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RLD ofTREES ISSUE23

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Arboriculture • Woodland • Forestry

APF presents

2010

I N T E R N AT I O N A L F O R E S T RY E X H I B I T I O N Sponsored by

FEATURING FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE UK

THE HUSQVARNA WORLD POLECLIMBING CHAMPIONSHIPS THE UK’S LARGEST FORESTRY, WOODLAND AND ARBORICULTURAL EXHIBITION

Arb Section 2New 3 / 2 4 / 2Utility 5 t h September 2010 Ca nnoc kUtility’ Chase ,from Staffordshire ‘Utterly Page 30


B

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BRITISH ARBORICULTURAL SCHOOL OF EXCELLENCE

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Acres of dedicated forest

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Purpose built class rooms

Approv

ed Cen

tre

When you think training think B.A.S.E. • • • • • • •

All your arboricultural training needs under one roof All inclusive packages including accomodation, if needed Utilising the latest techniques and equipment Top trainers in the industry Training that exceeds current industry standards Flexible courses that can be tailored to your needs Centrally located on A34 between Cannock and Stafford, less than 15 mins from M6 J12 & J13

• NPTC Assessments • All Ground Based and Aerial Chainsaw Courses • MEWP Courses • LOLER Inspections • Chipper & Stump Grinder Training • Advanced Courses on Latest Techniques • Brushcutter and Clearing Saw

Tel: 01543 500505 - Fax: 01785 713762 enquiries@baseuk.net - www.baseuk.net


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RLD ofTREES Arboriculture • Woodland • Forestry

ISSUE 23

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Contents 4 8 10 12 14 18 20 22 24 26 30 34 36 38 40 44 46 50

News Getting the most from Nature 5 Wild Foods 2 Phytophthora in Larch The Forgotten Fruit How to Protect Traditional Orchards TrustMark for Arboriculture No Job too Big or too Small Clive Anderson launches tree-planting campaign Industry Events Rogue Tree Surgeons Utterly Utility Sheffield Park Garden Forestry News Lamberhurst Engineering New Machine from Seppi Advanced Techniques in Tree Risk Assessment Part 2 Why Brash Bailing could have mass appeal Mature Tree Preservation Through Advanced Tree Risk Assessment Part 3 Crackdown on forest thieves

For Advertising and Editorial: Arboriculture Advertising please contact Dal Parmar -

dal@eworldoftrees.com Forestry Advertising please contact Julie Bray -

julie@eworldoftrees.com

Editorial & Press Releases please contact

editor@eworldoftrees.com Tel: 01543 500255 a World of Trees, Coppice Lodge, Teddesley, Penkridge, Staffordshire ST19 5RP

a World of Trees Issue 23

Although every effort is made to ensure accuracy, neither a World of Trees nor its authors can accept any responsibility for errors or omissions. The views expressed in a World of Trees magazine are not necessarily those of a World of Trees. There is no unauthorised reproduction, in any media whatsoever, in whole or in part, permitted without the written consent of a World of Trees. If you feel that your copyright has been infringed in any way you should contact the editor. We undertake to remove from our publication or website any images or written media that have inadvertently infringed copyright or to give appropriate credit(s) where applicable. Unsolicited manuscripts and photographs are welcomed, but no responsibility can be accepted from them, however delivered. a World of Trees magazine is independent of all political parties, private interest groups and government. It has no affiliation to commercial interests other then its own and represents no organisations or associations. Our policy is to provide news and information to our readers in a balanced manner. If you find any error of fact in our pages you should contact the editor by telephone, letter or email. We undertake to correct errors promptly and to issue apologies, where deemed appropriate.

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News

Arboriculture & Woodland

New appointments at JOHN CLEGG & CO

John Clegg & Co are pleased to announce two new appointments to their team. Roger Adams and Mike Tustin have recently joined the company and will be based at their Oxfordshire office in Thame. Mike Tustin MICFor, MRICS, worked in Wales and Central England in the forestry and land management industry advising a diverse range of clients from larger scale estate owners, local authorities down to individuals who own small woodlands for interest. He has worked for UPM Tilhill and FIM Services and joins John Clegg & Co as a Forestry Surveyor from Nicholsons a privately owned Forest Management company where he was a senior forestry contracts manager helping to develop their business further. Roger Adams MRICS worked in the central London commercial property investment market latterly for Jones

already have operating in forestry sales, acquisitions and consultancy”. John Clegg & Co was established in 1967 and comprises a team of Chartered Surveyors and Chartered Foresters with detailed experience across almost every sector of the rural property market. With a reputation as forestry and woodland specialists the company sells well over 100 properties per year. Clients include private individuals with small amenity woodlands through to institutional or private funds with significant land holdings, traditional rural estates, government agencies and a variety of companies.

Lang Lasalle where, as a director in the national investment team, he advised major institutions including Scottish Widows, Legal & General and LaSalle Investment Management. He joins John Clegg & Co from FIM Services where he has helped to develop their UK and US forestry fund management businesses as well as working on renewable energy projects. John Clegg, the partner running the Thame office for John Clegg & Co where Roger and Mike will be based, comments: “We are delighted to welcome Roger and Mike to our firm. Roger Adams, as Investment Surveyor, brings with him a proven track record in seeking and creating deal opportunities together with extensive experience and knowledge of the property investment markets. Mike’s wide range of expertise in the forestry sector will enhance the specialist team we

The Presto Geoweb® system



 Geoweb is a 3 dimensional cellular confinement system manufactured  from high-quality, high-strength

 polyethylene with a textured surface and perforated walls. When the cells are filled with selected infill the cells control shearing, lateral and  vertical movement and reduces point  loads and compaction of the sub-soil. This makes Geoweb ideal for tree root protection                where there may be weak sub-soil or no  dig restrictions. The perforated cell walls  allow water infiltration, lateral movement of air and water, water and nutrient migration    and root development. We  can assist         you to determine the optimal cell size                and depth to solve your soil stabilization and soil reinforcement problems. Design                 calculations, installation guides and on site                  advice are free.

               

 4

The Presto Geoweb® system is the original cellular confinement system a World of Trees Issue 23

                   


IVECO 4X4 PLATFORM LAUNCH

Cumberland Industries Uk has been working hard for the off road market 2 new product launches already under their belt since April and another 3 planned before year end. Socage, an Italian platform manufacturer, has supported Cumberland all the way with the new products and has helped to develop both the Land Rover and Iveco 4x4

access platforms. The Iveco 4x4 20meter access platform was Launched at the ARB Show earlier this June and it was well received by the arbour culturist .The next step is to produce 2 further models of the Iveco 4x4 ,the 14.5 meter articulated version and the 16 meter telescopic version. Cumberland feels that combining the 3 Iveco models, the Land Rover 110 HD and the soon to be released Land Rover 130 with a 13.5 meter platform will put them at the top of the list of suppliers for off road access equipment. Being agents for Terex Utilities they can also offer fully insulated equipment on all types of vehicle 3.5 ton and above. From September it will be possible to hire the Cumberland Land Rover on spot or long term hire and the Iveco 4x4 on long term. Cumberland and Socage will be jointly

showing their equipment at both the IOG Saltex and APF exhibitions in September and in October Socage will be launching a new 13.5 meter platform on an Isuzu pick up. Cumberland will also be mounting the complete range of Socage and Terex access platforms from their workshops in Kettering Northants. This will give their customers a wide range of both on and off road solutions to help with their working at height needs. Cumberland who last year completed over 90 vehicle mounted access platforms are now pushing hard to get their new products onto the Uk market and with the help of Socage and Terex it looks like 2011 will be the year for them to do just that. You can visit them at both the IOG Saltex and the APF or contact them at Kettering on 01536 529 876 or via the website. www.cumberlanduk.co.uk.

No saw losers at Royal Welsh Show UK Logging Championship chaps on way to Croatia for World Championships The weather gods smiled – mostly – on Llanelwedd, Builth Wells, permanent home, since 1963, of the Royal Welsh Show. Strong winds and heavy rain were forecast for arguably the world’s largest agricultural show, held July 19th – 22nd, but save for a rather damp second day and decidedly wetter weather at its close, glorious sunshine and light breezes were in order throughout. Visitor numbers – more than 70,000, a record for a day and past 220,000 for the whole show – reflected the good weather and the keen local, national and international interest in all things to do with agriculture, forestry work, the countryside and related machinery plus other bits of kit.  Particular interest focused on the Forestry Section, home this year to the UK Logging Championships. Competition, while fierce and frenzied, remained friendly throughout.  It remained distinctly fresh-smelling, too. Fuel for the championship was sponsored by Aspen, an alkylate petrol – free from benzene, olefins, sulphur and solvents – created for the forestry sector in Sweden, through UK distributor Anglo American Oil Company Ltd (AAOC).  Other sponsors included Husqvarna and Arbotec, and the finals were broadcast on S4C and BBC Mid Wales Royal Welsh Show.  With virtually no emissions from the chainsaws, the air was not thick with unpleasant and downright toxic exhaust fumes – an occupational hazard for foresters. The only detectable smell was an altogether more pleasant scent of a World of Trees Issue 23

chainsaw blade through wood. The sweet smell was also of success for Richard Elliot, Dewi Williams and Alun Jones. They came first to third respectively in the Professional Class and will represent the UK at the World Logging Championships (WLC) in Zagreb, Croatia, this September. Josh Russell, Under 24 winner, and team leader Andy Campbell make the UK contingent up to five.  The fuel for the WLC – part of the International Association of Logging Championships – is also sponsored by Aspen, ensuring that the company’s claim that it is “the fuel for professionals” is quite definitely correct.  Said Andy Campbell, “One or two of the guys didn’t use Aspen, and you could really tell the difference, especially on a warm, still day.  “On days like this, the fumes from regular pump fuel hang around in the air right in front of you, which is obviously bad form your health. It’s not too nice for the spectators, either,” he added.  “The day isn’t far off when Aspen alkylate petrol is considered as much of a forester’s PPE as decent ballistic trousers and ear defenders. The protection they offer is pretty obvious. Using Aspen protects us from what can’t be easily seen, such as lung damage, or worse.”  Interest from potential dealers and users, for both Aspen and AAOC’s other low-impact fuel – EcoPar diesel alternative – was strong both at the sponsor’s gazebo and at the stand of Aspen distributor, Hereford Mower Services.  Elsewhere in the Forestry section, chainsaw carver Simon Hedger drew large crowds held rapt by his sculpting and the finished pieces. From life-size works

of a terrier and pup to a near life-size horse, his artistry was met with rounds of applause and sales. Perhaps more significantly, and certainly more moving, was when two young blind men had their hands guided to touch Simon’s sculptures. Although many people touched the pieces of display, a singularly priceless moment occurred when the inherent essence of the once-living wood and Simon’s gift passed through their fingertips, giving them, perhaps, a wholly different sight of the art.   Anglo American Oil Company Ltd wishes the UK team the best of British for the forthcoming world championships. Keep up to date with all the news at www.twitter.com/environmentAAOC.   Follow the World Logging Championships at www.wlc-croatia2010.com and for more information on Simon Hedger, visit his site at www.simonhedger.com.

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News Economies and new opportunities from extranarrow band sawing to strike a chord at A.P.F. With an eye to the fragility of the British and Irish economies, the leading manufacturer of narrow blade band sawmills will demonstrate what it claims is wood processing kit at A.P.F. that fits the bill. Aware of customers’ financial constraints, Wood-Mizer UK will show sawmills and other wood processing machinery with enhancements but not with undue price increases. At the A.P.F., Wood-Mizer will demonstrate: a remote-controlled version of its semi-industrial band sawmill; its mid-range ‘workhorse’ sawmill; the ‘chunkier’ adaptation of its small-medium

mill, now also remote-controlled; one of its smallest mills with a new moulder/ planer attachment plus power feed; and an industrial edger. David Biggs, Wood-Mizer UK general manager comments: “Although the year started weakly we now see evidence that prompts cautious optimism from some of our British and Irish clients’ business sectors but over confidence is foolhardy. “Furniture and carpentry are up and the important construction industries are forecast to rise this year and continue to do so for the next three years”, adds Mr Biggs.

5 Star Service from Gustharts

Gusthart’s was established in 1985 by Jim and Robert Gusthart, a father and son team with over 92 years of chainsaw experience between them. Jim Gusthart started in the timber trade

in 1938. His son Robert joined him at the age of 15 when he left school and went to work at H. Irwin & Son, a local timber merchant, where they sold and repaired all makes of chainsaw. After working together for 16 years, Jim and Robert left H. Irwin & Son to establish Gustharts Chainsaw Centre at the Milkhope Centre in Northumberland, where the business remains to this day. Gusthart’s is a STIHL 5-Star Service Centre probably the largest in the North East of England, able to provide, maintain and repair the complete range of STIHL products. Gusthart’s has always stocked a broad product range, including chainsaws, brushcutters, hedge-trimmers, lawnmowers,

personal protective equipment, all tools and accessories, and has a comprehensive range of tree climbing equipment to cater for the needs of professional tree surgeons. As the business has expanded, more highly-trained members of staff have been added to the team. Gusthart’s can meet all the needs of the professional arboriculturist and horticulturalist, offering an efficient, friendly sales and maintenance/repair service that is second to none. Many of our customers complement us on our easy to use web-site where you can make purchases on-line. Purchasing on-line is not only easy to use but delivery is normally next day if ordered before 2pm throughout most of the UK.

Silva Cell Goes International at Harrogate Geosynthetics Ltd recently supplied the Deeproot Silva Cell Tree and Stormwater Management System to Harrogate Borough Council for their pavement improvements scheme at Kings Road outside the famous International Conference and Exhibition Centre. The Deeproot Silva Cell is a modular framework that provides a structural void for soil to be housed when planting new trees in hard landscaped areas. Unique in its design and application, the Silva Cell prevents compaction of soils subsequently encouraging healthy and sustained growth of the selected tree species. Harrogate Borough Council specified the Silva Cell System to increase the soil volume that is usually provided for street trees to a much greater capacity. This increased soil availability helps the tree to grow to the specified size at maturity, increasing the amenity value of the tree and also enhancing the aesthetics of the area and helping to make our towns greener and cleaner. Trees play a vital part in our environment and thanks to the Silva Cell System designers can now be encouraged to plant large street trees in all of their developments. The Silva Cell was successfully installed at Harrogate during February and March 2010. Contact our sales office for more information on products and services on 01455 617139 or email sales@geosyn.co.uk www.geosyn.co.uk 6

a World of Trees Issue 23


News Saltex 2010 New Product Launch: QUAD TRAK 160 Developed from the Quad Chip 150 turntable woodchipper that was launched in 2009, GreenMech have now added the Quad Trak 160 tracked machine to their product range. Built entirely at the company’s Warwickshire factory, the Quad Trak 160 features the vertical feed rollers, the 160mm x 230mm in-feed throat and the easy maintenance square blade system that have made the Quad Chip 150 so popular. The tracked version, in standard form, is

set up in an in line format and is fitted with high clearance track mounts giving 280mm (11”) of ground clearance and a 2mm thick belly plate that protects the engine and chipper. Customers have the option of adding a turntable and tilting body kit which offers unique versatility for a machine of this type. Sales Director Martin Lucas explained,“ with the combined turntable and tilting body the Quad Trak can be operated on slopes of up 30º. The tilting body ensure the correct flow of oil to the engine and the turntable allows the chute to be positioned to

suit the conditions.” For ease of operation the machine is fitted with an operating platform that offers easy access to the controls and excellent visibility when moving on or to the worksite. For transporting on the road a bespoke trailer has been designed that allows safe and simple loading and unloading. Once mounted on the trailer the machine can be operated as a road tow chipper allowing ultimate flexibility of use. Corporate colour schemes can also be accommodated in the modern on-site paint facility.

New Magenta Digital Bat5 The Magenta Digital Bat5 Bat Detector features a new improved frequency display with a red backlight. Red has a reduced effect on night vision and so it is easier to read and still see bats clearly at dusk. The Bat5 heterodyne detector has a smooth 10 to 135 kHz tuning range, a large 4 digit display, quartz accurate to 100Hz, and a front facing weatherproof loudspeaker. Very long battery life is achieved from four standard, alkaline or rechargeable AAA batteries. A 3.5mm headphone socket disconnects the loudspeaker for quiet listening using standard stereo headphones, and a separate low level output is suitable for tape or digital sound recording. Inside, multi stage filter circuits, a wide range

microphone, and low noise amplifiers ensure sensitive stable performance. The shaped moulded case is convenient for single handed operation and fits comfortably into a reasonably sized pocket. Not only Bats, but Rats, Mice, Insects, and many small birds can be heard at the lower frequency settings. The detector is Very useful for checking if bird boxes are occupied, and finds bike tyre punctures very easily! Made in England, the detector is fully guaranteed. Spares and repairs are readily available. The Bat5 costs £89.95 including VAT from Magenta (01283 565435 www. magenta2000.co.uk) or via distributors. Also the Bat4 which has a calibrated dial instead of the digital display £59.95.  

