Professional Pasta N. 2 April/June 2019

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Gluten free with a “bite”

Tariffe R.O.C. Poste Italiane - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - D.L. 353/2003 ( L. 27/02/04 n°46) Art. 1 comma 1 DCB Bologna

A perfect filling


N. 2 April / June 2019

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3D printers & hedonism in the future of pasta


PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES How to get a perfect filling by Agatha Di Bella

NEW TECHNOLOGIES How to make gluten free pasta with a “bite” by Gill Parker

HERBS & SPICES Dehydrated garlic: a tasty surprise from China by Elio Di Curzio

INNOVATION Sorghum pasta, a good and healthy trend by Monia Caramma



Fact & news


Pasta’s friends




Supplier news


3D printers & hedonism in the future of pasta by Delia Maria Sebelin

April / June 2019


he research project conducted by Labcom (Laboratory of Research on Business Communication of Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan) and specifically by a research team led by Stefania Vitulli, professor at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Milan with Chiara Cangialosi, Cecilia Frangiamore and student Elisa Cogo and with the support of Angela Antonia Beccanulli, in partnership with Fiera Milano, proposed, for the 2019 edition of TuttoFood (the international B2B show dedicated to food & beverage and organised by Fiera Milano), the monitoring of four macro-trends in



the agrifood sector: food and innovation, novel food, food and technology and new frontiers of organic food. Various tools were used in the performance of this research: • an overview of the international scenario, allowing the isolation of macro-trends and monitoring of their individualities and peaks; • Italian and international analytical case studies; • in-depth qualitative interviews with companies and industry start-ups; • the inclusion of a focus taken from an original Labcom project on the practices of cooking


Barilla Group


as a context for exploring the productive activities of consumers.

From 3 to 5 years the use of 3D printers for food will increase The analysis shows those results concerning food and technology, along with some insights that emerged from the qualitative interviews. It is pretty much clear that what the study found out is fitting also the world of pasta and its technologies and consumption. Trend of food means trend of pasta, too. With regard to food and technology, three consolidated trends stand out: • the use in 3/5 years of 3D printers for food, to compensate for malnutrition and implement a proper diet, focusing on the nutritional values of the dishes and more


sustainable methods of preparation; • a substantial global increase in agrifood sector investments in nutrigenomics; • a new role of food in the social context. The preparation of food currently seems to be at the centre of three dimensions: in addition to the traditional areas of production and consumption, also self representation and eudaimonic realisation or alternative hedonism. As regards in-depth qualitative interviews with Italian companies and start-ups in the agri-food sector, the insights that emerged in relation to the issues mentioned above offer a more analytical view of the topics in Italy. Here is some details: • on novel food, it was found that 50% of the interviewees did not know what it is or were not up to date on the subject; • 25% of companies believe that the country is not culturally ready to embrace new foods and that the trend will only take hold in the long term; Professional


• with regard to technological innovations, 50% of the companies interviewed responded positively in relation to the present and future of vertical farms and water crops, on which they proved to be more than up-to-date. We have to admit that pasta makers are looking ahead to be prepared to the “customer of the future”. Think about Barilla 3 D printer, for example. BluRhapsody, the pasta printing spinout of Barilla’s Blu1877 group, has just launched an e-commerce platform where anyone can order customized pasta printed by a Barilla-developed 3D pasta printer. The new e-commerce offering is an expansion of an early limited directsales business in which BluRhapsody worked with a small handful of Michelin-star chefs to create customized pasta for their restaurants. With the new e-commerce offering, anyone can go to and order pre-designed custom pasta and, eventually, design their own and order it online. The company’s custom-created pasta capability could evolve through a couple phases. Now, customers have the chance to go to the web site and order from a small catalogue of pre-designed pasta.

A new role of pasta in social contest is coming out They can also to start custom projects in which they work jointly with BluRhapsody to create unique pasta designs. In the next future, the company plans to eventually offer a “customize-your-pasta page” where the customers use an interactive online tool to personalize the shape, ingredients, and even taste and texture of the pasta. Delia Maria Sebelin

April / June 2019


Boom of instant noodles in India

Competition heating up in dry pasta According to data from Information Resources, a Chicago-based market research firm, in the 52 weeks ended Feb. 24, in Us dollar sales in the spaghetti/macaroni/pasta (no noodles) category totaled $1,885,288,272, down 0.5% from the same period a year ago. Much of the decline could be attributed to sluggish performance from Riviana Foods and American Italian Pasta Co. Good performance over the past year for Barilla America Inc. In the same period its dollar sales for in the spaghetti/macaroni/pasta category totaled $625,507,727, up 1%.

According to research “Global Instant Noodles Market describing the Product / Business Scope, Overview and outlook”, the global demand for instant noodles is expected to reach 145.8 billion packs by 2020, driven by the rising trend of convenience food in emerging markets. India takes a major share of this demand, ranking fifth in terms of the global demand for instant noodles after China, Indonesia, Japan and Vietnam. This market in India includes three major players: Nestlé India Limited, Hindustan Unilever Limited and ITC Limited that operate through the brands Maggi, Knorr Soupy Noodles and Yippee respectively.

