Professional Pasta Gen-Mar 2023

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Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

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Professional PASTA

Scientific and technical committee

Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician

Roberto Tuberosa

Agricultural Genetics

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Paola Zerbini

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partnership with the Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto



Pasta, past and future


Breeding for yield potential and stability at CIMMYT


High amylose pasta, more than an ideotype

DEPARTMENTS Facts & news Supplier news Historical news 12 30 8 12 5 Avenue media ® 42 38 20 Year XXVIII - N. 1 January / March 2023 30

A partnership with the Ritsumeikan University in Kyoto


The international conference “From Seed to Pasta IV” held in November 2022 provided a fundamental update on the state of the art of global scientific research on durum wheat that is oriented towards a more sustainable and resilient pasta supply chain that can improve food safety, nutrition and consumer health. The participation of the editorial staff of Pasta&Pastai and Professional Pasta in the conference led to a request for collaboration with the College of Gastronomy Management of the Ritsumeikan University of Kyoto,

by Professor Masayoshi Ishida, former president of Slow Food Japan and one of the leading scholars of Italian food and wine in Japan. Inspired by the principles of the international Slow Food association and the mission of the University of Gastronomic Sciences in Pollenzo, with which it has signed a collaboration agreement, the Ritsumeikan University is the first Japanese university specifically focused on the in-depth study of international gastronomy knowledge. Professor Ishida and his research group recently coordinated a study in collaboration with Pasta Cuomo to deepen the knowledge of Gragnano pasta. Therefore, the interest in pasta as Italian excellence in the world has led to an in-depth historical, cultural, enogastronomic and etymological study of the types of pasta on the Japanese market. The investigation, which is part of a broader study aimed at understanding the process of diffusion, transformation and affirmation of Italian food and wine in the world, is supported by the Iijima Tojuro Foundation, whose founder is Yamazaki Pan, one of Japan's largest bread producers. Italian food and wine -

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Masayoshi Ishida will be supported in his research into the etymology of certain types of pasta

and pasta in particular - began to spread in Japan as early as the Meiji period (1868-1912) and became increasingly rooted in Japanese food culture, undergoing unique transformations. The aim of the research is to unify the names of the various noodle formats in Japan, to communicate the official names on a digital platform that also provides historical and cultural concepts as well as dishes that have spread throughout the country, making them available and searchable worldwide. To this end, preliminary research was carried out in 2021 to create a database of the pasta formats widespread in Japan and an analysis of the recipes that can be found in this country. The editorial staff enthusiastically accepted the proposal and took action by involving Andrea Maraschi, Professor at the University of Bari and expert in food history as well as Giancarlo Gonizzi, curator of Academia Barilla's Gastronomic Library, coordinator of Food Museums in the Province of Parma and member of the Toponomastic Committee of the Municipality of Parma since 2003. There are many stories about the origins of pasta and similar products made over time. From the Etruscan “mixture”, to the Neapolitan “Macaria” (a pasta made from sun-dried barley flour and water); from Cicero’s passion for “laganas”, to the city of Palermo, considered as the first real capital of pasta. Moreover, the earliest historical evidence of artisanal and industrial pasta production (9 th century) is Sicilian: Ibran ‘al Mibrad’s recipe book describes different shapes and types of pasta or in the “Il libro di Ruggero”, a text composed around 1154 by the Arab geographer Al-Idrisi, we read that 30 kilometers from Palermo, “so much pasta in the form of

threads was being made that it was exported everywhere”. What is certain is that, over the course of time, pasta has continued to be served on Italian tables, although under different names. If in the 15 th century it was called “lasagne” with reference to the term “lasagnare” relating to pasta-making, in the 19 th century the name changed to “vermicelli”, from “vermicellai”. And again, “fideli” (cylindrical threads of pasta), with pasta makers becoming “Fiderari”. Unfortunately, the interest in the facts of everyday life and the linguistic repercussions related to the history of food and nutrition has not had much success in Italy. Similarly, the first “Etymological Vocabulary of Italian Pasta” by Franco Mosino, an Italian philologist, Greek scholar and intellectual, was compiled in 2011, offering a research tool on the history of food that is more exquisitely Italian. References to the linguistic field appear in the vocabulary, which makes this writing unique. The extraordinary variety and widespread diversity of names given to pasta in Italy is certainly striking. For instance, we learn the etymology of the name “tagliatelle”, from the verb “tagliare” (“to cut”). The Bolognese Augusto Majani, better known by his pseudonym Nasica, designer and writer, in order to engage in violent polemics against Marinetti, a systematic enemy of dry pasta, invented a fictitious commemoration of the birth of tagliatelle, created by Mastro Zefirino, a famous medieval cook. This storytelling was accepted by many, also because it was a quite likely reconstruction... Tagliatelle belong not only to the Christians, but also to the Jews. This is their recipe for making noodles: “He put a little flour on the table and added twelve eggs and twelve egg-measures of water. Start

kneading” (E. Loewenthal).

“Trenette”, instead, are typical of Genoa. It is a kind of flattened spaghettis with a lenticular section, usually combined with a basil pesto sauce. Their name comes from the Genoese word “trena” that means “string”, which has also migrated into northern dialects as “tarnèti”. The term “ravioli” possibly derives from the Genoese word “ravièu” that means “blackbird”. According to another etymology, the word “ravioli” comes from the medieval Latin “rabiola” which means “small turnip”; it is mentioned in a letter of archbishop Giraldo, at Matteo Parigino, with the meaning of “manicaretto” which means “delicacy”. According to a third hypothesis, the word would instead be a variant of “robiola”, northern Italian for “goat’s cheese”. Until the late 19 th century, the Ligurians considered ravioli as a festive food for New Year’s Eve and Carnival. The latter is recalled by a Genoese proverb: “ L'urtimo giorno da Carlevà / de ravieu se ne fa unna pansà ” (the last day of Carnival is a feast of ravioli). In Lombardy, two idioms were used until the early 20 th century: “ Andà in fumm de ravioeu ” (it went up in ravioli smoke, said of a thing or project, which vanishes) and “ Battezzàa con l’acqua di ravioeu ” (baptized with the water of ravioli, said of a foolish person).

It is precisely because of this extraordinary linguistic variety, that is impossible to codify completely, that we will support Professor Masayoshi Ishida, who has set himself a goal that is equally virtuous and hard in trying to understand and interpret the etymology of the different shapes of an all-Italian excellence.

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Smart labels: La Molisana applies the Qr Code

Supermarkets receive smart labels and products that tell their story. La Molisana, one of the Italian historic pasta factories founded in 1911, broke the silence between producers and consumers. The company, based in Campobasso, has recently arrived in the large-scale retail trade with new packs of pasta with a new claim, “Parola alla pasta” (Let pasta speak) associated with a Qr code which can be framed with a mobile phone camera to enter La Molisana world. Hundreds of recipes within everyone's reach and the story of the 100% Italian supply chain leading from the field to the packs of pasta, passing through an entirely internal production process.

