough.

HOW ACDELCO BRAKE PRODUCTS BENEFIT YOU AND YOUR CUSTOMERS For our Professional Service Center members, ACDelco pulls out all the stops with industry-leading merchandising and training support to help you maintain and grow your technical expertise and successfully market ACDelco brake components. Learn more about training opportunities in your area by visiting acdelcotechconnect.com and clicking the Training tab. For merchandising materials, check acdelcostore.com or consult your local ACDelco field representative. More peace of mind for your customers, Members of the ACDelco Professional Service Center program can offer additional

customer assurance, including covered labor on ACDelco parts and roadside assistance. In addition, ACDelco Professional DuraStop products are backed by a limited lifetime warranty on pads and a 12-month, 12,000-mile parts warranty on rotors. ACDelco Advantage brake components include a 12-month, 12,000-mile warranty on both friction parts and rotors. Compare that to competitive products that offer a 30-day warranty or none at all. Quality brake components supported by quality support and promotions: When you add it all up, it’s why we say that ACDelco is part of something bigger.

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» Shop NAPA Legend Batteries. This July at NAPA, visit your local NAPA AUTO PARTS Store or AutoCare Center to get up to a $25 mailin rebate on NAPA batteries, starters and alternators; and for each rebate redeemed, NAPA will make a donation to the Intrepid Fallen Heroes Fund. Give something back when you get something back, at your local NAPA. At participating stores, expires July 31, 2013. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

BendPak recently unveiled its new Polyurethane Tuf-Pads contact pads for two-post car lifts. This marks a departure from the natural rubber contact pads the company manufactured previously. “The problem with natural rubber is that it can degrade over time and… be hurt by certain chemicals,” said a BendPak spokesperson on the BendPak company blog. “And even if that doesn’t happen, the material can be gouged or cut.” According to the BendPak website, the new Tuf-Pads feature a “hardness elastomer” to resist these common problems, but without sacrificing the grabbiness that made the rubber pads so effective. Call 805-933-9970 or visit www.bendpak.com. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com ACDelco introduces R-134a refrigerant in 12-oz. cans in addition to the currently available 30-lb. cylinders. It is for use in factory-installed and/or retrofitted R-134a automotive air conditioning systems. It meets three specifications: GM Specification 9985751, SAE J2776 purity standard and the ARI-700 standard. It is also DOT2Q-approved. Check the vehicle’s owner’s manual to confirm A/C system requirements. Charging automotive A/C systems with the wrong type of refrigerant may lead to system failure. To learn more, see your participating ACDelco distributor or visit www.acdelco.com.

The Innova PRO 31603 expert diagnostic tool allows technicians to quickly retrieve vital information in order to diagnose OBD II, ABS and SRS issues. Extended Asian and European ABS and SRS coverage is available so technicians can complete more repairs more efficiently. Shop management software reports manage vehicle diagnostics. Visit www.pro.innova.com. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

Veyance Technologies, Inc., manufacturer of Goodyear Engineered Products and the Gatorback brand, announces the release of 227 new part numbers to its automotive aftermarket and heavy-duty product lines for the first quarter of 2013. The latest additions provide even more extensive vehicle coverage for some of the brand’s most popular products: 110 automotive hoses, 34 industrial belts, 27 tensioners and pulleys, 25 automotive belts, 12 straight radiator hoses (silicone), 11 pressure washer hoses and eight timing kits. Gatorback belts and hoses now cover more than 98% and 95%, respectively, of vehicles in operation. Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com

74 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com


It’s Fast, Easy and Accurate! Get FREE PRODUCT AND SERVICE INFO from the companies featured in this issue of Underhood Service. >> VISIT www.uhsRapidResponse.com and click on the company from which you want information. >> OR, go to www.UnderhoodService.com and click on the Underhood Service Rapid Response Logo.

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AAPEX ACDelco Advance Auto Parts Professional Airtex Corporation Aisin World Corp. ALLDATA APA Management Group Autel.us Auto Value/Bumper to Bumper Autodata Publications Autolite Bartec USA, LLC BendPak CARQUEST Auto Parts CRP Industries DENSO Products and Services America, Inc. Dipaco Inc. Ford Parts GMB North America Innova Electronics Corp. Jasper Engines & Transmissions Melling Engine Parts NAPA NGK Spark Plugs

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UnderhoodService.com 75


DIRECT CLASSIFIEDS

Why switch to PDQ? PRICES. Low prices. High Quality. Always. 1st time buyer? Order from this ad and receive these special prices.