Negative claims about refined grains are misguided

Barilla expands Iowa pasta plant Barilla Group completed the $65 million expansion of its pasta plant and integrated durum mill in Ames. The expansion has boosted the facility’s production capacity to 200,000 tonnes of dry pasta per year. The project added two processing and packaging lines, a rail-yard expansion and six new silos to store wheat.


The study “Perspective: Refined Grains and Health: Genuine Risk, or Guilt by Association?” - published in Advances in Nutrition - claims that refined grain intake should not be linked to chronic diseases. According to this document, current dietary recommendations by the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee endorsing the reduction of refined grain consumption are misguided because it takes into account dietary patterns, not separate food groups. But this study did. Products examined separately included bread, cereals and pasta. It was found out that refined grain intake is not associated was with cardiovascular disease or obesity.



April / June 2019


A new mill in Colorado In Colorado (Us) Ardent Mills has selected Port Tampa Bay as the future site of a $62 million flour mill and grain storage terminal that will replace its current mill located in downtown Tampa. The project is expected to take 18 to 24 months to complete. The new plant, which will have a full-time staff of 31, is expected to become operational in 2021.

Good wheat production in Brazil

In Us ADM introduces organic flour

Marketing year 2019/2020 wheat production in Brazil is expected to grow to 6 million metric tons, on expanded crop area, incentivized by strong domestic wheat prices. At the same time, the eventual implementation of a duty-free wheat Tariff Rate Quota should help boost Us wheat exports to Brazil. For marketing year 2018/2019 corn production in Brazil is forecast at 95 million metric tons, 18% higher than 2017/2018, on expanded area and excellent conditions for the safrinha crop. Marketing year 2019/2020 production is forecast to grow to million metric tons (source: Usda, April 2019).

Archer Daniels Midland has introduced a line of organic flours. The portfolio initially includes organic all-purpose flour. The company plans to launch other organic-milled products. The Chicago-based company said the new line makes use ADM’s wheat sourcing network and its facility is certified organic through the Us. Department of Agriculture.

Gavilon promotes Zehr to Ceo Photo courtesy of The Gavilon Group

Steven Zehr has been promoted to chief executive officer of The Gavilon Group (Nebraska, Us), who most recently was chief operating officer, succeeds Lewis Batchelder, who is transitioning into a consultant position and has become a member of the board of directors. Zehr joined Gavilon in 2011. He brings more than 25 years of agriculture experience that includes leadership positions in financial management, strategic planning, and commercial operations all over the world, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil and Germany.

· Steven P. Zehr, new Ceo of Gavilon




April / June 2019


How to get a perfect filling by Agatha Di Bella Food technologist

Critical points in the formulation


he fresh filled pasta is the result of mixed different raw materials (even 25-30). For example the eggs, which are the preferred substrates for the growth of microorganisms, have a high moisture content (up to 35%) and water activity values between 0.93 and 0.97. For these reasons, fresh stuffed pasta is an easily perishable food and for its marketing, in addition to heat treatment, technological measures must be implemented to prevent the microbiological and sensory decay of the product and ensure its healthiness during the shelf life, pay particular attention to the formulation of the filling. Although the data provided by the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (Rassf) showed that there is no notification for the presence of Clostridium botulinum for fresh filled pasta, and there are no reports in the literature concerning cases of illness or deaths due to this micro-organism for this type of product, it is however essential to prevent this potential danger because it is always a high-risk food product. The filling is unfavorable to the penetration of heat during heat treatment; for this reason, a heat treatment should be performed to guarantee the safety of the product by these microorganisms, including the vegetative forms and the non-proteolytic




April / June 2019


It is essential to prevent potential microbiological danger during pasta shelf life Clostridium botulinum toxins that may be present. In order to prevent the development of its spores during the various post-treatment and thermal treatment phases, it is necessary to act synergistically with the hurdle technology (i.e. pasteurization), by lowering the pH with acidifying additives, and by reducing the water activity with the addition of salt or with partial drying of the product.

Water activity Many researchers, in the middle of the last century, have discovered the existence of a relationship between the water present in foods and their susceptibility to deterioration. In fact, for foods stability, water activity is more