Making Your Access Easier with EPL Skylift ‘Around 16% of all reported tree work accidents involve falling from height’ says the HSE (Health and Safety Executive). ‘In many cases, MEWPs (mobile elevating work platforms) provide safe and quick access to trees and a secure working platform’. EPL Skylift, the truck mount division of Europe’s largest powered access provider, Lavendon Access Services, is intent on stamping this figure out by promoting powered access across the arboriculture industry. Amongst the vast range of machines available from its fleet, EPL Skylift recently supplied Central Networks with a T37R truck mount, enabling tree surgeons to quickly and safely remove branches that were in danger of coming into contact with nearby telephone lines. The job, which took place near Moreton-in-Marsh, Gloucestershire, needed to be completed quickly, as the a World of Trees Issue 23

area is popular with walkers and could only be cordoned off for a short time. Due to ground sometimes being uneven, spider type machines are often advised for arboricultural work, however the T37R was chosen for this particular job, as the work area is accessed by a track. It was also possible to begin work immediately (following safety inspections) as there was no time lost to delivery. The T37R provided the operator with 37 metres of working height, where as the largest machine in the company’s fleet offers 101 metres, easily enough reach to access the tallest of trees. EPL Skylift provides a number of operator training courses, and if the need arose due to pressures of work, can also supply highly skilled operators to position work platforms, allowing the tree surgeon to concentrate on the job in hand. For further information regarding Lavendon Access Services or EPL Skylift please contact Emily Lowth. Tel: +44

(0)1455 206719 email: emily.lowth@ lavendongroup.co.uk

EPL Skylift is seeing an increase in demand for truck mounted platforms from the Arboriculture industry 7


Getting the most from

5

by Mike Jarmain

WILD FOODS Following on from the last issue, this article will deal with another five commonly found wild plants. The great thing about all these plants is that they are widely available, easy to identify and free for the picking. Remember, though, that there are certain rules when picking wild plants which MUST be followed. This protects you and the environment, so please follow these guidelines at all times. Basic Rules of Gathering 1. Don’t pick from areas that are polluted – avoid roadsides, land that has been sprayed or areas where dogs are walked. 2. Be 100% sure you have identified the plant you are picking. If you’re unsure, leave it alone! You can always come back another day. 3. Get permission from the landowner before you go foraging for wild foods. 4. Don’t be greedy. Only take what you need and only take a little from any one plant. Try and gather from a wide area - the effect you have is minimised. 5. Nature Reserves, SSSI’s and other protected areas are just that – Protected. Don’t forage here. 6. When you get home, wash the plants thoroughly and discard anything that’s old or decayed. 6. Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) – gathering time all year except the coldest months A plant that surely needs no introduction. Incredibly widespread in open or grassy places and among the most profuse of any ‘weeds’ in the garden, the Dandelion is one of the few plants producing a milky sap that can be eaten (squeeze any Dandelion stem to see this white sap emerge). It is ironic that so much money is spent every year by gardeners the length and breadth of the country in trying to kill off this plant when it can so easily be eaten. The parts of the plant most often eaten are the roots and leaves. Dandelion generally produces quite a large tap root which can be dug up and roasted and then ground down to make a very acceptable and caffeine-free coffee substitute. The best time of year to try this is now (August/ September) as the root is just about as thick as it is going to get. Wait until some rain has softened the ground and then dig the tap root up. Wash them well (but don’t peel), let them dry overnight, cut into small pieces and then gently roast them for several hours in a low-medium heat oven. Once you’ve done this, you can grind the root into granules and 8

use it as you would for normal coffee. It is said to be particularly good for liver detoxification, just the thing for that ‘morning after the night before’ drink!

Dandelion - co

mmon and w

idespread

April to June and are whitish with delicate lilac veins. The leaf has a taste much like apple or grape peel, with just a hint of lemon. It can be sparingly eaten on its own, added to salads or pulped as an ingredient in sauces. It is very refreshing but a word of caution must be entered here. The reason why the leaf tastes as it does and has a certain ‘bite’ is because of the presence of oxalic acid. This acid is also present in numerous other plants such as rhubarb and broccoli so it is not harmful to you if consumed in small quantities. However, if you suffer from rheumatism, kidney stones or gout, eating wood sorrel will only make your condition worse. Around the world, members of the Oxalis family occur nearly everywhere. In fact the only areas without these plants are the polar zones. Some North American Indians apparently considered the plant an aphrodisiac but I can’t say personally it has ever had this effect! Without doubt though, when hot, tired and thirsty, consuming a few leaves will most definitely be a treat. l Wood Sorre

Elderflower in ful

l bloom

The leaves can also be eaten virtually year round. As with almost all wild foods, pick only the youngest, most juicy looking leaves. Wash them thoroughly and put them straight into a salad. They are packed with vitamins A, C and K and contain more iron than spinach. The only thing to be aware of is that eating too much Dandelion may have an adverse affect on your need to urinate. The plant is a diuretic – so eat in moderation! 7. Wood Sorrel (Oxalis Acetosella) gathering time - Spring & Summer Eaten by mankind for thousands of years, wood sorrel is one of the easiest plants to gather and eat. In early spring, it is often one of the first useful plants to emerge on the woodland floor. In Wales, where I live, it is very common amongst the huge coniferous plantations. Its leaves are easily mistaken for clover but the flower, when it emerges, is unmistakeable. These appear from approximately

8. Elder (Sambucus Nigra) Widespread and common over most of the United Kingdom, although slightly rarer in Scotland, Elder has a multitude of uses. In terms of eating and drinking, the most important parts are the flowers and the berries. Elderflower cordial is still commonly made today from the flowers in May or June. This drink was particularly popular in the Victorian period but can be traced back to Roman times. a World of Trees Issue 23


WARNING – ONLY PICK PLANTS THAT YOU HAVE POSITIVELY IDENTIFIED AS SAFE TO EAT. NEVER, EVER PICK A PLANT THAT YOU ARE UNSURE ABOUT. IF YOU ARE UNSURE, LEAVE IT ALONE! SOME PLANTS MAY MAKE YOU ILL BUT SOME PLANTS CAN KILL YOU. s

Elderberrie

Elderflower fritters are easy to make and are a popular way to eat the flowers. Served freshly cooked and dusted with icing sugar, they are an irresistible treat for all ages. If you’ve never done this before, there are many recipes for the batter in cookbooks and on the internet. You will be amazed at how good they taste so they are well worth a go. In August, the berries will start to blacken and then another culinary treat awaits. Rich in Vitamin C, my preferred method is to gently cook them in a pot with some apple. Everything is cooked down to a thick, juicy sauce. This method may seem a little basic but it is one of my favourite of all wild foods. It goes well in pies, with ice cream – in fact, almost any desert will be enlivened by some of this. One of the other uses for Elder is a fungus that grows on it. The edible Jew’s Ear fungus (Auricularia Judae) resembles an ear and is usually best harvested in October and November. My preferred way of eating this fungus is to cut it into thin strips which are added to a stew. It can be a little disconcerting otherwise to have this ear-like ‘thing’ floating in your food!

of those treats that you will probably have to go outdoors to collect yourself. It has to be admitted that collecting Bilberries can be time consuming but the reward if you do is all the sweeter. The best way to collect them is by hand, for they damage easily if collected by other means. They can be made into jams but you do need to collect quite a lot to do this. However, if you or someone you know suffers from certain eye disorders, it can be well worth your time. Recent research has shown that eating Bilberries may help in slowing or even partially reversing eye degeneration or macular degeneration. This is a condition where the centre of your vision becomes increasingly blurred. Exactly what effect consuming Bilbeeries has is still under study but it is an interesting thought that something that tastes so good can actually be very good for you. One further use is to help settle a stomach or sooth a sore throat. Mash a handful of berries in a pot or billycan and then add a pint of water. Bring to a boil and simmer until the amount has reduced by a third. Gargle with it if your throat is sore and drink the mixture if your stomach is upset.

Common Bilberry

to grilling. Trout or bass all benefit from a few Ramsoms leaves placed inside them when grilled over coals. They can also be used in most other ways that garlic can be used but where a milder taste is preferred. The leaves have been used in past times as fodder for animals. This apparently gave milk a slight garlic taste (which would have made your tea taste a bit different to say the least!) but the butter made from this milk would have been far more popular for cooking. By getting to know the ten plants mentioned in this and the previous issue, you are well on the way to discovering a source of food that you can tap into whenever it is in season. If you eat any of these plants, you are cutting those ties that bind you to shop-bought produce. You will be using a natural resource that is freely and widely available, doesn’t cost a thing apart from the time taken to collect it and hasn’t been transported vast distances. Hopefully, once you starting using wild foods, it will only excite your curiosity to learn what else can be eaten that grows in a hedge, wood, field, dune or moor. It is a fascinating journey and well worth the effort. Above all, please collect safely, follow the guidelines and always positively identify. Happy foraging! In the next issue, I shall look at water; how to find it, filter it and purify it. Ramsoms

Jew’s Ear fungus

9. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) best gathered August–September time. A low growing shrub, bilberry can be found growing in large patches in coniferous woods or acidic soils. It is closely related to the larger North American blueberry. Unlike the American blueberry, it is very difficult to grow commercially, so it is one a World of Trees Issue 23

10. Ramsoms (Allium ursinum) gathering time spring Otherwise known as wild garlic, the leaf of this plant is a milder tasting version of clove garlic. Growing in moist deciduous woodlands, Ramsoms are unmistakeable due to their smell. However, the leaf can be mistaken for several similar plants which are very poisonous (Lily of the Valley, Meadow Saffron and Lords and Ladies). Therefore, you must absolutely and positively identify this plant before attempting to use it. The best way to do this is to crush the leaf between your hands to release the garlic scent. It is a member of the onion family and the leaves, bulbs and flowers can all be eaten. However, I personally concentrate on the leaves, which can be used in salads or placed in fish prior

Copyright Mike Jarmain 2009. www.cambriansurvival.co.uk info@cambriansurvival.co.uk

9


Phytophthora in larch Fatal disease spreads to larch trees in Wales

Forestry Commission Wales experts are working to contain an outbreak of Phytophthora ramorum (P. ramorum) infection in Japanese larch trees in South Wales.

P. ramorum is a fungus-like pathogen that kills many of the trees that it infects. It was found on Japanese larch trees in South West England last year, and the outbreak in woodlands in the Afan Valley, near Port Talbot, Garw Valley, near Bridgend, and the Vale of Glamorgan is the first time it has been encountered on larch elsewhere in Great Britain. Richard Siddons, Head of Grants and Regulations for Forestry Commission Wales, said, “Like any threat to our trees, woods and forests, finding Phytophthora ramorum on Japanese larch in South Wales is a worrying development. “The disease was discovered here as a result of aerial surveys, with subsequent inspections and testing of samples confirming that there is widespread infection in all ages of Japanese larch. “So far in Wales, it has only been found 10

in woodland that is managed by Forestry Commission Wales on behalf of the Welsh Assembly Government. “However, the situation is changing rapidly as we undertake more surveys, and it is likely that the infection has spread more widely. “We are determined to minimise the impacts of this disease on woodlands, and the support of woodland owners in looking out for early signs of infection will play a key part in achieving that.” Until last year, fewer than 100 trees had been infected in Britain since P. ramorum was first identified here on a viburnum plant in a nursery in 2002. Since then, it has mostly affected shrub species such as rhododendron and viburnum, and also bilberry, an ecologically important ground-cover plant common in British woodlands and heathland. The discovery of the disease on larch in South West England in 2009 was the

first time in the world that a commercially grown conifer species had been found with P. ramorum infection. Acting on scientific advice, Forestry Commission England instigated a programme of felling infected trees and a range of biosecurity measures. A similar programme of actions is now underway in Wales, with biosecurity measures in place to minimise the spread of infection in soil or on larch needles, people, vehicles, equipment and timber. Extensive felling of affected larch trees in South Wales is about to begin and Forestry Commission Wales is working with timber processors and others to ensure biosecurity measures are put in place to allow logs from the infected trees to be taken to mills for conversion into timber. Richard Siddons said Forestry Commission Wales is treating the outbreak in South Wales very seriously. “Together with colleagues in our Forest Research Agency, Fera and the Welsh a World of Trees Issue 23


Assembly Government, we have moved quickly to determine the exact extent of the infected area and to take steps to prevent it from spreading further. “We are appealing to everyone who works in or visits the affected forests to help us by observing some sensible biosecurity precautions so that they don’t inadvertently spread the pathogen on their boots, bicycle or vehicle wheels, tools or machinery. People are being advised what to do by signs at forest entrances. “Based on our scientists’ knowledge of regional weather patterns and how the disease spreads in mists, rain and air currents, we hope that we can contain it within the South West of England and South Wales, in a region bounded in the north roughly by the A44 road in mid Wales and in the east by the M5 motorway.” Cash support announced to help fight larch tree disease Woodland owners will be given access to a £600,000 support package announced today to help tackle the outbreak of Phytophthora ramorum infection in larch trees in South West England and South Wales. P. ramorum infection has been confirmed in Japanese larch trees (Larix kaempferi) in a mix of Forestry Commission England and privately owned forests in South West England, and in woodland managed by Forestry Commission Wales in South Wales. The package has been put in place by the Forestry Commission from funding made available from Defra’s £25 million, five-year Phytophthora management programme. The first £100,000 has been earmarked to give private-sector owners access to professional advice about how to have infected trees felled and marketed in ways that comply with biosecurity and other regulations. Owners will be able to apply for up to £1000 of aid from this part of the fund. Roddie Burgess, head of the Commission’s Plant Health Service, said: “Woodland owners need to make decisions about how they deal with these outbreaks to comply with requirements imposed on them under the disease management programme, but there are a number of options open to them. These funds will provide support from experienced professionals who can help owners decide on the best options tailored to their situation.” The £500,000 balance will be used to prevent further spread of the disease. It will help owners with the costs of clearing immature Japanese larch from affected sites, both privately owned and those managed by the Forestry Commission, especially those most likely to cause further spread of the disease. (Immature, or “thicket-stage”, trees are young trees that are too small to have any commercial value that would otherwise help to offset the costs of removal.). Mr Burgess explained: “Larch can produce many more P. ramorum spores than other species so far infected, and they can spread easily over considerable distances. “We are working hard to define the limits a World of Trees Issue 23

of infected larch by combining aerial surveys with follow-up ground checks of suspected sites. Once we are clear on this extent, the limited funding might have to be targeted at areas most likely to cause further spread to the wider country. “We will use the funds to remove infected trees from as many of these areas as possible before the end of March 2011. “Full details of how the funding package will be administered will be finalised over the next few weeks, but allocation of the assistance will be decided by a board comprising representatives of the Forestry Commission, Fera and the Confederation of Forest Industries (ConFor - representing private-sector forest owners).” The announcement follows a series of meetings between officials, woodland owners and other bodies, including ConFor, to identify the potential impacts of the disease beyond the infection of the trees themselves. Regular reviews will monitor the effectiveness of the support package and associated works.  Forestry Commission leading fight against killer tree disease The Forestry Commission is continuing to lead the fight against the tree disease, Phytophthora ramorum, that has been infecting Japanese larch trees in forests across the South West. Acting on the best available scientific advice, the Forestry Commission is carrying out a programme of felling infected trees on public and private land as the most effective means of controlling further spread of the disease. A current large-scale example of such felling for disease control is now underway on land managed by the Forestry Commission in the Glyn Valley in Cornwall. Further felling operations are also in train in Plym Woods on the edge of Plymouth; Lydford on the edge of Dartmoor. Felling will also soon start at Burrator Reservoir on Dartmoor, which is managed by South West Lakes Trust. The Forestry Commission is repeating its earlier requests to landowners and woodland managers to remain vigilant and boost our efforts to contain the disease by reporting any suspected signs of infection in their woodland. Chris Marrow, Forest Management Director from the Forestry Commission’s Peninsula district said: “No one, least of all the Forestry Commission, wants to see trees and woodland cut down unnecessarily – ahead of their natural time for harvesting - and leaving exposed bare landscapes on a scale greater than through routine, planned rotations.  Unfortunately, our scientific advice is that felling infected trees is the best method for controlling this disease and so preventing further damage. We are seeking to minimise the impacts of this highly infectious disease on landowners and the landscape as best we can – simply by seeking to contain it.  But also from the outset, we have been working closely with private landowners and their

