Professional Pasta N. 1 January/March 2021

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T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L M A G A Z I N E F O R PA S TA P R O D U C E R S

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Food security in fresh pasta

POSTE ITALIANE Spa - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - Aut. n. 1429/2020 del 7.08.2020 – Stampe periodiche in REGIME LIBERO

A new whole grain pasta

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N. 1 January / March 2021

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Year XXVI



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Year XXVI - N. 1 January / March 2021 Editor in Chief Claudio Vercellone Scientific and technical committee Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician Roberto Tuberosa Agricultural Genetics Editing Avenue media Srl ufficiostampa@avenue-media.eu Advertising Massimo Carpanelli carpa@avenue-media.eu Edition, management, editorial, advertising and administration Avenue media Srl Viale Antonio Aldini, 222/4 40136 Bologna (Italy) avenuemedia@avenue-media.eu www.avenuemedia.eu Subscriptions office abbonamenti@avenue-media.eu Subscription Ue countries € 45.00 Outside Ue € 60.00 Back issues (if available): € 15.00 each plus postage

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10 EDITORIAL

Goodbye Great Britain. But it isn’t a farewell

5

by Dario Casati

DEPARTMENTS

Facts & news

8

FEATURES FOCUS

Pasta consumption during the lockdown

10

by Filippo Bertuzzi

PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

That’s an innovative whole durum grain pasta

14

by Laura Gazza

FOOD SECURITY

Bacillus cereus in fresh pasta products

24

by Valerio Giaccone

CASE HISTORY

Shaping a sustainable future in harmony with nature

38

Historical news

42

by Bühler Group





EDITORIAL

Goodbye Great Britain. But it isn’t a farewell by Dario Casati Agricultural Economist University of Milan

January / March 2021

F

our and a half years have passed since 23 June 2016, the day of the referendum on Great Britain (UK)’s exit from the EU, until 31 December 2020. It took four and a half years to reach an agreement on the rules that will govern relations between the parties from now on. The separation took place in two stages: at the end of 2019, with the signing of an International Treaty that defined the modalities of the UK’s exit from the EU and, at the end of 2020, with a Trade and Cooperation Agreement that came into force on 1 January 2021 on a provisional basis, pending ratification. The Agreement regulates all concrete aspects of the separation and is over 1200 pages long.

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In order to reach an agreement, the parties undertook a tiring process that, at the beginning of December, still seemed to be on the verge of collapse due to some "significant differences" that seemed irreconciliable. Three points were open: the conditions for fair competition in trade between the parties, how to resolve disputes arising between them and the rules for fishing rights. As in every negotiation, the result remained open-ended until the very end and required some sensational steps such as the vital direct contacts between the British Prime Minister Boris Johnson and the President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen. The agreement was reached in a final sprint on

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EDITORIAL

Christmas Eve: the British Parliament approved it on 27 December, the European Parliament on 29 and the EU Council of Ministers on 31. Despite the final jolts, the issues under discussion in early December suggested that the goal was in sight. Considering that the total trade between the UK and the EU is worth around 660 billion euros a year and fishing rights in British waters are worth 650 million euros, it is clear that this could not be a deal-breaker. The coexistence between the UK and the continental countries, particularly the six founding members, was not easy. From the outset, the logic and perspectives of the protagonists were too far apart. The UK’s presence in the EU lasted 47 years, and led to a common set of rules that cannot be radically changed any time soon. One sixth of British regulations are now derived from EU law and that just over 40% of British exports and just under half of British imports are with the EU. In financial terms, the weight of

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the London market rises to 60% of the European total. According to calculations by the Office for Budget Responsibility, the independent body that supervises the British budget, the Agreement would result in a loss of 4% of British GDP over the next 15 years compared to remaining in the EU, but a “no deal” exit would have produced a loss of at least 6%. In practical terms, the Agreement creates a trade system similar to the current one, without tariffs or non-tariff barriers, but with new bureaucratic hurdles that are already becoming apparent in early January. For the future, the UK will not be obliged to comply with new EU regulations and changes made by the Parties in the future will be jointly assessed on a practical level. In a nutshell, the UK’s’ position will be different from the subordinate position of the EEA countries and will rely on a shared basis with the EU. The completion of the separation opened up internal political Professional

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problems in the UK, both with the difficulties raised by Scotland and, above all, with the fragility of the Irish solution based on a surprising maintenance on the island of a customs union without borders between the Republic of Ireland and Ulster. However, even in the EU this might create a drive to imitate, to some extent, forms of withdrawal from the common bond, even if the economic crisis due to the pandemic is a brake on separatist ambitions. We can only hope that both sides keep in mind their common path and, above all, that they grasp the message of the need to preserve forms of union, even through more flexible relations, paying more attention to the essential and less to the form. By being a little more English without England and more continental by remaining outside the EU. Goodbye Great Britain. But it isn’t a farewell. Dario Casati

We would like to thank the Georgofili Academy for their kind cooperation

January / March 2021



FACTS & NEWS

Nippon Flour Mills rebrands as NIPPN Founded in 1896, Nippon Flour Mills Co. is among the leading food manufacturers in East Asia. As the first modern mechanical flour milling company in Japan, the Tokyo-based company is on the track to become a global player beyond Japan on this successful journey. It is operating a wide range of food businesses, including the flour milling business, which remains a significant part of NIPPN portfolio, the food ingredients business, which manufactures premixes, the processed food business, which manufactures pasta and home-use groceries, and the frozen foods business. To achieve a more multifaceted food enterprise, the Japanese company has been expanding its operations and it has also decided to expand as a diversified all-around food company by changing its name. Effective last January 1st, Nippon Flour Mills Co. changed its company name to NIPPN CORPORATION (NIPPN).

A pasta “+Greens” Natural food company Chickapea announces the launch of +Greens, a new line of organic pasta that would offer 24 g of vegetable protein per serving. Already available in penne, spaghetti and spirals, the new “vegetarian” and gluten-free offering is made with only chickpeas, lentils, kale and spinach, according to Chickapea. Each serving of +Greens would provide 11 g of fiber and more than two servings of vegetables. Additionally, Chickapea says the new offering is a source of iron, as are vitamins K and B6. Since February, the Chickapea +Greens line is available in the United States, including Mom's Organic Markets and many independent grocery stores. The products will also be available for purchase online, on Amazon and on the brand's website.