April / June 2019





Figure 1

The absorption isotherms - The five models proposed by Braunauer S. et al. Water activity (a) is shown on the absciss; moisture (M), on the ordinatea; (Rahman M.S., 2007)












important than the total amount of water present in them. Scott W.J. was the first to identify that the water activity of a substrate is related to the deterioration of foods stability due to the growth of microorganisms. After these studies, to define the stability of foods, it was decided to use the parameter of water


activity instead of its quantity (Rahman M.S., 2007). Water activity affects not only the growth and metabolism of microorganisms, but also affects the sensory properties and shelf life of foods, as it supports the chemical and enzymatic reactions that develop in food products. For this reason it is important to



consider this parameter in the formulation of fillings for fresh pasta. For fresh products, it is between 0.970 and 0.996, according to studies by Chirife J. and Fontan C.F. in 1982. Furthermore, for the control of water activity by selecting ingredients and food additives, we must take into account the ability of solutes to lower the amount of free water in food, and the properties of packaging materials used for their packaging, because there could be phenomena of moisture transfer from the food to the environment and vice versa (Rahman M.S., 2007). The absorption isotherm, specific for each food at a certain temperature show that there is also a correlation between the percentage of the relative moisture of the food and the water activity. Generally it is represented in graphical form or equation; Braunauer S. et al. in 1940 classified the absorption isotherms in five types (Figure 1), to demonstrate that if water-soluble crystals (for example sugar or salt) are present in the food, the isotherms are concave (Figure 1: III), while for most other foods they have a sigmoidal shape (Figure 1: II). The flexion point of the isotherms is indicated by the change in the ability to bind the water or the

April / June 2019


relative amount of free water and bound water. For practical purposes, isotherms are presented as equations of empirical or theoretical models and no model present in the literature is valid for the entire scale of water activity values in foods. The most accepted model is the Gugghenheim-Anderson-de Boer (Gab) model (Rahman M.S., 2007), for the wide range of water activity values (between 0.10 ÷ 0.90).

The filling is too moist The ingredients for the production of the filling are different, including: salt; bovine-pork mixed cooked meat; industrial ricotta; double tomato concentrate; minced or dried frozen spinach; cured meat; seafood products; spices; breadcrumbs; partially skimmed powdered milk; inulin; acidifying additives; others… To avoid that the filling is too moist or too dry, it is necessary to pay attention to the moisture of the dough: if it is too high, wet the dough and puncture it irreparably.


For foods stability, water activity is more important than the total amount of water It is useful to remember that the quantity of free water in foods influences microbial development, the texture and the speed of chemical reactions, which determines the sensory and microbiological decay of foods. Therefore higher values of free water in filled fresh pasta will correspond to greater perishability. For this reason, in the ’80 eighties, the Food and Drug Administration introduced the concept of water activity in its regulations on Good Manufacturing Practices (Gmp), to define specific conditions for each category of the ingredient (dehydrated, intermediate moisture, in low acidity or acidified box). This is necessary to understand that the water activity values must be such as Professional


to prevent deterioration and pathogenic microorganisms (Labuza T.P., 1980) and safeguard the health of the consumer.

The filling is too dry A filling too dry is unpleasant to eat. To make it homogeneous and dry at the right point, in the fillings are usually added bread, eggs, ricotta, cheese and so on, which have the function of agglomerating the components. However, the addition should be made in an appropriate way, to avoid "flattened" or unbalanced flavors (fish agnolotto must have the taste of fish and not of bread). Obviously you need to know very well the food stuff you are working on and be able to eliminate the moist part that exceed. As can be seen in Figure 2, different water activity values correspond to different trigger points of food degradation phenomena. The development of microorganisms starts from water activity values above 0.80. Furthermore, each microbial species has: its own range

April / June 2019


Figure 2

Food stability based on water activity Model proposed by Rockland L.B., 1987 (Rahman M.S., 2007)


Solute & capillary



ll, A





ote Car



xid utoo










ty i






Moisture/Relative activity





M aw

therm tion iso

re sorp



a xid












a Ye

Ba ct



Fatty acids







Water activity (aw)

We must eliminate the exceeding moist part from our filling References • Labuza T.P., (1980), The effect of water activity on reaction kinetics of food deterioration.


of optimal water activity and a minimum water activity of microorganisms growth. Many of the most common foods have water activity values that are compatible with the growth of most microorganisms whether they are

pathogenic or not. In conclusion the minimum water activity value for microbial growth is given by the value below which the microorganism or group of microorganisms fails to reproduce.

• Rahman M.S., (2007), C.R.C. Press, Handbook of food preservation second edition.

Human Service, Food and Drug Administration, (1987), Guideline on general principles of process validation.

• Us Department of Health and



Agatha Di Bella

April / June 2019


How to make gluten free pasta with a “bite” by Gill Parker

Significant innovation possibilities


t all began with the idea of making gluten free pasta», Felice Andriani says. He is the founder of Andriani, a pasta processing plant dedicated entirely to making gluten free pasta. The plant is based in Gravina, Puglia in Italy - an area with a long tradition of growing grains and making bread and pasta. At the time Mr. Andriani saw a great opportunity in gluten free pasta.

Andriani’s aim Over the last 10 years Mr. Andriani and his two sons have built the business to now produce 80 million units of short and long pasta a year, with 5 production lines and using more than 40 different recipes. They export worldwide to the United States, Canada, the Uk, France, Spain, Italy and Scandinavia - and expect to expand soon to markets such as Japan and Russia.