representative bodies to keep them informed about the disease, the symptoms to look out for, and to explain and agree the necessary control and biosecurity measures . For owners who find they have infected trees we have  secured a limited fund and depending on the progression of the disease we may have to target support to sites that pose the greatest risk of spread to uninfected areas. We have been greatly assisted by the vigilance and support of private woodland owners in helping us detect and seek to limit the spread of this disease.” The Forestry Commission is acutely aware of the potential negative economic impacts this disease could have on the forest sector overall and individual woodland owners in particular. Hence our urgent and ongoing efforts to stop the disease spreading further. In addition, working with colleagues in Defra and Fera, we have put together a support package with limited funds to help woodland owners having to contend with the disease and its impacts, including: • Setting up a network of agents who can provide professional advice and practical expertise for owners having to carry out felling for disease control • Providing financial support for the clearing of infected immature Japanese larch trees which are too small to have any commercial value for timber. • Getting agreement from saw mills to accept timber from infected mature trees felled for disease control – so enabling owners to achieve some income return on their costs. This has been done on the basis of scientific advice establishing that there is minimal risk of disease spread from transporting and processing logs from infected trees – as long as biosecurity measures have been followed. Chris Marrow continued: “In affected forests such as Plym Woods, visitors can help us with biosecurity by following some simple guidelines displayed on signs in the forest.  This includes keeping to the stone paths, keeping dogs on short leads and cleaning footwear and bikes before leaving the forest.  We want people to continue enjoying the woods but by taking these small steps they will help enormously in our fight the spread of the disease.  Of course, there will be some parts of the forest that will be out of bounds while we carry out felling but we will work hard to keep any disruption to the public to an absolute minimum.  People familiar with our woods will be used to this as all of our forests are working, sustainably managed forests, which means a regular cycle of felling and planting. “Private landowners also have a big part to play.  We need them to remain extremely vigilant and regularly inspect their own woodlands where they have Japanese larch.  It is essential that any suspected P ramorum outbreak is reported to us.  There is a range of advice and help available to landowners on the Forestry Commission website www.forestry.gov.uk/pramorum.  We are here to help and people with any concerns can contact us at any time to discuss any issues they are having.” 11


n e t t o g r o F ThTehe Forgotten Fruit The Forgotten Fruit

Saul Heath

I was asked the question; what is that odd looking tree in Motcombe Park with the strange looking fruit? It’s an apple tree said one, no it’s a pear tree said another. The boy presented me with a leaf and I began to wonder. Curiosity got the better of me and the very next day I set off to Motcombe to see for myself. Motcombe Park was part of a farm yard owned by the 9th Duke of Devonshire up until 1908-1909 when he gave the land to the town of Eastbourne. The pond in the middle of the park is the source of the Bourne stream from which East Bourne got its name. It is a very small park so it did not take me long to find the odd looking tree; dipping its roots in the pond as a child would cool their toes on a hot summers day. As I walked towards it my thoughts were “Apple tree” getting closer “no the leaves are too big and certainly too big to be a Pear tree”. I reached inside my bag for a tree guide but before I opened a page I noticed a strange fruit; not apple or pear or anything else I had come across. They were distinctly Maloideae in appearance so I opened the book up at Rosaceae and there it was. Mespilus germanica, common name Medlar, family Rosaceae, sub family Maloideae, a native of South East Europe and Central Asia. Propagation by seed or by grafting onto quince, hawthorn or pear. Prefers sunny position, wind protection, well drained soil, dislikes moisture retentive soils, cold damp conditions and areas with cold winters. As the town council have no historical planting records for the sight it is difficult to give an age to the specimen. With my lack of familiarity with the species all I can safely conclude is that it is of mature form. Certainly a rare sight in Britain today, but a century ago would have been seen by far more than a few. The Ancient Greeks and Romans certainly knew what a Medlar looked like, common in Europe during

the Middle Ages and widely cultivated in Southern England between the 1600 and 1800s. Shakespeare knew what a Medlar looked like and wrote of it on more than one occasion. If love be blind, love cannot hit the mark. Now will he sit under a medlar tree and wish his mistress were that kind of fruit as maids call medlars when they laugh alone. (Romeo and Juliet). Confident in my ident I began to look closer at the tree. It has a stout contorted bole, as if someone has got hold of the crown and twisted it anti-clockwise, just enough to get a better angle at which to view. Its unsymmetrical crown hovers above the bowl like a solitary cloud, a tree which is certainly wider than it is tall, approximately 4m high and 6m wide. The bark is rough to the touch with a distinct platy appearance and small lifting plates, quite unlike Malus i.e. not as old and haggard looking. Typically a slow growing tree which suggests the wood is quite hard. In earlier days the wood was used for clubs and fighting sticks; later on to make parts for windmills including some parts of the turning wheels. The branches twist and turn around each other, crossing over and under then around and over again in a very bizarre spectacle; somewhat alike other members of the Rosaceae family I have seen but never with these dimensions. Has someone planted it upside down? The crown looks more like a root system than a typical crown, devoid of small twigs. It has been pruned; but not recently. Established trees require little pruning other than the removal of dead or diseased wood and overcrowded branches. The flowers appearing in late spring are large and white, fringed with pink and resemble single white roses, almost all the blossoms set fruit. The fruit is indeed strange looking and described in the Oxford English Dictionary as

“Resembling a small brown-skinned apple, with a large cup shaped ‘eye’ between the persistent calyx-lobes”. D.H. Lawrence dubbed medlars as “wineskins of morbidity”. In botanical terms the calyx-lobes are the collective sepals that remain on the fruit which is a pome, a fleshy receptacle with an endocarp containing 5 seeds. They persist on the tree in late autumn, apparently immune to bird or insect damage and after tasting one in early November I can understand why “very bitter”. The unripe fruit is very high in tannins and peptic acids and was traditionally “bletted” (from the French, to make soft) before eating. Early frosts or cold storage speeds up the process, initiating an increase in sugars and therefore sweetening the fruit. I scarce know her, for the beauty of her cheek hath, like the moon, suffered strange eclipses since I beheld it: women are like medlars no sooner ripe but rotten. (Thomas Dekker. The Honest Whore). The specimen is not a great tree in terms of majesty like say a great oak or as dominant as an old beech, and of course it has been pruned; it lives in a park. What it doesn’t have in size it makes up for in character, quite different from the norm and in its setting is definitely not a “misquote”.

t i u r F 12

As part of his CPD Saul wrote this piece whilst studying towards a FdSc Arboriculture at Myerscough College. He completed the Tree Surgery Course at Plumpton gaining CS units-30,31,38 & 39 in 2005 and in 2009 passed the Lantra/ AA  Professional Tree Inspection course.   He is now looking to get off the tools and find a consultancy based postion.   If you can help Saul with his career move/ advancement please email him direct saul.heath@tiscali.co.uk

a World of Trees Issue 23


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a World of Trees Issue 23

13


How To Protect Traditional Orchards Steve Oram, Traditional Orchards Project at the People’s Trust for Endangered Species. The popularity of traditionally managed orchards is widely accepted, so it isn’t surprising that requests for help in their defence when destruction or development looms are regularly received by orchard groups and orchard project officers. Despite this affection, the habitat continues to be lost. There are a number of contributing factors working against their survival, some of which are longstanding, whilst others are of more recent provenance. Chief among them is the relatively unproductive nature of an older orchard and traditional sized trees compared to modern fruit production methods, compounded by the resulting lack of replacement planting and general neglect. Their location doesn’t work in their favour either, often being, for harvesting and transport practicalities, planted on the fringes of settlements and close to other buildings, meaning they frequently impede expansion and extension. More recently, health and safety regulations covering the use of ladders and lifting restrictions has discouraged harvesting, and Mr Prescott’s injudicious (and recently revoked - hurrah) categorisation of gardens as brownfield sites gave a green light to build a house in every modestly-sized garden. On a commercial level, productive orchard 14

trees are a crop so exempt from most landscape and habitat protection schemes and not eligible for Tree Protection Orders (TPO) – ironically once taken out of commercial production they may be considered.

The Legalities

Whilst even a modern, intensively managed orchard surely provides a more favourable aspect than new-build housing or twenty acres of oilseed rape, it is only the traditionally managed variety that has any potential for protection due to its recognition as a UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) Priority Habitat and so is subject to a Habitat Action Plan. The bottom line here is that there is little of substance in law that can be invoked if a BAP target is threatened with development, a point tested in court by Buglife when they lost the legal battle to protect a brownfield site on Canvey Island that contained several BAP species. In this case the site has to date not been developed but whether its salvation can be attributed to the pressure of public opinion or the ‘credit crunch’ is debatable and something to consider. Despite this, there are several promising soundbites that can be quoted from local, national and international legislation. Starting from the top (although skipping over the globally ratified Convention on Biological Diversity), there’s the legally binding European Landscape Convention

(2000): “Signatories are expected to recognise landscapes in law as an essential component of people’s surroundings, an expression of the diversity of their shared cultural and natural heritage, and a foundation of their identity.” This translates into Natural England’s draft document: “All landscapes matter: they should be managed, planned and, where appropriate, protected through a landscape character approach to be distinctive and highly valued while delivering a full range of ecosystem goods and services.” The Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act (NERC, 2006) contains a statutory duty: “Every public authority must, in exercising its functions, have regard, so far as is consistent with the proper exercise of those functions, to the purpose of conserving biodiversity” Add to this Planning Policy Statement 9: A Guide to Good Practice (2006), the official line in Government policy guidance to local planners…: “Identify any areas or sites for the restoration or creation of new priority habitats which contribute to regional targets, and support this restoration or a World of Trees Issue 23


How To Protect Traditional Orchards creation through appropriate policies.” …and a substantive set of policy recommendations emerge. This last, PPS9, is guidance, not statutory, but local authorities must take its contents into consideration when planning for sites which may be county wildlife sites or be subject to UK or Local BAPs with a presumption towards conservation. Unfortunately, as we have seen with BAP species in Canvey Island and Debbie Bryce, consultant and veteran orchard campaigner neatly summarises, “Local authorities only have to ‘take into account’ the habitat value of old orchards – which they do – but then they ignore it”.

Taking Action

When taking action to preserve an orchard the pros of statutory duties and guidance need to be highlighted, whilst proposing mitigation of the cons outlined above. There are some instances where an element of statutory protection, although not always entirely binding, may already be in force. If the site is in a conservation area, National Park, Local or National Nature Reserve, within an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, or contains trees already subject to a TPO, then a greater presumption of conservation is conferred from the outset. SSSIs and Ancient Scheduled Monuments are candidates too, but uncommon. Most, however, will not be graced by the hand of statutory benevolence and you will have to slug it out the hard way. It’s normally best to start with the site owner. It will often be apparent if they are likely to be interested in wildlife and heritage preservation and shared open spaces. Assuming most will be motivated by more immediate matters, you would, once you have made your own representations to the planning office, have to judge how the application is likely to go by talking to the Development Control Officer for the application. If planning refusal is unlikely, then you could encourage a compromise position. DEFRA’s “Guidance for Local Authorities in Implementing the Biodiversity Duty” usefully describes how financial contributions can be extracted from developers specifically for use in nature conservation. Ideally a vulnerable orchard should be identified before the chainsaw arrives, even more ideally, before its vulnerability becomes an issue. Every local council should have a Local Development Framework, a required component of which is an Adopted Proposals Map showing areas in which there is a presumption in favour of development. Traditional Orchards should not be included within areas designated for settlements as inclusion within such a boundary satisfies the first, and perhaps greatest, test of suitability for development. Representations should be made to exclude BAP sites early on. A national inventory mapping the Traditional Orchard habitat is in progress, available a World of Trees Issue 23

via Natural England or through links on the People’s Trust for Endangered Species website.

The Site

The main qualities of an orchard should be recorded in a site portfolio. To start you off, the council’s Biodiversity Officer may be able to point you in the right direction. Your county’s Biodiversity Records Centre (BRC) can provide you with a list of existing flora and fauna records for the area highlighting anything of importance, but for thoroughness you’ll need to coordinate your own ecological survey, even if this is only conducted from the roadside. Bats, great crested newts and badgers are the most obvious developer’s boggarts. If the site proves to be an important habitat your local Wildlife Trust can recommend its designation as a County Wildlife Site, although ordinarily this will only be done in collaboration with the owner. In turn, your own survey should be fed back into the BRC so that any future ecological consultant’s report, which developers must produce at the planning stage, reflects your survey’s findings. Bear in mind that an ecologist hired by a developer is working in the developer’s interest and may advise that the orchard is removed before anyone can complain (see box 2). The ecological survey could go either way. If a diverse ground flora and rare invertebrate assemblage are revealed, then ten or so 40 year old bramley’s seedlings trees are only the supporting act. Conversely, if the survey shows little or no wildlife value, the orchard itself, and the trees, would need to be the main reason for protection. This works well if the orchard contains several gnarly and wizened trees of different varieties (normally unidentified, possibly of local provenance) as this earns heritage kudos points, and is more conducive to shared use, more of which later. Important trees may qualify for a TPO, so if the orchard is not commercially active, contact the Tree Warden for your area. To justify the implementation of a TPO the trees must have public amenity value and be in good health or could viably be managed to good health. Formerly visual amenity was key to granting a TPO, but now scarcity and importance as a wildlife habitat can be given considerable weight. There appears to be an assumption that a veteran tree equates to a ‘dead, dying and dangerous’ tree. This is one of the greatest causes of loss of trees from the landscape and the biodiversity value of veteran features should be given more weight by planners and some tree officers than is currently the case. Although TPOs can be overridden by a grant of planning permission they are considered in the decision making process so are a significant string to your bow when defending an orchard. Related to the fruit heritage is the local setting. If the orchard represents a recognised feature, or remnant, of a landscape character on a local or regional scale this strengthens the

contextual setting and has relevance to landscape heritage. The council conservation or landscape officer may be able to help with this.

A Sustainable Plan

A key part of your objection is to outline potential future site benefits, including how it will be managed and by whom, if the development is refused. This should obviously be in consultation with the owner who may not be remotely interested in such a proposal at this stage. For example a plan to create a community orchard, if appropriately located, is a popular initiative. Another compromise option might be to accept development of part of the site if the best part of the orchard was retained with a proper and funded management plan. This depends how big the site is and where the trees are located. If practicable this is the sort of planning gain that can protect and enhance the best habitats but it does need good green policies at the Council and careful negotiation. Some very good books are available addressing the establishment of community orchards, but in summary, you’ll be using very tasty phrases like public open space, sustainable communities, public well-being, community inclusion, farmers market, locally produced, vegetable box scheme, and apple day. A selection of different varieties and ‘eaters’ rather than ‘cookers’ lends itself better to this use, but once the land is secured, new trees can and should be planted anyway. When you have completed your portfolio distribute it to every parish and borough councillor, contact the local media and inform your MP.

Useful Links

• Peoples Trust for Endangered Species Traditional Orchard Inventory www.ptes.org/orchards • The Orchard Network www.orchardnetwork.org.uk • Common Ground website www.england-in-particular.info/ orchards/o-threat1.html • Common Ground’s Community Orchards Handbook • PPS9 www.communities.gov.uk/ publications/planningandbuilding/pps9 • East of England Apples & Orchards Project www.applesandorchards.org.uk • Gloucestershire Orchard Group Planning Advice Leaflet www.gloucestershireorchardgroup.org.uk • National Orchard Forum www.nat-orchardforum.org.uk • Sustain www.sustainweb.org Protecting our Orchard Heritage – A Good Practice Guide • www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk (Search for “traditional orchards A3 leaflet” from their homepage) • Henlow village orchard case saynototownfarmdevelopment.com 15


s t c e j o r P l u f s s e Succ

How To Protect Traditional Orchards

Tewkesbury Borough Council

Two tree wardens at Tewkesbury Borough Council managed to remove a large historically important perry pear orchard from inclusion in the development plan and protect it from future threats. The 3 acre orchard on the outskirts of Brockworth, Gloucestershire, was at high risk of development as part of the Regional Spatial Strategy (aka Local Development Plan). Personal funds were used for an ecological survey and “extensive evidence gathering”. A Tree Preservation Order was made on the entire orchard. Details of a well-executed defence are available on the Gloucestershire Orchard Group’s website (from their homepage, search for saved-orchard).

Cambridge

Cambourne, a progressive new town development of around 5,000 houses, was a site with mature hedgerows and pocket woodlands as existing habitat. New habitat was created, including a community orchard of fifty apple, pears and damsons, gages, plums and cherries, mulberry, quince and medlar trees. The developer fenced the orchard off and the site has open access. The fruit will be freely available and educational activities are planned. New premises built by the developer in return for the WT managing the orchard and other habitat.