The NutriSusFood project NutriSusFood starts, a project funded by the Italian Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies within the European JPI-HdhL funding, relating to the European Systemic “Knowledge Hub”, included in the international partnership of 42 research groups from eight European countries. The goal is to make agricultural production resilient and more sustainable, identifying future food consumption scenarios, to ensure nutritional adequacy in the various stages of life. The coordination will be of the Food and Nutrition Research Center of the Council for Research in Agriculture and Analysis of the Agricultural Economy (Crea), in collaboration with the Research Centers of Cereal and Industrial Crops, Genomics and Bioinformatics and Policies and Bioeconomy of Crea. The project will last three years and will promote new balanced food consumption models with a low environmental impact. A focus will be dedicated on population groups vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies, to propose a consumption model containing foods with higher nutritional quality.

De Cecco joins Filiera Italia The historic De Cecco pasta factory has decided to join Filiera Italia, the new association that brings together for the first time in a foundation the best of national agricultural production, represented by Coldiretti, the food industry, distribution and the most important economic components of the country system. The adhesion was communicated by Filippo Antonio De Cecco, president and Ceo of De Cecco Group, to the president of Coldiretti Ettore Prandini, and to the managing director of Filiera Italia Luigi Scordamaglia, visiting the Fara San Martino plant, in the province of Chieti.

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FOCUS

Pasta consumption during the lockdown by Filippo Bertuzzi Senior Market Analyst Areté

Market dynamics of durum wheat prices

T

he market dynamics of the agricultural commodities can mostly be analyzed using - among the several available tools - the relationship between the available quantities (supply) and their usage (demand) through a full campaign or in a specific time. With specific regard to durum wheat - particularly in areas with a well-developed and relevant processing industry - the item “consumption” in that balance has historically been considered inelastic or scarcely elastic with respect to production, thus giving the latter the role of the main variable in determining both, the price trend and level. The map of the main durum wheat producing countries points out by itself a prominent geographical concentration with global production cropped - on average bat around 45% between North

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FOCUS

DURUM WHEAT PRICES

Bologna till 13,5% p. 320

€/t

300

Foggia till 13% p.

Altamura CWAD1 Lockdown

280

260

240

2019/2020

America and the EU, up to 70% considering other key producers in the Mediterranean basin as well. This feature can typically unleash very pronounced market volatility when production differs from users’ expectations and needs, even in just one or few of the fundamental areas.

Diversified impacts However, the recent events related to the Covid-19 pandemic have changed some of the above mentioned assumptions and, since the earliest stages, have raised uncertainties and concerns among market players with regard to consumption trend for both, quantity and product’s mix. A few months later, the unprecedented lockdown experience has provided us with a very diversified outline of impacts among the food industry sectors due to the several variables

January / March 2021

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2020/2021

involved and their different duration over time. To name a few: raw materials and finished products logistics, dependence on out-of-home consumption, consumer purchases choices aimed at domestic storage, external markets (such as the corn ethanol production drop in the Usa linked to the oil prices).

From seed to pasta With specific regard to pasta in Italy, according to the latest data released by the Agrifood Market Services Institute (Ismea, data by quantity vs 2019), during the first seven months of 2020 both, sales on the domestic market and exports, increased respectively by about 8% and 30%. Beyond the significant double-digit growth of the latter, the domestic demand data deserves to be highlighted as it marks a trend

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FOCUS

reversal after years of slight but constant decline. In this framework, in addition to increased purchases for “at home” consumption and storage, the lesser dependence on the Horeca (on average 25% of total domestic consumption) compared to other sectors made it possible to achieve the positive performance. On top of that, 100% Italian Durum Wheat pasta continued its growth - being already counter-trend in most recent years - moving from 14% of the total dry pasta consumption in 2018 up to 20% in the first half of 2020. The dynamics of demand as above described have therefore taken greater significance comparing to the past within the global and domestic durum market and has deserved to be considered also from a forecasting perspective.

Market players With the consequences of the lockdown between market years 2019/20 and 2020/21, the impact on prices can be defined as a shortterm shock, causing quotations’ increase since the end of March and throughout the month of April. The upward trend on the main Italian exchanges,

DURUM WHEAT STOCKS, PRODUCTION, TRADE AND CONSUMPTION 2018/2019 2019/2020 2020/2021 Beg. stock

9.0

10.0

8.9

-11%

Production

37.0

33.6

34.0

+1%

7.8

9.6

8.8

-9%

Consumption

36.0

13%

35.3

+2%

End. stock

10.0

6%

7.6

-15%

Stock/Use

28%

2 6%

21%

-4%

Trade

Source: IGC, October 2020

interrupting the previous sideway stage, was worth between 3% and 5% for domestic origin and 2% for imported durum, before falling back by a large extent by the end of May 2020. Meanwhile, market players were also turning their focus to key events for future market developments such as the new crop harvest in the EU, North Africa, Turkey and the beginning of plantings in North America. With several uncertainty factors (i.e. the Usda March Planting Intentions Report predicting acreage decrease, unlike what actually happened), some key features for 2020/21 world balance were already outlining, such as the marginal recovery of production (+ 1% according to the most recent Igc data) after the significant decrease in 2019 (-9%) and the erosion of carry-over stocks from the previous campaign (-11%). As a further confirmation of market perceiving already at that time the smaller global supply, sales continued to stay intense thanks to main importers demand and 2019/20 campaign set a record in the last decade with trade at 8.9 million tons (Igc).

A bullish effect In this general context, substantially already supportive of prices, the lockdown has therefore started a further short-term bullish effect. Past experience is now

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Change

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certainly useful for forecasting any further similar dynamics with greater awareness. In conclusion, the key factors to take into account are: • The tight world supply demand balance is still confirmed for 2020/21 market year which is expected to end with a further decrease of stocks and their ratio with total usage at their lowest values since the campaign 2014/15. • The outlook may start changing as soon as the market makes the assumption that production is going to recover in 2021, actually at harvest or by forecasting it at planting. • For the end of 2020, the Italian pasta industry expects the growth of both, exports and domestic consumption, are confirmed albeit at much lower rates than in the first part of the year. • A context of lockdown or in any case of measures causing similar effects on consumption - such as the one currently underway - can be considered as a bullish factor whose duration remains however unpredictable being a function of the pandemic evolution. • As a corollary of above points, the durum wheat origin has to be monitored as potentially affecting the price relationships (spread, basis) between markets. Filippo Bertuzzi

