Professional Pasta N. 3 July/September 2018

Page 1

T h e i n t e r n at i o n a l m ag a z i n e f or Pa s ta P r o d u c e r s



Tariffe R.O.C. Poste Italiane - Spedizione in abbonamento postale - D.L. 353/2003 ( L. 27/02/04 n°46) Art. 1 comma 1 DCB Bologna

Allergens contamination in fresh pasta

Good nutmeg for good fillings


Anselmo Impianti S.r.l. - Bene Vagienna (Cn) - ITALY - Tel. +39 0172654755 - Fax +39 0172654811 -

N. 3 July / September 2018


WITH MULTIDRIVE ONLY MULTIDRIVE TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES BEST FLEXIBILITY FOR A SUPERIOR PRODUCT QUALITY With Pavan new MULTIDRIVE technology you can obtain long-cut pasta of unrivalled quality. These results are achieved through a number of innovative features providing improved accuracy on processing parameters throughout the entire production line with best performances in the pre-drying and drying process. The final product will stand out not only for its flexibility, but also for its stability, structural strength, perfect colour and cooking performance.


Chairman Claudio Vercellone



Pasta Year XXIII - N. 3 July/September 2018

Editor in Chief Claudio Vercellone


Scientific and technical committee Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician Roberto Tuberosa Agricultural Genetics Editing Coordinator Delia Maria Sebelin Advertising Massimo Carpanelli Edition, management, editorial, advertising and administration Avenue media Srl Via Riva Reno, 61 40122 Bologna (Italy) Subscriptions office Subscription Ue countries € 45,00 Outside Ue € 60,00 Back issues, except for availability: € 15.00 each plus postage Print MIG - Moderna Industrie Grafiche Srl Via Fornaciai, 4 - Bologna (Italy) Registration N. 7875 of 9/9/2008 Court of Bologna All coprights belong to Avenue media Srl May not be used without permission Responsibility of the advertisements belongs to the firms

Contents Editorial

The future of pasta? Genomics is a must by Roberto Tuberosa


features food technologies

Allergens contamination in fresh pasta by Stefano Zardetto



Pasta Italian leadership threatened by competitors by Delia Maria Sebelin


herbs & spices

Fascination and secrets of the nutmeg by Elio Di Curzio



Coordinating research to improve durum wheat quality by Aldo Ceriotti and Barbara Laddomada



Facts & news Pasta’s friends Supplier news Agenda

8 10 40 43

27-29 September 2018 Bombay Exhibition Centre, Mumbai Hall 1 Booth D01 / D07

8-12 October 2018 Expocentre Fairgrounds, Moscow Hall 8.2 Booth 82A50

Dubai Hall 5 Booth C5-16

Future proof technology, for pasta.

Thanks to 40 years of experience and constant technological evolution, Anselmo has become one of the most important references worldwide in dry pasta equipment. Today our pasta factory plants, fully manufactured in the two Italian production sites, are present in 25 countries of 4 continents: we reached this goal thanks to the quality of our production, the use of advanced technologies, the commitment and expertise of our staff.

Anselmo Impianti S.r.l. - Bene Vagienna (Cn) - ITALY - Tel. +39 0172654755 - Fax +39 0172654811 -


it’s mathematical. Finding the right formula for the best pasta is your job. Ours is to give shape to your ideas. Whatever your formula, with our dies and our experience we are always part of the equation. Because there’s no perfect pasta without perfect formula, it’s mathematical.


since 1843.



The future of pasta? Genomics is a must P

by Roberto Tuberosa Biotechnology Applied to Plant Breeding Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences (DISTAL) Bologna, Italy

asta is loved all over the world. From Russia to the Us, from Venezuela to Japan people eat spaghetti and macaroni. Many reasons explain this trend. Pasta is not an expensive food and can “marry” a lot of different sauces while satisfying different food habits. But we cannot forget that pasta is produced with semolina. So, the future of pasta is strictly connected to the future of durum wheat production and quality. Many experts are concerned about the negative impact of drought and high temperatures on wheat production; their frequency and intensity will inevitably increase due to global warming. If suitable measures are not taken in order to slow down global warming, according to the IFPRI
- the International Food Policy Research Institute
based in Washington - in 2050, environmental conditions might lead to a 25% decrease in current production, with obvious effects on the pasta supply chain and its consumers. What is the solution? In order to keep production levels high with an adequate quality of semolina, even in case of high temperatures and drought, IFPRI calls for genetically improved varieties that farmers should be supplied with. In 2012, the second hottest year ever with one of the worst droughts in the last 50 years, global durum wheat production drastically fell down. Moreover, the problem is not only lack of water, but also too much rainfall across typical durum wheat production areas, as it occurs in the eastern region of North Dakota (Usa) where too much rain has negatively impacted durum productivity and quality in the last years.

