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T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L M A G A Z I N E F O R PA S TA P R O D U C E R S

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www.professionalpasta.it

A perfectly dryed pasta

Tariffe R.O.C. Poste Italiane - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - D.L. 353/2003 (cov.in L. 27/02/04 n°46) Art. 1 comma 1 DCB Bologna

The QR Code at the table

PASTA

N. 3 July / September 2019

Year XXIV

Avenue media

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Chairman Claudio Vercellone

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Year XXIV - N. 3 July/September 2019 Editor in Chief Claudio Vercellone Scientific and technical committee Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician Roberto Tuberosa Agricultural Genetics Editing Coordinator Delia Maria Sebelin ufficiostampa@avenuemedia.eu Advertising Massimo Carpanelli carpa@avenuemedia.eu

36 EDITORIAL

The blockchain conquers pasta by Delia Maria Sebelin

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by Agatha Di Bella

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

The drying phase and the quality of pasta

Dehydrated powdered spinach to get green pasta

Registration N. 7875 of 9/9/2008 Court of Bologna

From the Dna of durum wheat to the future of pasta

www.avenuemedia.eu/en/privacy-policy-specialist-publishing/

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by Augusto Gemma, Alessandro Massacesi

Personal data processing in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2016/679. Privacy Policy is available on Avenue media website www.avenuemedia.eu on “Privacy Policy - Publishing” page:

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RESEARCH

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by Delia Maria Sebelin

BUYERS’ GUIDE

Events

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Supplier news

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EDITORIAL

Blockchain conquers pasta by Delia Maria Sebelin

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any people talk about it, but what is the blockchain? To put it simply, it is the technology behind QR Codes (Quick Response Codes). Many pasta factories already use them in the name of transparency towards the consumer. A few names: Barilla, Giovanni Rana, Pastificio Andalini, Pastificio Fabianelli, Pastificio Morena. That is how it works. After having downloaded the application on his own mobile, the user frames the QR Code on the pasta package. The user can then visit the company’s website and obtain

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information on the nutritional values of the product, purchase advice, recipes, anti-waste suggestions. In a nutshell, the consumer can read the identity card of the pasta he finds on the shelf and read its history, from the field to the point of sale. Going into more detail, the blockchain allows the collection and transmission of information in a manner considered as secure and without the supervision of a central control body. In short, it is a shared and immutable data structure, a digital register whose entries are grouped in “pages” (“blocks”) and linked

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EDITORIAL

QR Code is useful to give a lot of info and to insert advertising QR Code as additional means of connection between producer (or distributor) and consumer/buyer.

in chronological order. In a nutshell, with this tool, pages of information can be added to the chain and, once entered, they can no longer be modified. Seeing the sequence of information, those who arrive after can add, if authorized, new information, publishing other pages. For the operators of the pasta production chain, in the future, the blockchain could be a tool for integrating other systems for recording operations (control, transport, processing), making the sharing of detailed information more stable, to the benefit of the operators themselves and as proof

More and more pasta factories are using QR Codes of transparency towards the control bodies, certifying bodies and auditors. The company earns a reputation towards the final consumer, showing that it is committed to transparency, but it can also use the QR Code to insert advertising or other commercially useful tools. This must obviously be done in compliance with the regulations: from a legal point of view, this type of communication is

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part of the voluntary information that the entrepreneur can declare under the conditions laid down, mainly, by Regulation (EU) 1169/2011. It means that what is disclosed must be specific, fair and relevant. According to experts, this technology could also help increase the safety of the food we bring to our tables. It would be useful, for instance, in case of alerts and product recalls. In fact, even when the food is already on the market, the manufacturer can intervene on the blockchain and insert the news of the alert, informing the consumer in real time (provided that the latter checks the QR Code). The consumer will know, therefore, that the package in his hand should not be consumed but returned. This is the case even if the product was purchased before the alert. Yet, we need common standards. A set of rules to follow. In fact, the law does not require you to have a mobile phone or to check what the QR Code says. For this reason, for the time being, this technology cannot replace the ordinary information systems, nor those of alert or nutritional information, or allergens. Therefore, it is appropriate to consider the blockchain and the Professional

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It should be noted that the system works in two directions: on the one hand, the consumer can obtain in-depth information on the product and the supply chain, on the other hand, the manufacturer can obtain information on people who have read the QR Code (in compliance with the regulations on privacy). For example, they can find out where consumers are connected from and, therefore, obtain live information on sales, territorial distribution... However, there are some dark sides. As in all computer systems, also in this one we have the certainty that information has been produced by a technologically identified subject, without identifying the natural person who has entered the data. Moreover, whatever is inserted in the blockchain is protected and cannot be changed, but it could also be false, as any statement made on and with any other support (paper, verbal or computer). From a legal point of view, the information stored in the blockchain is a matter of fact, and therefore it provides documentary evidence of the business activity. Therefore, pending the official publication of a specific legislation on the role of this technology in certain operations, it is advisable to use the computer pages chain mainly to establish a relationship of trust between consumer and producer. Delia Maria Sebelin

July / September 2019


FACTS & NEWS

Barilla getting pink

The Eco-friendly food bag closure The streetwear brand Gcds (acronym of God Can’t Destroy Streetwear) and the food giant Barilla have created an unexpected and unconventional capsule collection. Barilla’s aim is to rejuvenate the latter’s look to reposition itself in a market that requires open-minded and inclusive attitudes. This collection will be on sale with the fall-winter 2019/20.