Andriani plans to open production facility in London, Ontario

London’s food production scene continues to grow, with Italian food processor Andriani announcing on Wednesday that it is opening its first-ever North American allergen and gluten-free pasta production facility in London. According to a press release, Italian food processor Andriani S.p.A. has chosen the Forest City for its first North American production facility. The new 50,000 sq. ft. allergen and gluten-free pasta manufacturing facility will be located on five acres of land in London’s Innovation Park, located at Bradley Avenue and Veterans Memorial Parkway. The new facility will employ 50 people in the initial phase and procure raw materials from southwestern Ontario.

Two Hard-to-Find Italian Pasta Shapes Are Hitting Shelves in the US

Pasta manufacturer Sfoglini is teaming up with The Sporkful Podcast creator and host Dan Pashman to add three likely-new-to-you pasta shapes to your pantry. The two existing shapes hitting the brand’s roster are quattrotini and vesuvio, fun to look at, fun to wrangle on your fork, and fun to eat. The third is a new shape designed by Pashman himself, called cascatelli. We say “likely-new-to-you” because two of the shapes can be found in small regions around Italy. You may have heard of quattrotini, a pasta shape that is served once a year during Carnival in a small region of Sicily. The original shape - four tubes connected by a four-sided rectangle - was slightly tweaked to include ridges, making it easier to grab sauce. The second shape, vesuvio, was named for its likeness to Mount Vesuvius. Short, round, and anchored by a large base that tapers to a thin cone, sauce collects into the spirals promising a perfect bite every time.

Pasta Market Size Will Surpass $64.25 Billion at 7.3% CAGR Growth

According to a report published by Vantage Market Research, Pasta industry is projected to reach Usd 64.25 billion by 2028 at a CAGR of 7.3% over the forecast period. Dry pasta and super and hypermarket account for the largest market share in the upcoming future. The dried form is preferred to the chilled or canned form because it comes in a wide variety of sizes and can be easily stored. The supermarket/hypermarket segment is estimated to account for the largest share of revenue, as consumers have the option of properly checking nutritional features and making informed purchase decisions. Pasta is a staple food in many cultures and is popular for its convenience, versatility, and affordability. The market is driven by various factors such as rising demand for ready-to-eat meals, increasing popularity of Italian cuisine, and the growing trend of plant-based diets.

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Pasta Almost Too Pretty to Eat

David Rivillo’s rainbow ravioli is equal parts art and science. The 45-yearold Venezuelan, who is now based in Porto Alegre, Brazil, started making colorful patterned pasta in 2019 in tribute to his favorite artist, Carlos Cruz-Diez, a Venezuelan known for his chromatic relief murals who died that year at the age of 95. Putting his Ph.D. in chemistry to good use, Rivillo experimented with natural dyes (such as spirulina and paprika) to find those that would maintain their hue even when dried or cooked and posted his work on Instagram. Now, Rivillo, who recently left his job as a nanotechnology researcher to pursue the project full time, sells his creations (from $40 for 2.1 ounces, plus shipping).

Pasta championship kicks off in France

Seggiano triumphs with triple win at Best Brand awards

The Association of French Pizzerias has decided to create a professional event around pasta, an unmissable dish of Italian gastronomy. This competition will be the opportunity to promote the know-how and enhance this much-loved product. The championship, which will be called “France Pasta”, will comprise twenty restaurant owners and each of them will compete in different tests to win over the jury. For the first test, three Italian regions will be highlighted through three pasta categories: Orecchiette for Apulia, Trofie for Liguria and Casarecce for Sicily. The Association's website specifies that “candidates will have to create a dish based on the typical Italian recipes of each region”.

Seggiano, an ethically sourced Italian food specialist that offers best-in-category larder essentials, has come out on top in Fine Food Digest’s Best Brands survey 2022/23, placing first in three categories; pasta, sauces, and oils and vinegars. The survey identifies the mostloved and best selling products at independent retailers across the Uk’s fine food and drinks sector, by asking buyers across the country in delis, farm shops and food halls, to name their top-selling brands. The 11th annual survey had over a dozen categories and the results were published in January 2023. Winning first place in pasta, sauces and oils and vinegars, Seggiano prides itself on being ethically sourced and Gmo-free, with each product being individually derived from specialist and innovative Italian producers.

Pasta with 20% cricket flour

The Thai company Bugsolutely produces a pasta with 20% cricket flour to increase its protein boost. The product is called Bugsolutely Cricket Pasta and is advertised as something completely new: a sustainable superfood containing 20% cricket flour. The company presents its product as a true “Superfood” suitable for: Chefs for new presentation products, Body Builders, because it contains 65% protein and distributors because this is the mega trend of the future. Yet, why increase the amount of protein in pasta? A low-protein pasta requires a slow, more gentle drying process, conversely one with a high-protein content can be dried quickly.

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Pasta, past and future

Egypt between long-standing challenges and new market strategies

Egypt was the cradle of one of the earliest and greatest civilisations ever existed. The complex history of its success starts from a basic precondition: it was an agrarian society, and it could thus feed specialised workers, divide labour, think big. Ancient Egyptians produced the ancestor of our beer (a much denser and sweeter version of our beloved drink), and Herodotus holds that they kneaded dough with their feet to make spelt loaves. When milled, Egyptian’s hard grains produced a kind of semolina that resulted in a very tough dough once it was mixed with water, and it could only be worked well with the strength of the feet. Durum wheat was one of the most common grains used in ancient Egypt, alongside barley. However, the main variety grown for a long time until the Western Middle Ages was husked wheat, that is, emmer. Only during the medieval period Egypt introduced

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durum wheat, which at that point became one of the most important actors in the Egyptian market.

Kamut: an ancient Egyptian crop? The story goes that, after the II World War, an American pilot found a handful of grains inside a stone box in a tomb near Dashur, in Egypt. Thirty-six kernels, in particular. Later, he gave the kernels to a friend of his, whose father had a farm in Montana. The farmer planted the grains, and named the small crop “King Tut’s Wheat”. After a few years the grain was bought by another Montana farmer, T. Mack Quinn. Mack Quinn did his homework, and found out that “King Tut’s Wheat” originated in the Fertile Crescent and had not been

modified since. He and his son trademarked the name “Kamut” (Egyptian for “wheat”). All in all, it would be wrong to think that Kamut was an ancient Egyptian crop, specifically. It is more likely that this grain was widespread in a large fertile area that also included Egypt (the eastern side of the Sinai Peninsula), as well as parts of modern-day Iraq, Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Kuwait and Iran. Kamut is characterized by large kernels (twice the size of normal wheat) and a sweet flavour. It is appreciated for its high levels of healthy fatty acids and proteins.

A rising trend

Nowadays, Egypt is among the world’s largest wheat importer as well as a major wheat producer.

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Kamut grains. Fructibus

100 million people in the country consume 35 grams of proteins supplied from wheat every single day (#1 in the world, according to FAO).

