"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 17
Executive Summary Research Design Floriculture Industry Association profile World scenario Indian Scenario Kanataka Scenario Belgaum Scenario Role of K.R.C. Collage of Horticulture Need of floriculture industry in Belgaum Action Plan Administration Funds required at glance Post harvest management of cut flowers Marketing of cut flower market Conclusion Bibliography
Page No 3 5 7 9 15 17 17 18 22 23 27 35 36 37 46 58 59
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Floriculture Activity, defined for the purpose of this report as consisting of Cut Flowers cultivated under controlled conditions, is growing in the world at around 17 percent per annum. This is supported by the demand in the developed countries of Europe, America, Australia, Japan and Singapore. The climatic condition in most of these countries does not favor year around cultivation of these flowers and many of them import flowers from other countries.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. The major importing countries of Cut Flowers are Netherlands, USA, Germany, France, UK, Switzerland, Italy and Japan. The major exporting countries include Netherlands, Columbia, Ecuador, Israel, Spain and Kenya. Being a major market for floriculture, Netherlands both imports and re-exports the flowers. The most important flower traded in the international market is still Rose; however, others like Chrysanthemum, Carnation, Gerbera, Dahlia, Poinsettia, Orchids, Lily etc. are also marketed in large quantities in these countries.
In spite of a long tradition of Agriculture and Floriculture, India's share in the international market for these flowers is negligible. During the last ten years, taking advantage of the incentives offered by the Government, a number of Floriculture units were established in India for producing and exporting flowers to the developed countries. Most of them were located near Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi and obtained the technical know-how from Dutch and Israeli Consultants. Almost all of them were capital intensive and made large investments in greenhouse and other infrastructure. Several of them are at present nonworking. The major reasons for their failure were lack of experience, inadequate research support, inadequate market knowledge and infrastructural and procedural problems.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association.
Title of Study A project on "Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Objectives of the Study To know the various aspects involved in establishment Park. To know the role of various agencies. To make systematic plan of functioning of Floriculture Park. To study the Post Harvest Management & Marketing of Cut Flowers.
Scope of Study The survey was conducted at "Belgaum Horti & Flori Association", Belgaum. The survey was conducted for "Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum". Period of study was restricted to 60 days.
Research Methodology The research includes direct interview with experts in the respective fields, farmers etc.
Primary Data Primary data means the data, which are gathered specially for the project at hand directly through interviews and observations.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Secondary data are generally published source which have been collected originally for some other purpose, they are not gathered specially to achieve the objectives of the particular research project at hand, but already assembled. I have refered some magazines and internet for my study.
Data Collection The method used to collect data for this study was interviewing the experts and experienced personal in Horticulture & Floriculture field.
India has a wide range of climate and soil conditions which enable cultivation of an array of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, floricultural plants,
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. plantation crops, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants. Over the past one decade, this sector has emerged as a viable diversification option for generating large foreign exchange earnings. In the present and emerging agriculture scenario, there is a vast potential for several horticulture based industries. If we increase the productivity of the floricultural inputs needed for these industries, it is possible not only to fully meet the present and growing demands; but also to export substantially to the world market.
In world marketing, Indian floriculture industry is witnessing an unprecedented growth and increasing acceptability. A number of corporate houses have entered the fray in the last three to five years in growing flowers. The world market in floriculture is estimated at US $ 50 billion. The floriculture industry is growing at a rate of 17 per cent per annum. The consumption of ornamental and flowering plants is generally by the affluent class of the society. Higher standards of living and growing desire to live in an environment friendly atmosphere have led to an increasing demand for floriculture in India.
The export of cut flowers has been identified as a thrust area at the national level. The estimated area under flowers in India is 65,000 hectares, the major States being Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Traditional flowers, such as marigold, jasmine, chrysanthemum, china aster, crossandra and tuberose, usually marketed loose, occupy nearly two thirds of the area, the rest being under contemporary flowers such as rose, gladiolus, carnation, tuberose and orchids used in bouquest and arrangements.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. The area under flower cultivation during 1998-99 was reported to be around 73,971 ha with an estimated production of 4,59,163 tonnes of loose flowers
and 115.6 million cut flowers. The volume of trade in the domestic market is estimated to be around Rs. 500 crores. Flower trade, especially in Delhi and other metropolitan cities, has grown manifold during the last decade. India's share in world export of flowers is negligible, just about Rs. 96.6 crores export earnings in 1998-99.
Dried flowers and plants have a two third share of this market, followed by cut flowers (17 per cent) and live plants (13 per cent). The South Indian Floricultural Association (SIFA) informed that for the first time, India has managed to make its dominant presence (60 per cent) in the Australian market. After the first phase of troubles and turmoil, the second phase is taking India into more competitive market like Japan, Australia, and Taiwan. Last year, India successfully challenged Holland in exporting roses to Japan (85 per cent).
Belgaum Horti & Flori Association
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. The farmers engaged in growing hi-value flowers in green-houses and hi-tech floriculture activity around Belgaum district have formed a registered society "Belgaum Horti and Flori Association" on 28th January 2004. Presently there are 62 members are registered.
That commercial and hi-tech floriculture has become a significant economic activity in and around Belgaum city. Growing good quality flowers has never been a problem for farmers. However, delivery of the same good quality flowers to the consumers in distant markets needs some attention, particularly in summer season, when market demand is at its highest. Over 90% of flowers grown in Belgaum are sent to New Delhi by the Goa-Nizzamuddin Express train. These flowers are traded from Delhi for destinations all over North India. In particular, during summer, good quality flowers grow only in climates around Belgaum.