There is concern on the availability of durum grain due to climate change July/September 2018





North Dakota produces 30% of globally exported durum wheat and Italy imports approximately half of durum wheat used International Conference nationally by the pasta supply chain. Clearly, facing the challenges A Sustainable Durum Wheat Chain posed by climate change to the for Food Security and Healthy Lives pasta supply chain, and more in general to the agrifood sector, will require the use of all available technologies in order to select varieties that can ensure more productivity and more resistance to environmental and biotic stresses (e.g. virus, bacteria, fungi and insects) while preserving a high-quality and healthy semolina. The congress “From Seed To Pasta III” (FSTP3) will gather the best experts in durum genetics and genomics research applied to durum breeding. The third FSTP Bologna - Italy, 19-21 September 2018 edition will take place in Bologna Conference Center Emilia Romagna Region (Italy) on 19-21 September. The Via della Fiera, 8 - Bologna congress is timely in view of the remarkable progress in durum PreLImInAry ProgrAm The congress “From Seed To Pasta III” (FSTP3) will gather the best experts wheat science and the increasing in durum genetics and genomics research applied to durum breeding concern on the future availability of durum grain due to climate change, a matter with fundamental, socio-economic implications in several Mediterranean countries where durum-derived products are the staple. The awareness of the crucial importance of the food security issue and the role played by research-based innovations is highlighted by the launching of the EU-funded program PRIMA (Partnership for Research and Innovation in the Mediterranean Area) aimed at enhancing crop productivity and sustainability in Mediterranean countries. The recent release of the durum wheat sequence - a success of an international effort coordinated by Italian scientists - coupled with advances in precision farming and modelling provide unprecedented opportunities toward the release of climate-proof cultivars for a more sustainable and profitable durum wheat value chain. Equally impressive has been the progress in enhancing the nutritional and safety (e.g. mycotoxins) features of durum-derived products made possible by an increasing capacity to tailor gene functions and genotypes via the new breeding technologies (NBT). The highly interdisciplinary nature of the congress “From Seed To Pasta III” will provide a unique opportunity to learn and debate the latest achievements in durum wheat production and processing and to assess the impact of the durum-value chain on the environment and our health (see also pages 36-38). Roberto Tuberosa

From SeeD to PAStA III

It is necessary to select wheat varieties characterized by higher productivity




July/September 2018


TwO prOducTION lINes IN The spAce Of ONe

Right from the start you can produce short, long and special shapes pasta, using only one line. Production capacity up to 1000 kg/h. storci s.p.a. via lemignano, 6 / 43044 collecchio / parma / italy tel. +39 0521 543611 / fax +39 0521 543621 /

FACTS & NEWS Global pasta consumption continues to rise

Pasta maker Barilla to invest 1 billion euros to win over consumers Barilla is investing 1 billion euros ($1.2 billion) over five years to expand production and launch new products. Barilla’s pasta and sauces have grown faster than its bakery business in recent years, and now account for almost 60% of total sales. To respond to growing demand, the Group will earmark part of its 2018-2022 investments to expand its two main factories producing pasta and sauces in Italy. The company will also invest in pasta plants in the United States and Russia. To tap growing consumer demand for healthier food, the group plans investments on product innovation. Mirroring bigger rivals like Nestle, Barilla cut sugar and salt content in 12 of its sauces last year. It also launched 10 new pasta products, including a range of whole grain pasta and vegetarian sauces.

Worldwide pasta sales were up for the second year in a row in 2017. Following a 2.3% increase in 2016, the industry saw a continued positive trend in global pasta sales of 0.6%, according to data from The Nielsen Co. The International Pasta Organization (Ipo) said the positive momentum is influenced by consumer attitudes showing an increased interest in wellness and a sustainable approach to eating. As a plant-based food, pasta has an extremely low environmental impact, making it especially attractive to consumers. Another area of advantage for pasta is that it is energy dense and easy to store and distribute. The most dynamic growth markets are in Asia (up 8.6%) and Africa (up 2.6%) but pasta trends also are positive in Europe. In France, per capita pasta consumption is now 8.1 kg, and in Germany it is 7.7 kg per capita. While the British eat less pasta (3.5 kg per capita), an analysis by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) shows pasta consumption has almost tripled there since 1974. The United States is the largest pasta market, with 2.7 million tons of pasta consumed.

Pasta & couscous market to approach Us$ 42.6 billion by 2026 A latest study published by Persistence Market Research projects that the global market for pasta & couscous, which is presently estimated at Us$ 29.5 billion, will soar at 3.7% Cagr (Compound annual growth rate) to bring in a little over Us$ 42 billion in revenues by the end of 2026. According to the report, titled “Pasta & couscous market: global industry analysis and forecast, 2016-2026,� the global demand for pasta & couscous will grow moderately. With respect to raw materials used for commercial-scale production of pasta & couscous products, the report reveals surging demand for multigrain ingredients. By the end of 2026, revenues amassed from sales of multigrain pasta & couscous are anticipated to rise at 3.9% Cagr. Raw materials such as 100% durum wheat, 100% wheat, and mix (durum & wheat) ingredients will also garner high demands in the future.

Alberto Alfieri Ceo of Valeo Foods Italy From this year, Alberto Alfieri is the new Ceo of Valeo Foods Italy, having joined the company in 2017 from the Fiorucci food group where he served as Ceo. Prior to that, he held various leadership roles in a number of companies across continental Europe including positions as Ceo of Danone and Parmalat in Italy.




July/September 2018

pa sta’s friends Here it comes Maggi Marketplace new recipes

Food delivery apps used by more than 2 million Australians aged 14+

Maggi launches Maggi Marketplace, a new recipe range designed to simplify home cooking. The products comprise a number of sauces, vegetarian bases and stir fry options. The range consists of three core products. • Noodle sauces - These ready-to-cook sauces allow foodies to whip up their noodle dishes, such as Vietnamese Noodle Salad, in just 25 minutes. • Flexitarian recipe bases are vegetarian options packed with flavour including Red Wine & Mushroom Ragu and Mediterranean Pilaf. • Stir Fry Mixes - With a cooking time of just 10 minutes, choices include Honey Soy and Chinese Five Spice.