Despite the importance of rice as a staple in their diet, Egyptians are growing more and more hungry for pasta. The current annual per capita consumption averages around 7 kilograms, and taste is not the only reasons for this. Since 2017, the Ministry of Agriculture has been promoting the cultivation of wheat and other plants which require less irrigation than rice. Furthermore, people with lowincome have been granted a ca. 25% discount on Egyptian pasta.

Pasta market

Not all of the ca. 300 pasta factories in Egypt are currently operating. In fact, about half of them are not working because they are upgrading their plants in order to meet higher quality levels. Overall, a portion of Egyptian pasta factories still work with obsolete machines and need to catch up with today’s standards.

According to Mr. Ashraf El Sayed El Wasify, Egypt area Sales Manager for Storci (an important company in the pasta machinery sector), the entire Egyptian industry is getting ready to seize future market opportunities, and needs serious investments for what concerns

machinery, technology and the likes. Data indicate that Egypt’s pasta market is expected to grow annually by 7.21% (source: Past exports are categorized as: 1) Pasta, cooked or otherwise prepared (excluding stuffed); 2) Pasta, stuffed with meat or other substances, whether or not cooked or otherwise prepared; 3) Uncooked pasta, not stuffed or otherwise prepared, containing eggs; and 4) Uncooked pasta, not stuffed or otherwise prepared, not containing eggs. Egypt’s leading

destinations for pasta are African countries such as Eritrea, Syria, Yemen, Zimbabwe and Angola.

Egyptian new wheat varieties

In the meantime, the National Program for Wheat Research has been developing new wheat varieties that may help to increase domestic production and consumption. A 2010 study published on the Journal of American Science by scientists of the Food Technology Department, National Research Centre in Cairo (Ahmed M. S. Hussein, Mohie M. Kamil and Gamal H. Ragab, “Technological Properties of some Egyptian New Wheat Varieties”, Journal of American Science 6, 10, 2010, 1160-1171) casts light on the nutritional properties and other important virtues of wheat varieties such as Gemmiza 7, Giza 168, and Sohage 3. They all are characterized by high yield and pest resistance, and whole meal flours of these varieties are “able to produce high quality products (pan bread, biscuit and pasta)” characterized by higher nutritional contents. Sohage 3, in particular, is recommended to use for pasta.

One war is not over yet, and another one is already breaking out

The Russian invasion of Ukraine is having a huge impact on global markets, especially with regards to the wheat market. The blockade

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Egypt is one of the largest wheat importer as well as a major producer
Ancient Egyptian scene of wheat binding

that Russia imposed on Ukraine’s Black Sea ports is currently trapping about 20 million tonnes of grain meant for export. This is about to trigger a bread war in countries such as Egypt, with obvious consequences for the entire Mediterranean basin in terms of new waves of migration towards Italy, Spain, France, and

countries, such as India. However, India banned wheat exports in May 2022 due to the risk of food shortages. Though India’s role as a wheat exporter was not particularly relevant until the Ukrainian War, it is nonetheless one of the major wheat producers in the world, and its importance for the global market is going to grow.

the likes. Egypt’s wheat production is largely insufficient to accommodate domestic demand, and the country is the world’s top importer of this good. Besides, it is estimated that ca. 2/3 of the population (ca. 70 million people) can only buy bread thanks to statesubsidised prices. Egypt imports 60% of the wheat needed for domestic consumption, with Ukrainian and Russian wheat having accounted for ca. 85% of total wheat import. This gives an idea of how huge the war may have impacted Egypt’s economy.

Yet another domino effect

Consequently, Egypt has been trying to import wheat from other

Earlier, in March 2022, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi had passed laws aimed at increasing domestic wheat production and preventing the sale of more than 40% of the new crop. At the same time, he also banned the export of staples such as legumes, pasta, fava beans, flours and corn, due to the food shortage caused by the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Needless to say, Egyptian farmers did not welcome this idea, since the state pays wheat 160$/tonne less than

international buyers. Interestingly, in May 2022, the Egyptian Ministry of Trade and Industry lifted the export ban on spaghetti – and only on spaghetti. The reason? Demand for this specific type of pasta from other African countries was too high (and, one may note, internal demand was not). Eventually, last September Egypt allowed exports of food staples. Meanwhile, a mirage is appearing in the Sahara: President al-Sisi has decided to promote the cultivation of lands in

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President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi
Cultivation of plants which require less irrigation than rice has been promoted since 2017

the desert by means of cutting-edge technology. The idea is to meet 65% of wheat domestic need by 2025.

Doing the shopping

Should you happen to go to a supermarket in Cairo, you would mostly find pasta boxes whose weight ranges from 400g to 1kg.

and big rings, all “made with 100% fine quality durum wheat”. These types of pasta seem to be the most common ones, along with elbows. Regina, among the leading companies in the Egyptian pasta market, has also linguini, bucatini, alphabet&numbers, wheel, cube, twist, circle, toys, macaroni, pipe, farfalle, and fiocchi. Consumers can also find healthier types of pasta at their supermarket. For instance, Lino has oat spaghetti, fusilli and penne, which are richer in fiber, and so does Dobella (this brand also sells whole wheat pasta).

definitely one of them. Koshary is similar to Mujadara, a MiddleEastern dish made with rice, lentils and sautéed onions. Similarly, Koshary consists of lentils, rice, chickpeas and short pasta (for instance, elbows), mixed with cumin, coriander, tomato sauce and a bit of vinegar and topped with fried onions. Like many others around the world, this traditional dish is a statement: it attests to the enduring success of low, proteinand carbohydrate-based recipes. Today, Koshary is also a popular street food, as well as a domestic staple. Koshary is not the only popular recipe in which Egyptians like to put pasta. A very appreciated comfort dish is Macarona bechamel, which is made from penne, ground beef and meat sauce, all dressed with creamy béchamel. The result is an old-fashioned, tasty lasagna-like dish where ground beef, onion, tomato sauce, and olive oil are flavoured with thyme, salt, nutmeg and black pepper. Unlike Italian lasagne, Macarona bechamel feature ancient traditional

The average price of a 400g pack is ca. 15,00 EGP (0,45€).

Popular Egyptian brands are Regina (which, despite its Italian-sounding name, is based in Cairo), El-Maleka, the premium brand Italiano (see above), Royal Pasta, and Lametna. Italiano (Savola group) is one of the most recent brands, having been launched in 2014. It claims to be particularly modern, in that it offers “stand-up resealable packs” (source: company’s homepage). In 2016, it started marketing “the first ever kids’ pasta range in animal shapes, further establishing its status as Egypt’s most innovative pasta brand”. Among their products, one finds penne, shells, spaghetti, vermicelli, fusilli, small

Traditional recipes: from Koshary to macarona bechamel

The extraordinary success of pasta in history is due to its ductility, among other things. There are a million good recipes one can make with pasta, and Koshary is

seasonings, as typical of northern African regions. This is a beautiful example of continuities and differences between Mediterranean gastronomic cultures.