Walpole Highway, Norfolk

A one acre orchard in Norfolk, in a prominent fruit belt, managed by an enthusiast for over 20 years was Norfolk’s first orchard to be assigned County Wildlife Site status (as an orchard). It is a mixed smallholder‘s orchard, typical of the local area. The oldest trees date back to the first decade of the 1900s and throughout the past century trees have been added and removed as new owners came and went. It was first taken on as a commercial orchard, but as time moved on and the economics of fruit growing changed, management shifted focus to habitat rather than as a source of income.

s e r u l i Fa

Central Bedfordshire Council

In the small suburban village of Henlow, Beds, plans for the development of affordable housing on an old orchard in the centre of the village (a conservation area) caused much concern among local residents. The county had published a Habitat Action Plan for Traditional Orchards in 2008 and yet the application was approved despite very little in the way of reporting or acknowledgement of the biodiversity interest at the site. Local residents were well informed and determined. They presented their objections to the council. The council planners subsequently advised the developers to withdraw the application, allegedly advising “felling the orchard would not be a problem if plans were withdrawn”. The orchard was subsequently felled in April 2009. The campaign group went to the local ombudsman, who upheld their complaint of maladministration in that the council had failed to recognise the biodiversity interest at the site. However, no redress was made and no action taken against the developers as there was no planning application at the time the orchard had been felled. The developers re-submitted their plans in December 2009, which were swiftly approved once more. The obvious weakness in the planning process is compounded in the ombudsman’s statement. It is pointed out that the outcome of the case could have been the same even if the council had considered the biodiversity interest: “The existence of a proper procedure for considering the biodiversity of the site would not have prevented the owners from exercising their legal right to remove the trees prior to any final decision by the council on the planning permission, which may have included imposing conditions to protect the trees.”

A Herefordshire Orchard (pictured)

A three and a half acre orchard containing standard and half-standard trees, in a conservation area, adjacent to a parish church, was destroyed whilst in full bloom in spring (during nesting season, possibly in contravention of the wildlife and countryside act) to be replaced by another orchard. Details are lacking, but it is thought that the replacement will be a modern orchard in keeping with the rest of the farm’s fruit production. As a commercially productive orchard, it wouldn’t have been possible to place a TPO on these trees but the farm could have been encouraged to apply for Higher Level Stewardship payments. Although not known to have been surveyed, the biological diversity of the orchard was previously established by the fact that all three UK woodpecker species are present around the farm. Under current legislation, notwithstanding the aforementioned act, the farm has not acted unlawfully and is at full liberty to do with it as it will. The orchard was a good example of a rapidly disappearing vernacular landscape feature; its loss has a detrimental effect on local distinctiveness, the community, and biodiversity. Pre-emptive engagement with the farm may have helped in this case.

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The TrustMark

e r u lt u ic r o b r A r o f TrustMark t r o p p u s s t n a lt u s n o C s r e c fi f O s d r a d n a t Trading S David Lloyd-Jones

to those Trading Standards Offices just “shabby” standards of work wishing to participate and would with other insights relating to how to expect the general public to be given capture, preserve and then present a the literature when enquiring for the compelling and legally adequate chain services our sector offers. of evidence. I have no doubt whatsoever that Trading Standards Officers, who those 30 minutes will represent the are immersed in a tree related case, most effective contribution that a will benefit from this service by making consultant could make in indirect sure that what they are preparing will It’s not often that we have the support of proper tree care and most effectively target the criminality opportunity to bring something directly against bad or even criminal within the service. to the Arboriculture Industry tree care. That is why the participating I started giving free initial online that could easily represent the Tree Consultants will gladly offer this consultations from my website most effective thing that a tree service for free. consultant could do for the benefit TreeAdvice.com a few years ago. We have devised a simple form It helps me avoid travelling to and of his or her industry. Well I think with a checklist of things needed to charging clients who don’t need that this is just such an occasion make the most effective use of the 30 my help (which reduces my carbon and that is precisely what I have minute free consultation which you can footprint) while also allowing me to said to the tree care industry find at www.TreeCareApproved.org/ identify and then describe the report recently. TSO procedure that might be required The opportunity for a Tree Tree Consultants who join in with beyond the free consultation. This Consultant is a straightforward one this initiative are doing so to apply free flow of information is part of my in principle, however, it will create a business ethos which is to “give clients a small amount of time and every strategic alignment between them bit of their expertise, so as to apply enough information to allow them to and their local Trading Standards the greatest and most far reaching come to an informed decision”. Officer (TSO) that will help the TSO to leverage possible against those rightly Having gained some experience of better protect the vulnerable in society in the firing line of Trading Standards. what can be done remotely, I handled who regularly fall victim to the rogue a few Trading Standards enquiries elements operating on the fringes of that were directed to the TrustMark for Arboriculture. Arboriculture, to test the concept. by TreeCareApproved.com, the for a LobyokingLooking covered covered ices Services ServSome me foran a So results of those tests How doThe I Ho find... d ve TrustMark for Arboriculture have pro Ap w re tradesm do Ca e Tree Approved I fin Tree SomeCare d.tM pucotavebl .. arkTrustMark rees Serv .. Trus d. ic fin I TrustMark A do w red A reputable tradesman convinced me very quickly that there is Ho by Tr ustMarkregistered registered arranged an opportunity for Tree firms firms TrustMark Tree ork on yourLook in Care Approved Tree Care Approved to w TrustMark Tre e Care Ap most certainly apro valuable role in these registered firm Consultants who are willing toAoffer to work re on yourg for a ved d ve s pro Ap registered firm! re Ca registered firm! Tree pu ? S ta E ble tradesman E R T 30 minutes of their time free, to istered firm!investigations for tree consultants. TREES? reghelp to w or k on your Of course we ask that those services TSO’s with the stated intention to 1. Log on to our website ancy Consultancy services 1.Approved.org Contractor services Log on to our ices Consult www.Tree Care tor serv site tracweb web Con site of our T ort to R on supp involved will be named and thanked in E Log rts ES? help by focussing Trading Standards 1. www.TreeCareApproved.org www.TreeTree Tree repo Tree reports in support of Tree planting. Careplan Appting. roved.o . Contraclicat rg torions serv ices Consultancy serv applications. Pruning.planning app planning ing. ices for2.their inoffered any release Prunpress Order investigations on the aspects of work ervation View list help of services plan Tree PresTree ting. Tree PreservationTree Order Dismantling. ng. antli repo rts in support of ent. list of Dism red2. View ssm from contractors offeapproved Prun services offered icesour ing. (TPO) asse of serv (TPO) assessment. Bracing. list planning applicat about , app that’s only real ing. the Brac torsfrom our (conducted by a rogue contractor) that2. View ns. ng. contraccase ions. d the rove ectioantli Dism d contracStump Tree Insp tors removal. Tree Inspections.Tree Pres from our approve Stump removal. ervation Order tree surveys. yersing. Brac ebu Hom Homebuyers tree surveys. Hedge cutting. pre-condition that Hed we have set but ng. (TPO) assessment. are most likely to lead to a successful ge cutti ries. nda bou Stum Trees and p rem oval Trees and Wood recycling . boundaries. Tree Inspections. Enter your Postcode Wood recycling ess.cutting. witnge ert Hed Exp 3. Enter you we3.would also hope that Trading Expert witness. Chipping, logging prosecution. Homebuyers tree r Pos ping tcode tcod Chip e , logging agement. surveys. d man Woo 3. Enter your Pos d recy Woodlan cling management. Woodland and Bio mass s Tree mas Bio s and boundaries. and Chipping, logging Standards 4. You then see Officers the following: would naturally The results of this strategic Expert witness. 4. You and : then see the follo Bio mass see the following Woodland manage : promote for wing Arboriculture ment. Your localTrustMark contractor collaboration is to identify what was 4. You then You r local con Their & contract details tor tractor tracservices local con YourConsultants The ils ir deta t services and Contractors. We will Location Map contrac & contract details done that most clearly constitutes Their services & Location Map Location Map If you do not have internet be 5.offering free consumer literature a criminal offence as opposed to 5. If you do notour rnet access, you can contact hav e inte e internet hav 5. If you do nothelpline acc ouress , you tact0845 409 4552 can contact conon: access, you can help 2 line on: 0845 409 our 409 455 4552 helpline on: 0845

18

our icesthe servon For further details services our ils on the g a full For further deta includin s offer,firms approved registered offer, including a full ed firm approved register our website….. visit For ices furth serv e er explanation of those services our website….. details visit on the services our explanation of thos approved register ed firm rgs offer, including a roved.O exp eApp lana full Car e tion .Tre of thos www Care www.Tree Approved.Org Visit our website e on services visit our website….. Visit our website -line help r ume cons our consumer help-line on ourcontact Or contact Or a localfind a local find Visit 2 to our 0845 409 4552 webto site 0845 409 455 www firm .TreeCareApprove stered registered regicont d.Org Or Approve CaredApproved firm act our consume Tree CareTree r help-line on 0845 409 4552 to find a local Tree Care Approve d registered firm

Telephone 0845 4094552 enquiries@treecareapproved.org www.treecareapproved.orgwww.Tree ww CareApproved.org Tree Care Approved Tree Care Approv ed registered carry an register edfirms ed firms carry an Approvcard Tree Careidentity andtity can be iden an y carr card and can be s firm registered verified on-line. veri be fied on-line. can identity card and verified on-line.

w.Tr g proved .orAp edre ovCa pree .org www.TreeCareAp

a World of Trees Issue 23


for Arboriculture

e t a d Up

TrustMark for Arboriculture. A Statement of Correction. Over the past 7 months, in our efforts to promote our services we may have suggested to various people that there was likely to be a joint accreditation available between the Arboricultural Association approval schemes and the TrustMark for Arboriculture’s approval scheme. As a result of recent developments, we now need to put the record straight to anybody that we may have inadvertently misled and apologise for any misconceptions that we may have created. We hope that it is perhaps understandable why we made this mistake. There were long and detailed discussions over a 7 month period within which our ideas met with obvious creative empathy. Then the poll that the AA conducted seemed to show lots of support for the cooperation of the two organisations in principle and very strong support for various initiatives that we have proposed. Lastly we were invited to their Trade Fair to promote what we do (next to the AA’s own tent), and promote the joint accreditation that both sides of the negotiations seemed to believe at that time, were stated goals of both organisations. Sadly, against what seemed therefore to be overwhelming momentum and anticipation, at the last meeting, we understand that the AA Trustees vetoed the idea. That change of heart leaves us needing to set the record straight to anybody that we may have discussed this with and so that we can inform them that, unless you are already an AA Approved Contractor or an AA Registered Consultant, we cannot now deliver joint accreditation to each organisation. To anybody affected, please accept our apology.

a World of Trees Issue 23

19


No job too big or too small

Crown removal

Earlier this year a mature Oak tree collapsed on the boundary of a paper printing factory. The whole of the crown and branch structure were embedded onto the roof of the printing area of the factory (classed as a major failure!). The stem was supported by the factory wall and the roof RSJs. This luckily occurred on a Sunday afternoon, as there could have been fatalities had this occured during working hours. ESA Tree Care has a strong working relationship with domestic clients, the public sector and the commercial market. Its clients include the surrounding local and tertiary councils such as Cardiff and Newport City councils and the company

20

is experienced in large scale tree work. We were called upon to make safe and remove the tree. This needed to happen quickly so that the damage could be repaired, the factory made safe and watertight and the business could resume its operations. This called upon our skills as arborists and involved a large element of teamwork, to work closely with several very skilled companies at very short notice. An initial risk was carried out of the area which included • An asbestos test • An electrical assessment • A structural assessment • And the tree assessment.

All these areas had to be investigated first to quantify exactly what we were dealing with - the tree was the obvious part. We then had to work out a method to ensure that we could remove the tree safely and efficiently without putting the operators, ground staff and climbers at greater risk. It was concluded fairly quickly that this required heavy lifting equipment, more so, two cranes had to be used, one for the arborist and one for the moving of the tree in sections. It was deemed too dangerous to work on the roof area by way of work platforms as the ground behind the factory was too unstable. King Lifting were able to send a surveyor down to ascertain the best way they could use their equipment in aiding us to do our job. The work and damage resulted in the factory being closed down for a short period whilst the electrical system was made safe. The site had no stable access at the rear of the property and therefore King Lifting assessed that a 100 tonne crane would be positioned on the other side of the factory to do the heavy lifting work. The smaller 50 tonne tower crane would be used to aid the arborist in his work to do the dismantling, as there was no other way to safely work on the tree whilst being supported and to aid safe working positions. Whilst the final touches were put to the planning; the 100 and 50 tonne cranes and 70 tonne artic and support vehicles were dispatched from London for the tedious journey to the Valleys of South Wales. The positioning of the cranes presented various problems, mainly the 100 tonne crane was operating blind; between the tree and the crane operator was a building. This presented the problem of not only the Crane operator not being able to see what he was lifting but also how close he was working to the other cranes boom and our climber on the end of the other cranes hook. This is where the use of two banksmen came into play, one for each crane communicating with the crane operators, as well our climber. The crown was slowly removed in sections to a safe working area where the limbs were snedded up and all brash was chipped whilst all wood was stacked to one side and moved by the telehandler which is fitted with a timber grab. The

a World of Trees Issue 23


Communication, between clim ber, banksmen (2) and groundsm en and crane operators (2)

ended, Second First crane fully ext d crane in backgroun

Roof damage

Crane wor king over building

Crown removal

Timber lorry

e er bracing a Pin Andy the climb

wood was stacked ready to be removed by one our haulage contractors (B C Amos) who run a specialist fleet of timber lorries with the experience to match. As the crown was removed, the trunk was uncovered which was found to have settled on the roofs steel joists. The roof was without doubt demolished with 14” girders twisted and misshapen. The wall had taken the brunt of the force and was supporting the main weight of the tree. As the main crane was on full reach, only a lifting capacity of 1 tonne was available. So the stem had to be dismantled in sections whilst Andy our climber was still on the hook of the support crane. Hanging off a hook for hours at a time isn’t the most comfortable of occupations but he ensured that his part of the work went smoothly and without incident. The sections which were no more than 4 – 5 feet in length were lifted out to the work area and stacked up. The timber lorry arrived on the second day and removed 19 tonnes of timber from the site. We cleared the boundary line so that the fence could be repaired. The main stem was left in situ which we believe to be approximately 6 tonnes in weight. In all, the work took one day for the logistics to take place, and two days to have the tree removed from the building and the site cleared.

a World of Trees Issue 23

In terms of cost and cranes, we have never used a crane unless it’s under full contract which always increases the cost but our knowledge and skills are with trees not with cranes. We would always hire a crane on a full contract as the risk loading needs to be spread between both parties and therefore both parties employ the necessary personnel on site. This job demonstrated great professionalism from our employees and from the crane company. Communication was paramount in ensuring that the work ran smoothly between the operators, the banksmen, the groundsmen and the client and their employees. The factory was open to a degree and employee movements had to controlled in order to allow us to do our job safely. Jobs like these don’t come a knocking everyday but spending time training, investing in good equipment and staff, having a good working relationship with your suppliers / contractors will ensure that when asked to delivery quickly, you can. ESA Tree Care is a company with 14 years of experience our services include arboricultural contracting and consultancy. Our Consultancy work covers pre-development site surveys through to Hazard risk assessments; we’re currently carrying out the survey work on 60 educational sites for Newport City council. Some of our commercial clients

include Church in Wales and Monteray (BTs facility management company) as well as country houses such as Dyffryn Gardens, public and private gardens. A portfolio showing a wide ranging ability to work with any organisation. ESA Treecare was set up by Ewart & Daf Schofield after working for various tree firms in the Gloucester area. South Wales offered the opportunity to create a company offering a knowledgeable and professional service with modern arboricultural techniques and thinking. ESA Treecare also works alongside. The firewood Company which is one of the UKs only two HETAS accredited wood fuel suppliers. www.treecare.org.uk www.firewoodcompany.co.uk

g up Damage after clearin

21


Clive Anderson launches

tree-planting campaign Woodland Trust campaign highlights the benefits of woods and trees for health, wildlife, the economy and the environment

A familiar face on TV, Trust President Clive Anderson has a real affinity for trees, and wants more planted. Photo © Dominic Nicholls 22

The Woodland Trust is calling for a massive increase in tree planting across the UK with a new campaign entitled ‘More Trees, More Good’. A public opinion survey commissioned by the Trust shows that 72% of people agree the UK needs more trees and Trust President Clive Anderson has spelt it out in stark terms, calling on individuals and organisations to help, and saying: “Research gathered over recent years has highlighted the countless essential benefits to people, wildlife and the environment that come from planting trees and creating new woodland habitats. To maximise these the UK needs to plant 20 million native trees per year – but at the moment we’re planting just six million. “The simple act of planting trees unleashes a host of benefits. In just 12 years they become beautiful woodland, home to a vast array of wildlife and places where children can play, adults reflect, birds and plant life flourish and communities come together.” It’s a clarion call already resonating with landowners of all types who have worked with the Trust’s MOREwoods programme, successfully planting 210 hectares of native woodland across the UK last winter with Trust support, advice and, in some cases, funding. For some the motivation has been for wildlife, for others legacy for their children, even an education wood with space for camping, riverbank shelter for fish and game bird cover .. and increasingly for future sustainable supplies of wood fuel. Farmers have joined the ranks, including one dairy farm in North Yorkshire where 3,500 new native saplings are a first step on the road to a low energy future. For other landowners the appeal of trees is their natural ability to lock up carbon, help prevent flooding, provide stock shelter and shade from the elements and offer a sustainable supply of eco-friendly fuel. The benefits of woodland creation already feature in the UK’s Low Carbon Transition Plan. The new Coalition Government has

a World of Trees Issue 23


pson has turned to Dairy farmer Ruth Sim a first step on the path as g native tree plantin ming. New native tree towards low energy far nted on their North pla saplings have been p from the Woodland hel h wit m far Yorkshire ods programme. wo Trust under its MORE tree planting will ary und bo m far Three-deep rowing alder t-g fas h act as windbreaks, wit small copses and l soi the in en set to fix nitrog plies of sup ure fut across the 197 acres for e of fruit acr an for is n pla t nex wood fuel. The es. hiv e be h wit fully and nut orchard, hope

committed to a national tree planting campaign and the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly have both made far-reaching commitments to increase woodland cover. Celebrities and organisations as diverse as the Women’s Institute and actor Sean Bean have already pledged their support. Sean Bean said: “I am a member of the Woodland Trust and support its campaign to plant trees. I have been personally involved with tree planting back home in Sheffield and have seen the benefits it brings.” Ruth Bond, Chair of the National Federation of Women’s Institutes, added: “The WI is supporting this valuable project as part of our members’ ongoing work to protect their natural environment. We are urging our members to work together in their local communities to demonstrate the importance of planting trees to protect and support local wildlife.” The range of assistance with tree planting is impressive. For larger tree planting schemes, there is a team of expert Trust woodland creation advisers who will make site visits to offer guidance on planting trees and accessing government funding. For smaller schemes, the Trust ‘s MoreWoods programme specialises in areas of one hectare-plus, which can be split into different smaller areas or spread right across a farm For schools and community groups, the campaign provides free or reduced-price tree packs.