DowDuPont merging 2 business units

Gma asks to disclose refined ingredients

Nutrition & Health and Industrial Biosciences, both business units within the DowDuPont Specialty Products Division, will soon combine into a $6.2 billion business division called Nutrition & Biosciences. Nutrition & Biosciences will be active globally in specialty food ingredients, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical excipients, household and personal care, animal nutrition, and biotechnology fields. Matthias Heinzel, who was president of Nutrition & Health, will become president of Nutrition & Biosciences, which will be based in Copenhagen and have over 10,000 employees, 70 manufacturing sites and 25 innovation centers. Combined, Nutrition & Health and Industrial Biosciences had $6.2 billion in revenue in 2018.

The Grocery Manufacturers Association (Gma), in comments submitted to the Us Department of Agriculture regarding the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard, has urged the Usda to require the disclosure of refined ingredients derived from bioengineered crops in food and beverage products. «Consumers expect to know if a product contains an ingredient that was sourced from a bioengineered crop, so it is essential that disclosure of this information be required under a final rule for the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard», said Leon Bruner, Ph.D., chief science officer with the Gma.

The “Made with REAL Eggs” seal

Nama adds a new manager Kim Z. Cooper has joined the North American Millers’ Association (Nama) as manager of government affairs. In her new role, Ms. Cooper will work with Dale Nellor, vice-president, government and technical affairs, and other staff members, to develop and implement the group’s public policy agenda. She will focus on interactions with Congress, federal agencies, coalitions, and other advocacy organizations and stakeholders to advance Nama’s mission.

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Us Kwik Lok has introduced EcoLok, a bag new closure made with sustainable materials that may be used to keep food products such as pasta salads. It is formulated with a plant-based biopolymer called NuPlastiQ that requires up to 20% fewer greenhouse gas emissions to produce than standard plastic bag closures. Proprietary technology of NuPlastiQ is BioLogiQ (Idaho, Us) that converts plant-based carbohydrates, including corn and potatoes, into the biopolymer material.

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The American Egg Board showcased two egg certification seals that will help separate real egg ingredients from processed substitutes. The “REAL Eggs” or “Made with REAL Eggs” can be put on packaged goods and fresh foods and are beneficial for producers, fresh pasta manufacturers and food service retail outlets. The seals cannot be used with imported egg products or products containing imported egg ingredients, and the product must be made in a Us facility.

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July / September 2019


FACTS & NEWS

Harmening takes the helm at Gma

Canadian miller plans to expand

Jeff Harmening, chairman and chief executive officer of General Mills (photo), has been elected as the new chairman of the board of directors for the Grocery Manufacturers Association (Gma). Member of the Gma board since 2017, Mr. Harmening succeeds Vivek Sankaran, who joined Albertsons Companies as president and Ceo in March. Mr. Harmening takes the helm of the 110-year-old trade organization during a time of transformation. The Gma is in the process of «reimagining itself to better meet the needs of its member companies and represent the totality of the Consumer packaged goods industry», the organization said.

Parrish & Heimbecker plans to expand its Hamilton flour mill and grain terminal. Work is already underway to have the P&H Hamilton site also become the home of a second flour mill, which will make P&H the single largest user of Ontario wheat, the company said.

Rainer Schulz elected to Bühler Group’s Board of Directors

A new flour mill by Ardent Mills Ardent Mills has selected Port Tampa Bay (Fl) as the future site of a $62 million flour mill and grain storage terminal that will replace its current mill located in downtown Tampa. The new plant, which will have a full-time staff of 31, is expected to become operational in 2021. Ardent Mills’ overall daily capacity is nearly 500,000 cwts, by far the largest in the United States.

Grain fonio arrives in America Organic food ingredient innovator Terra Ingredients by AgMotion is to launch grain fonio (photo) for food manufacturers, ingredient suppliers and leading brands in the Us market. Fonio is currently grown by farmers in Africa’s Sahel region. The company established relationships with them and created a supply chain for fonio processing to ensure food safety for export. With the availability of fonio in the Us market, new products and innovative twists can be created on popular offerings, particularly in the healthy options category.

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At last extraordinary general shareholders’ meeting, Rainer Schulz (photo) was elected to Bühler Group’s Board of Directors in a unanimous decision. He assumes his position with immediate effect. With his appointment, the Board of Directors has won an experienced business expert with an impressive industrial track record who will ensure continuity in the further development of Bühler. Since 1995, Rainer Schulz has acted as head of production and later as general head of purchasing in charge of global procurement at the jet engine builder BMW Rolls-Royce AeroEngines. In 2001, Rainer Schulz moved on to the global REHAU Group. As Chief Operating Officer, he was in charge within the context of the company management of the engineering, production, and materials management functions. In 2010, Rainer Schulz was appointed Chief Executive Officer of the REHAU Group, a position he held until mid-2018.

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

The drying phase and the quality of pasta by Agatha Di Bella Food technologist

How to control moisture changing phenom

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o produce excellent pasta you cannot ignore the characteristics of the raw materials, which must be excellent. However, the entire production process has a significant influence on quality: in recent decades, interesting progress has been made to identify some events that occur during processing, particularly in drying. In fact, the most significant innovations have turned to optimize this technological phase. The process consists in progressively eliminating a part of the water content from the product, providing heat. Lowering the degree of moisture means reducing enzyme activity, thus minimizing fermentation. This phase is crucial and difficult to control due to the fact that it is like the “litmus test� of important quality elements of grain and of the entire production process. By eliminating the moisture content of pasta from 30% to 12.5%7, the texture of the product becomes hard and compact, the structure is consolidated and the food can be stored without deteriorating. A proper drying, in addition to making the food dry, stabilizes it: the reduced moisture content must remain uniform and stable to the values that ensure the shelf-life of the food under storage conditions (Mondelli G., 2008).