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Andrea Maraschi A Koshary dish
President al-Sisi promoted the cultivation of lands in the desert by means of cutting-edge technology

Breeding for yield potential and stability at CIMMYT

The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) has been improving low-latitude spring durum wheat for more than 6 decades from its centralized Mexico-based program. Starting in the early 70s, it developed and globally distributed semi-dwarf, high yielding and widely-adapted germplasm, following in the footsteps of the “Green Revolution” bread wheats. Thanks to their architecture that was more suited to the intensifying and modernizing agricultural systems of the era, their earliness and resistance to major diseases (at the time), the CIMMYT semi-dwarfs durum, as well as those independently developed by Italian breeding programs, went on to revolutionize durum cultivation globally, effectively and irreversibly displacing old local landraces which lost their competitiveness in the continuously intensifying production systems.

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A strategy to ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Historical successes, continued global impact and responsibility

CIMMYT-derived cultivars such as Mexicali 75, Yavaros 79 and Altar C84 were released in numerous countries besides Mexico, including in North Africa and Southern Europe, the Middle East and West Asia and the Indian Peninsula. They contributed to increasing national yields and enhancing food security in these regions. Post 80s, sustained efforts to increase yield potential and adaptation to a wide range of water availabilities contributed to the current dominating role of CIMMYT germplasm in the spring durum world. Among the cultivars released worldwide from 1994 to 2014, 70% were from crosses involving a parent from CIMMYT, with roughly half of those (35%)

being direct releases. The direct releases during the same period is even higher when the data is segregated by regions such as North Africa and West Asia (51%), SubSaharan Africa (62%) and Latin America (68%). Today, CIMMYT is maintaining a breeding effort designed not only to sustain significant progress in yield potential and adaptation to a wide range of water availabilities and heat stresses, but also to protect yield gains from losses due to major diseases and genetically improve the industrial quality attributes of the durum grain to respond to global industry requirements. While we attempt to deliver these “full packages” of traits in our globally distributed germplasm, this article will focus exclusively on our strategy to increase yield potential and

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stability in low latitude spring durum wheat.

Grain yield, greatly influenced by the environment

Grain yield is critically important in all durum wheat target environments and production systems. Genetically, it is a highly complex trait, controlled by hundreds of genetic factors, each contributing a small individual effect, to the trait. It is the accumulation of these individual effects and the interactions between them that determine the final genetic yield. Some of these factors may be always expressed, no matter the environment, while others may contribute only under very specific growing conditions, making final grain yield one of the most environment-influenced trait one can deal with.

Matching genetics to “Mega-Environments”

Given the extreme diversity in growing conditions facing durum producers globally, the first step to any strategy to increase yield must be a careful characterization of the target environments in terms of the

natural and production constraints under which yield is generally realized. Some 30 years ago, CIMMYT divided the low-latitude spring wheat world in 5 distinct, trans-border and often transcontinent, “Mega-Environments” (MEs), within which yield is achieved under the same or similar set of constraints and general conditions. More recently, the concept of MEs was refined into that of “Target Populations of Environments” (TPEs) which allows the same focused breeding approach. With regards to low-latitude spring durum wheat, the CIMMYT program addresses three MEs/TPEs, namely the fullyirrigated, high input, temperate environments (ME1/TPE1), the rainfed, drought-prone, temperate groups of environments (ME2+4/TPE2) and the irrigated but constantly heat-affected environments (ME5/TPE3). We have used this environmental characterization to design 3 distinct “breeding pipelines” to maximize opportunities for yield gains by focusing our crossing and selection on sub-traits needed specifically for each ME/TPE and matching our testing/evaluation conditions to those prevailing in each ME/TPE.

Pushing the yield barrier in the most favorable environments of the world

These are the generally fullyirrigated, dry desert environments with medium length cropping cycles, initiating with cool temperatures and heat stress settling at the end of the cycle, generally too late to affect yield potential. While relatively

limited in area (1.3 million hectares worldwide), the high yield levels achieved in this MEs/TPEs produce quantities of grain that is important to food security of several countries, whether the grain is produced locally or imported from such environments. CIMMYT’s strategy to achieve yield gains in this ME/TPE is straightforward. Varieties or experimental lines identified as the most outstanding for yield potential under favorable conditions are intercrossed. Plants from the resulting populations are selected for visually detectable traits that are needed to realize high yield under intensive growing conditions, such as reduced height to avoid lodging, adequate earliness that takes most advantage of the growing season, outstanding spike fertility and grain fill. This process is repeated four times, using two full cycles per year, for a total of 2 years. By the end of the 3rd year after the cross is made, new experimental lines are genetically stable, enough to be evaluated in yield trials, usually for at least two seasons, before selecting those few that may reliably surpass previous yield potential levels and become candidates for global distribution. This last evaluation step is highly critical as it requires highly precise and reliable experimental conditions that minimize experimental confounding factors and uncontrolled variability in order to rapidly and reliably detect even small differences in yield potential. The CIMMYT experimental station of CENEB (Campo Experimental Norman E. Borlaug) near Cd. Obregon, Sonora, northeastern Mexico, is arguably one of the world’s best site to conduct such precision-requiring evaluations. Cradle of the “Green Revolution” wheats, and nowadays home of the largest CIMMYT field operation, this site sits in the middle of the Yaqui Valley irrigation district which provides water for one of the highest yielding durum wheat cultivation area in the world.

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Cimmyt aims: improvement durum yield, industrial quality and grain resilience

In 2022, the average yield of 219,000 hectares sown to this crop yielded an average of 7.4 tons/ha, with some of the best commercial farmers fields reaching the 10 tons/ha levels. More importantly for global relevance, based on data from our international yield trials conducted around the world, the performance of elite lines at the CENEB site is very well correlated with the performance of the same material tested in many key experimental sites in irrigated environments, from Egypt to India, Pakistan, Turkey and Iran. Simply put, the most outstanding varieties identified in Cd. Obregon are often also outstanding in other irrigated sites around the world.

Mitigating the effect of excessive heat on durum wheat yield

The powerful predictive power and capacity to quickly identify even small increments in maximum yield potential makes the CENEB site a central part of CIMMYT’s strategy for improving yield in the most favorable environments of the world as well as in heat or drought stressed conditions as described below.