Call now to order or to receive a free 2012 catalog 1-800-434-5141 www.autobodysupplie s.com

Post your job for just $50 a month! Visit AutoProJobs.com to get started today! Contact: Karen Kaim p) 330.670.1234 ext. 295 f ) 330.670.7153 kkaim@babcox.com

76 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com


DIRECT CLASSIFIEDS

Call Tom for Classifieds Rates

tstaab@babcox.com 330.670.1234 x224

UnderhoodService.com 77


DIRECT CLASSIFIEDS

Advertising Representatives The Tech Group Bobbie Adams badams@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 238 Dean Martin dmartin@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 225 Sean Donohue sdonohue@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 206 Glenn Warner gwarner@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 212

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Authorized Distributor

ERIKSSON INDUSTRIES • 800-388-4418 Old Saybrook, CT • FAX 860-395-0047 • www.zftranspart.com

78 July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

John Zick jzick@babcox.com 949-756-8835 List Sales Manager Don Hemming dhemming@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 286 Classified Sales Tom Staab tstaab@babcox.com 330-670-1234, ext. 224


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Simply the Best Lists:

Automotive Aftermarket Truck Fleet & Powersports Markets What Type of Direct Marketing Initiatives Do You Have in Store for 2013?  New Business  Direct Mail  E-Mail Marketing Prospecting  Drive Web Site Traffic  Telemarketing

 Database Enhancement  Catalog Mailing  Promote Upcoming Tradeshows

Don Hemming, List Sales Manager Babcox Media, Inc. Phone: 330-670-1234 x286  Fax: 330-670-0874 dhemming@babcox.com  www.babcox.com

UnderhoodService.com 79


» TestDrive Book Report: Corvette Sixty Years The iconic American sports car — the Chevrolet Corvette — celebrated its 60th anniversary last month (http://bit.ly/1bOkZsy). And now, you can own an impressive book that details all of this car’s rich history set across six decades. Through hundreds of rare and unpublished photos from GM’s media and design archives and in-depth text by renowned Corvette historian Randy Leffingwell, Corvette Sixty Years celebrates the first six decades of America’s sports car, covering the revolution and evolution of America’s longest continuously produced nameplate, from Harley Earl’s initial concept to the latest anniversary edition built to celebrate the Vette’s 60th year. Created in cooperation with General Motors, the book focuses as much on the Corvette’s place in popular culture as it does on the engineering and design history. This book offers something for everyone who has ever lusted after a Vette. From the inaugural 1953 Corvette to today’s stunning sixth-generation car, Corvette Sixty Years touches on all aspects of Chevrolet’s iconic sports car: history, racing, period ads, posters, memorabilia, key designers like Bill Mitchell, engineers like the fabled Zora Arkus-Duntov, celebrity Vette fans and more. Book Notes: Title: Corvette Sixty Years ISBN-13: 978-0760342312

Author: Randy Leffingwell Publisher: Motorbooks

Hardcover, 256 pages Price: $50 plus S&H

To Order: www.motorbooks.com

‘THE LAST HEMI’ HEADLINES FOOD LION AUTOFAIR On the opening day of the Food Lion AutoFair at Charlotte Motor Speedway, “The Last HEMI” was unveiled to the public for the first time since the 1971 Dodge Charger underwent a major restoration by Mooresville, NC-based RKM Performance Center. “I’m happy to have it finally finished. It’s been in the works for more than 20 years for me,” said car owner Joe Angelucci, a native of Ohio. “To have it unveiled at the Charlotte AutoFair was a treat and honor for me. It was a great experience. I’m glad to be here and I’m looking forward to enjoying the car for quite some time to come.” The Charger is the last one to come off any Chrysler assembly line with a 426 HEMI engine. Records show that the car was built on June 18, 1971, a full two weeks after the last documented HEMI rolled off the production line. When Angelucci purchased the Charger in the early ’90s, more than a decade after originally setting his

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July 2013 | UnderhoodService.com

sights on the vehicle, it was weathered and rusty. It was only recently that he decided to get the prized automobile restored. Angelucci sent the car to RKM Performance Center where skilled mechanics and technicians were given the task of restoring this rare automobile to better-than-new condition. “We have a soft spot in our hearts for Mopars. We feel very fortunate to have been able to restore this car because it’s such a significant car,” said Joseph Carroll, president and CEO of RKM Performance Center. “Our research tells that this is the last HEMI car that Chrysler ever built. The fact that Joe found this car at the age of 14, saved it and has owned it all these years has made it a very cool story.” The RKM Performance Center restoration team worked countless hours to bring the car back to life. They tracked down original parts and gave the car a coat of fresh paint, working to make sure Mopar fans all around the world will be awestruck. ■


Reader Service: Go to www.uhsRAPIDRESPONSE.com


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