January / March 2021



PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

That’s an innovative whole durum grain pasta by Laura Gazza CREA- Research Centre Engineering and Agro-food processing

A process by CREA-IT transferable to food companies on an industrial scale

I

n recent years, research in the food industry has focused on the development of technological processes aimed at the creation of functional products with beneficial effects on human health. Whole grain foods play a key role in this trend. Indeed, numerous epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains could contribute to an adequate intake of bioactive compounds, including dietary fiber and antioxidants, useful for reducing the risk of various chronic diseases. Despite the numerous scientific evidence on the greater nutritional value of wholemeal flours compared to the refined ones and the greater availability on the market of products rich in fiber, the consumption of whole grains is still below current dietary recommendations. This is mainly due to the negative effects of the bran on the rheology of the dough and on the sensory properties, in terms of texture, taste and color of the final products, as well as to ingrained eating habits. The innovative technological process for the production of wholemeal pasta developed by the CREA-Research Center for Agri-food Engineering and Transformations (IT) in Rome (Italy), allows the production, in

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

pilot plants available at the Center, of foods based on whole grains with increased benefits for health, while ensuring the technological properties of the flours and the sensory properties of the final product.

A micronized wholemeal flour The process involves a mild decortication of the kernels, i.e. a controlled and progressive removal of the outermost tegumental layers (about 5µm) of the grain, which causes a decrease in the content of mycotoxins, heavy metals, chemical residues and contamination of bacteria and molds, without however eliminate the innermost layers, such as the aleurone layer, rich in fibers and bioactive compounds, instead normally removed in the

January / March 2021

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The process involves a mild decortication of the kernels traditional milling process. Subsequently, the hulled grain is ground in a high frequency mill (micronizer) in order to obtain an ultrafine whole flour in which the bran and germ are preserved and, consequently, the bioactive compounds present in them, but the ultrafine particles, more than 70 % of the flour particles have a particle size smaller than 250 µm, do not affect the pasta making process. This micronized wholemeal flour is then turboseparated (air classification) to obtain two different fractions,

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

one with a coarse grain size (G) and one with a fine grain size (F), both of which significantly richer in bioactive compounds, especially arabinoxylans and alkylresorcinols, compared to traditional semolina. The G or F fractions were mixed with traditional durum wheat semolina to obtain semolina integrated at 25% with the G fraction and at 50% with the F fraction for the production of pasta naturally enriched with only ingredients from the same durum wheat. The integrated semolina is subjected to a further sieving phase at 1 mm of sieve, before the traditional low temperature pasta making process, obtaining integrated pasta with the fractions G or F (PG25 or PF50), in the spaghetti format with an average diameter of 1,7 mm (Figure 1 and Photos A-B).

Figure 1

The technological process for the production of wholemeal pasta developed by the CREA*

Nutritional values The enriched pasta products were characterized for their content in proteins, ash, total starch and fiber components such as the content of total dietary fiber and resistant starch. The levels of all the analyzed parameters were higher in the enriched samples than in the control semolina Photo A

*CREA-Research Center for Engineering and Agro-Food Processing (IT) in Rome (Italy)

Photo B

The integrated spaghetti showed an amount of fiber increased by 62.5% in PG25 (B) and even by 113% in PF50 (A)

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

pasta, with the sole exception of the total starch content which was more or less unchanged. Interestingly, the amount of fiber was increased by 62.5% in PG25 and even by 113% in PF50. An increase in resistant starch was also observed in both enriched pasta, particularly evident in the sample obtained from the semolina enriched with the coarse fraction (increase of 18%), while in the pasta enriched with the fine fraction, the increase was 7%.

An increase in resistant starch was also observed in both enriched pasta The results relating to the ash content revealed, as expected, a gradual increase starting from the pasta control sample at PG25 to PF50 (average quantity 0.67, 0.73 and 0.90%, respectively), remaining however well within the Italian law limits for wholemeal pasta (1.80%). Finally, from the biochemical analysis the pasta was enriched up to 53% in soluble polyphenols, 121% in alkylresorcinols and 64% in arabinoxylans. From the above data, it can be inferred that the enriched pasta products had a higher content of bioactive compounds than the control pasta and an excellent content of starch and proteins, which contribute to the nutritional value and technological properties of the pasta.

Sensory and technological properties The enriched pasta exhibited a similar appearance to traditional one, with no visible bran particles and a slightly less bright yellow color. The organoleptic analysis, carried out by a panel of three

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expert tasters, revealed a lower tenacity (nerve) in the enriched spaghetti (PG25 and PF50); this could be a consequence of the interference of the bran parts on the gluten network. Stickiness and clumping were lower in both PG25 and PF50 than the control pasta, an effect similar to that reported for wholemeal pasta currently on the market prepared with added bran and most likely due to the presence of the fiber which is known to have a positive effect on stickiness, as it partially limits the release of starch during cooking. The overall organoleptic judgment scores released by the panel of experts ranged from 56 to 59 indicating a “sufficient” quality for both samples of enriched pasta. Generally, the incorporation of bran greater than 30% affects the sensory and technological properties of the pasta; in this case, the use of Professional

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micronized and turboseparated fractions to enrich the semolina, has affected the organoleptic properties of the pasta to a lesser extent, allowing up to 50% of the finer fraction to be added. The innovative technological process therefore allows to safeguard the intrinsic properties of the raw material and to produce naturally enriched pasta which has, compared to the traditional product, a higher content of bioactive compounds, first of all dietary fiber. As regards the fiber components, in fact, it should be emphasized that PG25 can be indicated as a "source of fiber" and PF50 as a "high fiber content" in accordance with EU regulation no. 1047/2012. Furthermore, these products did not show negative effects on the physico-chemical characteristics and the organoleptic quality of the cooked pasta.