April / June 2019


From the left: Michele Andriani, Felice Andriani, Francesco Andriani

His son Michele Andriani is the Chairman: «We moved into the sector because we wanted to offer greater added value in the pasta market with recipes that combine taste and nutritional content - and which can be cooked in the same way and taste the same as traditional wheat pasta». Andriani uses a wide range of raw materials, including buckwheat, brown rice, quinoa, corn, amaranth, lentils and peas. «Consumers are looking for healthy products, good for their health and wellbeing», explains Francesco Andriani who is Chief Marketing Officer. «We use ingredients from the Mediterranean diet and our products are widely used by people who lead a healthy and balanced lifestyle, for instance by sportsmen - for a reduced caloric intake - and people who follow a vegan diet».

April / June 2019





The gluten free market has exploded over the last 10 years pasta is going mainstream. In fact the market for gluten free food is now one of the biggest trends in food production. According to Euromonitor, the consumer data group, the market for gluten free pasta has grown in double digits over the last few years and it is set to continue at 9.8% in 2018-19.

The growth is staggering

Barilla’s Vice President of Global Process Development, Giancarlo Minervini

Barilla invests in gluten free

World leaders such as Barilla have also moved into the gluten free pasta market. Giancarlo Minervini is Barilla’s Vice President of Global Process Development: «Gluten free pasta is definitely one of the fastest growing segments both in terms of volume and value within the total pasta market. Our gluten free recipe has been specially created with a blend of white corn flour, yellow corn and

launched a new offer in the bakery range and we’re monitoring market trends looking for other potential launches». It’s clear that once the preserve of health food shops, gluten free

So who’s driving this trend and why? When gluten free food and pasta first appeared, it was targeted mainly at people who had a dietary reason for eating gluten free, such as coeliacs and for symptoms of Ibs (Irritable bowel syndrome). But now we’re seeing a different trend. Gluten free is simply seen as a food that is “Bfy”- better for you. Sarah Sleet is Chair of Aoecs, the Association of European Coeliac Societies: «The gluten free market has exploded over the last 10

Gluten free is now seen as a food “better for you” rice - three naturally gluten free cereals. It also means that people who are gluten intolerant can now sit down and enjoy a good meal of pasta with the rest of the family. In addition to the gluten free pasta line, we’ve also




April / June 2019


Pulses are becoming popular ingredient for pasta

Bühler Group’s Product Manager for Pasta, Marco Loschi

A system adds hot water and steam in the press, so starch gelatinizes and creates dough with a strong enough texture

of building the pasta structure without the glue - the gluten from traditional flour. Without gluten, it’s difficult to form dough strong enough to give the “bite”, the al dente of pasta making.

But food scientists at the Bühler Group, have come up with a solution. Bühler has been making pasta processing equipment since 1903, so offer a great deal of experience in the field. The Company based in Uzwil, Switzerland, looked at starch in the gluten free raw materials. They found that by adding hot water and steam, the starch gelatinizes and creates dough with a strong enough texture to create the “bite”. So how can you create one system to apply to this wide range of raw materials? Bühler’s solution is the PolymatikTM pasta press. The system can be used for traditional flour. But it can also be used for gluten free ingredients such as corn, rice, quinoa and pulses. This is because the PolymatikTM can inject steam and hot water into the pasta making

years driven by increasing numbers of people diagnosed with coeliac disease, others avoiding gluten for medical reasons and some just seeing it as a healthier alternative». According to Mintel 40% of consumers in the United States believe that gluten free products are beneficial for everyone - not just for those with a gluten allergy or intolerance. This trend is so prevalent that some American universities - Cornell and Kent - have launched gluten free dining halls.

The answer of pasta industry So how is the pasta industry rising to this demand? Perhaps the main challenge has been to find a way


Bühler Pasta Application Center



April / June 2019


Pulses are rich in protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals, so they’re great for special diets. Elena Fischer-Domacheva, is Bühler’s Process Engineer for Pasta and Noodles, and explains their experience: «The first requests for adding other ingredients to pasta production came from our customers. They mainly wanted to improve the nutritional properties of their products. The first tests showed that it’s possible to add up to 30% of pulse flour to conventional pasta dough without compromising taste and cooking properties. We tested chickpeas, red and green lentils, white, black and red beans and yellow peas. They’re all excellent additions to the dough».

Blended formulas Bühler Pasta Application Center in Uzwil, featuring the Polymatik


process. Marco Loschi is the Bühler Group’s Product Manager for Pasta: «We work with relatively high temperatures. We add superheated steam and hot water rather than cold water during the mixing and kneading process. We also keep the housing temperature of the PolymatikTM pasta press high. This creates a dough that we can shape and then dry». Molino Andriani uses the Bühler PolymatikTM system. Rafaele Raso is their Plant Manager. «All our lines installed the PolymatikTM system, which has shown itself to be the most efficient system for gluten free production. As it’s a closed system, it’s also perfect in terms of hygiene. Its flexibility is remarkable as well with a quick format change and very flexible recipe changes». And Michele Andriani, Chairman of Molino Andriani, adds: «The technical concept we developed with Bühler gave us the opportunity to introduce new and highly innovative products to the market which are very different from existing products».