While one could argue that heat stress can affect yield almost everywhere spring durum is grown, it is important to differentiate between environments with occasional heat waves during the middle or end of the growing season from those where temperatures above the optimum for proper wheat growth and development occur consistently from the very beginning of the crop cycle and are sustained all the way to the end. This section refers to the latter ones, which require a very different/specific strategy for yield improvement. These extreme environments are limited to 0.6 Million hectares for durum wheat worldwide and are located primarily in Central and Peninsular India with a few areas in Sudan and Iran. CIMMYT’s breeding pipeline for increasing yield in this ME/TPE has depended on the evaluation of lines under continuous heat stress through a late-planting protocol implemented at the CENEB-Cd. Obregon site as a proxy for heatstressed environments. Lines are sown in early March instead of midNovember, when night minimum temperatures are always above 13 oC (typical of south Asian conditions) and maximum day temperatures are very often above 30-35 oC. These testing conditions expose plants to a continuous stress

that first affects vegetative development and biomass accumulation, then pollen viability and spike fertility and ultimately grain size and physical quality. Lines from our program recently identified as outstanding under these experimental proxy conditions and those from our international trials evaluated in the actual heat-stress prone areas of Central and Peninsular India and found to be outstanding there, are inter-crossed annually. Plants from the resulting populations are selected for visually detectable traits, as described in the previous section, but with an added emphasis on earliness and grain size, two traits that are critical to achieving higher yields under excessive heat stress conditions. Resulting genetically stable lines are evaluated for two years in the latesown treatment before selecting for global distribution those few that may represent a significative progress in performance under heat stress. Thanks to this approach, over the last 10 years, progress in yield under heat stress has been continuous and the frequency of lines with outstanding performance under heat has increased significantly in our outgoing germplasm.

Combining yield potential and drought tolerance, the most important challenge for global durum wheat

More than 75% of the durum wheat grown worldwide is produced in rainfed systems, with conditions in a single location varying in different years from high rainfall to extreme drought with every level of precipitation in between. These erratic and unpredictable water availability scenarios are typical around the Mediterranean Basin, where much of the world durum wheat is grown and consumed but are also prevailing in the rainfed areas of Ethiopia and parts of Latin America. This mega-environment

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Main target environments’ characterization is the approach to enhance grain yield

(ME2+4/TPE2) is by far the most significant one for global durum wheat production, covering at least 4.2 million hectares worldwide. Accordingly, the breeding pipeline addressing this ME/TPE is by far the most important one within CIMMYT’s durum breeding program.

To maximize yield under these drastically erratic and diverse conditions, the first yield facet to ensure is drought tolerance. Since it is situated in a desert with hardly any rainfall during the wheat growing season, the CIMMYT CENEB-Cd. Obregon site is ideal to evaluate yield under drought by applying restricted amount of water to simulate drought stress without the confounding factor of natural precipitation. A major investment has been made to equip more than 40 hectares of experimental land with a drip irrigation system that allows for the precise and highly uniform application of any amount of water, generating virtually any desired level of drought stress. This testing infrastructure is of utmost importance as data reliability always decreases with decreasing yield levels in any experimental trial. As important as this capacity to precisely and reliably identify drought tolerant germplasm is, it is only one part of the strategy

CIMMYT uses to address yield gains in this ME/TPE. These environments are also characterized by variably frequent but certainly occurring “good years” where water availability is not yield-limiting. Farmers take advantage of the “good” or “above average” years to accumulate income to enhance their survival capacity during the “bad” years.

But since it is impossible to predict ahead of sowing if the year is going to be bad, average or extremely dry, the only alternative for a farmer is to have a variety with the plasticity and the wide adaptation to significantly minimize yield reduction or the probability of total crop loss if the season turns out extremely dry while maximizing yield if the year turns out to be rather favorable. This combining, within a same line, of both high yield potential and drought tolerance has been, for the last 15 years, the cornerstone of CIMMYT breeding strategy to maximize yields in rainfed environments. Genetically, the factors or genes promoting high yield under favorable conditions and those enhancing drought tolerance are often different. Our approach to accumulate genetic factors increasing both facets of yield consists of testing all newly developed lines, from their first testing stage to the last, under full irrigation as described in section 5 and under drip-simulated drought as described above in this section, at the same time and with all other conditions being equal. Based on this systematic parallel evaluation in highly controlled setups, only those lines that are outstanding under both conditions are advanced to the next stage. With 2-3 years of such testing protocol, the finally selected lines are very likely to be capable of enhanced performance under a wide range of water availability, maximizing yield in favorable conditions while exhibiting an outstanding resilience under substantial drought stress. The success of this breeding pipeline is well validated by the frequent release by national programs and private entities of varieties that turn out to be outstanding either in typical rainfed drought-prone areas as well as in irrigated or high rainfall favorable ones.


Building upon its historical successes in raising the yield potential of durum wheat over a wide range of environments, CIMMYT’s strategy for enhancing yield gains globally relies on an extensive characterization of the main target environments and their classification in 3 main “Target Population of Environments” (TPEs) in which yield is achieved under similar natural and production conditions, regardless of countries and continent. For each of these TPEs, CIMMYT has implemented distinct breeding pipelines designed to maximize yield gains by focusing on the most important pathway to achieve yield under a set of conditions that are specific to each TPE. The choice of parental lines used in crosses, the emphases placed on different yield affecting traits during plant selection and finally the yield testing conditions focused on during the line evaluation phase are all determined based on the different TPE-based requirements for yield enhancement. A key element for the success of our strategy has been the availability and continuous improvement of the CENEB-Cd. Obregon experimental site, one that is ideal for high precision evaluation of maximum yield potential, the highly reliable estimation of drought tolerance through a uniform and precise dripsimulated water stress setup, and a useful proxy for selecting lines with good heat tolerance through a latesowing protocol. The strategy described herein, as well as other approaches implemented to accelerate yield gains (not discussed here), should provide CIMMYT’s durum breeding program with an ample opportunity to respond to the challenge of increasing future yields in all the environments we address, including those requiring resilience to drought or heat stresses.

January / March 2023 28 Professional PASTA RESEARCH
The CIMMYT-CENEB station is ideal to evaluate yield under drought

High amylose pasta, more than an ideotype

While much innovation in recent years has come from whole grain or pulses, certain wheat varieties now offer specific benefits, too. Although high-amylose starches are not a recent innovation, their popularity has increased in recent years due to their unique functional properties and improved nutritional value in food applications.

While high-amylose maize, barley, and potato are commercially available, highamylose varieties of other major crops such as wheat have also been developed more recently and will be available commercially soon. The commercialization of high

January / March 2023 30 Professional PASTA FOOD & HEALTH
The high-amylose starches have unique functional properties and improved nutritional value in food applications

amylose wheat semolina will certainly open a new area of food formulations with increased resistant starch (RS) and fiber. This is because distinctive structural features of highamylose wheat means that they are not fully broken down in the small intestine, whereas regular starches are more rapidly digested. High-amylose wheat therefore provokes a lower glycemic response compared to normal starches. Resistant starch is therefore also considered as dietary fiber. Most diets still have low amounts of dietary fiber and people are struggling to meet the recommended daily intake of dietary fiber from our diet. This is mainly due to excessive consumption of processed foods as well as the lack of availability

of an adequate source of high fiber ingredients.