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

Ready to diversifying your production Finally, the enrichment process here described, allows to obtain a product with a better nutritional potential, made with the exclusive use of durum wheat grains, capable of responding both to the consumer’s ’requests for healthy products and to the needs of the pasta industry of products with greater added value. Pasta with high nutritional potential could in fact successfully enter the functional food market, enhanced by a transformation process that preserves the intrinsic properties of durum wheat kernels, as the standardized process, allows to keep the nutritional components of interest in their natural matrix and provides a product with good sensory characteristics alternative

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This process allows the use of cereals still little consumed to those currently available on the market of pasta with high fiber content and antioxidant compounds. The proposed product and the related production process can find application in companies in the milling and pasta sector that will take advantage of the “pasta with high nutritional potential” by diversifying their production and improving competitiveness in the market sector “enriched pasta with high nutritional value”. All premilling, milling and pasta making systems are commercially available. Professional

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The entire technological process and the pasta obtained are the subject of a patent by CREA-IT (Patent in Italy No. 1421958), issued on 14/04/2016 by the UIBM (Italian Patent and Trademark Office); this patent has been evaluated by the UIBM itself, as highly transferable to food companies on an industrial scale. This innovative process also allows the use of cereals that are currently still little consumed, such as einkorn wheat, a cereal with a high protein content (higher than 17% even under organic cultivation) but with a reduced, if not zero, gluten index, with which we are experimenting with a wholemeal pasta starting from micronized flours. Laura Gazza

January / March 2021





FOOD SECURITY

Bacillus cereus in fresh pasta products by Valerio Giaccone Professor at Padua University Inspection of Foods of Animal Origin

An allegedly guilty foodborne pathogen

F

resh pasta and fresh filled pasta products are only apparently simple foods, because they contain only flour, eggs, water (and some other ingredients in filling, of course). In fact, due to their composition and the production process, fresh pasta is a wonderful harmony of ingredients based on a delicate balance of chemical compounds as well various kind of microorganisms. When giving the dough, we mix the various ingredients, we assemble them and we shape them in various forms, but at the same time we associate and mix bacteria, yeasts and molds. This microbial “tutti frutti mix salad” is the microbial flora or the microbiota of our fresh pasta. This microbial flora can be present in the finished product in more or less high charges: from less than 1,000 to over 1 million Colony Formant Units (cfu) per gram of food. We can identify this number in the so-called Total Viable Count (TVC). 90-95% of this microbial load generally consists of a blend of bacteria, yeasts and molds in varying percentages of species, but all these microbial genera share one characteristic: they are all microorganisms with quite no metabolic activities, which do not good or bad for the food product. Their fate is to die with the final cooking of the pasta.

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FOOD SECURITY

Microbiologists call them saprophytic microorganisms. A small fraction of the Total Viable Count is instead composed of microorganisms able to synthesize thermolable or thermostable enzymes that over time can cause the spoilage of the food if we let them grow too much. These microorganisms are the SSO that means Specific Spoiling microorganisms. These SSO should be kept under strict control with periodic analysis of the finished product. Spoiling enterobacteria, as well as coliforms, Bacillus and Clostridium belong to this category. In some cases, it may happen that some bacteria potentially harmful for humans, such as Salmonella enterica or Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus, also nestle in fresh pasta or in filled pasta products.

January / March 2021

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We always hope that these pathogens are never present in our products, but it should also be considered that by cooking in boiling water these bacteria can be effectively devitalized with a high degree of destruction, and that there is no concrete risk of their survival in cooked pasta. Among foodborne pathogens, bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus spp and Clostridium spp are quite an exception, because they are able to produce spores, particular cellular structures that bacteria produce in some phases of their life when they are in particularly hostile environmental conditions. Bacillus and Clostridium spores can resist in boiling water for tens of minutes or even hours. This means that in the cooked product the spores can still be present because they survive boiling in hot water,

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FOOD SECURITY

Bacillus Cereus

while the others foodborne pathogens die rapidly. Furthermore, after cooking, the spores (activated by heat) break and give rise to a new, living and viable bacterial cell. The spores, therefore, are a kind of spaceship: they allow life to resist even in very hostile environmental conditions (empty outer space) and when they return to a favorable environment again (on Earth), they open, making its vital form (the astronaut). To summarize, among the microorganisms that cause a foodborne disease, the sporeforming bacteria, have one more option than the others that allows them to survive even after cooking the pasta and therefore we must know them well to avoid them better. The most frequent spore-forming foodborne pathogen that we can most likely find in fresh and stuffed pasta is Bacillus cereus. Let us see its essential characteristics.

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Behaviour of Bacillus cereus Compared to other very “fastidious” foodborne pathogens, such as enteropathogenic Campylobacter as well as enterohemorragic Escherichia coli, that live and multiply only in certain ecological niches (the intestines of farm animals or humans), Bacillus cereus is a much more versatile microorganism that manages to live and multiply even in nutrient-poor substrates. We commonly find it everywhere in the environment, starting from cultivated land and in atmospheric dust. Consequently, B. cereus is often present in crops and vegetables as well as in fresh meat and in raw milk, given its widespread presence also in farm animals. Thanks to its spores and its rusticity B. cereus is often present also on work surfaces and inside the machinery used in the food industry. We apply these concepts to fresh and stuffed pasta with filling. Professional

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Vegetative cells and spores of B. cereus can be present in the raw materials (especially in flour) and in the various ingredients of the filling, starting from the spices and aromas used to flavor the filling. B. cereus can also be associated with fresh pasta during the processing, coming from work surfaces and staff manipulations. It is therefore relatively easy to isolate B. cereus from fresh and filled pasta products, but two important details must be kept in mind: 1) in humans, the intoxications caused by B. cereus become clinically appreciable only when the bacterium reaches in the dough and / or filling a charge of at least 100,000 cfu/g) 2) the lab tests lead very often to the determination of “presumptive B. cereus” and we must know exactly what such a term means. The intoxication caused by B. cereus can manifest itself with

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FOOD SECURITY

Table 1

Comparison between the foodborne illnesses caused by Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus

Symptom incubation period (in hours) Duration of illness (in hours) Diarrhea, abdominal pain Nausea and vomit

Source of the illness

Food at risk

Clostridium perfringens

Bacillus cereus Diarrhetic case

Bacillus cereus Cereulide case

Staphylococcus aureus

8 – 22

8 – 16

1–6

2–6

12 – 24

12 – 14

6 – 24

6 – 24

Predominant in the clinical picture

They predominate in the clinical picture

Rare

Quite common

Very rare

Rare

They predominate in the clinical picture

They predominate in the clinical picture

Thermolable enterotoxin (CPE)

Set of 15 factors which together have the function of diarrheal toxin

Very thermostable neurotoxin (cereulide) (up to 120°C up to 60 minutes)

Very thermostable specific neurotoxins (up to 100°C up to 20 minutes)

Foods of animal origin, heavily handled and/or cooked

Cooked meals,soups, dessert, delikatessen, sauces

Cooked delicatessen products, rich in starch (pasta, rice, pizza, meal, etc.)