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mena

Gradients and volumes During drying the moisture gradients that occur between the surface of the product - which dries more quickly - and the gradually more internal areas are very strong. These gradients determine volume differences between areas: they do not occur linearly but with different speeds between surface and internal areas (Mondelli G., 2008). If the pasta dehydrates too quickly, it will crack, giving to the product a poor appearance and a very low mechanical strength. On the contrary, if the process takes place too slowly, the pasta tends to be damaged or broken during drying. When correctly operating, the product becomes firm and stable and also sufficiently flexible to withstand a good level of mechanical tension before breaking. Therefore, the most significant physical parameters in

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Figure 1

Drying curve In the early stages of the process the drying speed depends on the indoor environmental hygrometric conditions of the dryer. In the following phases, on the other hand, the drying speed depends exclusively on the diffusivity value of the water inside the product.

Curve section with drying decreasing speed

V= Xp/ T

Curve section with drying constant speed

T0

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5 Process time

drying technology are humidity (moisture) and temperature, both air and product, followed by air speed. In summary, drying means modulating and correctly controlling the evaporation of water from the matrix, through correct phases of “ventilation” and “recovery”. The process can be achieved through two different steps, which correspond to the “plastic and elastic” state of pasta: the best results are obtained by applying a preliminary low-temperature dehydration to reduce the moisture of the pasta (pre-drying), followed by a high drying temperature.

The change of state Upon exiting the die, the pasta has a moisture content of 31-32% and is in the “plastic state”. The dough, deformed in the die, maintains the size. The pasta can therefore undergo a quick drying

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with a fast decrease in the initial moisture without creating any internal tension or damage or breakage; moreover, deformation due to water evaporation is also maintained. When, proceeding with the drying, the moisture content of the product goes down further (18-22%), the state of the pasta switches from the plastic to the “elastic” state1. This step occurs quickly and significantly shortens the overall drying time. In this condition, the pasta under stress deforms but tends to regain its original shape as soon as the tension stops. In addition to causing deformations, the stresses can also lead to tensions within the product; however, if these fall within the specific elasticity limit of the food, they can be reabsorbed11. The two different situations of the physical state of the product (“plastic” and “elastic”) determine the subdivision of the process in preProfessional

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drying and drying; in the end it is however necessary to stabilize the pasta.

Pre-drying During the first phase, the moisture content drops from 30-32% to 17-18%. The time required for this step depends on some variables, of which the temperature is the main one. The water is extracted from the product with the highest quantity/time ratio of the entire process, applying the thermal energy necessary for this purpose at a high speed (Figure 1). This is how it is obtained: • the partial block of certain enzymatic activities and the almost total one of any fermentation product; • the gluten is evenly distributed, so as to hold and more easily absorb the starch particles8; • gelatinization, the process of transformation of starches

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Figure 2

Drying diagram for short pasta Drying diagram with “ideal” curve showing the dynamic relationship between product moisture and time. High temperature process Xp% 30

T°C 110

Air temperature

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100

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80 Pasta moisture

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responsible for the digestibility of the pasta and its ability to remain “al dente”12. Furthermore, pre-drying can decrease the oxidation of the yellow pigments (carotenoids) contained in the semolina, for a dried product with a bright and uniform color2. Finally, the process involves a better stability of the final size and helps to maintain the product’s capillarity, which is essential for redistributing the water particles during the subsequent technological phases.

Drying In drying, dehydration occurs more slowly than with pre-drying, because it involves the inner layers of the product. As already mentioned, different moisture gradients are created between the external and internal areas. This causes differences in volume: in the external part, due to the

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quick dehydration, the contraction is fast; while in the internal areas, where the process is slower, the volume is reduced at a lower rate; so inevitably tensions are created in the product. These must be managed by choosing appropriate working conditions11. At this stage, the temperature and humidity of the environment are lower than the temperature and moisture of the pasta. The drying takes place at a lower speed than the pre-drying, due to the structure of the product, which moving to the elastic state, is more rigid: the capillary action is lower and, consequently, the migration speed of the remaining particles of water is lower. Figure 2 shows a drying diagram for short pasta with an “ideal” curve of the dynamic relationship between product moisture (on the ordinate) and time (on the abscissa). Professional

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4 Time (hours)

De Cindio model Bruno De Cindio thought of schematically highlighting the drying process, identifying the three events that influence its efficiency: • transport of water and thermal energy inside the pasta (corresponding to the coefficient of matter diffusion and thermal conductivity); • water evaporation from the air/product surface (characterized by an absorption isotherm and by the latent heat of vaporization); • transport of vapor in the gaseous phase (coefficients of matter exchange and energy in the desiccant medium). Figure 3 shows the average moisture trend over time in the case of drying a semolina and water dough at stationary conditions imposed by the drying medium (De Cindio B., 1994). Four areas can be identified that correspond

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PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

Figure 3

Moisture change during pasta drying

Moisture

I

to as many phases of the process: • section I: the temperature of the solid varies until it is stationary. Before reaching the state of stability, the drying speed can increase or decrease, based on the initial conditions of the dough; • section II: is the stationary state of drying, during which the drying speed remains steady; • section III: when the water content is lowered, internal concentration gradients appear and the flow of water - from the center of the piece to the surface - decreases; decreasing the spread of water, a dry pasta crust is made outside, as the availability of water on the surface is not the same to the previous phases; • section IV: in this phase, transportation by diffusion prevails. It means having a surface that can no longer lose water because it is now dry. But this does not mean that the