Health claim

The EU has authorized the following health claim for resistant starch: “Replacing digestible starches with resistant starch in a meal contributes to a reduction in the blood glucose rise after that meal”. The claim was authorized by Regulation (EU) 432/2012 (2012) following a positive opinion from EFSA in 2011. The claim may be used only for food in which digestible starch has been replaced by resistant starch so that the final content of resistant starch is at least 14% of total starch. Achieving 14% RS as of total starch is possible, pasta made from 100% high-amylose durum wheat reaches these values.

January / March 2023 31 Professional PASTA FOOD & HEALTH

Further health benefits

Non-digested starches in the small intestine - RS - pass to the colon where they behave like dietary fiber. Higher levels of fiber consumption are associated with a lower risk of several metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and colorectal and breast cancer.

SCFAs serve two important functions: they reduce the pH of the colon, making it unfavorable for the proliferation of “undesirable” bacteria, and provide an energy source for cells lining the colon and protect the mucous layer covering the cell lining. They improve the health of colon cells and inhibits the growth and proliferation of tumor cells.

Bridging the fiber gap

In the colon, RS is fermented by colonic microorganisms and the end products of fermentation, such as short-chain fatty acids, are known to have numerous health benefits, including lowering the risk of colorectal cancer and increasing immune function. The colonic fermentation of resistant starch produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as butyrate, acetate, and propionate. These

While the health benefits of dietary fiber are well documented, the “big question” is why we still aren’t eating enough. Alongside factors like the need for increased education, sensory and taste characteristics of fiberenriched products are often viewed as inferior. The wheat bran in wholegrain pasta increases the coarseness of the pasta. There is still a large population, including children, that does not like whole meal pasta and prefers regular pasta from refined durum wheat. These problems, however, can be overcome with RS. High-amylose wheat contains about 40 percent dietary fiber, of which about 30 percent is RS. The interesting

aspect is that the resistant starch is located in the bright endosperm of the grain. This means that semolina made from high-amylose wheat is golden yellow and gives the same fine taste in pasta as pasta made from standard semolina. Pasta processors can easily add fiber in their formulations replacing standard semolina with minimum effect on sensory properties. As highamylose starches do not swell and absorb water as much as many other dietary fibers, they are processing friendly. In order to measure the influence of highamylose semolina wheat on the sensory properties of pasta, different semolina formulations were developed in which highamylose wheat was mixed with standard durum in 25% steps. The recipes are shown in Figure 1. The “al dente” property of a pasta is an important characteristic, especially in Italy. The pasta made from 100% high amylose achieved a peak value of 100 index points. Pasta made from standard durum achieved a value of 67. Pasta made from high-amylose semolina is also much more stable when

January / March 2023 32 Professional PASTA FOOD & HEALTH
High-amylose wheat contains about 40% dietary fiber, of which about 30% is RS
Figure 1 Pasta recipes blending high-amylose semolina (HA) with standard durum semolina (variety Kronos)

FIRMNESS depending on cooking time (3 time points): optimum cooking time,

cooked, with values of 87 and 80 for 25% and 50% longer cooking times, respectively (Figure 2). Mixing standard semolina with high amylose durum seems to be a cost-effective way to increase the firmness of the pasta.

Already a proportion of 25% high amylose semolina gives an index value of 87 (Figure 2).

The high-amylose wheat pasta is less sticky because less starch escapes during cooking (Figure 3) The bulkiness of the high-amylose pasta is also much favorable (Figure 4).

The total score of the high amylose pasta reached a value of 98, a significantly higher score than the 69 points of the control

Sensory: STICKINESS depending on cooking time (3 time points): optimum cooking time, +25%, +50%

January / March 2023 34 Professional PASTA FOOD & HEALTH
Figure 2 +25%, +50% Figure 3
High-amylose wheat semolina-based products have exceptional nutritional functionality


(3 time points): optimum cooking time, +25%, +50%

pasta (see Figure 5). With the availability of high-amylose wheat semolina, processors can directly use these flours to formulate products with an elevated level of resistant starch, a dietary fiber. Thus, the processor has the opportunity to make both resistant starch and fiber claims. High-amylose wheat semolina-

Pasta made from high-amylose semolina is much more stable when cooked

based products have better nutritional functionality in terms of lowering the glycemic response as well as improved colonic health.

This will be a win-win situation for consumers and processors.

time points): optimum cooking time, +25%, +50%

January / March 2023 36 Professional PASTA FOOD & HEALTH
Michael Gusko, Silvia Folloni, Roberto Ranieri Figure 4 BULKINESS depending on cooking time Figure 5 Sensory: TOTAL SCORE depending on cooking time (3

AXOR launches new logo, taking the next step for the brand

AXOR Srl, an Italian leading company in pasta manufacturing technologies, has announced the launch of its new logo, representing the next step for the brand. The new logo has been created to adapt the brand while rooted in its heritage, featuring a modern, elegant font and lines that reflect the company’s next level of evolution.

In 2021, ALAPALA, one of the leaders in grain processing technologies became a majority shareholder of AXOR Srl. This acquisition has enabled AXOR to expand its capabilities, to have the opportunity to grow in global markets, as well as to provide integrated innovative solutions for the needs of its customers in the food processing industry. “We are thrilled to introduce our new logo, which represents the next level of our brand,” said Görkem Alapala, CEO of ALAPALA Group: “With this new brand identity, we aim to showcase our evolution, modernity, and ambitious plans for the future. This is the next step in our journey and we're excited to share it with our customers and stakeholders”. The new logo is a modern and elegant representation of AXOR’s transition towards a futureoriented approach. The minimalist design embodies the company’s new ambition and its commitment to continue growing in the market. Featuring the Italian flag with an

aesthetic appearance emphasizes that AXOR is an Italian company with the highest level of production quality, technology, know-how, and engineering.

“At AXOR, we believe that it’s important to stay ahead of the curve and embrace change,” said Marco Mistroni, CEO of AXOR: “The new logo represents our propensity to change and our willingness to take bold steps to achieve our goals. We’re ambitious for the future and this new brand identity reflects that”.

About AXOR

AXOR is one of the leading companies all around the world in the engineering, manufacturing, and installation of equipment for the production of dry pasta (short-

cut pasta and long-cut pasta, special shaped pasta, couscous, instant pasta, quick cook pasta, Asiatic noodle, gluten-free pasta), pellet, and snacks.

The company is located in Cento, Italy, and represents a ‘’tailormade’’ solution provider, as adapts the standard production lines to Customers’ requirements also depending on their needs in terms of space at their facilities. Since the company was founded in 1990, more than 150 pasta lines and equipment were designed and installed all over the world. AXOR offers complete turn-key pasta manufacturing line projects, including packaging systems, raw material filling systems, storage, erection, installation, and commissioning.