Five acres of former gra vel extraction land in the heart of Essex Co nstable country has been transformed by 4,5 00 broadleaf saplings into a new young native woodland which will eventually deliver wood fuel and material for furniture – not to mentio n creating a magical habitat for wildlife for owner Barry Davison, whose company specia lises in restoring listed buildings.

to ters want oods plan w E R s. O a M re a r u rich Some of o ormouse rmice, in d entice do at Morris Photo © P

the member of n Bean is a ea S d en g ed le Screen s contribut Trust and ha lanting videos. Woodland p ee tr t to Trus voice-overs

A picturesque corner of Derbyshi re’s Hope Valley now hosts a national tree planting milestone – the 100th woo d to be created under the Woodland Trus t’s new MOREwoods programme.

Woodland for the Community Community fund-raising within the picturesque Rutland town of Oakham not only helped the Woodland Trust purchase an extension to its Gorsefield Wood woodland creation site, but also provided the primary pupils at Brooke School with a very special on-the-doorstep outdoor classroom opened by T he Princess Royal. The new wood collected the East Midlands’ Britain in Bloom accolade of best new permanent landscape and helped the town scoop its first gold award in the national competition

For advice on woodland creation, call 08452 935 689 www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/planting woodlandcreation@woodlandtrust.org.uk.

a World of Trees Issue 23

Photos are © WTPL (unless stated otherwise)

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nts Industry Events Indust APF 2010 - Defies The Recession APF 2010 – The UK’s largest woodland and arboricultural exhibition is set for a record turnout. Over 80% of stand space has now been sold and nearly everyone who is anyone in the industry will be represented. – reports Ian Millward, the Exhibition Secretary. “We are delighted with the level of bookings to date and our on-line ticket sales are going well” Once again the event is proving itself as the place to launch new products and services to the industry and provide a meeting place for fellow professionals.

Key features this year are the STIHL® TIMBERSPORTS® coming to the UK for the first time, the Husqvarna world 25m poleclimbing championships and the AW Jenkinson and UPM Tilhill European Chainsaw carving championships. Demonstrations of an extreme mountain biking course, horse logging , an extensive woodland crafts area and the UK Forwarder driving and Axe Throwing Championships, ensure that all parts of the industry are represented and that there is something of interest for everyone. The Health and Safety Executive in association with Lantra Awards, NPTC, The Forestry Commission , Confor and UKFPA are hosting a major display of safe working practices

with plenty of advice available throughout the three days. The Forestry Commission will be hosting daily seminars on hot industry topics. 250 exhibitors, 2½ miles of working machinery and 16000 visitors are expected over the three days. Full information can be found on the website www.apfexhibition.co.uk

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Geosynthetics Engineered Solutions

a World of Trees Issue 23


try Events Industry Events IOG SALTEX’S ‘WORLD OF ARB’ MAKES TREE SURGERY BEST PRACTICE COMES ALIVE IOG SALTEX is planning an exciting, informative and comprehensive series of demonstrations, workshops and seminars that will meet all the wide–ranging needs of arboriculturalists who visit this year’s show at Windsor Racecourse on September 7-9. Working closely with arboricultural specialist the BTS Group in the World of Arb area of the show, there will be a daily programme of tree climbing/ access and rescue demonstrations, walk-in ‘ask the BTS expert’ workshops, as well as a display of products needed for safe and effective tree surgery - focusing especially on equipment for working at height efficiently, effectively and safely. In addition, the schedule of free seminars taking place in The Grandstand will also include sessions dedicated to the arboriculture industry. The BTS programme of live demonstrations will include best-practice routines for: [] Access - climbed versus platform – highlighting health and safety issues as well as the efficacy of the alternative routines/methods; and [] Aerial rescue techniques – focusing on accident and emergency routines when close to electricity/power lines.

Kevin Moore, Training Manager of the BTS Training division, says the enthralling programme will involve BTS staff from the Group’s Ipswich, Luton and Leeds depots. Elsewhere in the show, arborists will also be able to view and discuss a wide range of appropriate equipment, from harnesses through to sky-high access platforms, from other exhibitors. The IOG SALTEX World of Arb showcase is one of a number of special feature areas planned for this year’s show – visit www. iogsaltex.co.uk for details. IOG SALTEX 2010 will be held on September 7-9 at Windsor Racecourse, Berks, and will embrace fine turf and sports surfaces, turf maintenance equipment, children’s outdoor play and safety surfacing, landscaping, contractors, commercial vehicles, outdoor leisure and facilities management, as well as software and security equipment. The show is attended by open space management professionals and contractors – from groundsmen and greenkeepers through to play officers, architects, designers and surveyors as well as local authority and outdoor leisure facility managers.

P l a z a s - S t r e e t s c a p e s - C o m m e r c i a l , r e t a i l a n d d o m e s t i c c a r p a r k a r e a s - Pe d e s t r i a n w a l k w a y s a n d t o w p a t h s

DeepRoot Silva Cell™ Integrated Tree & Stormwater System Made from an ultra high-strength compound of glass fibre & polypropylene, the Silva Cell is an underground bio-retention system for containing unlimited amounts of soil beneath paving and hardscapes while supporting traffic loads. The soil contained within the modular system: • Encourages the growth of bigger trees • Treats stormwater on-site • Reduces environmental impact of rainfall events • Helps improve air and water quality As the appointed distributor for DeepRoot in the UK, Geosynthetics Ltd offer a full design service and provide on-site support from conception through to installation.

For more information or to request a brochure contact 01455 617139 or email sales@geosyn.co.uk www.geosyn.co.uk

a World of Trees Issue 23

Engineered Solutions

25


S N O E G SUR All photos © Scot

tish Arboricultural

Services

E E R T E U G O R F BEWARE O PERATING IN MORAY SURGEONS O e trees larger limbs of th or helmets. The rt way ee pa Tr t of cu p gle ou gr sin a a essed moved using re re we This May we witn rn to s s Forre before it wa ring trees in the ugh the branch, ro th s pe ro Surgeons butche ” old ns a number of term “Tree Surgeo from the tree by van. it y ns area. We use the an tra at a th to t ec ed do not susp er and attach th we ge as to ly d se tie loo e ry th ve limbs ge, ugly tears to qualified. Large The result was lar one of them were am te a by es . es tre m the remaining branch e were removed fro saw. uated amongst liv and a blunt chain ws sa w The trees were sit bo ing ne in ho wield it lep g te kin d ta an cables the team were overhead power e The members of ing ladders us hit both during th es ey tre th e st th hil o W int s. re wi ed ag an turn to climb al m rson they only t without any Pe se of the works, ur co ne e and branches bu ho th lep of te eir client’s ment (PPE). None to bring down th re Protective Equip ne of the no d an that this crew we s es ely rn lik ha un line. It is st of co y climbers wore a e ilit th ib so vis , hies re ag nd crew wo for such dam ed ur ins s climbers or grou ot bo e trousers, safety clothing, protectiv

26

ve to be uld most likely ha reconnection wo am at te ent. It took the borne by their cli in, this l Al . rk to do the wo least three days ry ve a en be to have exercise was likely t. en eir cli costly one for th the client should The moral here is insured the contractor is always check that ty. er op pr eir age to th for potential dam d an c bli Pu rry ca ould All Contractors sh yers plo Em Insurance and Products Liability If ff. sta y plo if they em Liability Insurance t en m uip eq e tiv protec they arrive with no nt away. / they should be se k/blog/2010/05 lting.co.u

www.sasconsu

a World of Trees Issue 23


INTRUDERS CHOP DOWN TREE

BLOCKING POOLE HARBOUR VIEW

A tree which blocked views of Poo le “I thought it was kids on mopeds Harbour in Dorset has been choppe out d the front and then there was a mas down by night-time garden intruders sive . bang, a humungous crash.” Steve Bransgrove, who lives in the ‘House vibrated’ house in Heavytree Road, Parkston e, said Mr Bransgrove only realised wha he woke after hearing a massive t had bang in happened after his neighbours swit the early hours of Sunday. ched their lights on at the back of thei r house. He found that his 12m (40ft) “The crash actually vibrated the 52-year-old Scots pine, the subject whole of a house,” he said. tree preservation order, had been felled. “I was shocked to start with, It narrowly missed hitting his and absolutely stunned. his neighbours’ houses and a crim inal “Then you think how lucky you are investigation has now begun. (that it didn’t land on the house) but then During the fall the tree broke Mr anger takes over - that someone Bransgrove’s fence and then lay had the across nerve to actually come in to som eone the garden. else’s property and decide that som ething Dorset Police is investigating the they didn’t like there they had the incident as an act of criminal dam right to age. take away. Land values are so, so high that it’s “They’ve not controlled the way in developers’ and residents’ inte it rests in was falling, they were just trying to get it cases to cut down trees chopped down as quickly as pos sible and Mr Bransgrove said he had heard make their escape.” the sound of an engine revving at about Poole council is also investigatin 0200 BST. g the incident and said it aimed to bring a

a World of Trees Issue 23

prosecution against the person or people who felled the tree. Brian Leverett, leader of Poole cou ncil, said: “The problem is in the land values within this town. They’re so, so high that it’s in developers’ and residents’ interests in cases to cut down trees. “I think we want to move to fines which realistically make it not wor thwhile for developers and other people to cut down trees. “If they’re fined, as a minimum, the difference of the value of the land with the tree standing and with the tree felled, there would be far less incentive and that would be a far greater deterrent.” Many thanks to Poole Council for this article

27


SURGEONS Lichfield resident ordered to pay more than £5,000 for cutting down three protected trees

Lichfield District Council took 35- year-old Matthew Chatting, of Gaia Lane in Lichfield, to court for felling three trees that were in a Conservation Area. The case was heard on 8 June 2010 at Tamworth Magistrate s’ Court. The court he ard that Mr Chatting cut down three trees, two Ash and one Douglas Fir, last Nove mber. The trees were around 20 to 35 years old, an d would have probab ly lived for another 200 year s. The court fined Mr Ch atting £3,000 (£1,00 0 for each tree), and orde red him to pay £2,03 6 co sts , as well as a £15 victim surcharge – in all £5 ,051. Councillor Neil Robe rts, Lichfield District Council’s Cabinet Me mber for Developme nt Services, said: “It is a great shame that th ese young trees were fel led, and I am pleased the court took these offen ces so seriously. “This case shows jus t how important it is to check with the coun cil before doing work to any trees in your garden , such as lopping bran ches or chopping them down , as they could be pr otected.” To find out if any of the trees in your ga rden or on your land are in a Conservation Ar ea or protected under a Tre e Preservation Orde r, please contact Lichfi eld District Council on 01543 308207 or 30 8185. You can also em ail gareth.hare@lichfieldd c.gov.uk or portia.howe@lichfield dc.gov.uk 28

TV ROGUE FINED

A tree surgeon who appeared on the BB C programme Rogue Traders and Wa tchdog has been fined by Bromley Magistrates after ple ading guilty to two off ences brought by Bromley Trading Standards. Shaun Varey (19) yea rs old) from Dartford , Kent, trading as Beechwood Tree Services and Kent Tre e Services was featured on the BBC programme in Octob er 2009 following a number of complai nts made by Bromley residents about his trading style and the failure to give pro per paperwork. He was exposed in the programme as havin g little knowledge of trees an d plants and charging extortionate prices for basic servi ces. He was also seen to state he had treated a tree stump with poison when in fact he had not. Varey was already kn own to Bromley Tradin g Standards following a string of complaints from Bro mley consumers about his work betw een February and Ju ne 2009. He gave an undertaking to the council to, amongst other things, use the correct pape rwork as required by law . A further complaint was received in Augu st 2009 from a Bromley consumer and as a result Varey was charged with two offences in relation to his paperw ork. He pleaded guilty to offences un der the Business Na mes Act 1985 and the Cancellation of Co ntracts made in a Co nsumer’s Home or Place of Work etc . Regulations 2008. He was fined £500 and ordered to pay co sts of £500. Rob Vale, Trading Sta ndards Manager said: “We gave Mr Varey a chance to comply last year and in giving an undertaking he made a promise to tow the line. We are satisfied with the ou tcome and hope tha t Mr Varey, should he decide to return to this line of work, is mindful of our intentions not to tolera te traders who conti nue to break the law”. Trading Standards at Bromley urge consum ers who want to report a susp ected rogue trader to the Rapid Response Team on 07 903 852 090. If anyon e has had any work carried out by Advanced Tree Servi ces they are asked to call the number as soon as possible.

a World of Trees Issue 23


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Arbo EMPLOYER Ad 190 w x 124 d Nurture your business... with an Apprentice in ARBORICULTURE (TREES AND TIMBER) Get FREE training for your staff in the SKILLS YOU NEED for MOTIVATED employees! Apprentices work alongside their employer to put into practice the knowledge and skills they have learnt at college. Apprentices fill skills gaps because programmes are designed around your business needs.The mixture of on and off the job learning ensures they learn the skills that work best for your business. Apprentices are likely to be motivated and eager because they have made an active choice to learn on the job and a commitment to a specific career. Apprentices attend college on a block release basis and spend the rest of their time reinforcing their learning in the work place. On successful completion candidates will have gained skills in all aspects of Arboriculture and their CS30, CS31, CS38 and CS39 NPTC certificates of competence. The Trees and Timber apprenticeship runs out our centres in Enfield (north London) and Gunnersbury Park (west London). Very few providers across the county offer the Trees and Timber Apprenticeship. All of the training is FREE to employers who employ Apprentices aged 16-18, whilst a reasonable employer contribution is required for Apprentices of other age groups. Apprentices can help BOOST YOUR BUSINESS by enabling you to hire cost effective, skilled staff. Employees obtain a nationally accredited qualification while they work. Our team can help you to find the right Apprentice for your business and make the process straightforward and easy. We are interviewing NOW for schemes starting September/October 2010. For further details contact us TODAY on 08456 122122 Ext 160 or 181 or email enquiries@capel.ac.uk

Capel Manor College Centres Across London a World of Trees Issue 23

Are good for business

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UtterlyUtility Keep informed about ‘Utility Arb’ in our new section which will be twice yearly and commencing in the next edition.