A number of other horticulture produces that moves from Belgaum and enroute to cities in North India. The very large volume and value produces include, grapes, mangoes, papaya, muskmelon and specialty vegetables (exotics) such as colored capsicums, leeks, parsley, lettuce, spinach and many culinary herbs.
STATUS OF FLORICULTURE AROUND BELGAUM
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Flower Gerbera Carnations Anthurium Chrysanthemum Orchids Alistomeria Gladiolus (open) Marigold (open) Asters (open) Tube rose
Area 12 Acres 4 Acres 1/2 Acres 1/2 Acres 1/8th Acre 1/8th Acre 15 Acres 30 Acres 5 Acres 5 Acres
Yield per month 10 Lakhs 3 Lakhs 5000 30000 75000
Investment 350 Lakhs 150 Lalhs 20 Lakhs 10 Lakhs 7 Lakhs 7 Lakhs 30 Lakhs 15 Lakhs 2 Lakhs 5 Lakhs
All units are operated by farmers – No corporates The smallest unit measures 1/8th acre and the largest 2.5 Acres 62 farmers have formed a registered association.
Name of the Association
: Belgaum Horti & Florti Association
: 36, Bazar Galli, Khasbag, Belgaum – 590 004
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Jurisdiction of the Association
Date of constitution
: 28th January 2004
The Directors of Belgaum Horti and Flori Association :
1. Shri. Mahantesh K. Patil
2. Shri. Hanumanth. Pujari
3. Smt. Pankaja. Bhoomareddy
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association.
4. Shri. Mallikarjun B. Ramannavar
5. Shri. Naved. Mulla
6. Shri. Pankaj. Shivalkar
7. Shri. Manoj Desai
8. Smt. Tejasvi Naik
9. Shri. Sachin Ashtekar
10. Shri. I.B. Patil
11. Shri. Shoba A. Patil
Aims & Objects of the Association :
To involve in the Development of the women, children, handicapped, backward & tribal.
To inculcate the means of education and training of the public in socioeconomic development through Floriculture, Horticulture, sericulture, milk dairy, Potteries, Sheep breeding, Vermicomposte, Mushroom cultivation,
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. and similar objects and diffuse vocational training for engaging agriculturists busy through the year. •
To influx the means of the Public Education and modernization of villages, through developmental activities / Schemes, as Irrigation (life irrigation), Gobar Gas, Biogas, Solar pump & wind mill.
To diffuse, to educate and convince for the development of the dry land and waste lands cultivation for the better understanding and implementation of the environmental and ecological balance.
To execute and involve in the effective Implementation of the programs of all Governmental (Central & State Govt.) and Departmental activities.
To avail financial support, Subsidies, & other facilities of various autonomous bodies like NHB, APEDA, World Bank etc.
To arrange channels and mediums of knowledge enhancement among farmers.
To study the potential for setting up of Agri-processing industries.
To undertake development work by setting up of Agri-processing industries.
To undertake applied research in the development of agricultural marketing system and post harvest technological research.
To impart training in the field of high quality production, agricultural, marketing, post harvest management, agro processing and management.
Arrange foreign Educational tours for the progressive farmers.
To make available the necessary infrastructure for post harvest handling of agricultural produce viz. facilitate storage, precooling, coolstorage, VHT facility etc. to the farmers.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. •
Keeping necessary coordination in the markets.
Remote the Regulated Markets (Agricultural Produce Market committees), development of Agricultural Floricultural marketing including promotion of domestic marketing and exports from Karnataka.
To make available the necessary infrastructure for post harvest handling of agricultural produce viz, facilitate storage, precooling, cold storage, VHT facility etc. to the farmers.
Any other objects which is in cognizance with the objects of the Association with due approval from the members.
WORLD SCENARIO Horticulture particularly floriculture industry is growing at -a very faster rate all over the world. However, only few countries have emerged as leaders in the floriculture industry, restricting to few developing countries like Holland. Italy, Israel, Germany, USA, Japan. The major crops grown in these countries are rose, gerbera,
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. carnation, chrysanthemum and anthurium. Apart from these, traditional flowers such as jasmine, chrysanthemum, spray chrysanthemum, roses, China aster, marigold are also grown in most parts of the world under open cultivation. In Asia, Latin America and Africa, some of the countries have become new production centers and these have created competition in the markets. These production centers are able to produce quality flowers at lower cost as compared to developed countries. The traditional flower growing countries like China, India, Japan, USA, Columbia are the major growers of flowers. However, these countries are concentrated only for their domestic market. Holland is the largest producer and also the importer of major cut flowers in the world. The total area under flower production in the world is around 2,50,000 hectares.
At present the world trade is around $ 55 billion and the rate of increase in the world imports may be around 10 per cent. The share of the developing countries in the world trade is around 20 per cent in the last few years. Among the developed countries, Germany, USA, France, UK, Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland are the leading importing countries and among these Germany is the largest importer in the world. The main exporting countries are Holland, Columbia, Italy and these accounts for about 50 per cent of the world export.
Table 1. Major importers of cut flowers Country
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. U.K.