pasta press

The right recipe But having good technology isn’t enough to get good gluten free pasta. You also need the right recipe. To help with this, Bühler set up a Pasta Application Center at its headquarters in Uzwil, Switzerland. Here specialists test different types of formulas, working with pasta plants worldwide. In 2017 the company

We can get excellent pasta results if we mix pulse flours with flours from cereals also set up a second Pasta Application Center in Wuxi, China. Bühler has been testing varieties of cereals as well as pulses. They’ve found that pulses work well for traditional or gluten free pasta. In fact, pulses are becoming an increasingly popular ingredient for pasta. At first specialists tested pulses in traditional wheat flour. Professional


And she adds: «There’s also a wide choice of raw materials for gluten free products. We can use many different pulses and create an infinite number of different pasta products. We’ve also found that we can get excellent results if we mix the pulse flours with flours from cereals - such as corn, rice or pseudo cereals like quinoa or amaranth. These pasta products are not only gluten free, but they also taste great. We therefore recommend that our customers use blended formulas». So what’s next? Marco Loschi is the Bühler Group’s Product Manager for Pasta: «The new recipes offer a great opportunity for diversification for pasta producers, as a combination of grains can enhance colour, taste and nutritional performance. Going forward, pulses can also offer a higher value in protein content. This is important for the nutrition of our consumers and because it offers another way to incorporate vegetable protein into our diets. It’s also a step in the right direction towards sustainability». Gill Parker Acknowledgments We thank Bühler Group

April / June 2019


Dehydrated garlic: a tasty surprise from China by Elio Di Curzio President of Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry

Its unique aroma make it a mainstay of many cuisines throughout the world


arlic is surely cheaper than celebrated pepper, nutmeg, mace, and oregano and that may be the reason why one does not speak or read much about it. However, its unique aroma and tangy taste make garlic a mainstay of many cuisines throughout the world: indeed, Asian, European, African, Latin-American and North American recipes are widely flavoured with garlic. And the same goes for dehydrated garlic, which is an almost indispensable ingredient of many industrial food preparations. Unexpectedly enough, garlic worldwide production is fifty times larger than pepper’s, although the latter is often referred to as the “Queen of Spices”.

What is garlic? Technically speaking it is neither a spice nor an herb: it is actually a


Garlic is used in a lot of pasta recipes, like in spaghetti with clams



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vegetable growing underground. What is usually referred to as a head of garlic is, in botanical terms, a bulb, i. e., a subterranean reserve structure derived from a cluster of leaves. The single leaves are known as garlic cloves (Photo 1). Garlic contains a wealth of sulphur compounds; most important for the taste is allicin (diallyl disulphide oxide), which is produced enzymatically from alliin (S-2-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide); its biological function is to repel herbivorous animals.

Garlic, production quantity (tons) Korea, South 275,549


Egypt 280,216

Bangladesh 381,851

India 1,400,00

Where does garlic originate from?

China 21,197,131

Garlic is grown in many parts of the world, but China alone is worth 80% of the world market due to its 21 million tons a year. Italy ranks 30 th amongst the producing countries because its annual output is only a thousandth of the Chinese one (Graph 1). Only a small part of garlic is used fresh; in fact, the main quantity is dried, dehydrated and sold both to the consumer and to the food industry in the form of flakes, granules, and powder.

A head of garlic is, in botanical terms, a bulb


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Table 1

Dehydration of garlic: production steps A

Garlic bulbs

Step 1) Selection and acceptance of the raw material (Garlic bulbs) Garlic bulbs should have a uniform appearance and their diameter should range between 3 and 4,5 centimetres. Moreover, they should be free from fungi and diseases. Step 2) Stalks and root removal In this stage, stalks and roots are removed and a special care is taken to avoid any residue on the cloves. Step 3) Decortication The peels around the cloves are removed with specific tools. The cleanness rate at this stage is usually higher than 75%.


Sliced garlic

Step 4) Washing and floating Garlic is sprayed, washed and let afloat in water in order to remove any possible skins and remaining impurities. Step 5) Handpicking Experienced workers then manually remove substandard cloves (due to colour, dimension, etc..) and any extra impurities. Step 6) Slicing According to the different production requirements, cloves are sliced into sections with uniform thickness (Photo B).


Granules of garlic


Garlic in powder

Quality grades

Step 7) Draining Garlic slices or pieces are centrifuged to remove water from the surface. They are then evenly distributed on trays and moved to the dehydration tunnels. Step 8) Dehydration Trays remain four or five hours in the dehydration tunnels at a temperature of 60/65 °C (Celsius degrees). Step 9) Moisture rebalancing Once dehydrated, garlic slices are cooled and sealed in large bags for a couple of days, so that all the product inside reach the same moisture. Step 10) Selezione Once out of the bags, the dehydrated garlic is graded for the final productions in order to get flakes, granules or powder (Photo C and D).

The price paid by the food industry for dehydrated garlic may range quite widely. Which are the product features indicating if the garlic offered truly worths its price? Today the dehydrated garlic is traded under two main quality grades: A) premium grade; B) standard grade.