A research from Roy Morgan shows nearly 2 million Australians aged 14+ (9.8%) now use Uber Eats, Menulog/, Deliveroo or one of the many other meal delivery services in an average three months. Unsurprisingly city-dwellers (12.6%) are far more likely to have had their meals delivered than those in country areas (4.5%). Women are marginally more likely to use meal delivery services (10.2%) than men (9.4%). Australia’s younger generations have taken keenly to meal delivery services with 16.1% of Millennials/Gen Y (aged 28-42 years old) having used a meal delivery service in an average three months compared to only 4.5% of Baby Boomers and just 3.6% of Pre-Boomers.

“Misleading” labels: Beuc criticizes artisanal marketing The European Consumer Organization (Beuc) has accused some food manufacturers of using “misleading tricks” on labels by using certain words and phrases that could be seen as “deceptive practices.” So Beuc is calling for stronger regulation from the Governments on what can and cannot be on the label in a bid to eliminate some of the practices currently going on across Europe. “Food labels: tricks of the trade” report highlights some unfair practices about industrial products being labeled “traditional” or “artisanal”: bread, biscuits, pasta, with barely any fiber labeled as “whole grain”. The Beuc says that a lack of Eu rules defining how manufacturers can use such terms is a driving factor behind this and the organization is accusing some manufacturers of taking advantage of these so-called “gray zones” in Eu law to make products appear to be of a higher quality than they actually are.


Gluten-free products market expected to reach Us$ 9.24 billion by 2022 According to Research Beam, the Global Gluten-free Products market is estimated at Us$ 4.63 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach $9.24 billion by 2022 growing at a Cagr (Compound annual growth rate) of 11.8% from 2015 to 2022. The rising occurrence of celiac disease, digestive health reasons and weight management are some of the factors that are driving the gluten-free products market during the forecast period. North America presently is largest market for gluten free products with Us as its market head. With Germany leading the pack it is projected that European market will see significant growth in the upcoming years. Some of the key players in the market are Dr. Schaer, Farmo, General Mills and Valeo Foods. Read more: pr/3813052#ixzz5IPGWnu2N



July/September 2018

When two worlds alike meet for a complete and reliable service Cusinato Group ha scelto di espandersi affiancando alla Cusinato Giovanni, leader nella produzione

Cusinato Group has chosen to expand its business by placing beside Cusinato Giovanni, leader

di impianti di stoccaggio per la pasta e prodotti granulari,

in the production of storage systems for pasta and granular products,

l’azienda CMB, da 70 anni presente nel settore dello stoccaggio

CMB, a company that has been in the storage and conveyance market

e trasporto di sfarinati, cereali e derivati. Una strategia che condivide gli stessi valori – qualità e know-how – con una gamma più ampia di prodotti, per offrire al cliente un servizio completo ed affidabile.

Cusinato Giovanni S.r.l.s.u. Via Monte Pelmo, 8-11 35018 San Martino di Lupari (PD) - Italy Tel. +39 049 9440146 - Fax +39 049 9440174 -

for milled products, cereals and derivatives for 70 years. A strategy sharing the same values – quality and know-how – with a wider range of products so as to offer the client a complete and reliable service.

CMB S.r.l. Via Anconetta, 16 36063 Marostica (VI) - Italy Tel. +39 0424 780176 - Fax +39 0424 472196 -

Quando due mondi affini si incontrano per offrire un servizio completo ed affidabile

Food t echnologies

Allergens contamination in fresh pasta




July/September 2018

Food t echnologies

by Stefano Zardetto Food technologist

Useful advice before, during and after the production cycle


n a laboratory or a plant where stuffed fresh pasta is produced, two types of products are stored. • Products “containing common allergens” - i.e. substances or food containing allergens which can be found in any product that is processed in the production plant. For instance, gluten and eggs that can be found in any egg pasta, no matter what kind of filling is used. Sometimes milk and milk derivatives can also be found, for they are included in any kind of filling (cheese, milk whey, powder milk and milk proteins); • Products “containing allergens for exclusive use” - a limited amount of substances containing one or more allergens that cannot be found in other products made in the same line or production plant. For instance, if we take the salmon-filled pasta, the fish allergen can be found only in the filling of this recipe. The simultaneous presence of these two categories leads the producer to implement a set of procedures and activities aiming at preventing cross-contamination between these two categories, that is to say, for instance, the presence of salmon traces (“allergen for exclusive use”) in a product that should not contain any. However, the presence of an allergen in foodstuffs is not only the consequence of an unintended contamination of the product during the production process, but it can also be due to an unintended contamination of raw materials before they arrived in the plant.

Analysis of critical points Therefore, food companies often have to address this issue all along the supply chain in order to prevent small quantities of allergens from July/September 2018




Food t echnologies

analysis certificates and to be warned in advance in case of changes in the product recipes in order to detect any criticality in its internal management. Figure 1 shows the key factors for a correct management of allergens in food companies. This is a brief analysis in which some hints are given for a correct management of each of them.

The staff

accidentally getting in contact with foodstuffs, being well aware that labelling alone cannot guarantee consumers’ safety. This often implies a revision of their self-control system by an analysis of dangers and criticalities (Haccp) that takes into account the danger that has been identified. A company that produces food containing different allergens in different productions shall reconsider all the FIGURE 1

In egg pasta, gluten and eggs are considered as “common” allergens steps of its production process starting from raw materials, by raising suppliers’ awareness on this issue, checking their loyalty, asking them to deliver

The staff should be appropriately trained on allergens and any relevant danger that is related to them; training should guarantee the right implementation of processing procedures and staff shall become aware of the importance of their role and the consequences of their behaviours. Moreover, the company should consider the canteen and the staff relaxation area as places of possible contamination; therefore, the staff should not be allowed to bring into the plant any food containing allergens that are not used in the production cycle. For the same purpose, the company should check all the products in the vending machines in the plant.