NPTC Level 3 Certificate of Competence in Utility Arboriculture (AUA10) Changes to current system Following a review of the Level 3 Certificate of Competence in Utility Arboriculture, it has been decided that the units will only be valid for 3 years from the date of certificate issue and candidates will need to undergo updates and be re-certificated every 3 years. This is clearly a change from the current process and so candidates will need to be advised of this at point of registration. If a candidate is assessed and is competent in UA1 and the certificate is issued on the 1st March 2010 their ID card will show the Qualification Expiry as 1st March 2013. If they then come back and take unit 2.1 and 2.2 with the certificate being issued on the 1st July 2010 the Qualification Expiry date will then be updated to 1st July 2013 and their ID card amended accordingly. To ensure that candidates can receive and hold the correct supporting documentation we have made the ID Card a mandatory requirement and so a photo must

accompany any requests for certification (unless already held on the City & Guilds NPTC database). Attached are examples of the Certificate and ID Card that will be issued. Re-assessment process Candidates will need to be updated every three years and the process for achieving this will be to re-take the assessment in the highest unit that they hold, with clarification as follows: • Candidate’s highest Unit = UA 1: Recertification on ‘revised’ UA 1(2010) • Candidate’s highest Unit = UA 2.1: Recertification on ‘revised’ UA 1(2010), (note: 2.1, does not contain the necessary G55/2 detail, therefore candidate takes UA 1) • Candidate’s highest Unit = UA 2.2: Recertification on ‘revised’ UA 2.2(2010) (note: candidate will have to demonstrate felling and the use of insulated rods which both form part of the unit)

• Candidate’s highest Unit = UA 2.3: Recertification on ‘revised’ UA 2.3(2010), (note: candidate will have to demonstrate climbing, felling and the use of insulated rods) • Candidate’s highest Unit = UA 5: Recertification on ‘revised’ UA 5.1(2010) (note: candidate will have to prepare ‘line survey’ as UA5.2 is only underpinning knowledge) A new certificate will then be issued and the ID Card updated with the new QualificationExpiry Date. For candidates took the Level 3 Certificate of Competence in Utility Arboriculture assessment between 2004 and February 2010 on the old qualification number AUA04, they will have until 1 February 2013 to be reassessed onto the new qualification. For further information, please contact City & Guilds Land-based Services (previously City & Guilds NPTC) on 024 7685 7300.

AFAG at The APF Tree work is a high risk. Taken together, forestry and arboriculture have the highest fatal accident rate of any land-based industry and the major/serious injury rate is far above the national average. To help those working in the industry get the right advice and guidance to prevent accidents, HSE and AFAG will be launching the very first ‘Safety and Health Arena’ at the APF 2010. The ‘Safety and Training Arena’ will provide an opportunity to talk to all those organisations involved in health, safety and training in one place. There will also be a full program of live demonstrations and seminars on a wide range of topics including chainsaw safety, site management, first aid and emergency provisions, working near railways and using railway crossings, avoiding contact with power lines and many more. These will highlight good practice and provide common sense, practical advice from people who have actually done the work and understand the industry. “Preventing accidents and ill health is

30

good for business’, says Jason Liggins, HSE’s lead for the forestry industry. “Most people will know, or will have heard of someone who has been seriously injured, or tragically lost their lives while working with trees. We can never eliminate the risks involved with this type of work but we know from our accident investigations that most accidents could have been prevented by following HSE and AFAG good practice guidance. We want to highlight these issues and provide an exciting and dynamic demonstration area with something of interest for anyone involved in tree work today”. ‘All too often, we find that inadequate training and lack of competence are the major factors in accidents. These are also critical issues for those who want to ensure and improve productivity in what is obviously a very difficult economic environment. Therefore, the major theme of the arena this year will be improving skills through training and continuing (on-the-job) professional

development (CPD). We are also encouraging the use of AFAG Guides as check lists to improve management and safety on site”. Importantly, those attending one or more of the safety demonstrations can leave with a ‘record of attendance’ that they will be able to add to their training portfolios to help demonstrate CPD. This innovation, supported by trade associations, will be of particular value to contractors and operators who increasingly find this type of evidence as part of the tenders they compete for. Those organisations contributing to the AFAG Safety and Training Arena include the Forestry Commission, Lantra Awards, , City & Guilds/NPTC, Lantra Sector Skills Council, Arboriculture Association, the Forestry Contractors Association, Network Rail and the Office of Rail Regulation, the Energy Network Association and electricity companies EDF and Central Networks, United Kingdom Forest Products Association, Confor and the Health and Safety Executive.

a World of Trees Issue 23


Arboricultural Association National Utility Arb Conference: ‘diverse, challenging and rewarding’ Roy Dyer, Nick Eden, Paul Hornby ‘Understanding the FIVE-FIFTEENNINETY rule could save lives,’ says arboriculture trainer Dwayne Neustaeter, a Canadian who trains utility arborists around the world. Speaking at the Utility Arboriculture Group’s National Utility Arboriculture Conference in Warwickshire, Dwayne explained that 90% of all serious and fatal injuries occur within 15 seconds of starting the final cut of a tree felling operation and within 5ft of the base of the tree. ‘Get people away before anything happens,’ he said, providing video illustrations of operatives removing trees that have collapsed on overhead power lines by employing special cutting techniques and a hand line (rope) to allow them to be well away from the danger zone when the tree moves. ‘Edutainment’ is his term for his style of high-energy, engaging learning, and it cut across the great British reserve so effectively that the following morning Scottish and Southern Energy’s Doug Cunningham began his lecture with a charismatic, arm-waving ‘So how’s you all doin’ then?’ Doug reverted to a style to which the conference delegates were more accustomed but his subject was no less engaging, bringing G55/2 to life with a mock power line hastily constructed in the lecture room. Hal McCallum (BTS Group Ltd), Frances Hirst (HSE) and Jez Lawton (independent trainer) posed as poles supporting the line while Doug waved foliage in various proximities – the audience being challenged to grade the ‘tree’ as category A, B, C or D. Much of the remaining conference also focused on keeping trees away from power lines. There were additional sessions on G55/2 from David McAlinden and Alan Daley from Central Networks and Hal McCallum from the BTS Group. There was general support for the ‘new G55’ (G55/2, 2008) which, written by arboriculturists rather than engineers, does, in certain circumstances, enable the qualified arborist to work closer to energised (live) lines than G55/1. At least one Distribution Network Operator had felt it necessary to insist on ‘more stringent’ requirements than G55/2, but it was more concerning to learn that some DNOs were still working to G55/1, as all NPTC training is now geared solely to G55/2. Jez Lawton provided an overview of the City and Guilds NPTC’s revised Utility Arboriculture awards and during the lively panel session, Steve Hewitt from the

a World of Trees Issue 23

NPTC confirmed the position regarding re-certification. The extensive sharing of information that took place at the national conference was greatly valued. Speaker Will Porter (USA) told delegates how North American electricity distribution companies had benefited from an extensive benchmarking exercise (a report co-authored by Porter and published this year). The Energy Networks Association’s Mike Leppard explained that higher temperatures will lead to line sag and storms will be increasingly frequent, which emphasises the importance of achieving the ‘resilience’ clearance targets which DECC has set for the DNOs. More research on tree growth patterns was disseminated by Dr Steven Humphries of ADAS (conference main sponsor). The results show that there is considerable variation between the DNO regions, and that based on climate impact data, there is likely to be a substantial increase in growth over the next 10 years. Later, Dr Margaret Samuel explained to delegates EDF Energy’s enlightened and refreshing approach to employee welfare. Introducing Dr Samuel to delegates, UPM Tilhill’s Martin Lennon explained that her special concern was for mental health and, after a brief glance at the audience, he quietly warned her, ‘You might have your work cut out here today.’ However, after the session, Martin said that he would certainly be signing up to Dr Samuel’s programme! An aspirational wish-list of activities for the UAG’s forthcoming year was tabled at the UAG annual meeting. UAG Chairman Paul Hornby (Associated Utility Supplies) remarked just how far the industry has come in recent years and the central role of the UAG in ‘championing unified and nationally recognised standards in tree care and safety’ since its formation in 2004. As well as those in suits, the conference was designed to serve sharp-end operators (without whom there would be no utility arboriculture), and some impressive activities and trade exhibitions (from Sorbus, Honey Brothers, Gustharts, Enterprise and Oakwick) ensured there was something for everyone. Thanks to the continued sponsorship of UPM Tilhill the Safety Challenge was again a main feature of the outdoor events. The object of the challenge is to test the participants’ safety knowledge when confronted with various scenarios found at utility arboriculture sites. The competition winner was James Archer who walked away

with a £500 cash prize from Tilhill. The AUS Utility Skills competition was won by a team from West Coast Network Services. Director Karl Lee was evidently proud of ‘his lads’ who beat the other seven teams competing for the coveted AUS trophy. Oakwick Utility Arborists Ltd raised £250 for the county air ambulance by raffling a chainsaw.   To sum up, this was another very successful Utility Arboriculture Conference – the only occasion each year where the industry comes together to debate topical issues, learn from each other, network and generally have a good time. Delegates will soon be able to download speakers’ presentations from the AA’s website, www.trees.org.uk.

Thanks Many thanks are due to the conference organisers, sponsors and contributors, without whom the event would not have taken place: Organisation: A special thank you to Mel, Simon and others at the AA for the considerable time and effort they put in behind the scenes. Conference Chairman: Thanks to Martin Lennon who was an excellent chairman on both days, especially for his skilful handling of and contributions to the discussion sessions. Sponsors: ADAS (the event’s main sponsor); AUS; UPM Tilhill; WCNS; EON/ Central Networks for the competition LV line materials; Electrical Network Solutions Ltd for the erection of the LV line; Connaught’s for utility skills prizes; Gustharts, Fletcher Stewart, Arbjobs and Arbortec for additional prizes First Aid Scenario: Terry Iddenden Judges: Terry Crick, Jon Dixon, Terry Iddenden, Bill Kew-Winder, Pete King, Tony Parsons, Andy Sheldon Exhibitors: Sorbus, Honey Brothers, Gustharts, Enterprise, Oakwick and Ormston Technology Safety Officer: Bill Goodall, Connaught Environmental Outside Liaison: Andy Gardner, Hi-Line

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Sheffield Park G by Saul Heath

The great ponds at Sheffield Place at the right season of the year are bordered with red, white and purple reflections, for rhododendrons are massed upon the banks and when wind passes over the real flowers, the water flowers shake and break into each other. (Virginia Woolf, ‘Reflections on Sheffield Place’, 1937) The backbone of the garden we see today is a series of four great lakes, around which the garden was laid out by the 1st Earl of Sheffield with the advice of ‘Capability’ Brown and Humphrey Repton during the 18th century. The 3rd earl began an ambitious planting scheme in the 19th century introducing

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many non-native species such as Sequoiadendron giganteum to the garden. It was not until 1910 and the arrival of Arthur Gilstrap Soames that the garden began to flourish. He planted the rhododendrons that Virginia Woolf enjoyed. For autumn colour, perhaps Sheffield Parks greatest attraction he planted Quercus coccinea, Nyssa sylvatica, Acer palmatum and Taxodium distichum to name a few. The National Trust took over the property in 1954 with the encouragement of the RHS and has continued to maintain and develop the garden. The current owners advertise it as an historic garden, not as an arboretum or botanical garden. This is the main reason for not labelling all the plants in the garden. A third of the specimens are labelled, “any more than that would detract from the theme” insists head gardener Andy Jesson (in conversation 02.10.09). Information given on the labels is minimal, the botanical name of

the species and occasionally a country of origin and some specimens carry numbered labels. These labels can be checked against the computer data-base in the office by any visitor wishing to identify a particular specimen. All newly acquired specimens which are to be labelled are identified by the head gardener and authenticated by the National Trust’s technical department. I would like to see more information on the labels, if a tree is to be labelled it might as well be done thoroughly. A couple of miles up the road is Wakehurst Place, another National Trust property. Almost all their trees are labelled and carry much more information, family, botanical name, common name, countries of origin and a catalogue number. Granted it is more of a collection of rare species than an historical garden. There is an ongoing process of re-labelling at Sheffield, 10% of the labels go missing each year. Keen gardeners visiting the garden see a nice

a World of Trees Issue 23


Garden looking plant “that would look nice in my garden” and take the labels home with them or to the garden centre. The rhododendrons thrive as an under story plant and serve a useful purpose as well as showing off their spring and summer foliage. Keeping visitors from trampling around the root plates of many specimen trees preventing soil compaction makes them a worthy addition although I think A.G. Soames was a tad over enthusiastic with the planting. The reds of the Nyssa’s set among the various greens of the conifers work really well and mirrored on the lake they produce an amazing sight. A friend remarked after visiting the garden last autumn “how do they know what the trees will look like in years to come” referring to the plants-men achieving the overall affect. The early plants-men certainly had an eye for form and contrast; they would have studied mature specimens throughout the seasons before choosing

Taxodium distic hum

which ones to plant. Although not all the colours combine as well as they could, the more recently planted Acers and Pines don’t always compliment each other, especially when mature and immature trees are standing near each other. Some of the conifers have outgrown their niches, they have become too tall or broad and have begun to obscure other trees. There is a wonderful Taxodium distichum right on the edge of one of the lakes with its pneumatophores rising out of the sodden ground, a brilliant setting but the specimen is crowded in. There is obviously a problem with the drainage in certain parts of the garden, in particular on some of the lower slopes around the lakes where there is significant water logging. It is not an ideal environment for most species and the recently planted Acers are showing low vitality in their new home. The underlying clay of the area combined with the fluctuating water levels of the

lakes obviously do not help the situation. There are great specimens in the garden such as the Nyssa’s, the Acers and the Sequoiadendron’s; there are areas around the lakes that look simply stunning. Then again there are parts of the garden where too many different colours clash making the scene too crowded and overpowering. Like many of the National Trust properties I have recently visited there seems to be a tendency to just keep on planting, filling up space instead of giving the better specimens a bit more room to thrive. Perhaps more new planting could be done around the edge of the garden to blend into the Sussex countryside, there are several mature Oaks and Pines by the car park and if one looks out over the field’s, pockets of woodland can be seen in the distance. The area just south of the Ashdown Forest has a long history of human involvement; the name Sheffield appeared in the Doomsday Book and meant ‘sheep clearing’.

� a World of Trees Issue 23

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News

Forestry

OXTRAC is a renowned leader in the field of low impact forestry equipment. This unique, one of a kind skidder, mounted on rubber tracks with metal cleats, makes all forest and wood lots accessible. Thanks to its compact size and most of all, to its low ground impact. Indispensable for selective harvesting ,pre-commercial thinning, vegetation management, lot clearing, the OXTRAC can also be used for vineyards, apple orchards, construction work, landscaping and brush clearing Not to mention cedar groves with their muddy soil, as well as forest fires!!! The Oxtrac is also offered in a MTV version. Adding this range of equipment makes it much more than a skidder. The Oxtrac MTV is recognized for its numerous application possibilities. Adding value to any operation. In addition to standard equipment, the front and rear of the MTV is equipped with a mini “Skid Steer” universal quick attach system. A wide variety of accessories can be used with the Oxtrac MTV. For more information visit our website. WWW.TREMZAC.COM

BSW Timber, the largest sawmilling business in Great Britain, is exhibiting at APF 2010, the UK’s largest forestry and arboricultural exhibition, from 23-25 September. With six sawmills in the UK and one in Latvia, BSW has a production capacity of over 700,000m3 of sawn timber per year. In November 2009, it acquired Howie Forest Products and Howie Group Ltd, increasing its strategically located sawn timber capacity to more than 1,000,000 m³ per annum. As demand for timber returns to the market, customers are looking to BSW Timber, as the UK’s largest sawmilling

business, to provide them with a reliable supply of timber. The opportunity exists to build new relationships for the short, medium and long term. At BSW Timber, we work closely with our suppliers and are keen to develop a partnership approach to ensure a vibrant and robust supply chain in which all can benefit. We are investing heavily in our mills and our log requirements will grow over coming years. We are also committed to supporting sustainable forestry, and use FSC certification by independent auditors as a way to display this. All BSW Timber sawmills have FSC (and PEFC) Chain of Custody

Certificates, and all timber supplied from UK sawmills is FSC certified. We continue to invest in our manufacturing facilities and technology as well as in market research, product and market development to bring new opportunities to our customers using both UK and Latvian fibre. We are continually looking at ways to improve product availability and customer service. BSW Timber supplies sawn timber products to customers in the Construction, DIY, Pallet and Packaging, Fencing and Garden Products sectors. Its six UK sawmills are based in: • Dalbeattie • Boat of Garten, Inverness-shire • Fort William, Inverness-shire • Petersmuir, East Lothian • Carlisle, Cumbria • Newbridge-on-Wye, Powys

DON’T BE DAMMED, MAKE IT A BEAVER...