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II

III

IV

phenomenon of evaporation is concluded, because it still affects the innermost layers. The speed of evaporation from the inside decreases as the crust thickens, moving the evaporation front more and more towards the center. Transferring these considerations to the practical case, it is evident the need to alternate “ventilation” phases with “recovery” phases, which inevitably lead to an expansion of the time required for the process, unlike the corresponding procedures implemented during pre-drying (Figure 4). With ventilation, heat is transferred to the product and at the same time the steam that passes by transport from the pasta to the air is removed in the nearness of the surface. In this case the evaporation speed is high. With the recovering process, a break from evaporation is required: by maintaining high Professional

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Time

moisture gives more thermal energy by natural convection, increasing the diffusion of water from the center to the surface (Mondelli G., 2008). The objective is to prevent the external surface of the pasta from drying excessively and quickly. This result can be achieved by maintaining the main components (air temperature, air humidity and ventilation flows) in balance with each other by means of a correct temperature/air humidity ratio and a correct sequence of ventilation intensity, and prolonging as much as possible the phase of plastic state of the product, in which the tensions can relax easily5.

Technological innovation In the last decades, the high (HT) and very high temperature (THT) drying technology has been widely applied by the food industry because it reduces production times and spaces and enhances the physical properties of pasta.

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Figure 4

Ventilation and Recovering process

Compared to drying at low temperature, the one at high temperature improves the color and consistency of the product, which distributes less starch during cooking, making it less sticky. Furthermore, the percentage of damaged starch is lower, probably due to the lower activity of the amylolytic enzymes: it is reasonable to suppose that a higher thermostability of the starch has a positive effect on the properties of the pasta being cooked3. As regards the quality of the raw material, this can be considered a non-critical parameter if the pasta is dried at high temperature. To prove this, tests on semolina pasta

References 1. Alamprese et al., “Role of pasteurization heat treatments on rheological and protein structural characteristics of fresh egg pasta”, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 221, 759767, 2005.

with a low gluten content6,13 have maintained a good quality during cooking. In “al dente” cooking, the water inside the spaghetti penetrates less easily and the temperature remains lower: the nutritional values (especially of lysine, the amino acid responsible for the digestibility of the pasta) remain preserved12; for this reason pasta “al dente” is more digestible. HT and THT facilitate industries: fast production times, easier process management, limited bacterial proliferation. And you get a pasta that remains “al dente”. “Al dente” pasta is often considered synonymous with

production”, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, 3rd International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure.

2. Anese et al., “Effects of drying processing on the Maillard reaction in pasta”, Food Research International, 32, 193-199, 1999.

6. De Noni and Pagani, “Cooking properties and heat damage of dried pasta as influenced by raw material characteristics and processing conditions”, Food Science and Nutrition, 50, 465-472, 2010.

3. Baiano et al., ”Influence of drying temperature on the spaghetti cooking quality”, Journal of Food Engineering, 76, 341-347, 2006.

7. Dpr. 9 febbraio 2001, n. 187 (Gu n. 117 del 22 maggio 2001); Dpr. 5 marzo 2013, n. 41 (Gu n. 95 del 23 aprile 2013).

4. De Cindio, B. M. Migliori, F. Carbone (1994). Modellazione matematica del processo di essiccazione di pasta di alta qualità.

8. Guler et al., “Effects of industrial pasta drying temperatures on starch properties and pasta quality”, Food Research International, 35, 421-427, 2002.

5. De Cindio et al., “Modelling of drying for high quality pasta

9. Lamacchia et al., “Changes in pasta proteins induced by drying cycles

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quality, but it is not always true: for excellent pasta, the nutritional characteristics that could be damaged at high temperatures must be maintained. Thus, during drying, suitable instruments are used, such as, for example, thermoresistances (to measure temperature), the psychrometer (to determine the relative humidity), or resistive capacitance probes are used to control the relative humidity and the temperature, the two crucial parameters for the optimal realization of the process. Agatha Di Bella

and their relationship to cooking behavior”, Journal of Cereal Science, 46, 58-63, 2007. 10. Mariotti et al., ”Influence of the Heating Rate on the Pasting Properties of Various Flours”, Department of Food Science and Microbiology, 57, 564-572, 2005. 11. Mondelli G. (2008). Essiccazione statica della pasta - Tecnologia e pratica operativa. Edizioni Avenue media, Bologna. 12. Singh and MacRitchie, “Changes in proteins induced by heating gluten dispersions at high temperature”, Journal of Cereal Science, 39, 297301, 2004. 13. Wyland and D’Appolonia, “Influence of drying temperature and farina blending on spaghetti quality”, Department of Cereal Chemistry and Technology, 59, 199201, 2003.

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INGREDIENTS

Dehydrated powdered spinach to get green pasta by Augusto Gemma* and Alessandro Massacesi *President Ida

Let’s understand the processing to get a real good product

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ehydrated powdered spinach, commercially named “flour spinach”, is the main ingredient of green pasta. In Italy it is used to prepare lasagna, tagliatelle or to make spinach fillings. But what do we mean when we refer to the dehydrated powdered spinach? How can we get a good product? We have to say that there is not an optimal variety of spinach to be dehydrated, although hybrid varieties tend to be favoured. Genetics has also tried to obtain plants more disease-resistant and better suited to meet industrial needs. But currently a “perfect variety” has not been created yet. So, the first problem is to identify the most suitable variety for processing. This, with regard to spinach’s optimal criteria that - for both dehydrators and freezers - are high dry substance

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and chlorophyll content. It is also difficult to choose the leaf: blistered, semi-blistered or smooth? Blistered leaves have higher dry substance that make drying easier, whereas the smooth ones allow for a better cleaning.