Various, highly manipulated foods based on meat, milk and eggs

symptoms that are confused with those of other foodborne diseases, such as the intoxications caused by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus or Clostridium perfringens (Table 1). During the pasta production, B. cereus contaminates the food in very low charges (even less than 100 cfu/g); that means that to reach the concretely dangerous charge the bacterium must be able to multiply in the food. This can only happen if the fresh pasta (or also in the filling, in the case of stuffed pasta products), have if they have chemical and physical characteristics such as to allow the growth of the bacterium. Thanks to experimental studies conducted in the past years, we know well that B. cereus can only duplicate in foods that have a pH value greater than 4.6 Units and an activity water value (Aw value) greater than 0.940. Furthermore, the bacterium actively duplicates only at

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temperatures between 10° C and 55° C, although in the literature some enterotoxigenic strains B. cereus are described which can duplicate even at refrigeration temperature (psychrotrophic bacteria). In short, in too acidic food, as well as well as in very salty or sugary foods B. cereus is unable to multiply; the same also happens if the food is kept regularly at refrigeration temperature. Our problem is that fresh pasta and stuffed pasta products are not acidic foods and do not have a sufficiently low Aw-value to limit the growth of B. cereus.

Is pasta at risk? To establish whether our fresh pasta may be at risk of B. cereus growth, it is necessary to have an effective historical archive of measurements of the pH and Aw values of our pasta products, in order to establish whether the food constitutes a favorable Professional

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substrate for the growth of the bacterium. To obtain useful data, it can be very useful to carry out a specific challenge test, that means an experimental inoculation test of the bacterium in the product, to verify its possible growth during the normal shelf life of fresh or filled pasta. With the same purpose, it may be useful to conduct a predictive microbial modeling for B. cereus with one of the computer systems currently available on the Internet. In this case, however, it is worth paying attention, because the data obtained may not be completely “predictive” on the actual behavior of the bacterium in fresh pasta.

The “presumptive B. Cereus” In accredited analysis laboratories, the research and quantification of B. cereus in food is done by applying a specific ISO standard.

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FOOD SECURITY

The standard ISO provides that in the test report the presence of the bacterium is reported as “presumptive Bacillus cereus”. It should be noted that that term only indicates that we are in the presence of a certain charge of B. cereus, which is presumed to be concretely dangerous for humans, but just as the presumption of guilt exists, so there is also the presumption of innocence. From the point of view of the hygiene and safety of our food, we will not be able to draw exact conclusions if we do not conduct further more in-depth analyzes. Thanks to the introduction of techniques that allow us to evaluate the DNA of microorganisms (molecular biology techniques such the PCR) in the last twenty years we have experienced a real cultural revolution in microbiology. Bacterial species first classified in a certain genus have been moved into a different genus, sometimes created specifically to collect incoming species from other genera. This is what happened to Enterobacter sakazakii, moved to the genus Cronobacter.

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Bacteria that we considered harmless to our health have proved to be potentially dangerous for humans, as is the case of Listeria innocua, which has proved to be a potential cause of human listeriosis. Conversely, with more in-depth laboratory researches, we realized that bacteria judged a priori to be very harmful to humans, instead they are not because they are “not guilty”; this is the case, for example, of some strains of Clostridium botulinum, which in fact cannot cause botulism because they are unable to produce the BoNT (botulinic neurotoxins). The “old B. cereus” of yesteryear were also screened with molecular biology PCR techniques and it turned out that we actually sometimes called B. cereus bacteria similar to real ones, but not exactly proper to that species. Today, therefore, the true B. cereus are classified as B. cereus sensu stricto species and are included in a larger agglomeration of related species. This agglomeration is called B. cereus-group. It is a bit as if today we recognized that potential criminals reside only in Professional

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one of eight blocks of flats. In addition to the “block of B. cereus sensu stricto”, species such as B. thuringiensis, B. mycoides, B. pseudomycoides, B. anthracis, B. weihenstephanensis and B. tojonensis belong to the B. cereus-group. It should also be noted that not all tenants in the B. cereus sensu stricto block are licensed killers. In fact, the license of “foodborne pathogen” belongs only to those strains of B. cereus that are able to synthesize at least one of the two possible toxins, namely: • diarrheal enterotoxin • the emetic neurotoxin called cereulide. If a strain of B. cereus is able to produce a diarrheal enterotoxin and if the strain in the dough is able to multiply and accumulate enterotoxin, consumers of that product are at risk of developing a bad stomach ache, that means a diarrhetic enterocolitis. If, on the other hand, the B. cereus strain proves to be able to synthesize the neurotoxin cereulide, it is very likely that after consuming cooked pasta (or even cooked rice), consumers develop in a short time

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FOOD SECURITY

an intoxication, characterized by malaise, nausea, dizziness and repeated bouts of vomiting. In fact, cereulide is a toxin that is absorbed from the intestine, reaches the central nervous system with the blood, and electively stimulates the brain center of vomiting. The difference in the occurrence of one of the two forms of intoxication lies in the fact that the diarrheal enterotoxin is a thermolable compound. Even if it accumulates in fresh pasta, it is very likely that with boiling it is inactivated and does not cause any problem. Conversely, neurotoxic cereulide is a particularly heat-stable molecule: it can remain intact even up to 120° C for up to at least 60 minutes. This leads me to conclude that if the cereulide is able to accumulate in the pasta (whether fresh or stuffed), cooking in boiling water is absolutely not able to inactivate it.

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The synthesis of diarrhetic enterotoxin or cereulide is encoded in the DNA of B. cereus by specific genes. Therefore, if in the genome of a strain of B. cereus sensu stricto the analyzes reveal the presence of the gene that encodes the synthesis of the toxin, we are faced with a B. cereus that is concretely harmful for humans. If, on the other hand, in the DNA of that bacterial strain we do not find the gene that encodes the synthesis of one of the two aforementioned toxins, we will have to conclude that the bacterium is not concretely capable of causing intoxication (even if we label it as B. cereus).

The European Union Law B. cereus can cause a foodborne intoxication in humans if it exceeds 100,000 cfu/g of food, because beyond that load a strain able to produce toxins can make any food Professional

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harmful for humans. It would be therefore useful to have hygienic criteria that establish the maximum dose of B. cereus that is acceptable in a food, to never exceed the “toxic dose” during the commercial life of the food. Unfortunately, we have very few legal references on the maximum acceptable amount of B. cereus in food. The EC Regulation n.2073/2005 establishes the criterion “presumptive B. cereus” as a criterion of production hygiene for “Powdered infant formulas and powdered dietetic foods for special medical purposes intended for infants under the age of six months”. According to this criterion, those who produce powdered infant formula must periodically carry out analytical controls on their product at the end of the processing line, periodically taking a sample made up of 5 sample units.