Table 2. Major exporters of cut flowers Country
Share in export market (%) *
(* includes re-exports)
INDIAN SCENARIO In India, modern floriculture has gained memento during 1990â€™s with the strong support of the Government of India which resulted in boost in production and export of cut flowers. In India, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, West. Bengal, Andhra Pradesh are the leading flower growing states. At present, the total area under flower production is about 80,000 ha. Out of this, 20,000 ha falls under Karnataka. In the state of Karnataka particularly Bangalore and Belgaum due to their mild climatic conditions they have merged as the floriculture centers of India. Karnataka has the distinction of
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. growing ail traditional flowers with open cultivation for meeting the demand of traditional flowers and modern cut flowers under hi-tech export, oriented units.
KARNATAKA SCENARIO Karnataka is having a suitable climate for cultivation of flowers which accounts for an impressive 27 per cent of the total production from 20,000 hectares of area under floriculture. Most of the flower production is from open cultivation. However, in recent years, growers are entering into hi-tech floriculture by growing export oriented cul flowers under protected structures in order to get quality flowers and to target distinct markets in India and outside. Most of these types of cultivation restricted to places around Bangalore, Coorg and Belgaum because of the congenial climate.Commonly cultivated traditional flowers are rose, jasmine, spray chrysanthemum, crossandra, marigold, China aster and tuberose. Among the modern cut flowers, roses, gladiolus, gerbera, carnation, anthurium and orchids are very popular. Out of these, rose, gerbera, carnation, anthurium are the leading cut flowers and grown mostly under protected structures.
BELGAUM SCENARIO The most favoured factor of this part is its climate. The climatic conditions of this district are ideal for growing most of the cut flowers. The climate of Belgaum is very mild and the maximum temperature does not exceed 35째C and average temperature will be around 30째C. The minimum temperature also does not
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. fall below 10째C. Generally, the relative humidity is also high which will be very congenial for the optimum growth and flowering of most of the flower crops.
Further, geographically, Belgaum is ideally placed by the fact that it is near to the domestic markets like Bombay, Goa, Hyderabad and also well connected to the distant domestic markets like New Delhi by trains and air. New Delhi continues to be a market of choice because flowers of this district get good prices. Besides, sufficient labour force is also available with reasonable rates.
Belgaum growers have unique culture of getting together and sharing information and experiences. Now, the growers of Belgaum joined together with a common interest and formed a society named as Horti-Florist Society. With the establishment of the society, .the growth of floriculture has been boosted in the last recent months. The Central and State Departments and APEDA have identified Belgaum district as a part of Agri Export Zone for floriculture in Karnataka. This has further boosted the growth of floriculture industry in Belgaum. Even though, the climatic conditions are very ideal around Belgaum, the floriculture industry is facing lot of problems. The success of floriculture enterprises depends upon the availability of appropriate production technology, post harvest management and marketing support.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Bottlenecks In Belgaum, greenhouse cultivation is of recent origin and is just seven years old industry. Gerbera and carnation are extensively grown in these units and total number of units are around 85 units. Currently, all units are initiated by first time entrepreneurs under basically small size units varying from 500 sq. to half acre. Even though, climatic conditions are very much favourable for the growth of floriculture industry', the farmers are facing problems in maintaining the quality of the produce and also in the marketing of the flowers. Several factors such as lack of availability of technology, planting materials and facilities, agri inputs, greenhouse components, marketing net work, long term prospective etc. are coming in the way of expansion of area, production of quality flowers and also in increasing the profitability of the farmers.
Technology know how Most of the floriculture units are in the range of 500 to 1000 Sq. m. Irrespective of size, these units need technical manpower to handle the production, harvesting and post harvest operations and marketing. This will come in the way of employing technical manpower and it will be beyond the reach of the small units.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Planting material and varieties In the early years, the floriculture farmers have imported the planting materials and varieties for growing in the greenhouses without considering the market potential, productivity and adoptability to the Belgaum conditions. More than this, the cost of importing the planting material was very high. This has come in the way of expansion and further growth of the industry.
High capital cost Hi-tech floriculture unit is a very highly intensive culture and requires high capital cost for the establishment of units. High cost was mainly due to importing greenhouse and other equipments.
Quality The produce in India generally suffers from quality which results in the reduction of the prices. General problems associated with quality are: a. . Poor stem length b. Poor flower diameter c. Inclusion of damaged flowers d. Physiological disorders e. Inclusion of insect and diseased flowers The timely technical guidance and preventing measures can overcome these above problems and it will be possible to maintain the quality of the flowers. Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Further, giving refresher training about these aspects need to be kept in mind and can be achieved by creating the facility in the production centres.
Marketing Single and most important bottlenecks experienced by the growers is the lack of information and effective marketing network. At present, most of the growers blindly sending to the local markets such as Delhi, Mumbai, Goa and Hyderabad without much knowledge about prices existing on day to day basis. Farmers are sending the produce individually to different markets and selling their produce through mediators. So any improvement in marketing and availability of marketing information definitely will go a long way in increasing the profit to the farmers. For this, there should be an information technology lab to provide day to day market rates both of internal and external markets. Further, establishing Auction Sale Centre at the production center will be only a solution to avoid the middlemen. The Indian growers are exporting floriculture products to the importing countries through their agents. Only few growers deal directly with auctions in the importing countries. Very high freight charges from India to importing countries is the second most important bottleneck. In Israel and African countries, freight charges are very less.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association.