The field Quality of dehydrated spinach powder comes right from the field. In Pianura Padana (Italy) farmers sow spinach at the end of August to harvest at the beginning of October; but they can decide also

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to sow in late October to harvest in late March - April or to do it in March to harvest in April / May. The spinach cycle is quite variable. When it is favoured by good weather, it lasts a 40/50 days on average. With hot weather the plant does not sprout leaves, but it grows upwards and produces only stems with seeds. Cuts can be done one or two times (just in lucky circumstances) or even three times in exceptional cases. It depends on the weather, on the development of the culture, or on the availability of land or other factors during cultivation. In this sense, it is important to avoid the simultaneous ripening, in order to extend the spinach processing. To predict the success of the crop a good starting point is to be able to choose varieties of spinach more suited to the season. In Northern Europe spinach varieties are used to long exposure of sunlight so, if we brought them

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in Southern EU, they will have a slower maturation and a higher dry matter content. Another factor that needs to be taken into consideration deals with spinach fertilization, which is based, normally, on the classic balance between nitrogen (to

Many pasta makers use spinach dehydrated encourage the colour), phosphorus (which provides energy to the plant and enhances the root) and potassium (for the dry substance). Up to now we talked about the optimal conditions to ensure a good spinach harvest, but many problems can compromise a good final result, i.e. fungal diseases (mildew), insects that pierce leaves Professional

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(when fly lays eggs inside the leaf) and weeds. These dangers require a constant monitoring, as a constant observation by a competent agronomic centre. Cooperation in the supply chain is essential, especially to support farmers by granting them access to chemical laboratories able to identify not permitted chemicals. We are talking about the improper use of pesticides or, more subtly, about air pollution. Once, farmers carried out harvest manually with high cost. Now machines and specially refined cultivation techniques have reduced the cost.

From farm to table After the harvest it is time to deliver the product at the facilities. It is better to do it with automated machines to ensure maximum respect to the plants and to avoid the mistreatment of the leaves with consequent

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deterioration of the final quality of the spinach powder. Now, to obtain maximum cleaning, we have to wash leaves with water in counter-current. Water consumption is significant but the quantity to be used changes from firm to another. Ida, for example, uses about 10 liters of water per 1 kg of product. An important part of this procedure relates to the separation of foreign bodies. Even before the washing, an aero separating machine eliminates stones, clods and battered leaves. Then you switch to washing to remove sand, while at the same time the filters deal with insects and small floating bodies. The separation continues even at the end of the drying plant where machines eliminate any leftover of metal, insects, fragments of previous crops (corn, branches) or leaves not perfectly dehydrated.

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After washing, the processing line continues through three separate stages of drying: 1. in the first one, air is relatively warm in order to ensure a strong evaporation; 2. in the second one, air reaches a lower temperature, allowing the water trapped in the surface cells of spinach to evaporate;

Business needs and nutritional values push the market to the coloured pastas

Afterwards, spinach passes into a pasteurizer five floors, which heats it to a temperature that will greatly reduce the bacterial load, preserving, however, the chlorophyll. It lasts for about an hour and a half at 80° C. Finally, the spinach pulverization, which is monitored continuously to maintain constant particle size and in order to get a product ready for use. At each delivery a sample is analysed to monitor the bacterial load, the colour tone (such as wavelength) and its colouring power. After we go on with the final mix, so we can obtain a product with constant quality.

Bacterial and colour 3. finally, with the last stage, water contained in the inner cells of the product migrates to surface via an osmotic process, so the air temperature must be even lower. Professional

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Legally there are no specific guidelines about dehydrated spinach powder. Anyhow, in EU we refer to Regulation (EC) No. 1441/2007 of 5 December 2007 on microbiological criteria for

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foodstuffs. In addition, analysts have established a baseline with parameters that define a sort of best practice. A first control regards the content of ash insoluble in hydrochloric acid (sand or ground) that should be washed during the first stage of spinach processing. Another important factor concerns the bacterial charge. Ida, for example, ensures a bacterial load ranging from 10 to 10,000 germs per gram; in Northern Europe are considered acceptable bacterial loads 1,000,000 gram germs, while in China can be up to 16 million bacteria per gram. The hue of the colour (kept constant over all deliveries) represents a further parameter; in particular the colour in spinach is the result of chlorophyll, which is already a natural dye. This is why it degrades rapidly, and this is why we need to process always fresh spinach. Given this characteristic of the dehydrated spinach, green pasta - sensitive to heat and light suffers greatly from all transparent packages: its is better not to use them.

Dehydrated spinach leaf

The green in the semolina The colouring power (i.e. the amount of spinach to be used for every kilo of flour / semolina flour) is also an element to keep in mind and it can be analysed in different ways. Ida analysis are based on alcohol extraction of colour, a method developed by an important Italian pasta maker. It is possible to identify the peaks of absorption of particular wavelengths of yellow and blue (the sum of which produces green). One last point to consider in this type of production regards traceability: it has to be guaranteed the Italian origin, and given the GPS coordinates of the field, the list of treatments provided, the history of the harvest.