To assess how the differences between them affect the quality and hence the value and price, one must consider all the various steps that together make up the process of dehydration of garlic. The production steps can be summarized as in the Table. As we understand these steps, it becomes now easier to explain the commercial difference between the two grades: for Professional


production of the superior grade, only smaller bulbs (4/6 cloves) are used (Step 1); manual selection (Step 5) and final selection (Step 10) are carried according to stricter standards. The resulting premium grade garlic - be it slices, granules or powder - is naturally white or light-ivory white, with a low natural content of SO2, usually equal to or lower than 20 ppm.

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Garlic and peanuts side by side

Possible contaminations

actually evident in Photo 2: in some areas, garlic and peanuts (both grow underground) were placed side by side, which caused the peanuts to contaminate roots and peels of the garlic nearby. Very likely, durintabelg the production process, garlic roots and Table 2 skins have not been Garlic production, 2016 completely removed, which in turn caused peanuts Country Production contamination to be (tonnes) detected in some production lots. 21,197,131 China

Recent press reported on some garlic lots recalled from the market because they had been found contaminated with peanuts, i.e. with an allergen. The reason for this is


India Bangladesh


European Union




South Korea






May include official, semi-official or estimated data Source: Un Food and Agricolture Organization

Rules of purchasing All buyers have now implemented countermeasures, the first of which is to reject any garlic coming from potentially contaminated fields. What are the rules of thumb to buy a good and safe dehydrated garlic? 1) Firstly, it should come from the last crop. Garlic is harvested during April and May, then it is processed and shipped: this implies that new

crop usually hit the end markets from September onwards. Therefore, if you buy garlic for delivery in September or later, make sure that it comes from the latest crop. 2) Secondly, the garlic you buy should be free from impurities, like black spots, and with a nice colour: white or ivory-white for the powder, ivory white for the granules and flakes. 3) Last but not least, garlic should not contain SO2 other than the one naturally occurring in the product. As I mentioned before, its value - in a high-end product is approx. 20 ppm. Added SO2 (max residue of 300 ppm by the law) is allowed in garlic production to whiten material whose colour is rather dark and so not appealing. Of course, a premium grade garlic commands a higher price, but its intense aromatic features and overall product safety are a good return for a small investment. Elio Di Curzio

Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry - -




April / June 2019


Sorghum pasta, a good and healthy trend by Monia Caramma

Production techniques and nutritional value


orghum is an important cereal for feed but can be used also for food. Why? Because it is gluten free, so it is useful for people who suffer from coeliac disease. Moreover it has a lot of positive nutritional values. Many studies focus primarily on the effects of a diet with this cereal on diabetes and on prevention on oncological disease. More rarely it is analysed the techniques of cultivation and transformation, with attention to the production of pasta. Moreover sorghum could help against hunger, because of its adaptability to warm climates, such as the African one. Sorghum does not need constant irrigation because of the ancient seed is genetically predisposed to climate adaptation. It does not even need nitrogenous soils or conventional fertilizers.




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In particular, the sorghum’s ability to grow without irrigation allows for greater environmental sustainability as well as the development of deep roots (with respect to maize for example) such as to allow an adequate supply of mineral salts from the soil.

From field to plate But how could we obtain a good sorghum pasta? Grains are milled and transformed into flour with significant granulometry, which results in less water absorption. The result is a solid dough which, drawn in bronze, keeps the shape of the dough without breaking. The prolonged drying after 19 hours at low temperature guarantees the evaporation of excess water and the maintenance of the structure, as well as the

In sorghum pasta production, we need to use flour with a good granulometry lower dispersion of nutrients. Drying at high temperatures in a short time (HTSt High TemperatureShort time, VHTs Very High Temperature-Short time) creates a measurable thermal damage. This damage can be measured by the amount of furosina. Many studies report that values between 100 and 200 mg/100 g proteins are reached when pasta dries at less than 85° Celsius. Durum wheat pasta with values of furosina lower than 200 mg/100 g proteins is considered a good nutritional product, because the quantity of essential amino acids such as lysine remains high. When furosina value reaches 500/600, it means that the drying temperature was very high. In these case the bioavailability of the lysine undergoes a strong downsizing. It happens the same in sorghum pasta production.

April / June 2019






Starch hydrolyzed during oral in vitro digestion of gluten free pasta Gluten free pasta sample

Starch hydrolyzed (%)

White sorghum pasta


Brown sorghum pasta


Rice Pasta


Soy pasta


Corn pasta


Corn pasta with vegetables


Sources: Pablo Palavecino / Gluten-free sorghum pasta: starch digestibility and antioxidant capacity compared with commercial products - Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed 30 Apr, 2019]

The pasta production technique just described does not require emulsifiers or aggregates such as mono and diglycerides, contrary to what is indicated in some studies of standardization of production techniques. Sorghum pasta is a food that is rehydrated in cooking water in a very short time, about 4 minutes, with minimal dispersion of nutrients. The nutritional studies on sorghum pasta showed that the cereal maintains its nutritional values (if dried at low temperature).