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Beaver Bridges is a long established family run business specialising in bespoke bridges for all situations. We do heavy duty bridges suitable for highways, wind farms and forestry applications.  The heaviest loading capacity bridge we have fabricated and installed to date was 250 tonnes and the longest bridge was 54 metres (so far).  We manufacture in house and try to build in the least number of sections possible so as to help with lowering on-site and subsequent maintenance costs.  Some of our bridges have been successfully erected in very inaccessible locations, such as the Llandegla Mountain Bike Track Bridge for Tilhill Forestry in North Wales.  This bridge was erected in the middle of a forest plantation on the side of a mountain.  Accessibility to the site was a logistics challenge in itself, not to mention how does one go about erecting a continuous 36m long bridge over an opening in such an inhospitable location.  But that is the sort of challenge that defines Beaver Bridges and marks us out as the specialist bridge builder that is always willing and able to deliver the most economic solution.  The final result can be seen in the picture below.  Put Beaver Bridges to ‘your’ challenge and let us find a practical solution to let you develop and utilise the most inaccessible locations on your estate, farm or plantation. a World of Trees Issue 23


News Forestry

Chippo to set woodfuel market alight at APF Komptech is proud to announce the launch of the Chippo 5010 C Direct mobile drum chipper at the APF 2010. Already proven across Europe, this machine offers output and quality representing a serious step forward for efficient woodchip production. Part of a new generation of mobile chipping machines from environmental technology specialists Komptech, the Chippo 5010 C Direct is designed to produce perfect chips ideal for the woodfuel market. Mounted on a 480hp MAN 6x4 lorry for high speed road transport, sure footed performance on difficult terrain and powerful drive to the massive 1050mm diameter drum, the Chippo 5010 C Direct also comes with its own loading crane, for a totally self contained operation. A large feed table with slat conveyor and feed rollers grabs the timber and pulls it into the large open drum where 12 chipping blades produce chips that are uniform in shape and size with minimal fine fractions. Capable of handling trunk wood up to

750mm diameter, the Chippo 5010 C Direct offers an impressive throughput of up to 220 m3 per hour. Smaller timber and prunings can also be chipped by adjusting the drum speed, while for wet material the screen basket can be rotated hydraulically without interrupting the operation, making this a versatile machine for the serious contractor. Specification includes a splitter for oversized timber and chips discharged via blower or pivoting conveyor onto a heap or directly into a lorry. Komptech UK Ltd Managing Director Paul Carley says: “The APF represents an ideal opportunity to introduce the Chippo 5010 C Direct to British customers as we can really put this innovative machine through its paces. As a leading supplier of environmental technology, we look forward to welcoming visitors to discuss all their recycling equipment requirements with us at the show.” Further details available from: Paul Carley (Managing Director) Email: p.carley@komptech.com

WOODSMAN NEW DAWN IN CHIPPERS!

Woodsman range of chippers produce the most consistent and manageable size of woodchip while requiring anything up to 20% less power and fuel than competitor chippers. A number of the machines will be shown at APF by Biomass Equipment Ltd (Stand 480 - 560). Woodsman produces drum chippers with between 5 and 300 tonnes an hour capacity. The range starts with the 730 machine, which has a 85hp engine and can chip 5  tonnes/hour, while the 460 has 1200hp and output of 180 –200 tonnes/hour; At the top end of the scale the 390 has a 1400hp engine and 250 – 280 tonnes/hour output.  These include the “Full width Knife Pocket” that ensures that chip produced from the chipper is consistent in size and quality by ensuring consistent and even cutting of material. The unique power feed arrangement that provides superior down pressure on the material being feed into the chipper also ensures that there is a constant feed of material onto the drum and knives.     “The superior efficiency of Woodsman’s cutting system means that its machines need less powerful engines than competitor machines, and can operate with around 20% - less fuel and also create far superior chip quality due to the full width knife system than competitors.  “These innovations make the machine more efficient, lest costly and safer to run than competitor machines, while also giving operators the benefits of better performance allied to reduced risk of malfunction or injury to employees”, says Sean. a World of Trees Issue 23

Westcon - European Dealers for Rayco Westcon Equipment UK are the European dealers for the Rayco range of machines, which includes a large selection of stump cutters from 13HP to 275HP to suit everyone’s needs. The mini work force range consisting of the RG13 in hand start or 13HP electric start with a working width starting at 25” both push along up to the RG25HD self propelled at a width of 29” and as always prove to be very popular due to their access capabilities. Rayco are launching two new models for this season starting with the RG1635 Trac powered by a 35HP air cooled engine with variable speed rubber track ground drive, swing out controls, backfill blade and command cut all as standard features. Secondly the RG100 KR powered by a 100 HP water cooled Kubota diesel engine, four wheel drive, hydraulic drive to cutter wheel and radio remote control with proximity safety sensor to protect operator from approaching cutter wheel. All the above at 34.5” working width for ease of access and equipped with Rayco’s variable speed “ QUICK STOP” cutter wheel with operator safety in mind. If you are looking for narrow width but stability, operator safety, compact but ultimate power, reliability and operator friendly machine then your only choice is “RAYCO”. Also on show this year will be Rayco’s first European version from their extensive range of wood chippers the RC814. For further information telephone 01258 859100, e-mail: sales@westconuk. co.uk or visit our website www. westconuk.co.uk or the Rayco website www.raycomfg.com. 37


Agricultural, forestry, groundcare & horticultural machinery from

Lamberhurst Engineering Lamberhurst Engineering Limited was set up by Andrew Fuller and Nigel Osborne in May 1997 when the proprietor of their previous employer Lamberhurst Equipment Limited, retired from the machinery trade after some 20 plus years of trading. The subtle change in company name allowed trading to continue uninterrupted. In the UK, Lamberhurst Engineering Limited imports and distributes Ferrari and Holder Tractors, Seppi and Berti Agricultural and Forestry Mulching/Mulchers, Malfos ditching machines, Pellenc Vineyard tools and equipment, Caffini sprayers and is the Kent and East Sussex dealer for Same and Lamborghini Tractors. The Company offers a range of equipment to mount to the tractors by all the well-known machinery manufacturers and also specialises in Stihl Chainsaws, Brushcutters and Hedge trimmers, and Tree surgery equipment together with all the necessary safety clothing required. The workshops are fully equipped to tackle mechanical breakdowns, welding and servicing of all makes of Agricultural, Forestry and Horticultural machinery, either in house or on site with our factory-trained engineers. By keeping overheads low and profit margins tight the Company strives to offer its customers the best value for money along with a personal service so often found missing from larger companies.

Take a look at the new Seppi Machines ……

Hugely Successful Seppi International Demo Day Held in Italy This was the first time in Seppi’s 71 year history that dealers from all over the world have been invited as one group to attend the factory for their annual conference & training programme.

Seppi groundscare and forestry distributors from across the world recently visited the company’s Head Quarters for their annual conference & training programme in what was to be the largest gathering of Seppi distributors ever held. Nearly 100 people from 30 countries descended on the picturesque area next to the Seppi factory in Caldaro, South Tyrol, Italy. A large selection of Seppi products was on show with working demonstrations being held across the two day event. The demonstration 38

areas were shown in two different working conditions - one of the many orchards in the area and a wooded area that was being redeveloped into a vineyard. All participants were very satisfied with the machines shown and could see a growing and motivated company. “The annual event was a huge success,” commented Barbara Seppi, Marketing Manager at Seppi. “It was held to notify all of our distributors of the new developments which we are currently undertaking as well as training our dealers on how best to

work with our machinery”. This was the first time in Seppi’s 71 year history that dealers from all over the world have been invited as one group to attend the factory and the whole two day event has proved such a success, that next year’s event is already being planned. The full range of Seppi mulchers are on sale in the UK exclusively from Lamberhurst Engineering. For more information, please contact 01892 890 364 or visit the website on www. lameng.com

a World of Trees Issue 23


Three new machines are launched into the UK by Seppi and exclusively available from Lamberhurst Engineering.

The New Seppi Star FC combines three machines into one very heavy duty head that is designed to be fitted to excavators from 15 - 35 tonnes and to take up to 300 hp.

New Machine from Seppi Proves to be a Star

The drive to do more with less and to do it better has never been as keen as it is today. For many years Seppi have made a large range of mulching heads for excavators and in more recent years they have diversified into stump grinders and stone crushers. The New Seppi Star FC combines these machines into one very heavy duty head that is designed to be fitted to excavators from 15 - 35 tonnes and to take up to 300 hp. The Star FC is designed to grind stumps up to 40 cm (16”), crush stones up to 15 cm (6”), destroy roots to a depth of 30 cm (12”), till the soil to a depth or 30 cm  (12”) to prepare for new planting, mulch unwanted vegetation up to 40 cm (16”) and resurface stone tracks or roads. There are three widths available 60 cm (24”) 75 cm (30”) and 100 cm (39”). The 60 cm and the 75 cm models are driven by one hydraulic motor and the 100 cm model by two. Depending on the type of work being carried out, the oil flow for the single motor models should be between 120 litres and 200 litres. The double drive 100 model requires 240 litres to 400 litres.  The lower oil flow would be used for subsurface work and stones, the higher flow for above ground work and general mulching. Seppi’s UK distributor is Lamberhurst Engineering. For more information call 01892 890364 or visit www.lameng.com.

Three New Environmental Machines Available from Seppi Three brand new products from Italian manufacturer Seppi are now available in the UK, exclusively from Lamberhurst Engineering, the UK’s sole importer. The Seppi SMO XTR with side discharge is the first machine and is a standard SMO mower with an additional hydraulic drive endless belt cross conveyor fitted to the rear of the mower to take cut grass to the right side and deposit it under trees and vines. The retention of moisture for trees and vines is of great importance to all involved in the growing of these crops, so depositing the grass clippings under the crop both helps retain moisture and to suppress weeds. The drive for this is taken from the external supply of the tractor. Although this concept is not new to Seppi - they made this type of machine many years ago, its re-launch is very pertinent in this age of environmental awareness.  The second machine, the XSA in-row weeder, is offered in three configurations:  • One unit on a three point linkage frame • Two units on a three point linkage frame • A single unit mounted on the side of an SMO mower. The weeder units are free to float up and down, or if greater adjustment is needed hydraulic angling can be fitted. The breakaway is controlled by a sensitive touch bar. This operates with a spring release or optional hydraulic breakaway. The depth is controlled by a disc under the blades. The width of the complete unit is adjustable hydraulically with hydraulic power being supplied by an independent hydraulic system which is pto driven. The third machine to be launched is the standard SMO XTR which has been designed to mow and weed simultaneously. The weeder is available in two widths 35cm [13.8”] and 45cm [17.7”]. Working depth is 4cm [1.6”]. A disc on the base of the mower limits the penetration so that root damage is avoided. The weeder is fitted to the right side of the mower. Seppi’s UK distributor is Lamberhurst Engineering. For more information call 01892 890364 or visit www.lameng.com.

Forestry Machinery & Equipment Importers and Distributors of Ferrari Tractors, Seppi Forestry Mulchers, Maxwald Cable Winches and FSI Stump Cutters

fsi

Our comprehensive range of models, options and attachments will meet all your needs

Lamberhurst Engineering Tel: 01892 890364 www.lameng.com

Fax: 01892 890122 • Email: info@lameng.com Priory Farm • Parsonage Lane • Lamberhurst • Kent TN3 8DS

a World of Trees Issue 23

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Advanced Techniques in Tree Risk Assessment

Philip van Wassenaer1 and Michael Richardson2

1

2

42

2 T R A P

Urban Forest Innovations Inc. 1248 Minnewaska Trail Mississauga, ON L5G 3S5 Canada pwassenaer1022@rogers.com

Richardson Tree Care and Landscaping P.O. Box 8 Brighton, ON K0K 1H0 Canada m_richardson_tree@hotmail.com

a World of Trees Issue 23


In this second of a three-part series we investigate how sonic tomography allows arborists to look inside a tree, and how the use of an engineering approach to assess tree structure has allowed arborists to integrate the size and shape of the tree, wood strength and the applied load into the analysis of tree safety. These advanced techniques provide viewable and repeatable results, are able to overcome the limitations of visual tree assessments and simplified strength loss formulas, and cause virtually no damage to the tree. Sonic tomography provides a cross-sectional picture of a trunk section. The view is more complete than what is offered by drilling and the digital image can be retained and shared. The technique can be thought of as similar to the ultrasound or CAT scans used for the human body The arborist selects a cross-section of interest, and then measures its exact shape and size. The assessor and the software determine the number and positions of the nails and they are then tapped into the cambium around the circumference of the cross-section. Some of the nails are usually targeted to areas of specific interest (areas with defects), and the remaining nails are evenly spaced around the stem. Each nail

is attached to a sensor and the sensors are connected in sequence to the tomograph machine, which is in turn connected to a laptop computer. The assessor taps lightly on the first nail to generate a sound wave in the wood, and the tomograph records the impact and the time required for the sound waves to reach each sensor. This same procedure is repeated on each nail. In this way, each nail is both a sending point and a receiver, and a dense array of data is collected. Sound travels at different speeds through air, solid wood, or decayed wood. Using this basic concept, the software generates a sound velocity map for the cross-section from the wave speed data collected (Figure 1). The resulting image indicates solid wood as shades of brown, early decay as green, and decayed wood, cavities or cracks as violet or blue colours. The image is generated immediately on-site and the assessor can determine if there is a need for further investigation. FIGURE 1. A cross-section of a stem with internal decay (left), and an image of the same stem generated with minimal invasiveness by the PiCUSÂŽ Sonic Tomograph. Though sonic tomography scans in two-dimensions, cross-sectional areas can

be compiled to develop a three-dimensional image. The system creates an image of the cross-section but does not account for other factors such as the size of the tree or the load created by wind. As such, the arborist must utilize this information with other factors relevant to the safety of the tree in order to make an accurate risk assessment. In addition to being minimally invasive and high-resolution, sonic tomography is very useful where other testing methods may be limited by access or other constraints. Recognizing the limits of using residual wall information and the potential for damage to trees from drilling, two methods of risk assessment have been developed from the original work of Sinn & Wessolly. These methods utilize an engineering-based approach to integrate wood strength, tree geometry (size of trunk, extent of cavity) and the applied loads (i.e. wind) to assess the breaking safety of a tree’s stem and the stability of the root plate. The Static Integrated Method (SIM) is an advanced method, while the Static Integrated Assessment (SIA) is a simplified approach that allows for an approximation of tree stability based on common tree measures such as diameter, height, species and crown form. Using either of these methods, a stem safety value (resistance to breakage) is calculated; in the SIM the stability of

FIGURE 1. a World of Trees Issue 23

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the tree (resistance to uprooting) is also calculated. The SIM is available to those with advanced training and the necessary equipment. In this method the tree is pulled to simulate moderate wind loading and the resultant changes in fiber length and root plate inclination are measured. The static load is applied to the tree with a strong winch attached via a cable and sling in the canopy, and the applied force is measured by an in-line dynamometer (Figure 2). Changes in length are measured in the marginal fibers with an elastometer (with a resolution of 0.001 mm), and are used in the calculation of stem safety. An inclinometer (a level with a resolution of 0.01°), measures the changes in the angle of the root plate, and these data are used in the calculation of the uprooting safety. The resultant data are entered into a computer algorithm. A digital image of the canopy is used to determine canopy area and this, along with other factors such as the material properties of green wood, tree height, trunk diameter, and terrain factors are also entered. The safety ratings are then calculated, as the algorithm extrapolates the tree’s reactions under the applied forces during a Beaufort Force 12 gale (117 km/h or 72 mph). The strength of this approach is that the system is documentable and can be used to prescribe corrective pruning for the subject tree that will reduce its risk of failure. Using these methods, a calculated safety value of 100% indicates that the structure has only sufficient strength to withstand the load that it may experience in a Beaufort Force 12 gale. However, as with engineered structures, some factors of safety need to be built in to any system. At 150%, a tree has 50% in reserve above the calculated storm forces. With this reserve or more, trees can be considered as safe to retain. Beaufort 12 winds are used in this analysis since even sound trees begin to fail

under such intensive wind events. Proper application of the SIM requires extensive arboricultural and engineering knowledge, experience, and access to a number of sophisticated assessment tools. A visual inspection of the tree is always completed first to identify the weakest areas that require testing, and this is where the arborist’s decision-making skills are crucial. FIGURE 2. Schematic of the static integrated methodology. The SIA method was developed to allow arborists without the required equipment and training to take advantage of SIM. By measuring the height and diameter of a tree along with its exposure, an assessor can then enter the data into an online calculator (available at http://sag.baumwert.de/en/ or www.tree-consult.org) to calculate the basic safety of the tree. The basic safety value is calculated as though the trunk has no decay or cavities. If decay is present, the residual wall thickness of the subject tree can be compared with a series of diagrams showing varying degrees of hollowness and the associated (reduced) safety values. For trees that have safety values that are less than 150%, pruning prescriptions can be recommended based on the fact that larger, taller crowns undergo larger wind loads. As such, by shortening the tree (in some cases by as little as one metre) potential risk can be significantly decreased. Such quantified recommendations can serve to reduce topping or unnecessary pruning, which may adversely affect the tree’s safety and longevity.

decay. Tomography provides far more information than small drill holes can, in a minimally-invasive manner. As the thickness of the residual wall alone does not account for the size and shape of the subject tree, nor the extent of wind load applied, two engineering-based approaches have been developed to enable the calculation of accurate safety values. These values still require interpretation by trained and qualified arborists, but they point the way to effective risk mitigation prescriptions that may save a tree, rather than calling for unnecessary removal. In this way, mature and large-stature trees, which have exceptionally high value for wildlife habitat and other benefits, can be preserved in the urban landscape. In the final paper of the series we will show examples of two trees (the maple and willow from the first article) and how an advanced approach to tree risk assessment was used to evaluate trees and save them from unwarranted removal. Suggested reading: BRUDI, E. (2002) Trees and statics: an introduction. Arborist News, 11, 28-33. SINN, G. & WESSOLLY, L. (1989) A contribution to the proper assessment of the strength and stability of trees. Arboricultural Journal, 13, 45-65. WESSOLLY, L. (1995) Fracture Diagnosis of Trees. Part 2: Statics-Integrated Methods Statically-Integrated Assessment (SIA): The Practitioner’s Method of Diagnosis. Stadt und Gruen, 8, 570-573.