January / March 2023 37 Professional PASTA SUPPLIER NEWS

Bühler shows profitable growth in 2022

In 2022, Bühler expanded its business and improved profitability in an uncertain and volatile business environment. The company was able to mitigate effects of the war in Ukraine, tense supply chains, and soaring energy and raw material prices, while further improving its financial position with a high equity ratio and repaying the first tranche of its bond. The company continued to invest in innovation, new partnerships, and education and training. With numerous opportunities in its markets and a high order backlog of over CHF 2.1 billion, the company’s ambition is to continue its positive

development in 2023. “The impressive dedication of our employees worldwide helped us to be agile, resilient, and creative, even in the face of increasing volatility and uncertainties,” says Bühler CEO Stefan Scheiber. At the Group level, order intake rose 8.7% to CHF 3.3 billion and order backlog was robust at CHF 2.1 billion. Turnover increased by 10.3% to CHF 3.0 billion. EBIT improved by 36.0% to CHF 199 million, reflecting an EBIT margin of 6.7% (prior year: 5.4%). Net profit went up 35.7% to CHF 154 million (prior year: CHF 113 million). With these results, Bühler has largely managed to reach prepandemic business levels.

Advanced Materials as growth driver

The growth in volume came mainly from the Advanced Materials business, where order intake soared by 40.6% to CHF 871 million, nearly doubling its volume within the last two years. Within Advanced Materials, the Die Casting business showed an outstanding performance, growing orders by 60.4%. Turnover in Advanced Materials increased by 31.8% to CHF 671 million. The Consumer Foods business continued its recovery with strong order intake growth of 21.6% to CHF 710 million, and turnover growth of 13.6% to CHF 578 million. The Grains & Food business, Bühler’s largest business,

January / March 2023 38 Professional PASTA SUPPLIER NEWS
Bühler Group’s Executive Board and employees during the Networking Days 2022: Germar Wacker, Dr. Ian Roberts, Johannes Wick, Samuel Schär, Stefan Scheiber, Irene Mark-Eisenring, Dr. Mark Macus, Dr. Holger Feldhege (from left to right)

showed solid performance despite being particularly impacted by disrupted supply chains and a slow feed market in China. The segment saw order intake in 2022 of CHF 1,663 million, down 6.5%, while turnover grew by 2.6% to CHF 1,696 million, and with this managed to keep business very stable throughout the Covid-19 pandemic. All regions contributed to Bühler’s turnover growth, with the Americas and Middle East Africa & India standing out. Regional growth rates and turnover shares were as follows: Asia 6% growth to 32% of the total share of turnover; Europe 3% growth to 30%; North America 17% growth to 17% and South America 26% growth to 5%; Middle East Africa & India 24% growth to 16%. With these successes in important markets, Bühler’s global distribution of turnover is very robust and balanced. Bühler’s Customer Service business (including Single Machines) also grew by 3.4% and added substantially to the 2022 results with turnover amounting to CHF 955 million, representing a 32% share of Group turnover. Bühler offers a holistic service portfolio with seven modules from hardware, components, and spare parts to upgrading, maintenance, software and process optimizations for systems, with the objective of improving the performance of the

existing customer asset base in terms of efficiency, safety, and sustainability. Sustainability gained importance in 2022, as services are the fastest lever to reduce energy, waste, and water in existing plants. “We judge the good business performance in 2022 as a confirmation of our strategy to be a provider of sustainable solutions and services, and to be a reliable and innovative partner in creating value for our customers,” says CEO Stefan Scheiber.

Strong financial position

In 2022, Bühler’s financial position improved further, with the equity ratio increasing by 2.6pp to 49.8% (prior year: 47.2%). An important milestone was the repayment of the first tranche of the corporate bond of CHF 180 million in December. In 2017, Bühler raised capital on the financial markets for the first time in the form of a CHF 420 million dual tranche bond to invest in its growth and innovation capabilities. The second tranche of the bond of CHF 240 million is due in 2026. “Our ongoing solid financial position enables us to continue investing in new solutions and services and to remain fully independent in the long term,” says CFO Mark Macus.

Innovation and collaboration through partnership

In 2022, Bühler expanded its innovation and education ecosystem. The Networking Days event in June provided the opportunity to bring together 1,000 industry leaders who engaged with each other on how to improve energy and food security, reduce waste, cut water usage, lower CO2e emissions, improve biodiversity, and rethink mobility. Bühler announced several joint ventures and partnerships that will facilitate the transition towards more efficient food and feed production and accelerate the shift towards sustainable mobility during this key event. 2022 also marked an

important milestone for Bühler in terms of sustainability as it announced the next level of targets with more tangible goals and action plans. Bühler has developed a pathway to achieve a 60% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in its operations by 20301 and has committed to having solutions ready to multiply by 2025 that reduce energy, waste, and water by 50% in the value chains of its customers.

To keep the pace of innovation high, expenses for research and development (R&D) remained stable at CHF 141 million representing 4.7% of Group turnover in line with the Bühler strategy to be the technology leader of the selected industry segments. Continuing its innovation promise to sustainably transform value chains, Bühler launched some 40 new products, including six new core products, in 2022.

Investing in people

It is thanks to the efforts and dedication of our employees that Bühler was able to achieve these good results despite the many challenges faced by the markets. All our employees around the world showed great commitment and resilience. A special mention should be made to our colleagues in Bühler China. Though they faced

January / March 2023 39 Professional PASTA SUPPLIER NEWS
Stefan Scheiber, CEO at Bühler Group Mark Macus, CFO at Bühler Group

strict zero-Covid restrictions, regional lockdowns, and energy disruptions, they kept production facilities running.

Throughout 2022, Bühler has been building on and complementing the programs it has in place for the development and lifelong learning of its more than 12,700 employees globally. In 2022, Bühler onboarded 230 new apprentices across Europe, North America, South America, Africa, and Asia who are enrolled in three and four year courses covering nine different vocational

fields. In total, Bühler employs 500 apprentices globally.

Creating one food segment and increased focus on services

To further increase the value offered to customers, Bühler will integrate its Consumer Foods segment into the Grains & Food segment and will strengthen its focus on its service offerings for the whole Group. Building one harmonized food and feed segment will allow for more direct interfaces to customers and increase the efficiency of processes. It will be led by Johannes Wick, CEO of Grains & Food. Germar Wacker, who headed the Consumer Foods segment, will take up new opportunities outside of Bühler. He will support Johannes Wick in the transition and leave the company at the end of Q1 2023. “We thank Germar Wacker for his massive contribution in making the acquisition of the Haas Group a success and wish him all the best for his personal and professional future,” says CEO Stefan Scheiber. To accelerate the positive development of Bühler’s service business, Samuel Schär, who held the positions of CEO Advanced

Materials and Chief Services & Sales Officer, will fully focus on leading the global Services & Sales organization going forward. The Advanced Materials business will be led by Marcel Natterer, who successfully managed Bühler’s Value Nutrition business area in the past 10 years. He has also been appointed Member of Bühler’s Executive Board.