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FOOD SECURITY

Table 2

Presumptive Bacillus cereus as an indicator of food production hygiene (according to the guidelines published by the Piedmont region, Italy) Foods for which the reference criterion is envisaged

Values

Note

Fresh pastry and pastry preparations Pastry and baked biscuits Bread and bakery products

≤100 cfu/g

Fresh pastry and pastry preparations. In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g. carry out toxin research.

Egg-pasta products

≤100 cfu/g

Egg pasta In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g. carry out toxin research.

Food / gastronomic preparations Ready-to-eat (1)

≤100 cfu/g

Ready-to-eat cooked food preparations rich in starch (rice, pasta, potatoes) and cooked vegetables. In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g. carry out toxin research.

Food / gastronomic preparations Ready-to-eat (2)

≤1.000 cfu/g

Ready-to-eat food preparations not cooked or containing some raw, starchy ingredients (rice, pasta, potatoes) and cooked vegetables. In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g. carry out toxin research.

Spices

≤1.000 cfu/g

Spices. In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g. carry out toxin research.

Canned foods

The Food Business Operator (FBO) knows that he has the hygiene of his production process under control if the presumptive B. cereus does not exceed 50 cfu/g in at least 4 sample units, while it can reach over 50 cfu/g and not exceed 500 cfu/g in a sample unit. The criterion applies to powdered foods during the processing phase, precisely to verify the effectiveness of the sanitation procedures on the work surfaces. In fact, in the event of non-compliance due to exceeding the criterion, the EC Regulation n.2073 provides that the FBO takes action to “improve the hygienic conditions during production, prevent recontamination and make better control of the selection of raw materials”, to name the actions to be taken in the event of an unfavorable outcome of the periodic control. According to European legal rules, at today B. cereus is not yet officially considered as a food

34

≤100 cfu/g

In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g. carry out toxin research.

safety criterion. Instead in Italy it is included in the guidelines published by the Piedmont Region on the “Microbiological criteria for food products” intended for the Control Authorities to provide them with guidance on the evaluation of the effectiveness of the control over production processes implemented by the FBOs. In this text “presumptive B. cereus” is included among the hygiene indicators. It is in these guidelines that we find a specific reference for “presumptive B. cereus” in egg pasta (industrial dry egg pasta, unpackaged fresh artisan egg pasta, packaged industrial stuffed egg pasta, unpackaged fresh artisan stuffed egg pasta, precooked stuffed egg pasta frozen) with a limit of acceptability of no more than 100 cfu/g of product. If this criterion is exceeded, the notes of the guidelines write verbatim: “Egg pasta. In case of charges ≥100,000 cfu/g must be Professional

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carried out the research of B. cereus toxins”. As you can see, also in the guidelines published by the Piedmont Region, reference is made to the confirmation of the potential danger of the bacterium. This confirmation must be obtained by searching in the DNA of the “presumptive B. cereus” the genes that encode the synthesis of the diarrhetic toxins as well as of the cereulide mentioned above. I report in Table 2 the indications contained in the guidelines of the Piedmont Region referring to “presumptive B. cereus”. The version of the guidelines is the fourth revision published in 2017. The values indicated apply both to foods taken still in the processing phase and to those already being sold or distributed to the final consumer.

Conclusions If, when analyzing a sample of your fresh or filled pasta, the presence of “presumptive

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FOOD SECURITY

B. cereus” is detected, keep in mind that you are facing a partial result: that means that this result is still incomplete and it must be integrated with further and more in-depth analyzes. To find out if the indicated strain is a “patented” foodborne pathogen, it will be necessary to establish whether in its DNA there are the genes encoding the production of at least one of the two toxins (it is very rare that the same strain produces both toxins at the same time). If, on the contrary, genomic analyzes do not detect the presence of specific genes, we will have to conclude that the “alleged culprit” is actually to be judged not guilty or rather harmless to human health. Valerio Giaccone

References 1. Abee T., Nierop Groot M., Tempelaars M., Zwietering M., Moezelaar R., van der Voort M. (2011). “Germination and outgrowth of spores of Bacillus cereus group members: Diversity and role of germinant receptors”. Food Microbiology 28 (2), 199-208. 2. Agata N., Ohta M., Mori M. (1996). “Production of an emetic toxin, cereulide, is associated with a specific class of Bacillus cereus”. Curr. Microbiol. 33, 67-69. 3. Al-Khatib M.S., Khyami-Horani H., Badran E., Shehabi A.A. (2007). “Incidence and characterization of diarrheal enterotoxins of fecal Bacillus cereus isolates associated with diarrhea”. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 59, 383-387. 4. Altayar M., Sutherland A.D. (2006). “Bacillus cereus is common in the environment but emetic toxin producing isolates are rare”. J. Applied Microbiology 100, 7-14. 5. Bartoszewicz M., Hansen B.M., Swiecicka I. (2008). “The members of the Bacillus cereus group are commonly present contaminants of fresh and heat-treated milk”. Food Microbiology 25, 588-596. 6. Bottone E.J. (2010). “Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 23, 382-398.

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7. Carlin F., Brillard J., Broussolle V., Clavel T., Duport C., Jobin M., Guinebretière M.H., Auger S., Sorokine A., Nguyen-Thé Ch. (2010). “Adaptation of Bacillus cereus, an ubiquitous worldwidedistributed foodborne pathogen, to a changing environment”. Food Research International 43, 1885-1894. 8. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (2016). “Scientific opinion on the risks for public health related to the presence of Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus spp. including Bacillus thuringiensis in foodstuffs”. EFSA Journal, 14(7):4524, 93 pp. 9. Ehling-Schulz M., Fricker M., Scherer S. (2004). “Bacillus cereus, the causative agent of an emetic type of food-borne illness”. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 48, 479-487. 10. Guinebretiere M.H., Thompson F.L., Sorokin A., Normand P., Dawyndt P., Ehling-Schulz M., Svensson B., Sanchis V., Nguyen-The C., Heyndrickx M., De Vos P. (2008). “Ecological diversification in the Bacillus cereus group”. Environ. Microbiol. 10, 851-865. 11. Lund T., De Buyser M.L., Granum P.E. (2000). “A new cytotoxin from Bacillus cereus that may cause Professional