Modern methods of tree risk assessment have moved away from qualitative, descriptive evaluations to ones where risk can be quantified. Sonic tomography has allowed arborists to look inside a tree and get a clearer picture of the extent of cavities, cracks and

Advanced Techniques in Tree Risk Assessment

PART 2

42

FIGURE 2.

a World of Trees Issue 23


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a World of Trees Issue 23

www.johnclegg.co.uk

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g n i l a b h s a r b y Wh e v a h d l cou l a e p p a mass Left to right, Marius Urwin, Wynn Humphreys and driver John Evans with one of the brash balers. There can be no doubt that forestry has undergone a transformation of seismic proportions over the past 20 years or so. Alongside the traditional practices of harvesting and restocking which have underpinned the industry for centuries, Forestry Commission Wales must ensure that the public forest estate it manages on behalf of the Welsh Assembly Government offers a range of public benefits. But perhaps one of the most progressive developments to occur in the industry has been driven not by the requirement to offer social benefits, but by a more pressing need to address an issue that could affect us all climate change. The way in which Forestry Commission Wales manages the Assembly’s 126,000 hectares of woodland - which cover 6% of the country - is changing forever as brash that would normally be left to rot after operations is now recovered and baled for the expanding biomass sector. Brash bales are incinerated to generate heat and/or electricity thereby substituting traditional fossil fuels. The biomass sector, backed by government incentive schemes, has dramatically increased levels of competition in the timber market with demand for low-grade small roundwood. This has impacted on the traditional processing sector, particularly the particleboard industry. This is true on a local, national and global scale as governments have implemented policies that assist in meeting their commitments towards renewable energy targets. “Increasing production through brash baling will help reduce market pressures on a limited resource of small roundwood as well as provide other non-market benefits,” said Marius Urwin, Wales Harvesting and

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Marketing’s (WHaM) Biofuels Manager. “Forestry Commission Wales is committed to increasing production from non-forecastable volume. This comprises volume not included in WHaM’s annual production target of 770,000 m3 obs. The majority of this volume is currently sourced from the clearance of vegetation from forest roadsides and the recovery of harvesting residues from clearfell coupes.” While Britain has only relatively recently embraced the benefits of brash baling, the technology was developed by the Scandinavians a decade ago. The culture of using the whole tree has come from Finland and Sweden where the biomass is an integral part of the traditional processing industries. Pulpmills, for instance, commonly have combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and may provide additional heat to local district heating schemes. There are currently three brash balers, which cost about £300,000 each, operating in Wales with the first one arriving about three and a half years ago. Forestry Commission Wales has two medium term brash baling contracts in place. In north Wales, Tilhill have a sales contract and supply bales to Shotton Paper Mill’s CHP on Deeside. In south Wales, Forestry Commission Wales is committed to supplying the Western Bio-Energy biomass power plant near Port Talbot. Each contract is for three years with a quantity of 10,000 to 12,000 tonnes a year, so over three years Forestry Commission Wales will be looking to supply around 60,000 tons of brash from the woodlands of Wales. Tilhill Harvesting Manager Wynn Humphreys, who retired in April, has seen many changes in his 51 years in forestry, but he is in no doubt about the benefits of this development in the industry.

“I think it’s an extremely good thing. It doesn’t take quality timber from other markets, especially the fencing market,” said Wynn, who joined the Forestry Commission in April, 1959. “It’s something new and something I’ve taken a lot of interest in. It’s one aspect of forestry which I’ll definitely miss. If somebody had told me four or five years ago that we’d be doing something like this, I would not have believed them.” These contracts provide Forestry Commission Wales with a small surplus which helps to meet wider estate management objectives. However, that in itself is just a small part of the win-win situation which comes from “sweeping up” harvesting sites and removing trees from along the 3,700 kilometres of road network. Marius said, “It’s not just about income. it’s about the considerable saving on expenditure. “Traditionally, flails have been used to manage roadside vegetation. Recovering this material from along forest roads for biomass results in significant savings on annual road maintenance costs, by allowing the sun and wind to dry out the running surface. “In addition, it improves safety for road users by removing linear encroachment and improving sightlines. Other benefits include improving conditions for biodiversity by promoting graded edges and enhancing the amenity value of the forests. “Furthermore, brash recovery from clearfells can improve conditions for restocking by reducing the proportion of brash retained on site. The recovery of harvesting residues can further reduce the visual impact of whole-tree harvesting operations, improving the amenity and landscape value of the forest estate.”

a World of Trees Issue 23


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Mature Tree Preservation Through Advanced Tree Risk Assessment Philip van Wassenaer1 and Michael Richardson2

3 T R A P FIGURE 1.

1

2

46

Urban Forest Innovations Inc. 1248 Minnewaska Trail Mississauga, ON L5G 3S5 Canada pwassenaer1022@rogers.com

Richardson Tree Care and Landscaping P.O. Box 8 Brighton, ON K0K 1H0 Canada m_richardson_tree@hotmail.com


In our two previous articles, we traced the history of tree risk assessment and presented two new advanced techniques for determining the safety of suspect trees. The following two examples (Figures 1 & 2) illustrate the application of an arborist’s experience and knowledge in combination with advanced assessment techniques to aid in the decision to retain or remove significant trees. They also demonstrate how specific pruning prescriptions can be generated from these advanced assessment techniques to minimize the loss of crown area while reducing the risks associated with the trees. FIGURE 1. White willow (Salix alba) condemned by the local municipality without a risk assessment. Inset photo shows location of a large old pruning wound in the main stem. FIGURE 2. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) of concern as a potential risk after the tree was condemned by an “arborist” using a cursory visual assessment.

FIGURE 3.

visible root flare, likely indicative of grade changes associated with the construction of the home and terrace approximately 35 years prior. A large limb had been removed 1.5 m above ground, and the wood behind and below this area had associated decay. Areas of flattened bark (indicating growth deficits) and small areas of decay observed at the base of the tree also raised concerns.

The white willow (Salix alba) provides an example where arborist and public “prejudices” may have more weight in a risk assessment than the condition of the tree. When we look at Figure 1, we see a willow that not only meets the “prejudices” of a “junk” tree, but in addition exhibits deadwood in the crown, proximity to built structures, and a large pruning wound near the base of the trunk with associated decay. In accordance with a property standards by-law, an order had been issued to destroy this “hazardous” tree. However, no documentation was provided to support the issuance of the removal order. The owner of the tree hired a consultant to assess the tree in order to determine if the removal order was justifiable or whether the tree could in fact be safely retained.

After the visual examinations, PiCUS® tomography equipment was used to acquire cross-sectional images below the large pruning wound and at 25 cm above ground. The resultant images are shown in Figures 3 and 4. The cross-section below the wound (Figure 3) showed extensive decay and a thin residual wall, as might be expected, but also a large amount of solid wood on the opposing side. The image suggested that an analysis of breaking strength would be necessary to make an informed decision about the future of the tree. One of the main reasons for further testing was that strength loss calculations based on simplified formulae would not yield reliable results for this tree; the residual wall was not symmetrical and the cross-section of the stem was far from circular. These assumptions must be met for strength loss formulae to be applicable.

A thorough examination from the ground and by climbing were the initial tasks in the risk assessment. There was significant deadwood of all sizes throughout, but no large pruning wounds or other visual defects were found within the crown. The focus of investigation was then shifted to the lower portion of the trunk. There was no

The second scan, taken at the base of the tree, indicated a solid core with areas of decay around the perimeter. The locations of weakened areas in the image corresponded to the visual assessments. Once again, this image did not allow for traditional strength loss analysis because the decay was on the outside of the column

rather than in the middle. Figure 3. Photograph (left) and PiCUS® image (right) of willow stem at pruning wound from a removed limb, 1.5 m above grade. The approximate position of sensor 1 is shown in the left image. Figure 4. Photograph (left) and PiCUS® image (right) of willow stem at 25 cm above grade. The red circles indicate a decayed area on the stem and its representation in the tomography image. The green areas correspond with other visible surface defects. Static Integrated Methodology (SIM) was then used to determine safety values for the stem and root plate. The basic safety of the tree was determined to be over 500%, based on the stem and crown characteristics. The uprooting or tipping stability was measured during four pulls. Tipping stability values ranged between 150% and 180%. There was still 50% in reserve strength beyond what was required to resist a 117 km/h wind. As winds of that speed are extremely rare in the locality of the tree, there was no cause for concern about uprooting at the time of the assessment. Stem safety tests were carried out at six heights on the tension and compression sides of the main stem (relative to the direction of pull). Values of 80% to 530% were calculated. The highest breaking resistance was near the base of the tree. The lowest breaking resistance was measured adjacent to the pruning wound

FIGURE 2.

FIGURE 4. a World of Trees Issue 23

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and in the area of the very thin residual walls observed in the tomograph images. This was the area of primary concern for whole stem failure. The visual assessments, sonic tomography images and SIM results were all consistent. The area of decay identified with visual observations showed the thinnest walls in the tomography image and gave the lowest safety values in the SIM tests. Visual assessment alone could lead to the conclusion that there was significant decay and potential safety concerns. The tomography image allowed the consultant to show that at the base of the tree, the decay was only on the surface and the SIM results indicated a very high stability against fracture in most tests. With software associated with the SIM method it is possible to explore various pruning prescriptions to determine their effect on safety values. Digital projections of the crown before pruning, overlaid with the crown shape remaining after pruning, allow for a determination of the reduced wind load and the resultant increase in safety. It was determined through digital analysis that a crown reduction of 4 - 5 m would increase the breaking resistance above 150% and also increase all of the other values for breaking and uprooting resistance (Figure 5). Since willow trees will respond well to hard pruning and the tree displayed good vitality, the crown reduction was carried out. The shape of the reduced tree in Figure 5 is only approximate and the climbers utilized proper crown reduction techniques to achieve the desired pruning goals. Beyond the canopy reduction, several large, extended lower limbs were pruned to reduce end weight and the likelihood of branch breakage or cracking. The results of the completed analysis were presented to the municipality as evidence that the tree could be retained on the site rather than removed. The owners of the tree had lived for over 35 years under the boughs of this magnificent tree. Imagine their joy when the municipality reversed its removal order and her tree was retained. Three years and several storms later, the tree is alive and well.

Figure 5. The outline of the tree without any pruning is on the left and the approximate shape of the reduced crown is on the right.

Figure 6. Output page from the SIA assessment of the sugar maple. The lower panel shows various scenarios of hollowness to compare with the subject tree.

FIGURE 5. In the second example, we see a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) with a wound in the lower stem (Figure 2). Associated with this wound is a large fungal conk and decayed wood. The first arborist that inspected the tree declared that it was likely a hazard and immediately provided the homeowner with a quote for removal. No more than a cursory glance at the tree was used to assess the risk. The homeowners sought a second opinion prior to moving forward with the removal of their beloved tree. As the tree was in exceptional health and displayed no other visual signs of weakness, Static Integrated Assessment (SIA) using the online calculator was the first step in the assessment. The basic safety of the tree was calculated at over 600%. This means that the tree was six times stronger than it needed to be to withstand a 117 km/h wind, if no decay or hollows were present. To determine the approximate breaking resistance for various degrees of stem hollowness, the SIA provides diagrams of a number of possible geometries (Figure 6). In the worst-case scenario for this tree, if there was a thin-shelled hollow with an opening, the breaking resistance would be 215% (red circle). A tomograph scan (Figure 7) of this tree indicated that there was far more solid wood than in the worst-case scenario.

Mature Tree Preservation Through Advanced Tree Risk Assessment

3 T R A P

48

The tomography image corresponded closely to the scenario for a breaking resistance of 335% (green circle). At the lowest possible resistance values provided by the SIA, the tree would still have 2.15 times the strength required to endure a 117 km/h wind.

Figure 7. PiCUSŽ Sonic Tomograph image of the sugar maple stem. Left image is at 65cm above grade, right image is at 1.2 m. The analysis of the maple still required the arborist to consider the health of the tree, other potential defects, and of course the owner’s desires with respect to the tree. With the high level of structural stability determined by the SIA method, backed up by a sonic tomograph image, no further testing of the tree was prescribed. In other scenarios with lower stability, combining sonic tomography with static load analysis would provide a comprehensive and robust assessment of tree risk. Tree risk analysis has evolved from a qualitative to a quantitative approach. Utilizing modern techniques, it is possible to more accurately quantify the uprooting stability and breaking resistance of a tree and provide a more thorough analysis of risk than what was possible only a decade ago. In the examples presented, both trees had been condemned with cursory visual assessments, yet advanced testing showed that the trees could be safely retained. In the case of the willow, pruning was prescribed that reduced the size of the canopy and increased the safety rating of the tree. In the case of the maple, testing easily and accurately showed that the stem and root plate were safe and that minor defects in the crown could be dealt with through minimal maintenance pruning. Large old trees can be maintained in the urban landscape. With a thorough examination, using modern advanced tree risk assessment techniques, it is possible to not only provide repeatable quantitative examinations of the subject tree’s safety, but also to develop effective pruning and cabling prescriptions. This approach will reduce risk and contribute to sustainable urban forests with a diverse range of age classes, species and wildlife habitats.

FIGURE 7.

FIGURE 6.

a World of Trees Issue 23


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Minimal Risk security guards at the forest entrance

Crackdown on forest thieves

Peter Cloke, Deputy Forest Manager, Forestry Commission Wales (left) with Bob Cole, Director, Minimal Risk 50

Forest thieves had better watch out – Forestry Commission Wales has beefed up security in the woodlands in South Wales that it manages on behalf of the Welsh Assembly Government. Over the past few years, the theft of diesel and damage to machines and equipment at woodland sites where timber is being harvested has become a growing problem. Often the victims of these crimes are the contractors that work for Forestry Commission Wales, many of which are small local businesses. These businesses play a vital part in the management of public forests, both planting new trees and felling others that are destined for the timber market. Now, in order to stop people stealing from woodland sites and to help safeguard jobs in the forestry industry, Forestry Commission Wales has appointed security professionals, Minimal Risk, to provide out-of-hours cover at its harvesting sites. Forestry Commission Wales’s District Manager, Dai Jones, said, “The forestry sector is an important part of the Welsh economy and the harvesting of trees for timber provides many rural jobs. “Given the current tough economic climate, we are even more determined to protect the livelihoods of the contractors that work for us. “Minimal Risk will provide specialist security services at our woodland sites and we look forward to working with them.” As well as patrolling harvesting sites, security guards will report information to the police on illegal activities such as unauthorised 4 x 4 vehicles and motorbikes using forest roads. Minimal Risk is based in Hereford and has a number of ex-military personnel amongst its security staff. The company won the contract to provide security to Forestry Commission Wales via a procurement exercise. Greg Cole, Minimal Risk’s Project Manager, said, “We are delighted to be working in partnership with Forestry Commission Wales on a challenging and exciting project. “We are not a typical security company and we focus on projects where we can make the most use of our specialism in working on natural resource projects where you can get your boots muddy! “We feel it is important to support local industry and jobs, especially in the current economic climate, and we encourage suitably qualified applicants from local communities to check out the vacancies on our recruitment website.” a World of Trees Issue 23


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