Key factors for allergen management

The staff Monitoring and review

Raw materials ALLERGEN MANAGEMENT Plant process

Packaging Sanitisation




July/September 2018

Food t echnologies

Raw materials A suitable policy on risk assessment related to the presence of allergens in raw materials should be implemented and should take into account suppliers, storage and formulas. The following elements should be available: a) specifications of raw materials in which allergens that shall be declared are identified; b) updated list of all raw materials containing allergens; it shall identify blends and formulas to which raw materials containing allergens are added. Upon raw material reception, any ingredient shall univocally and distinctively be identified (e.g. colour code). The storage of raw materials containing “allergens for exclusive use” should cover a dedicated area in the warehouse, suitably identified by signage and/or suitable signs. Storage should be carried out as to prevent conventional products from mixing up with raw materials containing allergens or from accidentally contaminating them. In case of liquid raw materials, adequate containment systems should be available as to prevent any product leakage. Moreover, a suitable system should be implemented in order to make


Salmon tortellis contain fish, an allergen “for exclusive use” sure that formulas containing allergens are appropriately identified in any processing step and company area (production, planning and maintenance).

Plant process Once the ingredients with “allergens for exclusive use” have been identified, it is then necessary to define adequate procedures to manage them (for instance, dedicated tools and/or containers with a colour code, adequate washing procedures, clothes change or the use of disposable protections for operators). Moreover, in case of plants in which machines are shared for two types of product, rules for production planning shall be defined. Products without allergens shall be processed first in order to avoid contamination, and products will allergens shall come after. Therefore, it is necessary to have a time gap between these two types of products. Finally, in order to avoid crosscontaminations, it is essential to perform checks to make sure that Professional


the machine has been cleaned before starting the production, by defining adequate control procedures.

Sanitisation and packaging The sanitisation plan should be validated. The cleaning operations shall guarantee the removal of any protein residue from surfaces in contact with food and not only the removal of dirt and microorganisms. The company shall define adequate control systems on the correctness of implemented operations. Control results should be registered and monitored over time. A monitoring system shall guarantee that packaging/labelling is correct. For this reason, it should not be possible to have different labels or packaging in the production lines at the same time. Control should not be delegated to the same line operator who made the change. Control on each package should also be guaranteed (reading of bar code and/or packaging areas by visual inspectors within the line). Incorrect packaging and/or labelling are the main cause of product withdrawal due to allergens. If labelling does not mention the allergen, this mistake might amount to what article 14 provides for in the EC Regulation 178/2002 classifying it as “unsafe food”. This would lead to the immediate implementation of good July/September 2018


De Mari

Extrusion dies and equipment for the food industry 978.454.4099

Food t echnologies

that depends on the sensitivity of the relevant analytical technique.

Analytical techniques

withdrawal procedures and notification to competent authorities. A similar case might occur, for instance, with packages labelled “Tortellone Ricotta & Spinaci” (Ricotta & Spinach Tortellone) which include “Tortellone al Salmone” (Salmon Tortellone) that contains the “fish” allergen (that is not mentioned in the ricotta and spinach tortelloni labelling).

Monitoring and review The allergen management system should periodically be monitored and reviewed as to ensure the compliance and suitability of relevant implementations. The periodic review will of course take into account all the results related to controls, withdrawals and /or incidents caused by errors in the allergen management.

Control activities The analytical methods to find allergens is a due and required activity for producers. They must check the correct management of “cross-contaminations” in food that they intend to market: product contaminations during processing due to raw materials with not declared allergens.


Moreover, producers shall guarantee adequate sanitisation operations on production surfaces. Their goal is to guarantee that there is no allergen or, if any, it does not exceed law limits. This implies a series of problems and difficulties related to current available techniques and, as we have already mentioned, to the fact that allergic reactions depend on doses: i.e. small quantities of food containing the allergen can trigger the clinical case and involve the immunitary system. In 2004, the European Food Safety Authority (Efsa) has established that currently available clinical and epidemiological studies, as well as experimental data do not permit the definition of a safety threshold that is able to guarantee the absence of adverse reactions in sensitised consumers. Under these conditions, the food company finds itself in a difficult situation, i.e. to select the analytical technique and the laboratory having the lowest “limit of detection” value, by applying the “zero tolerance” concept that corresponds to “analytical zero”. This does not correspond to “absolute zero” though, but it is a variable figure Professional


Current analytical techniques to find allergens in food can be divided into two groups: • Techniques that analyze the protein fraction (Elisa, Mass spectrometry, SELDI -Surface Henhaced Laser Desorption Ionization); • Techniques that underline the presence of Dna referable to an animal or vegetabal source the allergen comes from (Pcr, Real Time Pcr). Whatever the technique, the company shall consider the following aspects for an adequate assessment of its results: 1. Small quantities of allergens can be found in highly complex and heterogeneous matrices, such as food. The allergen can be trapped in the food matrix that “hides” it with no significant impact on its allergizing potential; 2. Allergens are not homogeneously distributed in foods and their distribution is often due to cross-contamination; therefore, the number of samples should carefully be analysed as to obtain significant analytical results. Stefano Zardetto BIBLIOGRAPHY • European Food Safety Authority (Efsa). (2004). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the Commission relating to the evaluation of allergenic foods for labelling purpose. Efsa Journal 25 March 2004. • EC Regulation 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety.