References • Poquette NM, Gu X, Lee SO. Grain sorghum muffin reduces glucose and insulin responses in men, Food Funct. 2014 May; 5(5):894-9. doi: 10.1039/c3fo60432b. • Suganyadevi P, Saravanakumar KM, Mahandas S. The antiproliferative activity of 3-deoxyanthocyanins extracted from red sorghum (Sorghumbicolor) bran through P (53) dependent and Bcl-2 gene expression in breast cancer cell line. Life Sci. 2013 Mar. 14; 92(6-7):379-82. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Jan. 16.


Sorghum pasta is gluten free and rich in fiber Low glycemic index

Sorghum is rich in fiber, iron (100 g of which contain 55% of daily requirements), phosphorus (41% of daily requirements) and B vitamins (important in the process of metabolizing fats and sugars. It also has a low glycemic index (35-47): this means that it is digested more slowly. So sugar is

• Suganyadevi P, Saravanakumar KM, Mahandas S. The antiproliferative activity of 3-deoxyanthocyanins extracted from red sorghum (Sorghumbicolor) bran through P(53)-dependent and Bcl-2 gene expression in breast cancer cell line. Life Sci. 2013 Mar. 14; 92 (6-7):379-82. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Jan. 16. • Indagine sul danno termico della pasta secca e sue relazioni con le caratteristiche della materia prima e delle condizioni di processo”. Pagani, Marti,



released gradually and slowly. This is why sorghum pasta could be good for diabetics or for people who suffer of drowsiness after eating. But sorghum contains also many polyphenols, important antioxidants. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published a study by P. M. Palavecino, P. D. Ribotta and others, whose conclusion is: «Both types of sorghum gluten free pasta (brown and wihite sorghum, ndr) have demonstrated their nutritional value and represent a good potential alternative to current commercial pasta». The abstract compares sorghum pasta with gluten free pasta made with rice and maize, with particular attention to the glycemic index and bioavailability of polyphenols. «The highest Gluten Index was observed in a rice sample (GI = 69.8) followed by a corn-based pasta (GI = 66.4). White and brown sorghum, gluten free pasta GI = 2.9 and GI = 2.4 respectively and a higher potentially bioaccessible polyphenol content compared to that in cooked durum pasta». In conclusion, sorghum pasta has a good flavour and good nutritional values, so it could be part of a healthy diet for coeliac or not coeliac people. The supply of iron, for example, is essential in the stages of growth and breastfeeding as well as in sport and for the maintenance of general well-being. Monia Caramma

Bottega, Patacca. Tecnica Molitoria, Aprile 2013. • Palavecino PM, Bustos MC, etc. Effect of Ingredients on the Quality of Gluten-Free Sorghum Pasta. Food Sci. 2017 Sep; 82(9):2085-2093. Epub 2017 Aug. 10. • Khan I, Yousif AM, Johnson SK, Gamlath S. Acute effect of sorghum flour-containing pasta on plasma total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress markers in healthy subjects: A randomised controlled trial. Clin. Nutr. 2015 Jun; 34(3):415-21. Epub 2014 Aug. 14

April / June 2019


A master in efficiency


aintenance Management” is a course of FoodTechMaster by Pavan. It willl take place from 14th to 18th October 2019 in Pavan Headquarters in Italy. Target: Plant Managers, Production Managers, R&D Managers, Quality Control Managers and Production Engineers. The aim of the course is to learn how to optimize the yeld of your production lines over time.

A strategic asset The maintenance of industrial plants is an increasingly strategic asset: the efficiency and productivity of the entire supply chain depend on it! Thanks to the intervention of highly competent and specialized technicians, this course will allow you to learn and experience the most advanced techniques to manage the maintenance of the plants, in particular for the production of dry pasta and extruded products. It will deal not only with the best


practices for a correct ordinary maintenance, but also with the most advanced solutions that allow to intervene preventively on the plant to guarantee its good functioning in time, avoiding production interruptions or drops in performance. A proper maintenance therefore means a reduction in overall management costs and fewer operating problems. The presentations will be complemented by practical examples thanks to the collaboration with Pastificio Campioni (Italy), a high-tech pasta factory exclusively equipped with Pavan lines, which has allowed us to carry out complete and detailed technical investigations. The seminar will focus on: • big data for a manufacturing 4.0.; • predictive maintenance techniques: meaning, objectives, application mode, cost/benefit analysis; • maintenance management: programming; document



management; preventive, predictive and proactive maintenance application; warehouse management; KPIs; • maintenance of pasta production plants. The course will be in English but it may be available in other languages depending on the total number of applicants for a given language.