ROLE OF K.R.C. COLLEGE OF HORTICULTURE, ARABHAVI (UAS, DHARWAD) IN FLORICULTURE University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad has achieved tremendous achievement in teaching, research and extension and involved in development of the farming community. K.R.C. College of Horticulture which is coming under University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad has contributed much to the development of floriculture industry in and around Belgaum district. It is involved right from the establishment of first few units with all technical support right from planting to marketing and currently its Director of Instruction (Hort) is responsible for the establishment of Horti and Flori Association Society at Belgaum. In the last decade, it has increased its research activities in many important commercial flowers including traditional flowers like jasmine, crossandra, rose, marigold, tuberose, etc and also of export potential flower crops. Research on modern flowers like carnation, gerbera, helicoimim, bird of paradise is going on at a full strength and this will definitely support the flower growers and the industry.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. NEED OF THE FLORICULTURE INDUSTRY IN BELGAUM Common shared infrastructure for collection, grading, packing and transportation Most of the units in Belgaum district are isolated and located at a significant distance from Belgaum. Because of this every- fanner incurs an additional expenditure towards transportation. Further due to lack of pooi~ facilities for grading and packing much of the produce will lose its quality and therefore the price offered in the markets goes down by many folds. As such, establishment of one common facility will help to consolidate the produce, to grade based on the variety and quality and to reduce overhead charges. The cost of operation and maintenance will be divided among the fanners. This common facility will go a long way in enhancing the quality of flowers, and also in increasing the income of the flower growers. For establishing this common facility, a portion of land may be requested from the Horticultural Farm, Kanabargi, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad which is within the city limits of Belgaum or the proposed land near Khanapur for developing Horticulture Research Centre may be utilized. In this regard Government authority may be requested for funding for the development of infrastructure needed for post harvest handling which includes refrigerated vans, grading and packing center, cold storage unit, etc. For technical support, the services of K.R.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi (UAS, Dharwad). and State Dept.of Horticulture will be utilized..
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH AND TRAINING CENTER
Belgaum and its surrounding places are well known for horticulture crops. The main crops grown in and around Belgaum are mango, coconut, cashew nut, banana and areca nut. At present, there is no Horticulture Research Centre near Belgaum to carry out research work. Establishment of hi-tech horticulture research and training center will meet the requirements and demands of the growers of horticultural crops in and around Belgaum district. This can be established in the proposed area near Khanapur. This can take care of the development of production technologies needed for different horticultured crops and also the planting material required by the growers. The objectives of the hi-tech research and training center are as follows. 1. Production and supply of planting material 2. Research and development - this will be established in about 50 acres. 3. Training and human resource development activity 4. Providing technical know how and demonstration, extension services.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. MODEL FLORICULTURE CENTRE It is very essential to establish a Model Floriculture Centre at Kanabargi Horticultural Farm, Belgaum and in the proposed new Horticulture Research Centre near Khanapur. At this center, provision will be made to maintain flower crops by following newly developed technologies and thrust will be given to most wanted flowers such as rose, carnation, gerbera, anthurium. This Model Floriculture Centre will also be utilized as demonstration unit for the growers.
TRAINING CENTRE Model Floriculture Centre will be utilized for training growers, consumers and traders involved in the floriculture industry. Training involves transfer of technology concerning right from the planting material, planting, cultivation of post harvest technology involved in grading, packing and transportation to marketing.
HI-TECH HORTICULTURE PARK The development of hi-tech horticulture park in the proposed new Horticulture Research Centre near Khanapur will be a place for the growers to cultivate the crops by giving the information pertaining to all the activities of floriculture industry at a common place. This will helps in bringing down the cost of production per unit basis and ultimately our produce will be more competitive in the world markets. This will be possible because of sharing of common facilities for transport, packaging, grading and storage by making availability of agri inputs and
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. also by marketing on the farm itself by establishing agri input center and auction sale center within the center.
ACTION PLAN Supply of planting material Planting material/varieties which can be adoptable to the Belgaum and surrounding places will be developed to supply quality planting material at a lower cost. This include the following : a. Propagation of different flower types and also other horticultural crops b. Introduction of new and latest varieties developed elsewhere. For this, genes blocks for different crops, nursery units, tissue culture labs, hardening structures have to be created.
Development of agri information center One of the main objective of this hi-tech horticulture, research and training center is to establish agri information center to provide complete marketing support through a well developed strategy based on regular market intelligence and inputs. Dissemination of marketing information is very critical for success of marketing of any horticultural produce. Hence, it is proposed to set up a state of the art agriculture information center, which has to be maintained by the Nodal agency. The information of various international practices, technologies of growing of crops, harvesting, transportation of horticulture produce etc. and latest R&D initiatives are made available to growers in grading, bunching and packaging centers and to exporters. Necessary equipments and facilities like computers,
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. telephone line/ V sat link software, power generating system, furniture etc. will be provided.
MODEL FLORICULTURE CENTRE Technical know how, demonstration, extension and training in recent technology is always an advantage to increase the production and also the profit to the growers. In the area of production center it is obvious that the technologies are transferred at a low cost. So in order to facilitate administration, extension and training services to the growers it is proposed to set up model floriculture center. In this center, regular extension and training activities will be taken up at regular intervals and the training will be organized to the growers particularly to the growers who are entering the floriculture industry with regard to information right from the planting material to the marketing including production, maintenance of units, erection, post-harvest technology etc. At the center all the export oriented flower crops will be established and maintained with recent and advanced; technologies under protected structures. For this, different types of protected structures are erected and used for growing flower crops and raising nursery.