July/September 2018


Pasta Italian leadership threatened by competitors




July/September 2018


In Turkey production increased by 77% in 5 years


talian pasta supremacy at a global level runs the risk of being jeopardized by international aggressive competitors, like Turkey. Although Italy is still the leading pasta producer with 3.36 million tons per year, as well as the leading export country with 1.9 million tons, the leap forward made by other non-Eu countries over recent years is striking. In fact, these countries are significantly increasing their production capacity. Turkey is a classic example - its production increased by 77% in just five years, going from 850,00 tonnes to over 1.5 million tonnes. These figures were disclosed in Foggia (Italy) during a durum wheat market meeting organized, among others, by the Italian Association of Industrial Millers (Italmopa) and by the Italian Association of Confectionery and Pasta Industries (Aidepi). 2017 results were essentially stable, but consumption trends - production (-0.4%), export turnover (-0.5%) and Italian pasta consumption (-0.4%) - raise concerns. Despite the negative trend, Italy still comes first, supported by its history and its cultural traditions; Italy still accounts for 65% of

July/September 2018



by Delia Maria Sebelin

European production and for about a quarter of global production. In a nutshell, 1 out of 4 pasta dishes in the world and about 3 out of 4 in Europe are made with Italian pasta. Moreover, in 2017, more than 56% of Italian pasta, i.e. about 1.9 million tonnes, were exported all over the world.

From Berlin to Paris According to Istat data processing by Aidepi, Europe is the most significant market for Italian pasta; in fact, about 3 out of 4 dishes in the Old Continent come from an Italian pasta factory. The Association has studied the eating habits in Germany, France and United Kingdom, i.e. the three most relevant export markets for Italian pasta, with approximately one billion dishes served every year for as much as 1 billion euros. The study has shown that the market is definitely ready in these countries: people eat pasta on a regular basis. According to a study carried out by Mintel, 97% of French families usually eat pasta, 90% in Germany and 81% in the United Kingdom. A Doxa survey on 2,800 European consumers based in Italy, France


Industrial results confirm the value of our research: the technology behind our GPL 180 meets and exceeds all existing quality standards. Once again, an extraordinary innovation for the sector.

Gpl 180

Your pasta is at the center of it all


and Great Britain has shown that this trend is based on an increasing attention paid to pleasure and taste of food, but also to its quality, safety and healthiness. ÂŤIf pasta is so successful abroad - explains Luigi Cristiano Laurenza, the Aidepi secretary - it is because producers who were able to sense cross food trends. Pasta is loved by those who have an ethical approach to food: a Nielsen study has shown that 2 consumers out of 3 are willing to pay more if they can have an environmentfriendly product and pasta footprint is extremely low. Pasta is also chosen by those who are wellness lovers; in fact, healthy niches are increasing, from

In France pasta consumption has reached 8 kilos per capita


Families that regularly eat Italian pasta 90%

81% UK




organic to wholemeal and gluten-free: the false-belief according to which pasta makes you fat is disappearingÂť.

French are environment-friendly In France, the second market for Italian pasta in terms of volumes, people pay more and more attention to food waste and environment. For



the second year in a row, French people come first in the Food Sustainability Index, developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that analyses the sustainability of the food system in 34 countries. In this scenario, pasta consumption has doubled compared to 25 years ago and reached 8 kilos per capita. People like pasta because it is easy to cook,

July/September 2018


it is cheap, healthy and nutritious. Also Millennials appreciate pasta and eat it three times a week; in fact, 8 teens out of 10 say they can cook it al dente and do not hesitate to try out elaborate and innovative recipes.

In Uk once a week In the United Kingdom, the second market for Italian pasta exports, people do not eat much pasta (3.5 kilos per capita). However, an analysis carried out by Defra

Per capita consumption of Italian pasta (kg)

(Department for environment, food and rural affairs) shows that a pasta dish is a well-established habit. English people are changing their traditional diet: less meat, bread, beans and potatoes, more fruit and vegetables over the past 40 years. The ultimate dish is spaghetti with meat sauce, or Spaghetti Bolognaise; however, in recent years, passion for pesto - ready made - has got stronger.

German people prefer it to schnitzel German people prefer pasta to cutlet or Schnitzel. Germany is the first export market for Italian pasta: over 700,000 tonnes of pasta, half of which “speak� Italian. A true love

German people look for healthy as well as easy and quick meals 26



July/September 2018


that German people experience at every meal, from classic Spaghetti Bolognaise to pasta-kebab (spaghetti with diced tomatoes covered with sliced kebab), but also pasta served as side dish for meat and fish courses

Pasta makers focus on health and wellness-driven types of pasta

and pasta with jam as a dessert. Today people focus on tasty, healthy as well as easy and quick meals.