Professional training courses The FoodTechMaster is a series of professional training courses organized by Pavan with the aim of sharing knowledge and expertise on food production technology. The next edition will take place in October 2019 and will focus on maintenance techniques. The seminars will be held by experts from the world of industrial maintenance and Pavan Process Engineers. For further information and subscription:

April / June 2019


Shelf life is... Slim 2019


helf life indicates the commercial duration, i.e. the period of time in which the food product maintains the characteristics of taste, color, smell / aroma, consistency, nutritional value, and hygienic safety health. It is very important in fresh pasta sector. The 9th Edition of the Shelf Life International Meeting (Slim 2019) will take place in Naples, Italy, June 17 - 20th. It is a well-established international forum for presenting current developments and future directions of researches and applications on the shelf life of packaged foodstuff. This conference is organized by the Italian Scientific Group of Food Packaging (GSICA) in cooperation with the Department of Agricultural Science of the University of Naples “Federico II” and with the Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials of the Italian National Research Council. The 9th edition will focus on Shelf life assessment, prediction and extension by applying new, safe and sustainable materials and technologies. The conference structure, the diversity of the

April / June 2019

attendees and the careful selection of the contributes from both industries and academic institutions will significantly contribute to the advancement of knowledge, to promote scientific discussions and to strengthen further collaborative research cooperation. The conference will be structured on the following sessions. Session 1 - Shelf life assessment and prediction • Shelf life modelling • Accelerated shelf life tests • Food quality assessment • Sensory methodology for shelflife assessment • Microbiological shelf life testingnew approach • Nutritional stability and retention Session 2 - New technologies for shelf life extension • Non-thermal and novel processing • High pressure processing • Ultrasound • Electrolyzed water • Cold plasma • Light technologies • Ionizing and ultraviolet radiation Professional


• Modified atmosphere, active and intelligent packaging • Innovation process and alternative ingredients Session 3 - New materials for shelf life extension • Nanomaterials for food packaging • Biodegradable food packaging • Bio based and edible packaging, bioplastics • High barrier packaging • New (active) polymeric coating on plastic and metallic substrates • New functional food packaging Session 4 - Sustainability and shelf life • Sustainability • Recyclability • Life cycle assessment • Logistic model • Biodegradability • Food wastes reduction Session 5 - Packaging materials and safety issues • Package testing • Migration tests and modelling • Risk assessment • Food contact materials: laws and regulations



Ready meals meet all needs


owadays, our lifestyle is too frenzied for sparing some time for a convivial moment such as lunchtime. For this reason, we need quick meals, balanced and handy; we often look for an alternative to a sandwich, a dish of pasta perhaps, as long as it is ready to eat. Ready meals such as lasagna, cannelloni, cooked and flavoured pasta, served in a tray or in a pasta cup. Storci has learnt it over time and joined its forces with BS Company, headquartered in Parma, that has been operating since 1980 in the main markets of ready-meals, fast foods, ice-creams and desserts. The two Companies have started up a business network of ready-meals production lines. Storci Bs ready-meal lines consist of complete systems for the production of short and long pasta, filled and fill dough, for cooking all shapes and dosing condiments for pasta; customers can choose among long-lasting and highly performing machines. For the production of lasagna and cannelloni you can choose between semiautomatic and automatic lines with different


capacities (all manageable, stateof-the-art automation, easy to clean and maintain, under vacuum technology for production of dough either by sheeter or press): from 600 trays/h up to 4500 kg/h. One of the largest frozen lasagna production line in Europe has been recently installed and Storci, thanks to its well established experience, has manufactured the production system and cooking process for a capacity such as 4500 kg/h of flavoured lasagna. The press, equipped with a pre-mixing



unit Premix for solid and liquid ingredients, combined with a gravimetric dosing system for i.e. powdered spinach, has a compression screw and circular head whose diameter is 135mm and 400mm wide, respectively; the subsequent lamination and cooking groups enable the production of a sheet that is 1.060 mm large. For the production of ready-meals based on filled short or long pasta, the solution is the multiproduct line R2E, able to produce a wide variety of shapes, great capacity of production and cooking within limited areas, ease of usage and cleaning. The multiproduct line has a production capacity ranging from 600 to 5.000 trays/h; thanks to the adaptability of the cooking system to the products, it can cook also dry pasta, meat, rice, fish and vegetables. Ready-meal production plants made by Storci BS guarantee a high flexibility of production, great capacities in small areas, ease of usage and cleaning and significant energy saving.

April / June 2019


11-12 June 2019 - LONDON (United Kingdom)



International conference for the grains supply chain

International baking industry exposition

17-20 June 2019 - NAPLES (Italy)

SLIM 2019

International exhibition for food and drinks industry

26-28 June 2019 - LEUVEN (Belgium)


25-26 September 2019 - MEXICO CITY (Mexico)

International symposium on gluten-free cereal products and beverages


International expo for food and beverage industry

27-28 June 2019 - BARCELONA (Spain)


5-9 October 2019 - COLOGNE (Germany)


International trade fair for the savoury snacks sector

International trade fair for food and beverage

24-27 September 2019 - MOSCOW (Russia)


Self life international meeting

8-11 September 2019 - LAS VEGAS (Usa)

6-9 September 2019 - BOLOGNA (Italy)

8-11 October 2019 - CHICAGO (Usa)



International exhibition of organic and natural products

The global food equipment and technology show



























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