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necrotic enteritis”. Molecular Microbiology 38, 254-261. 12. Rajkovic A., Uyttendaele M., Vermeulen A., Andjelkovic M., FitzJames I., in’t Veld P., Denon Q., Vérhe R., Debevere J. (2008). “Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus emetic toxin, cereulide”. Letters in Applied Microbiology 46, 536-541. 13. Stenfors-Arnesen L.P., Fagerlund A., Granum P.E. (2008). “From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins”. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 32, 579-606. 14. Svensson B., Monthan A., Shaheen R., Andersson A., Salkinoja-Salonen M., Christiansson A. (2006). “Occurrence of emetic toxin producing Bacillus cereus in the dairy production chain”. International Dairy Journal 16, 740-749. 15. Tourasse N.J., Helgason E., Økstad O.A., Hegna I.K., Kolstø A.B. (2006). “The Bacillus cereus group: novel aspects of population structure and genome dynamics”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 101, 579-593. 16. Van Netten P., van De Moosdijk A., van Hoensel P., Mossel D.A., Perales I. (1990). “Psychrotrophic strains of Bacillus cereus producing enterotoxin”. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 69, 73-79.

January / March 2021



CASE HISTORY

Shaping a sustainable future in harmony with nature by Bühler Group

T

he Swabian Alb in the southwest of Germany is a region of rugged charm. The people who live here are deeply rooted in the land and its traditions. Swabian cuisine, with its simple but delicious pasta dishes, is enjoyed far and wide. Located between Stuttgart and Lake Constance, the town of Trochtelfingen is home to Alb-Gold Teigwaren GmbH - a family company that has grown successfully over five decades and through three generations driven by passion and a dedication to its principles. “In order to understand our philosophy, it’s worth looking back at our beginnings”, says André Freidler, manager and grandson of the firm’s founder Franz Freidler. Freidler established the business in 1968 as a poultry farm. Dealing directly with natural products meant that the company had a strong bond with farming and agriculture from the very beginning. When a surplus in egg production led to falling prices in the late 1970s, his son Klaus Freidler made a virtue of necessity and started producing hand-made spätzle - the traditional regional specialty pasta made with fresh eggs and high-quality durum wheat semolina. Alb-Gold quickly became a household name, and this success allowed the family to grow the business further.

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The premium pasta producer Alb-Gold demonstrates how dynamism, innovation and strong convictions can be a recipe for a successful and sustainable business

ALB-GOLD Teigwaren GmbH, Germany

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January / March 2021


CASE HISTORY

The first fully automated pasta production line was launched in 1986, paving the way for future development on a larger scale. Klaus Freidler continued to grow the business with passion, turning it into one of Germany’s largest pasta producers, until his sudden death at the age of 52, in 2010.

A business with attitude Over the past decade, Irmgard Freidler and her sons, André and Oliver, have continued to develop the company, adding their own flavor to the business. Today, AlbGold produces a wide range of more than 350 different pasta products including the classic regional egg-based pasta like spätzle, as well as short and long pasta for many specialty products. Alb-Gold products are not only

found on supermarket shelves but also delivered to the food service and food processing industries. E-commerce is playing an increasingly important role in the distribution of products, enabling the company to maintain its independence and market specialty products more effectively. But for the Freidler family, growth has never been the only goal. “Sustainability has always been at the very core of everything we do”, says André Freidler. “For example, over ten years ago we restructured our entire supply chain to avoid genetically modified raw materials. We take our responsibility as a food producer very seriously and work closely with farmers to promote sustainable and future-proofed agriculture”.

Innovation for quality The management team continuously questions how things are done. “It’s a mindset we have developed thanks to our roots in agriculture. The raw materials we use change with every new harvest, so we need to adopt to new conditions all the time”, says André Freidler. “When it comes to processing raw materials into marketable pasta, we can’t rely on simply setting up our machines and getting going. We achieve consistent quality by seeing our business as a dynamic process and adjusting as we go”. They are also on top of the game when it comes to staying ahead of changing customer expectations. The growing trend for pasta products made from alternative raw materials such as lentils and chickpeas, for example, is attracting new entrants to the market. Alb-Gold sets itself apart from the competition by applying its experience and expertise in these new areas to achieve consistent high quality that others cannot easily match. “We believe that quality starts with the right

January / March 2021

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choice of raw materials and the use of innovative technology in the production process”, says André Freidler. But it doesn’t end there. With the right mindset new standards can be set in all areas of the business. Recently, for example, the company abandoned conventional plastic packaging used for supermarket pasta and replaced it with more sustainable paper packaging. The awardwinning solution meets customers’ growing demand for environmentally friendly products.

Alb-Gold produces more than 350 different pasta products A holistic approach Alb-Gold has always put its money where its mouth is when it comes to values. “We understand the holistic nature of sustainability and the economic, ecological and social implications”, says André Freidler. The company has joined the Baden-Württemberg WIN-Charta for sustainable business practices and has committed to its twelve guiding principles. “These help us define our business processes”, he says. The company is certified annually and improvements are monitored across all key areas. Biodiversity, in particular, is a major focus. The company works closely with farmers aiming to reduce the application of pesticides or even do without them altogether. “We promote the establishment of open verges around fields, where bees can thrive”, says André Freidler. But it doesn’t stop there. The company also offers innovative services with a sustainability focus for its customers. In Trochtelfingen and Riesa visitors are welcomed in to experience Alb-Gold pasta production firsthand and cooking

39


CASE HISTORY

André Freidler, Member of the Executive Board/COO

courses are on offer providing tips on healthy and delicious pasta recipes. “We’ve even set up a herb garden to show our visitors the value of diversity in our regional habitats”, says Freidler.