Training Kittur Rani Channamma of Horticulture, Arabhavi will organize a regular training programmes for technology dissemination covering the following: 1. Selection of crops / variety. 2. Production aspects covering land preparation, nursery, planting erection etc. 3. Aspects covering harvesting, handling and post harvest management needed for the individual flower crops will be given in order to supply the produce to the consumers which will be to the freshly harvested ones. 4. Disease and pest management. 5. Maintenance of various protected structures, nursery and farm equipments. 6. Grading and standardization of post harvest treatments, advice on packaging, bunching and transportation.
This training will be sandwiched programme. Course work will be carried out at K.R.C. College of Horticulture and the practicals will
be at Model
Floriculture Centre. Facilities required like infrastructure like protected structures, class and audiovisual room, hostels, audio visual aids, vehicles etc. will be created
Establishment of common post harvest platform
The post harvest activities include collection, grading, sorting, post harvest, bunching, packing, cold chain including cold rooms and AC vans. By the establishing this center, individual growers will get benefited from this facility by utilizing this common facility. Flowers individual growers can be marketed in auction sale center. Once the product is collected it would be taken to well equipped state of art, post harvest center with facilities for grading, sorting, post-harvest treatment, bunching, packing and storage. Post harvest center with facilities for grading and sorting, post harvest treatment bunching, packaging and storage is required. The post harvest center will have a cold storage units, pre cooling chamber, grading, sorting of trolleys, refrigerators etc. The railway authorities have to be requested to add refrigerated luggage van/bogy to the trains to Mumbai and Delhi markets.
Establishment of Hi-tech Park
There is a need to develop Hi-tech park so as to provide space for growers for growing export oriented flower crops. This can be done by developing in about 30 acres of land at the proposed Hi-tech Horticulture research and training center. In this proposed park space for units ranging from 10 guntas 20 guntas have to be developed and distributed to the growers on lease basis. By providing space for a group of farmers at a common place will facilitate easy dissemination of information, sharing of common facilities, reduction in the transportation facilities and easy marketing availability of agri inputs at one point. This definitely will increase the profits of the growers.
Establishment of auction sale centre At present, the flowers are being sent to different domestic markets individually by road and by trains and involving middlemen who will take away major share which sometimes ranges from 30-50 percent, of the returns. Hence, establishment of auction sale center at Belgaum will definitely increases the profitability of the growers. This will be maintained by the Horti-Flori Association. Facilities such as space, equipments, information center, furniture will be created. Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
Establishment of Hi-tech Horticulture Research and Training Centre Research and development center should always find place in any of the industry, particularly so in floriculture industry-. In the beginning, most, of the technologies were barrowed ones suited only for cold regions, which resulted in problems in maintaining the hi-tech structures, in maintaining the quality of the produce and so on. This is mainly because of variation in the climatic conditions prevailing in the western countries as compared to Indian conditions. To overcome this there is a need to develop our own technology suitable to our climatic conditions. Further, there is also a need to develop graded technology needed for different categories of growers. In this regard, it is proposed to utilize the Kanabargi Horticulture Research Station, Belgaum and proposed new horticulture research station nearby Khanapur. In this proposed research center, facilities have to be created for developing basic facilities like water and land, and hi-tech structures like greenhouses, misthouses, shadehouses, coldstorage, packaging and grading centre etc. K.R.C. College of Horticulture is having sufficient technical manpower and only needs Research Associates/ Sr. Research Fellow, Field Assistants, and other supporting staff on Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. temporary basis. Creation of basic facilities include staff quarters, office building, store rooms, cold storage units, office and field equipments, furniture, establishing gene blocks, nurseries, protected structures, electrification, land development, biotechnology lab, class rooms, audio-visual aids etc.
AGENCIES INVOLVED 1. K.R.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi
K.P.C. College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, which comes under the IJAS, Dharwad will take major responsibility in establishing Hi-tech Horticulture Research and Training Centre which comprises common shared infrastructure, Model Floriculture Centre, Training Centre, Research and Development and Information Centre, Hi-tech Horticulture Park. It will be a nodal agency for coordinating all these activities. Auction Sale Centre and Hi-tech, Horticulture park will be managed by the Horti-FIori Association of Belgaum. The role of K.R.C.College of Horticulture will be; 1. To function as nodal agency 2. To identify the problems and to develop suitable R & D technology to the problems. 3. To train the entrepreneurs regarding production, post-harvest management and marketing 4. To multiply and supply planting materials needed by the farmers. Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. 5. Demonstration of developed technologies at different research institutes
2. State Department of Horticulture Staff Department of Horticulture will be actively involved in dissemination of new technologies and in organizing assistance from State and Central Governments and other funding agencies. Further, it is responsible for organizing extension activities such as seminars, field days, field visits, tours to get marketing information to acquaint new technologies etc.
3. Horti-Flori Association, Belgaum Horti-Flori Association will be the managing agency for the common shared infrastructure and Hi-tech Horticulture Park and running the auction sale center.
ADMINISTRATION Entire project will be administered by District Committee headed by The Deputy Commissioner, Director of Instruction (Hort), KRCCH, Arabhavi, Deputy Director of Horticulture, Belgaum, Joint Director of Horticulture (Floriculture), Lalbagh, Bangalore, Chairman, Horti-Flori Association and CEO of Zilla Panchayat as members.
FUNDS REQUIRED AT A GLANCE (Rs. in crores) SI. No.
Cost per unit
Total cost for 2 years
Administrative charges, vehicles, office equipments, manpower, office building etc.
Development of Agri Information Centre, cultivation, market information, international prices
Model Floriculture Centre, infrastructure
Establishment of Hi-tech Horticulture Research Centre
Demonstration and training
Extension activities such as field days, field visits, tours etc.