Pasta innovates How do pasta makers respond to such a scenario? They focus on health and wellness-driven types of pasta: wholewheat, organic, gluten-free pasta or pasta and other ingredients like beans, spices and superfoods (chickpeas, lentils, curcuma, buckwheat, sorghum,

Italian pasta is appreciated in Europe and Eastern Countries tumbleweed, teff ). And again, quick cooking pasta, ready after just 4 minutes in boiling water. Not pre-cooked pasta, but specially processed pasta: it contains more water compared to regular pasta and therefore, fewer calories for the same quantity. Preferred by German, French and British people, Italian pasta is also appreciated in the rest of Europe: in 2017 pasta did well also in Spain (+22%), Belgium (+14%) and Eastern Countries, such as Ukraine and Belarus (+32%) and especially Lithuania. Pasta exports are back to positive sign: 23,000 tonnes and growth close to +9%. Delia Maria Sebelin Acknowledgements We thanks Aidepi for the data




July/September 2018

Herbs & spices

Fascination and secrets of the nutmeg




July/September 2018

Herbs & spices

It is commonly used in pasta filling and sauces


illed pasta, cold cuts, sauces, vegetables, desserts, and even cappuccino: a long list of food preparations can be enriched with the characteristic pungent aroma and slightly sweet and warm taste of nutmeg, to the point that this spice, together with pepper, chili, and garlic, cannot fail in any well-stocked kitchen. Nutmeg is also among the most expensive spices, due to the high flavouring power of its remarkable content of volatile oil, and to the laborious production process. As the food industry buys ground nutmeg and not whole ones, how can a professional buyer assess its intrinsic quality, and make sure that his company’s money is wisely invested? It is quite

July/September 2018



by Elio Di Curzio President of Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry

simple: the purchased product must comply with both following specifications that in turn must appear on the technical data sheet: a) product name: “100% seed of Myristica fragrans, ground”; b) value of volatile oil: “at least 5% (normally 5% to 7%) in the ground, sterilized product. (This value must be checked upon delivery of the related material)”. As you read on, you will understand why this information makes the difference.

The plant of the nutmeg Nutmeg (whose name - in several languages - comes from the city of Masqat in Oman, where it was initially marketed) is the seed of Myristica Fragrans, a plant


Herbs & spices


Nutmeg is the seed of Myristica Fragrans

with a considerable size, originating from Indonesia and spread to the whole tropical zone (Photo 1). The nuts from Grenada, West Indies, supply the American market, while Europe and Asia buy mainly from the East Indies or Indonesia. The annual world production is approximately 12,000 tons.



Nutmeg and mace The fruit of Myristica fragrans (top right in Photo 2) is broken down into four parts: • the first two, the seed or nutmeg and the aril or mace, have a great commercial value thanks to their high content of essential oils, about 10% in the nutmeg and 12% in the mace; • the other two, the shell that contains the seed and the pulp that encases the whole, both are devoid of aroma and therefore of commercial value.





The fruit of Myristica fragrans is broken down into four parts: the seed or nutmeg, the aril or mace, the shell and the pulp



July/September 2018

Herbs & spices



Regularly shaped nutmegs

After the drying process, regularly shaped nutmegs, such as those in Photo 3, are graded according to their weight and are sold whole, mainly for domestic use. The content of volatile oil is about 10%. The irregular shaped but still whole nuts, called shriveled (Photo 4), are split, examined under an ultraviolet light (that allows to view and remove fruits contaminated by aflatoxins), then sterilized, ground, packaged and delivered to the food industry or to packers of consumer jars. The content of essential oils is still very high, 8% to 10%.

What happens to the shells and pulp? They can be dried (Photo 5) and ground to obtain a rather fine powder, good in colour but with a neutral to an unpleasant smell, so devoid of flavouring power. The powder can be mixed in varying proportions to the pure ground nutmeg (or to the mace) and offered on the market. In such a mixture of pure nutmegs and adulterants, the value of volatile oil is lower as higher is the percentage of added shells and pulp: reduced volatile oil content entails less industrial yield,


The irregular shaped but still whole nuts are called shriveled


Dried shells

Dried pulp

Shells (A) and pulp (B) can be dried and ground to obtain a rather fine powder, good in colour but with a neutral to an unpleasant smell, so devoid of flavouring power

i.e. much more product needed to achieve the aromatic performance of the pure ground nutmeg. The above makes it clear why the two entries “100% seed of Myristica fragrans” and “volatile oil min. 5%” cannot be missing in any purchase contract: together they bring nearly to zero the risk of accidentally buying a mixture instead of the pure ground nutmeg.

In a... nutshell May nutmegs, shells and pulp mixed together be marketed as ground nutmeg? Common sense alone leads us to say no, because the same name (although embellished with fancy adjectives) given to different products may certainly deceive the buyer.

Does the concoction cost less than the pure nutmeg? Yes, of course. So, is it worth buying it? No, because - aside from other considerations a larger quantity should be used to get the aroma of the pure product. How to estimate, therefore, the real price you are paying for the “ground nutmeg”? Check the volatile oil content of the product and then divide its unit price at the value resulting from the analysis. The quotient is the unit price of the volatile oil and it allows you to compare products with the same name but with different technical specifications. A simple division will surprise you, probably not in a positive way. Elio Di Curzio

Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry - -




July/September 2018

Dal 1978 produce macchine professionali per la pasta, interamente made in Italy, ad uso di laboratori e industrie del settore. Progetti esclusivi, studiati e sviluppati internamente per realizzare pasta di ogni tipo nel nome della facilità d'utilizzo, della qualità e della genuinità del prodotto finale. P2 PLEASURE is much more than a combined machine and it can be described as a complete workshop for pasta professionals,“tailor-made" for meeting all the production needs. P2 PLEASURE, in its basic version includes: single vat, automatic sheeter and ravioli unìt. It can also be supplied with double vat , as well as with double vat with extruder suitable to produce all kinds of short and long shapes of extruded pasta, by simply changing the extruding die. The ravioli unit equipped with ìnterchangeable moulds carries out the production of different shapes and dimensions of pre-cut ravioli.

imperia & monferrina SOCIETA’ PER AZIONI

Divisione La Monferrina: S.S. n. 457 - Via Statale 27/A - I - 14033 Castell'Alfero AT Tel.: +39.0141 276002 -


Coordinating research to improve durum wheat quality by Aldo Ceriotti and Barbara Laddomada CNR, Italy


fter decades of research in the senario of modern agriculture and evolving market needs, the investigation of the factors controlling durum wheat quality is still far from being concluded. The main challenges for the near future will include the improvement of grain composition to meet changing food industry requirements, consumers expectations and health and nutritional needs. The effects of climate change on the overall quality of durum wheat production will also have to be monitored with great attention. Durum wheat quality it is not a simple issue, but rather a complex and fascinating concept which has attracted the interest of many researchers worldwide.