Beware of imitations

Dehydrated powder

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Today producers of dry pasta are major consumers of spinach powder dehydrated; if they utilized fresh or frozen spinach they should endure the higher Professional

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costs for the evaporation of water contained in them. Fresh pasta producers employ interesting amount of spinach flour together with other powders such as dehydrated tomato, nettle, red beet, carrot, sepia, purple carrot, potato blue. Commercial and nutritional needs, in fact, are pushing the market towards a genuine universe of colours. Coloured pasta request is increasing: because of a tasty dish but also healthy thanks to the benefits of the vegetables. Italian sounding involves also coloured pasta, most often with disarming results. Many did not understand that those who spend more spend less. The best solution to gain in the market is to invest in quality, taking into consideration only suppliers with exemplary reputation. Augusto Gemma, Alessandro Massacesi

July / September 2019


RESEARCH

From the Dna of durum wheat to the future of pasta by Delia Maria Sebelin

The genome sequence will contribute to global food safety and security

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n international consortium has sequenced the entire genome of durum wheat - the source of semolina for pasta, a food staple for the world’s population, according to an article published in Nature Genetics. The team has also discovered how to significantly reduce cadmium levels in durum grain, ensuring the safety and nutritional value of the grain through selective breeding. «This ground-breaking work will lead to new standards for durum breeding and safety of durumderived products, paving the way for production of durum wheat varieties better adapted to climate challenges, with higher yields, enhanced nutritional quality, and improved sustainability», said Luigi Cattivelli of Italy’s Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA). The durum wheat genome is four times as large

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as the human genome. The team has for the first time assembled the complete genome of the high-quality Svevo variety. «We can now examine the genes, their order and structure to assemble a blueprint Professional

PASTA

that provides an opportunity to understand how the genes work and communicate with one another», said wheat breeder Curtis Pozniak of the University of Saskatchewan (USask). «With this

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RESEARCH

Helmholtz Zentrum in München (Germany), as well as researchers Aldo Ceriotti and Luciano Milanesi of Italy’s national research council CNR and Roberto Tuberosa of the University of Bologna (Italy). «We can now see the distinct Dna signatures that have been so critical to the evolution and breeding of durum wheat, enabling us to understand which combination of genes is driving a particular signature and to maintain those target areas of the genome for future breeding improvement», said Marco Maccaferri, lead author of the manuscript.

The evolution of the plant Durum wheat, mainly used as the raw material for pasta and couscous production, evolved from wild emmer wheat and was established as a prominent crop roughly 1,500 to 2,000 years ago in the Mediterranean area. The team compared the durum wheat sequence to its wild relative and were able to reveal genes that humans have been selecting over the centuries. The scientists uncovered a loss of genomic diversity in durum wheat compared to its wild wheat relative, and they’ve been able to map these areas of loss and precisely recover beneficial genes lost during centuries of breeding. «Unlike in humans, durum wheat is a so-called polyploid and contains two genomes. How these genomes interact and coordinate their activities is a fundamental question that might also have impact on food quality and yield», said Klaus Mayer.

Cadmium accumulation blueprint, we can now work quickly to identify genes that are responsible for the traits we select for in our breeding programs such as yield, disease resistance, and nutritional properties».

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The research involved more than 60 scientists from seven countries. The work was co-ordinated by Cattivelli and included corresponding authors Pozniak of USask and Klaus Mayer of the Professional

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In an exciting genetic discovery, Pozniak’s USask team, along with University of Alberta scientists Gregory Taylor and Neil Harris, identified the gene in durum wheat responsible for accumulation of cadmium, a toxic heavy metal found in many soils.

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RESEARCH

Luigi Cattivelli (CREA)

Roberto Tuberosa (University of Bologna)

«Now that we’ve identified this gene, we can effectively select varieties that do not accumulate significant cadmium in the grain levels well below World Health Organization standards which will ensure that our durum wheat products are more nutritionally safe», said Pozniak. Durum wheat is mainly cultivated in Canada, Europe, United States, and South Asia, and remains a key crop for small farms in North and East Africa, as well as the Middle East. As pasta is a staple for the world’s population, industries are asking for more, safer, and higherquality durum wheat. «Having this durum wheat highquality genome sequence enables us to better understand the

Aldo Ceriotti (CNR)

Curtis Pozniak (University of Saskatchewan)

The durum wheat genome is four times larger than the human genome

From researchers to stakeholders On July 1, experts and stakeholders of the durum wheat-pasta chain met at CNR in Rome to present the opportunities offered by the knowledge of the entire genome of durum wheat. The workshop and the round table discussion organized by Italy’s Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and the University of Bologna (Italy), with the collaboration of Assosementi and Avenue media, offered a unique opportunity to debate state-of-the-art applications made now possible by the availability of the durum wheat sequence.

genetics of gluten proteins and the factors that control the nutritional properties of semolina. This will help to improve pasta quality traits», said Aldo Ceriotti. «The selection of new durum cultivars with greater yield potential, as well as enhanced quality and nutritional properties, is critical for our future well-being, particularly in the face of climate change. The availability of the durum genome sequence is an essential tool to achieve these targets and provides a strategic bridge between the biodiversity of wild progenitors and bread wheat», said Roberto Tuberosa. Delia Maria Sebelin Source: University of Saskatchewan

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July / September 2019


EVENTS

E-Pack Tech, destination China

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-Pack Tech puts on show technologies and packaging designed for the e-commerce market. The new international event will be held from 23 to 26 October 2019 at Shanghai New International Expo Centre (Sniec). It is supported by Ipack-Ima, the organizer of the leading processing & packaging trade show for food and non-food technologies and materials, held at Fiera Milano. In conjunction with CeMat Asia (world leading trade fair for intralogistics & supply chain management, E-Pack Tech will benefit of highly specialized

visitors from logistics, warehousing and end-of-line stages, the most influenced by the e-commerce new standards.