Post-harvest management center
Auction sale center
Establishment of Hi-tech Park
Agri input center
* includes maintenance charges for 2 years
Post Harvest Management Introduction The extension of vase life of cut flowers involves the co-ordination of two processes : 1. The stage of bud growth and development of flowers to full opening, and 2. The stage of maturation, ands wilting.
There are certain measurers, which guarantee longer lasting cut flowers and are required to be followed by the producer or Greenhouse manager especially for High-tech. Floriculturists. They include : Harvesting at proper maturity stage and time. Proper refrigeration Use of floral preservative Use of high quality water (without any salt or toxic substances) Sanitation Temperature management during transport
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. ďƒź Recutting of stems ďƒź Proper handling of flowers right from harvest to the market.
Without correct post harvest-handling all flowers will be ruined before reaching the customer. Harvesting
Holding room 12-160c
Cooling 20c to 40c
Sorting & Grading
Proper maturity is the major factor governing post harvest life of cut flowers. It is estimated that about 70% of the potential lasting quality of many cut flowers is predetermined at harvest. Harvesting stage, method and time play an important role in this regard. Maturity differs according to the type of flower to be harvested. Nearly all the cut flowers should be harvested early in the morning or late in the afternoon. In Roses harvesting is done at tight bud stage when colour is fully developed and petal have yet not started unfolding. Standard Carnations are harvested when the outer petal unfold nearly perpendicular to the stem. Spray types are harvested when two flowers are open the bud shows colour. Gerbera flowers are generally harvest when the outer two row of disc floret are perpendicular to the stalk.
The commercial picking maturity of flowers is influenced by season, environment, distance to market and specific consumer requirement. Cut flowers in the bud stage are easier to handle, less susceptible to environmental conditions like high temperature and ethylene. Roses and Gerberas harvested in immature stage will not open or will subject to drooping of neck (bent neck.) The cut flower are placed in good quality water held in plastic buckets immediately after harvesting.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. They should be shifted to AC room (18 to 200C) within 30 minutes then shifted to precooling unit (8 to 100C) for 30 minute after that it will be transported to 20C, In case of capsicum the temperature of cold storage required 16 0C approximately
HANDLING : For obtaining better prices, best quality flowers need to be selected. Important aspects to be considered critically are size of the flower, its shape, colour, maturity, free from pest and diseases. A major disease after harvest of the cut flower is Botrytis which can be controlled after or before harvest by fungicides or cooling by avoiding water condensation on the flower. Delay post harvest handling leads to quality deterioration. Hence rapid post harvest handling is essential. In case of roses, the cut flower is deleafed with the help of a machine, which includes removal of leaves and thorn on the stalk. By the process of deleafing the energy wasted through transpiration is reduced is considerably thereby improving post harvest life of flower stalk are blunt which otherwise create difficulties during handling and packing.
PRECOOLING : Cool temperature extends flower life by lowering & transpiration rate and water loss and also reducing the ethylene production. Procooling is done to remove field heat from the produce to reduce flower temperature quickly. Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
In room cooling, the flowers are cooled by placing the flowers held in buckets in a cooler. In later methods the flowers are packed in perforated box, which are subjected to cool air blast for certain period in closed room. The temperature range should be in between. 1.7 to 40C It takes about 30 minutes to cool the flower on forced cooling depending on the flower type. The success of precooling depends upon the proper temperature and relative humidity (90-95%).
COLD STORAGE : After procooling treatment the temperature of the flowers (field heat) removed completely this treatment is necessary before keeping the flowers in coldstorage to avoid the cold injury. Flowers should be transported immediately in to cold storage for minimum 6-7hrs. At 2-3 degree centigrade, with stems dipping in water. However, maximum period of the storage ability depends upon the cultivars and the quality of the bloom. The stems wither very rapidly in cold storage. The cut roses can be stored up to 3-4 days maximum without affecting the vase life of flowers.
DEALEAFING : The leaves from the lower portion of the stem (4-5 cm) are removed by manually or by machine and stems are put in buckets containing bleaching powder (chlorine) 20 mg/lit or (20ppm) and citric acid 40mg/lit (40 ppm) Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
Chlorine disinfects the stem and minimize the microbial growth in the water which otherwise will reduce the shelf life of the flower. Citric acid reduces the pH of water (it should be up to 3-3.5) it helps for the uptake of water and citric acid add sugar which act as food for the flowers. GRADING : After cooling, the stems are shifted to air-conditioned grading room. In the grading room, defective stems with blemishes or symptom of diseases of pest infestation are removed. The stems are sorted out at different grades of length by colour coded board or by automatic grading machine. The quality parameter for grading is as follows, 1. Long stemmed varieties are graded from 40cm onwards with the difference of 7cm whereas short stemmed varieties are graded from 35cm to 50cm with the difference of 7cm or in the level grading stems should be consider of same follows, 2. Leaves should be dark green and healthy. There should not be any yellowing due to micronutrient deficiency, Leaves should be free of dust, chemical residue, chemical injury, damage by spider mites or powdery mildew etc. 3. The flower should not be bullhead, too open, too tight, with bent neck, damaged by thrips or botrytis etc. 4. Bud size should be representative to the variety. 5. The length of the neck should not be too much. Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
BUNCHING : The graded stems are made in to bundles of 20 each and tied loosely with rubber band. The bud should be rapped with 2-ply soft corrugated paper (white or brown) and tied loosely with rubber band to secure the bud in position. The wrapping paper should project at least 2-3 cm above the bunch to protect the bud from thorns or from coming in contact with the box.