Here is a “taste” of the topics that will be discussed at “From Seed To Pasta III”

Many components of the durum kernel are associated with quality and quantitative aspects must also be taken into account. While the quality of durum wheat is linked to nutritional and health requirements or to processing purposes, the two faces of the coin can sometimes merge. For instance, not only are durum wheat storage proteins the main component determining the technological features of semolina, they also have a strong impact on nutritional and health-related aspects.

The semolina of the future Durum wheat has traditionally been used for pasta manufacturing, though a number of other products can be Professional


obtained such as different types of bread, couscous, freekeh and bulgur. In the case of pasta, understanding how protein composition affects semolina and thus cooking quality remains one of the major challenges. Although a lot of effort has been devoted to elucidate the structure of the individual components of gluten, a comprehensive understanding of the links between the molecular structure of individual storage proteins and the technological characteristics of semolina is still far from complete. This is also due to the extreme complexity of the system, where dozens of different polypeptides, similar but also with unique characteristics, contribute to the formation of gluten. The cellular July/September 2018


environment, i.e. the biochemical characteristics of endosperm cells, where storage protein accumulate, is also going to play a major role in controlling the protein polymer structure. Improving our understanding of the molecular basis of gluten characteristics should therefore be one of the targets of durum wheat research in the years to come. A new frontier in the improvement of protein quality has recently been opened up by the introduction of powerful genome editing technologies, which should allow to precisely manipulate the sequence of storage proteins in order to improve technological performance or to eliminate undesired characteristics, such as sequences involved in coeliac July/September 2018

disease. Although these can be considered long-term goals, which will be certainly hampered by the complexity of the systems, work is under way and the first results are already emerging.

Genomics & grain protein content An increase in grain protein content can be achieved through nitrogen fertilization but research is actually working on the genetic improvement of the trait and on the development of durum genotypes with higher nitrogen-use efficiency. Indeed, as in bread wheat, breeding for high yield can lead to a reduction in protein content due to their negative correlation. Particularly, a strong Professional


effort has been devoted to association mapping studies for the identification of major QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci) influencing protein content that are not negatively correlated with yield. Also, an important goal for breeding is the identification of tightly associated molecular markers to those QTLs that can be used effectively in selection programs. Besides proteins, starch is another macronutrient of durum wheat grain with a large impact on the quality of wheat-based food products. In the last 20 years, reverse-genetic studies (i.e. going from the gene sequence to the target trait) have enabled the development of wheat lines differing in starch composition, particularly for the amylose/amylopectin ratio. Lowamylose wheat is thought to improve the shelf life of baked products, frozen product quality and the texture of noodles. Conversely, high amylose content is associated with high levels of resistant starch which, similarly to dietary fibre, has beneficial effects on human health. Other grain components, such as micronutrients, vitamins, dietary fibre and phytochemicals contribute to durum wheat quality. Among micronutrients, iron and zinc are of high interest since their deficiency in the diet affects two billion people worldwide. As a result, wheat biofortification for iron and zinc has been an important target of many research programs. Recent evidence indicates that a significant increase in these minerals can be obtained when genetically improved cultivars and a more appropriate management of fertilizers are adopted.



A by Luigi Cattivelli CREA Research centre for Genomics and Bioinformatics

A good pasta begins with a good durum wheat

good pasta begins with a good durum wheat. This can be an obvious statement, but a “good durum wheat” is the result of many and sophisticated components. Good durum means a highquality grain (high protein content and color), absence of mycotoxin, and a combination of varieties and managements that assure the highest sustainability of durum crop (limited fertilization, minimal use of phytochemicals). The selection of new varieties with high quality, resistance to fusarium and other diseases and high nitrogen-use efficiency is mandatory to promote a sustainable durum production in the future. All these topics will be discussed during “From Seed To Pasta III”. The congress will present the most recent achievements in durum wheat genomics, the identification of new genes controlling the resistance to diseases, an update on agronomic management for durum crops, as well as the most recent results on the nutritional value of durum wheat-based product.

Nutritional & quality aspects Carotenoids are important vitamins for both nutritional and quality aspects. Importantly, they confer the appreciated yellow color to semolina and derived products and for this reason are an important criterion in the assessment of durum quality. A loss of yellow color can occur during storage of the grain or semolina, which is ascribed to carotenoid oxidative degradation by lipoxygenase during processing. Increasing attention has been devoted by researchers, market and consumers to a number of phytochemicals with antioxidant activity that may enhance the health value of end-products. Among these, the most important and abundant components in the wheat grain are polyphenols, especially phenolic acids. Rather than having antioxidant activity, phenolic acids are thought to contribute to the prevention of some human diseases, such as heart disease, metabolic disorders and colon cancer. A large body of research has been dedicated to processing technologies that may enhance the content of phenolic acids in pasta, bread and other durum end-products. The genetic variation and heritability of phenolic components in durum wheat, in view of possible breeding programs, is currently being investigated.