Focusing on e-commerce as a dedicated market sector for technologies and solutions is a need, and this new show will be the place to present packaging technologies, labelling and tracking solutions and handling & storage system, specifically designed for the e-commerce.

Product categories • Process and packaging technologies specifically designed for the e-commerce channel. • Packaging for e-commerce and digital retailing (smart packaging, protective & industrial packaging, premium packaging, innovative materials & solutions and sustainable packaging). • Serializing, coding, marking and labelling solutions for product tracking, labels, holograms, decorations. • Printing technologies for packaging, inks and consumables. • Robotics devoted to e-commerce and industrial automation.

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Professional

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EVENTS

• Flexible storage and end-of-line systems suitable for e-commerce (pallet forming systems, wrapping machines, cartoning machines). • Remote web-based plant vision, inspection and control systems. • Services (software & platforms, packaging design, predictive maintenance, info-security).

Packaging & E-Commerce In China, the e-commerce market is worth US$ 682 billion (2017 data), compared to US$ 438 bn in the Usa, US$ 196 bn in Uk, US$ 87 bn in Germany and around US$ 20 bn in Italy (source: Netcomm - Italian e-commerce Association). The country has a developed e-commerce consumer goods market with more than 500 million online purchasers: more than US$ 150 billion.

Why to take part of? There are 3 important reasons to take part of E-Pack Tech by Ipack Ima. 1. Chinese e-commerce market is the most important, advanced and fast moving of the entire world. 2. A large audience of targeted professionals will visit the show, thanks to the conjunction with CeMat Asia 2019.

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3. Ipack-Ima sales team will support every step of the “Become an exhibitor” process, in order to guarantee a simple and easy fair participation. All international exhibitors will benefit of: • availability of meeting area; • speakers corner (up to 40 seats) with a well profiled panel of educationals and presentations; • B2B meetings with Chinese buyers. In the heart of E-Pack Tech, there will be the E-Commerce Village, a space where major B2B and B2C e-commerce Chinese companies will attend with dedicated spaces and staff.

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Best solutions At the main entrances of the show, there will be a display of the best packaging solutions realized with the materials and technologies of our international exhibitors. This initiatives aims to attract all visitors walking through the events, and a proof of innovations and special solutions realized just to suit the e-commerce channel peculiarities. The opportunity to be part of the “Best packaging solutions display” with additional visibility to all visitors, is reserved to international exhibitors only and already included in the participation fee. Visit the event’s official website: www.epacktech.com

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SUPPLIER NEWS

A winning partnership

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Pasta factory between tradition and innovation», says Massimo Mancini, about his company on the hills of Marche Region (Italy). In the fields around the wheat grows up to produce Mancini’s Pasta. Classic, whole or turanico wheat, Mancini’s pasta is immediately recognizable for its golden yellow colour, rugged and porous characteristics and its aroma of ripe wheat. All these features are guaranteed by the artisanal production inside a pasta factory where nothing is left to chance. Thanks to a customized plant variables, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, are digitally-controlled by systems that can reach previously unthinkable precision qualities. This plant was tailormade by Storci. Mr. Mancini, how do you describe your long partnership with Storci? Absolutely positive. Storci is always professionally prepared and attentive to our needs. It is very

helpful also when facing the most experimental proposals. Why did you buy Storci’s Omnia? Your multi-product line that allows the production of short, long and special pasta using a unique machinery, guaranteeing maximum flexibility and compactness. Its flexibility satisfies the needs of a young pasta making

factory such as ours. We often notice the astounded look on the visitors’ faces when we explain that we use one plant only to produce all our shapes. This aspect aside, Omnia allows us to optimize our flow, with no disruptions in our production routine. A simplified management results in a better quality of the work of our staff and, subsequently, in a higher quality of our pasta. Your pasta is today synonym for quality all over the world. What are your plans for the future? The experience gained during our travels around the world, tells us that durum wheat semolina pasta is a natural product although mostly unknown for its peculiar aspects. Our challenge as agricultural pasta factory is twofold. Firstly, we need to make the most of our production of the raw material which is grown locally. Secondly, we need to maximise awareness of our product through its history and by detailing its characteristics.

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July / September 2019


SUPPLIER NEWS

Bühler opens its CUBIC innovation campus

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fter a construction period of 20 months and an investment of about CHF 50 million, Bühler Group opens its CUBIC innovation campus with eight Application Centers. «We are with this driving forward our strategy of innovation, training, and development,» says Stefan Scheiber, CEO of Bühler Group. «Together with our customers, partners from industry and science, academia, and startups, we are using the CUBIC to conduct research into new and sustainable solutions that we can apply to successful business ventures. And, we are taking a step forward here in providing modern training and development,» says Scheiber. The global challenges associated with nutrition and mobility are

becoming increasingly urgent. How can we sustainably feed and provide mobility for a population of nearly 10 billion in 2050? Addressing these issues and responding to them with sustainable, commercially attractive solutions is the goal of the innovation campus. «This is our contribution to transforming the urgent global challenges of our time into solid business solutions together with customers, partners, academia, and start-ups,» confirms Scheiber. «In this campus, we are also promoting new professional skills and competencies, modern learning and working methods, and collaborating with our partners.» Every year, the company invests a sum in the three-digit millions in research and development (R&D).

The CUBIC innovation campus is linked to the Application Centers

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In 2018, this amounted to CHF 145 million or 4.4% of turnover.