Technology in line with the company’s philosophy When Alb-Gold decided to modernize their production plant in Trochtelfingen, the Swiss engineering group Bühler was commissioned to install a state-ofthe-art production line for short pasta such as penne and spiral noodles. “Finding the right partner is very important. We look for businesses that share our philosophy and our approach to sustainability”, says André Freidler. The family already had experience with Bühler machinery at its site in Spaichingen, which the company acquired in 2012. The plant had been operating on two Bühler production lines for many years. “We experienced the quality and reliability of Bühler machinery firsthand. At our third plant in Riesa, we also have a Bühler production line that was installed in 1986 and still runs well without any major downtime”,

40

says André Freidler. Longevity was an important factor, but not the only one. Many pasta manufacturers produce only a handful different pasta formats. Alb-Gold, by contrast, produces up to 60 different formats as well as specialized products made from Demeter-certified, organic and wholegrain wheat, as well as various spelt materials. There are even seasonal pasta products with ingredients such as chocolate for advent and mushrooms for gamebased recipes during the hunting season in autumn and wild garlic in spring. In order to cater for this wide range, the company opted for a Bühler Polymatik press for its new facility at Trochtelfingen. The press allows for a more flexible changeover of raw materials essential for the production of such a wide variety of products. Alb-Gold had built their new facility in Trochtelfingen to high sustainability standards, with optimal insulation, heat recovery and solar systems, as well as a green façade and roof. The same sustainability considerations applied to the new production line. Whereas standard production lines have high rejection rates resulting in large quantities of waste dough, Bühler’s Polymatik press features two spiral-shaped worm shafts that are designed to reduce waste and while ensuring consistent quality. The selfcleaning machines also provide the highest hygiene and food safety standards. To heat the pasta boilers, wood chippings are used from the local forests. As these boilers operate with a lower temperature, Bühler designed a new tailormade solution that could be integrated in the specific setup. The production line was also connected to the plant’s waste heat recovery system. The technical interface was engineered in close collaboration between the Alb-Gold and Bühler Professional

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teams. With the new production line up and running, a second line has already been commissioned. Shared values will play an important role in the future, too. “We identify with the sustainability goals that Bühler has set to reduce water use, waste and energy consumption. And we benefit from sharing a similar philosophy”, says André Freidler.

The company has recently established a foothold in the US Future expansion Over the years Alb-Gold has grown significantly and keeps looking for new opportunities. In addition to its three production plants in Germany it has recently established a foothold in the United States. “In the US, we trade under the name Al Dente Pasta and are very successful with authentic American laminated pasta. We also cater for the diet conscious and process alternative raw materials such as flour from pulses. While different rules apply to marketing there, we see very similar mega trends towards environmentally friendly production and a general openness towards alternative products”, says André Freidler. Alb-Gold’s success shows that sustainability and business acumen go together well. André Freidler is very clear in his convictions: “As a business in the food industry, we want to be part of the solution for a more sustainable future. If we want to solve our global food and environmental challenges, we must work in harmony with nature.” Bühler Group

January / March 2021



HISTORICAL NEWS

Spaghetti Bowl

42

Photo credit: Acme Photo (digitized by Leonard J. DeFrancisci)

W

ith World War II raging in Europe, the United States 5th Army took on the th 12 Air Force in a game of American football. The game was called the “Spaghetti Bowl”, and it took place on New Year's Day 1945 at the municipal stadium in Florence, Italy, now known as the Stadio Artemio Franchi1-2. During the war, many talented football players from college and professional teams faced a different draft, and were issued new uniforms as they joined the military3-4. Ignatius DeFrancisci from DEMACO, a World War II Army Air Forces veteran recalled: “All the military bases fielded excellent football teams with rosters full of super stars”. Many of these military teams played NCAA colleges as a regular part of their season5. The competition was stiff, with the reputation of their respective military branches riding on the shoulders of the players, motivating them to excel on the field as they battled to garner bragging rights as the toughest service. The Spaghetti Bowl was a morale booster for those serving in the military, with 25,000 fans cheering on their fellow soldiers and airmen as they clashed on the “grid-iron” football field6. Troops were pulled from the region to attend the game over the holiday, possibly including Lieutenant Paul Vermylen of A. Zerega's Sons, Inc., who was serving on the front-lines in Italy at the time7. Lieutenant Vermylen knew all about spaghetti as A. Zerega's Sons was (and still is) the oldest pasta company in the United States.

Opposing team captains shake hands before the game. Sergeant Cecil C. Sturgeon (left) from 5th Army played professionally for the Philadelphia Eagles and Lieutenant George W. Barnes from 12th Air Force played for University of Maryland.

Although the location was a closely held secret, this bowl game had all the trappings of one played in the states, but with a military flavor8. The halftime show included a parade of military vehicles decorated as “floats” and two 56-piece bands9. The traditional flyover by a formation of military planes was also part of the program, but on this occasion it was for real as P-38 fighter aircraft loitered above the stadium to ensure no enemy aircraft ventured into the area10-11. When it was over, the Professional

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scoreboard showed 5th Army 2012 and 12th Air Force 0. For their victory, the Army team received a metal bowl style trophy filled with paper spaghetti13. While many Americans learned about pasta by enjoying bowls of spaghetti during their military service in Italy, on that day at the “Spaghetti Bowl”, the Italians learned first-hand about American football. Leonard J. DeFrancisci National Pasta Association History Committee

January / March 2021


HISTORICAL NEWS

Notes 7. Fifth Army History: Part VIII The Second Winter, 45.

1. Fifth Army History: Part VIII The Second Winter, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (circa 1945), 45.

8. Sid Feder, "G.I. Spaghetti Bowl Site Remains Military Secret", 16.

2. "The Spaghetti Bowl: Yanks have football game in Italy", Life, Time Inc., volume 18, number 5 (January 29, 1945), 74. 3. Sid Feder, "G.I. Spaghetti Bowl Site Remains Military Secret", The Philadelphia Inquirer, volume 232, number 1 (January 1, 1945), 16. 4. Sid Feder, "Captain Daly, ExPenn Star, Flier's Aid", The Philadelphia Inquirer, volume 231, number 176 (December 23, 1944), 13. 5. Charles Einstein, "When Football Went to War", Sports Illustrated, Time Inc., volume 35, number 23 (December 6, 1971), M6. Cover of the Spaghetti Bowl program Photo credit: United States Military (digitized by Leonard J. DeFrancisci)

6. "The Spaghetti Bowl: Yanks have football game in Italy", 74.

9. Sid Feder, "Fifth Army Winner in Spaghetti Bowl", The Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, North Carolina, volume 76, number 273 (January 2, 1945), section 2 page 2. 10. "Raid Threatens Spaghetti Bowl", The SpokesmanReview, Spokane, Washington, 62nd year, number 234 (January 3, 1945), 8. 11. Sid Feder, "Fifth Army Winner in Spaghetti Bowl", section 2 page 2. 12. Ibid. 13. Sid Feder, "Spaghetti Bowl to Make Debut", Shreveport Journal, Shreveport, Louisiana, volume 49 (January 1, 1945), 14.

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