There are two different types of bunching 1) Staggered bunching : this type of bunching is very useful to avoid damage to the buds by mutual pressure two different levels are packed in the same bundle. E.g. generally for long stem variety and having bigger bud size flower this method is useful.
2) Level head bunching : The stems which can be packed keeping all the bud in the same level. This method is used in short stem variety and having small bud size flowers.
PACKING & TRANSPORT OF THE FLOWER : The flower bunches are packed in 5-ply boxes in such way that flower heads faces in opposite direction i.e. towards the width. The bunches should be placed in a row along with the width. The second layer is placed opposite to the first layer.
In the packing box the layers of the flowers are covered with soft paper. Some growers use newspaper to cover the stems but care should be taken to ensure that the newsprint does not leave mark on the stems. After packing the flowers, the box is closed with the lid and strapped properly. Mixing of the stems of varying lengths in the box should be avoided. The stem should be tightly held in the boxes so that they are not subjected to jerk movements during transport. The boxes should properly marked with symbols 'Fresh flowers' on both sides so that they are handled with care at the airport. Besides, the boxes should have stickers indicating name of the variety, stem length, qty, in nos, date of dispatch, gross wt., of the box.
The dimensions of the packing box vary with the numbers and stem length and also the colours of boxes vary from grower to grower.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. Generally, the empty packing boxes are procooled by placing them open in the cold rooms but the most efficient system is forced air cooling wherein cool air is forced in to the boxes through the vent (holes) in the sides of the boxes. When the boxes are taken out to the cold room, the vents are closed with self-adhesive BOOP tape or flap to avoid heating of the flowers. Vents are, however, kept open if the flowers are transported through the refrigerated truck, to facilitate the circulation of cold air through the boxes.
Boxes size (corrugated cardboard cartoon) – 120 x 45 x 25 cm (Rose) – 600 stems
Boxes size (corrugated cardboard cartoon) – 122 x 50 x 30 cm (Carnation) – 800 stems
Boxes size (corrugated cardboard cartoon) – 100 x 30 x 10 cm (Gerbera) – 50 stems
Marketing of Cut Flower Introduction Flowers symbolize beauty, purity, honesty, and divinity. There are wise references on flowers in ancient Indian literature glorifying their importance. Flowers have become such as integral part of our civilization, culture and inseparable in any sphere of our activities. On any occasion, either happiness or sorrow, flowers are considered as the finest and dignified form of expression.
In India the area under floriculture is also increasing year after year. However, Karnataka rank first during this period in production amongst the states in the country followed by Maharasthra, Andra Pradesh, and West Bengal.
There is an ever-increasing demand for floriculture products. Cutflowers contribute nearly 60% of the total floricultural products in global market. In the developing countries consumers spirit become more romantic, cheerful with flowers, fragrances and flavors. Commercial floriculture is of recent development in India. Due to popularity of foreign T.V. channels, thrust on Tourism and Hotel Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. industry, Indians are being increasingly attracted to western style, As a result, cut flowers are now funding more buyers for social functions and day to day interior decoration.
Floriculture trade is a lucrative business and more so the cutflower trade. Cutflower industry is a multimillion â€“ dollar business involving 140 countries. The International trade in cutflower is increasing and an 11% increase was registered between 1995-2000. The main importing countries are Germany, U.S.A., U.K., France and Netherlands whereas Netherlands, Columbia, israil and Kenaya are major exporting countries.
Consumption of flowers in world varies from country to country. In European countries, 50% flowers purchased are used as gifts and 30% are used for self consumption. In U.S.A. flowers are generally purchased on special occasions. In Japan the flowers are used for business purpose also. In Germany particularly in East Germany 64% of demand is for self-use. In France about 44% demand for flower is in the form bouquets.
In India major cut flowers of commercial importance are rose, gladoli, tubrose, carnation, crysathmum, gebera, lily, marigold, etc. The present, state of High-Tech floriculture in India constitute of rose with 80% and the rest is contributed by Gerbera, Carnation, Orchid, Anthurium etc in export and domestic markets. Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
The production and marketing of cut flowers in India also undergo revolutionary changes brining high-tech farm with imported technology and planting material so as to meet the demand of International market.
In India with its vast, diverse physiography and agro ecological niches allowing to grow varied flowers and foliage ornamental plants, proximity to importing countries, Government's policy to identify it is an extreme focus thrust area, the future of flower industry in the country appears to be very bright.
COMMON QUALITY STANDARDS FOR CUTFLOWERS I.
Definition of Produce These standards should apply to fresh cut flowers and flowers buds of a kind
suitable for bouquets or for ornamental purpose.
Quality Requirements A. Minimum requirement : Produce must have been carefully cut or picked, according to the species,
and have reached an appropriate stage of the growth :
B. Classification : (i) Class I : Produce in this class must be a good quality. It must have the characteristics of the species. It must have the characteristic of the species and where appropriate of the variety (cultivars). All parts of the cut flower must be : -
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. -
Free of animal or vegetable parasites
Free of residues of pesticides
Free of development (for carnation split calyx is not considered as a defect of development.