A model of sustainability The three-story CUBIC is designed to accommodate up to 300 people, and is, in itself, a model of sustainability and innovation. The building uses 15% less energy than comparable structures of its size. Its smart electrochromic glass facade was coated on equipment from Bühler Leybold Optics. This enables Bühler to slash energy consumption for heating and airconditioning by as much as 50%. Building sensors measure carbon dioxide levels, air humidity, temperature, and flow of people to continuously fine-tune the functionality and energy consumption of the CUBIC. On the basis of this smart building concept, Bühler expects to be able to sustainably optimize the operation of the building. The CUBIC complies with the sustainability standards of Leed (Leadership in Energy and Environment Design), which certified the structure by awarding it a gold rating. In terms of its design concept, the new innovation campus is integrated into the Bühler site in Uzwil as the bridge that links the development, engineering, and design teams with the modernized Application Centers and the factory. This enables Bühler to develop solutions together with customers, start-ups, and industry and research partners up to the point of market maturity with much higher speed and efficiency.

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SUPPLIER NEWS

based IoT platform for digital services, which was created in close partnership with Microsoft. About 20% of the R&D budget went into the development of digital solutions in 2018. «The CUBIC campus will become the epicenter of our collaborative ecosystem,» says Cto Ian Roberts. «It embodies our innovation spirit and culture, where we will inspire, discuss, understand, and derive actions that will support us as an industry to create more sustainable value chains, while contributing to addressing the burning environmental and societal challenges of our time.»

Shorter time to market Stefan Scheiber, CEO of Bühler Group

The CUBIC represents Bühler’s purpose of “Innovations for a better world” and it focuses on promoting new training and development methods. Among other things, it embraces the dual education system of Switzerland, housing apprentices and academics, as well as youth and experience. Project teams from all Bühler business areas currently reside in the CUBIC. Many of them are developing digital solutions, including Bühler Insights, a cloud-

Vital elements of the new innovation campus are its eight modernized Application Centers. The ideas of customers and prototypes are tested in the Application Centers, where they are refined up to the point of market maturity. In the Battery Lab, researchers are continuing their efforts to develop a new, continuous process for mixing electrode slurries applied in the manufacture of lithium-ion batteries. In the Grinding & Dispersing Application Center, Bühler is developing wet grinding and dispersion solutions, for

In the Pasta Application Center, the latest pasta is being developed

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Ian Roberts, CTO of Bühler Group

example for making printing inks. In the Die Casting Application Center, five die-casting cells are installed for training operators and for conducting customer tests. Many of these developments are already incorporated into modern applications for the e-mobility industry. In the Pasta Application Center, the latest pasta is being developed, for example high-protein pasta containing flour from pulses or products with a proportion of microalgae. The Grain Technology Center, at 3,000 square meters, is the world’s largest Grain Milling Application Center. It also has its own Analytics Lab. Among other things, the Nutrition Application Center develops textured vegetable proteins - alternatives for the growing number of flexitarians. Together with customers, the Bakery Innovation Center develops wholesome, fresh bakery products. In the Chocolate Application Center, new flavors and novel processes for cocoa-based products are tested. In the Coffee Application Center, customers test low-energy roasting processes to develop new taste variants.

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AGENDA

5-9 October 2019 - COLOGNE (Germany)

23-26 October 2019 - SHANGHAI (China)

ANUGA

E-PACK TECH

International trade fair for food and beverage industries

International exhibition of technologies and packaging for the e-commerce market

www.anuga.com

www.ipack-ima.com

8-11 October 2019 - CHICAGO (Usa)

29-31 October 2019 - DUBAI (United Arab Emirates)

PROCESS EXPO

GULFOOD MANUFACTURING

The global food equipment and technology show

International exhibition of technologies for food and beverage industry

www.myprocessexpo.com

www.gulfoodmanufacturing.com

18-20 October 2019 - MILAN (Italy)

16-19 November 2019 - RIMINI (Italy)

HOST

FOODNOVA

International hospitality exhibition

International exhibition of new dietary needs

www.host.fieramilano.it

www.foodnova.eu

20-22 October 2019 - PARIS (France)

3-5 December 2019 - PARIS (France)

NATEXPO

FI EUROPE & NI

International trade show for organic products

International exhibition for food and beverage ingredients

www.natexpo.com

www.figlobal.com/fieurope/

22-25 October 2019 - PARMA (Italy)

11-14 January 2020 - PARIS (France)

CIBUS TEC

EUROPAIN

International exhibition of technologies for food and beverage industry

International exhibition for the professional entrepreneurs in bakery and pastry

www.cibustec.it

www.europain.com

INDEX OF ADVERTISERS ANSELMO www.anselmoitalia.com BÜHLER www.buhlergroup.com

2-3 BACK COVER

IMPERIA & MONFERRINA www.la-monferrina.com 37 LANDUCCI www.landucci.it

CAPITANI www.capitanionline.com

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MININNI www.molinomininni.com

CAPITANIO www.capitanio.it

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NICCOLAI www.niccolai.com

CASTIGLIONI www.castiglioninedo.it

31 + I.P.

FRONT COVER - 9 INSIDE BACK COVER

4

PASTA TECH. GROUP www.pastatechgroup.com

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CUSINATO www.cusinato.com

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PAVAN www.pavan.com

INSIDE FRONT COVER

DE MARI www.demaripastadies.com

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STORCI www.storci.com

7

DEMACO www.demaco.com

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TECALIT www.tecalit.it

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TRAFILE TURCONI www.trafileturconi.it

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ZINDO www.zindo.it

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FAVA www.fava.it FOODTECH www.food-tech.it

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July / September 2019


Profile for Avenue media

Professional Pasta N. 3 July/September 2019  

The International Magazine for pasta producers

Professional Pasta N. 3 July/September 2019  

The International Magazine for pasta producers

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