Outlook: continue positive development

While 2023 will likely continue to be challenging, Bühler is starting the year with a solid financial position and high carryover of orders. Thanks to developments in the markets Bühler serves, there are many opportunities for which the company can provide solutions that create impact and value for customers. Despite all the uncertainties, Bühler’s ambition is to continue its positive development. “Overall, we are convinced that Bühler is well prepared to take another positive step in developing the business successfully in 2023, even in a very dynamic market environment,” says CEO Stefan Scheiber.

January / March 2023 40 Professional PASTA SUPPLIER NEWS
Bühler headquarters, in Uzwil, Switzerland: outside view Johannes Wick, CEO of Grains & Food

Storci & Shahri Zeboi: in Tajikistan for another successful story

We interview Mr P R, general manager for the implementation of the pasta factory project of S Z MO Ltd, a company in Tajikistan we are happy to number among our new customers.

Could you tell us about your company? How come did you decide to invest in the pasta sector?

S Z Mo Ltd is an investment company headquartered in the Republic of Tajikistan. It acts as a leader in several business sectors, such as building, real estate, food transformation and trading. We in S Z strongly embrace the morals established by the founder of

Peace and National Unity of Tajikistan, the country’s leader, the President Mr Emomali Rahmon. Pasta production is an essential part of the food security strategy of our country; that is the reason for investing in this sector.

How did you get to know us? Why did you choose our company for your dry pasta production? We searched all over the world and contacted several companies. Storci has been the only one that met all our criteria and expectations. The basic idea was to install just one line to process different pasta shapes, both short and long. Another crucial point was to start our activity at its best, keeping the costs as low as

possible. And that has been feasible with Storci.

Which technological and innovative characteristics made you choose the Storci Omnia line you have just bought? Omnia is the ideal solution to produce a wide range of shapes with a minimum footprint, still maintaining very high quality. It is like having two production lines in the space of one. The plant has unique versatility features, innovative and technological solutions that made us favoured Storci over other suppliers, convinced of having made the winning choice to enter the pasta market with the maximum competitiveness.

January / March 2023 41 Professional PASTA SUPPLIER NEWS

Porter-Scarpelli Macaroni

Guy R. Porter, John Scarpelli and James B. Kerr formed the Portland Macaroni Company in 1916 and leased a 10,000 square foot (3,050 square meter) building at Columbia Boulevard and Fenwick Street in Kenton, Oregon, which was formerly used by the United States Cashier Company1 2 3 . In 1917, the company operated as Porter-Scarpelli Macaroni Company and they equipped their newly developed factory with the latest machines.4 The team included a pastaio with 16 years of experience in the industry, having formerly worked at pasta factories in St. Louis, Missouri and Omaha, Nebraska.5 Sales grew rapidly, from $40,000 USD in 1917 to about $100,000 USD by the end of 1918, which was more product than the plant could produce.6 In 1919, additional dryers were added and by 1920, they advertised a factory output of 1,600,000 pounds (725,000 kilograms) for the year.7 8 Because of the availability of good products made locally and restrictions on importing from Europe during World War I,

Portland wholesalers switched to domestic sources of pasta, which helped fuel the growth.9 Just after the war, Porter-Scarpelli exported spaghetti to Italy.10 By 1936, the

company employed over 60 people.11

An early brand of the company was Porters P (pure paste products), which was advertised as, “Made by

January / March 2023 42 Professional PASTA HISTORICAL NEWS
Consolidated Macaroni Machine Corporation spaghetti press in operation at Porter-Scarpelli (from the Oregon Journal archived at the Oregon Historical Society) Porter label from Porter-Scarpelli Macaroni Co., (digitized by Leonard J. DeFrancisci)

“Porter’s Macaroni” advertisement, Oregon Daily Journal, June 29, 1917


1. ”Macaroni Company Files”, The Oregon Statesman, Salem, Oregon, 66th year, number 190 (November 3, 1916), page 5.

2. “Macaroni Factory with Capacity for Five Tons of Flour”, Oregon Daily Journal, Portland, Oregon, volume XV, number 323 (March 24, 1917), page 8.

3. ”Local Macaroni Factory Turns Out Superior Product”, Oregon Daily Journal, volume XVII, number 171 (November 30, 1918), page 9.

4. ”Macaroni Factory with Capacity for Five Tons of Flour”.

5. Ibid.

6. ”Local Macaroni Factory Turns Out Superior Product”.

7. ”Macaroni Factory Grows”, Oregon Daily Journal, volume XVI, number 48 (March 2, 1919), page 10.

Italian experts born to the business. Manufactured and packed under most sanitary conditions” in what they called the, “Sunshine Factory”.12 Indeed, it was a smoke free building since startup.13 In the early 1930s, the company introduced Fril-lets, the “Noodle that won’t slide off the fork”, which was packaged in cellophane bags.14 In 1961, through a series of acquisitions, Golden Grain Macaroni Company purchased a 49% stake in Porter-Scarpelli.15 In 1972, Golden Grain sold Porter-Scarpelli to the

8. “Porter's P” advertisement, Oregon Sunday Journal, Portland, Oregon, volume XIX, number 14 (July 3, 1921), section 6, page 6.

9. “Local Macaroni Factory Turns Out Superior Product".

10. “Portland Firm Ships ‘Leis’ To Honolulu”, Portland Commerce, Portland Chamber of Commerce, Portland, Oregon, volume 7, number 22 (May 12, 1923), page 5.

11. ”Inside the Factory”, La Grande Evening Observer, La Grande, Oregon, volume 34, number 243 (July 2, 1936), page 4.

12. “Porter’s” advertisement, Oregon Daily Journal, volume XVIII, number 5 (March 14, 1919), page 15.

13. “Macaroni Factory with Capacity for Five Tons of Flour”.

14. ”Inside the Factory”.

Scarpelli family based on a proposed anti-trust order from the United States Federal Trade Commission saying they had a monopoly in the region.16 17 At the time, the company made 11,000,000 pounds (5,000,000 kilograms) per year, up from 6,250,000 pounds (2,835,000 kilograms) in 1967.18 However, shortly afterwards, Porter-Scarpelli products were no longer on the market.

15. “The DeDomenico Family: Growth of the Golden Grain Company Through Innovation and Entrepreneurship”, an oral history conducted 1987-1989, Regional Oral History Office, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley (1994), pages 107, 311, 356-357 and 364. Available online at o/ucb/text/dedomenico_family__w.pdf

16. Ibid., pages 28, 288 and 358-359.

17. “In the Matter of Golden Grain Macaroni Company, Et Al.”, Federal Trade Commission Decisions, Findings, Opinions, and Orders, January 1 to June 30, 1971, volume 78, published by the commission, compiled by the Rules and Publications Section of the Office of the Secretary, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (1973), pages 179 and 184-186.

18. Ibid., page 141.

January / March 2023 43 Professional PASTA HISTORICAL NEWS


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Professional PASTA

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®

Professional PASTA

Pasta is gaining positions in the ranking of Egyptians’ favourite staples

Ensure a viable future for the global durum wheat sector

Avenue media ®
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