(ii) Class II : This class shall include all produce, which does not meet all the requirements of Class-I All parts of the cut flower must be : -
Free of animal parasite
The flower may, however, have the following defects : -
Slight damage caused
Weaker, less rigid stem
Small mark caused, by treatment with pesticide
(iii) Extra Class : produce, which qualities for the Class I without the aid of any quality tolerance, marked extra
Special provisions :
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. The special provision for certain type of flowers shall over ride this provision
For cut flower sizing must comply at least with the following scale :Code Length (stem length) 20
These lengths include the flower head
Quality Tolerance :
Quality tolerance shall be permitted in each unit of presentation as follows
Class I : 5% of the cut flowers may have slight defects, on condition that the uniformity of the flowers in a unit of presentation is not affected.
Class II :
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. 10% of the cutflowers may vary from the requirement of the class half of the this percentage may have been attacked by the parasites of animal or vegetable origin
SPECIFICATION OF CUTFLOWERS (VBN OCT. 2000)
1) Minimum Requirements for Trade Internal quality 1) Pre-Treatment 2) Pre-Treatment with STS 3) Pre-Treatment with chlorine OR aluminum sulphate 4) Pre-Treatment with quaternary Ammonium Compounds, Gibberline, sugar.
Penalty External quality 1) Minimum Quality 2) Ripensess
2) Quality and grading Criteria A) Quality and grading Criteria 1) Quality and Grading criteria per batch Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. 2) Requirements and Quality comments 3) Supplemental grading requirements per batch i)
Grading according to Length
Grading according to Weight
Grading on the basis of different characteristics (ripness, number of flower bud)
B) Quality groups based on Grade codes 1) Quality codes 2) Division in to quality groups C) Grade Code
3. Packing Requirements 1) General 2) Loading
4. Identification requirements 1) Consignment Note 2) Product Label 3) Penalty
There are no magic answers for running a profitable floriculture business. Everything you do in business must start with a "marketing philosophy" to MEET YOUR CUSTOMERS' NEEDS, not merely to sell products. Your crop mix is the primary vehicle for you to transform your marketing opportunity into customer loyalty, growth in sales and, most importantly, profits.
Market research is key. Before you plant anything, do some research about potential markets so you will have a better idea of what to grow and where to sell. Look for trends, talk to other growers, visit farmers' markets and florists to get an idea of what's available and what is not, what sells and what gets tossed. Some things to consider that can make selling flowers easier are product quality, customer service, pricing, and record keeping. Timing is also critical. The best time to find buyers product is not during the busiest part of the season (July-August) when you are harvesting.
Product Quality and Presentation Harvest quality products and be sure to put your best foot forward when you present them to customers. Make sure everything Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. you are selling is fresh and of high quality. First impressions are crucial. Whether at a flower stand, in the back of your truck/van, in a bucket, or on the farm your operation should look good. keep your products and even your tools and equipment organized and clean. Be aware that you may need to develop harvest standards (e.g., the number of stems per bunch, or the number of florets per stem, Etc.) for you and your buyers because standards for most locally grown flowers may be lacking.
Due to the highly perishable nature of their product, fresh cut flower growers must develop an intensive marketing strategy. When considering selling to wholesale or retail florists, some important questions to ask them are: What problems do you have with current sources and product? What bunch weight or stem count do you expect at what price? What size flower or seed head and stem length are most desirable? What varieties are purchased most often? How should the material be packaged?
Wholesale markets require larger volumes of flowers and growers receive lower prices per stem. The greatest benefit of wholesaling is that a grower has an established market for the product and doesn't have to spend a lot of time finding individual customers. There aren't many growers who would choose to sell exclusively to a wholesaler, however. The prices just aren't that good. Growers thinking of selling to a wholesaler should visit them to see what kinds of products they offer. Because wholesalers do most of their business in the morning, they will Babasabpatilfreepptmba.com
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. have more time for talking with growers in the afternoon. One important point to clarify with wholesalers is transport: will the wholesaler pick up flowers from your door, will you deliver to his door, or will you ship?
Although direct marketing can offer the benefit of higher prices, this strategy requires additional time and expense. The range of possibilities for direct marketing includes retail florists, farmer's markets, bucket shops, street corners and craft fairs
Local, niche markets are often the best choice for small growers. Selling to local retail florists is one of the best marketing strategies.
Growers may find it advantages to develop a mixture of marketing avenues. For instance, a grower may decide to sell fresh cut flowers to retail or wholesale florists and at the farmers' market. This way, growers could sell long stems to florists and shorter stems to buyers at the farmers' market. Selling at the farmers market would also increase short-term cash flow, since wholesalers usually pay their accounts only once a month.
Finally, it is becoming increasingly more important to keep tabs on your competition to stay ahead. If you offer only what your competitor offers, there is little reason for a customer to deal with you unless you have the lowest price.
"Establishment of High-Tech Floriculture Park in Belgaum", with reference to Belgaum Horti and Flori Association. For Exploring the local market the requirements are : -
knowledge of the 12 main flowers in the market and their ranking (turnover)
Please specify the ranking of the colours according to the demand in the local market.
He should know that the market prefers certain verities.
Rose : Red : First Red (50%), Grand Gala
For export market : -
knowledge of the 10 main flowers in the market and their ranking (turnover).
Growing cut flowers can be a profitable business for the small scale producer. People like and will buy flowers. They can add beauty to your farm and home. Flowers can fit in both organic and conventional systems. You can tailor the size of your operation to the amount of time that you wish to devote. As with any new business, you should first establish your market. We recommend that you start small to see what works for you. Don't be afraid to ask for help. Valuable information is available from the extension service, the internet, workshops and conferences, and, of course, from other growers.