Given the typical very hard texture of durum grains, they are usually milled on dedicated semolina mills. The milling process results in a unique product, semolina, which has a more limited range of end-use applications compared to common wheat flour. Recently, puroindoline genes responsible for kernel softness in common wheat, have been introduced into durum wheat to modify grain texture. This modification has allowed for the selection of soft durum lines that will certainly contribute to

Many components of the durum kernel are associated to quality aspects

enhance the use of durum wheat in other product chains other than pasta.

From Seed To Pasta, from field to fork All the above topics will be discussed in the upcoming congress “From Seed To Pasta III”, which will be held in Bologna on 19-21 September 2018. Among the invited speakers, several are members of the Expert Working Group “Improving wheat quality for processing and health” established within the Wheat Initiative (www. and will present their work in a dedicated session “Enhancing durum quality and healthiness”. Created in 2011, the Wheat Initiative provides a framework to establish strategic research and priorities for wheat research at the international level in both developed and developing countries. While durum wheat represents a small fraction of global wheat production, qualitative aspects are of major importance for this crop, and we expect that a better understanding of the molecular basis of quality traits in durum wheat will also have a strong impact on bread wheat research. Aldo Ceriotti, Barbara Laddomada

For further information: 38



July/September 2018

supplier news

Bühler improves food safety with digital solutions D

Sensor measuring moisture of short-goods pasta

emand for more transparency in the food chain is increasing. Alarmed by food scandals and in response to an increasing environmental awareness, consumers are demanding uncompromising safety standards in connection with foods as well as a transparent food chain - from field to fork. Legislators around the world are also pressing for the retraceability of feeds and foods. Some years ago, the European Union implemented strict regulations to this end, and laws in the United States have become more stringent with the recently introduced Food Safety Modernization Act (Fsma). But how can foods be retraced? The related food processing data are now readily available thanks to digital solutions rolled out by Bühler. «With digitalization and the Internet of Things, we are in a position to launch entirely new services enabling our customers to

gain greater transparency in their production processes,» says Johannes Wick, Ceo Grains & Food at Bühler. At the Ipack Ima trade fair held in Milan (Italy) from May 29 through June 1 this year, Bühler devoted its exhibits on 1.200 square meters to the new possibilities that digitalization offers to the food production industry. On the basis of innovations such as its newly developed sensor technology for pasta production, Bühler showed how digital solutions can enhance food safety and cut energy consumption. «Digitalization is an important driver in our aim to reduce energy consumption and waste in the production process by 30%,» says Ian Roberts, Cto of Bühler. Smart automation solutions enable customers to decrease their retracing and monitoring administration requirements from material reception to load out by as much as 80%. The potential of new digitalization

Sensors measuring moisture of long-goods pasta




July/September 2018

supplier news

INNOVATION / Fast facts

‌ that we are continuously improving our

solutions for the production of safe foods. In 2017, 34% of our R&D projects focused on the topic, and we launched a digital food safety alert system.

solutions in the food industry is enormous: in 2017, BĂźhler launched 10 digital solutions. Another 50 additional ones are currently under development.

Did you know ‌

‌ that

in 2017 we exceeded our 2020 target of ensuring that 20% of our food-relevant R&D projects would focus on improving nutrition by 3%. This is just the beginning.


BĂźhler is driven by ÄąYH core topics that are decisive for driving change? Those topics are: food and feed safety, nutrition, energy and waste reduction, digitalization, and mobility. Our collaborative approach helps us to anticipate future trends and drive innovation.

Sensors make for more taste

At Ipack Ima BĂźhler launched its sensor innovation PastaSense. This solution for the first time offers pastamakers the opportunity of ‌ that our goal is to reduce ‌ that we contribute to making monitoring the entire process energy and water consumption, cars lighter with our die-casting carbon emissions, and waste by systems, and electric vehicles more from raw materials to the end 30% by the year 2020. In 2017, we HQHUJ\ HÄ´FLHQW with our new introduced 50 new products and techelectrode slurry solution. product on the basis of sensor nologies that do just that. technology. It eliminates the need for costly manual checks. The sensors applied ‌ that digital solutions will help us – and our customers – improve in this innovative technology quality, reduce waste, energy, and downtime. We currently have over 50 digital services in development. analyze the composition and colour characteristics of at Ipack Ima a pearler for durum the food processing industryÂť, says the raw materials and the finished millers which is completely equipped Johannes Wick. ÂŤThis is only the pasta products throughout the neutral IMPRINT with diamond technology. This very beginning of a transformationPrinted Matter production process, supplying pasta DIAGRAM 177innovation / MAY 2018 achieves a throughput of the entire industry. Recently, we producers with real-time information Published by BĂźhler AG, Corporate Communications, 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland. Editor-in-Chief: Michèle Bodmer, Head of Publications and Multimedia. Associate Editor: of upProject to 12Managers: tonnes ofRichle, grain have established our first ofand Multimedia. on moisture, protein, and ash Carmen PĂźntener,capacity Multimedia Specialist. Bianca Communications Manager and Eleonora Scardanzan, Intern, team Publications freelance writer; Burkhard BĂśndel, Head of Corporate Communications; Samuel Eckstein, Head of Internal and External Communications; David perAnderson, hour. Customers also benefit data analytics experts. Our goal is to contents as well as product colourContributors: Janet Gilliver, freelance writer; Stuart Spear, freelance writer. Layout: Clara Schmeetz, nice-design, Bierde, Germany / supported by Jekaterina Gluzman, Intern, Publications and from cloud-based maintenance advance digital transformation and possible discolorations. This Multimedia. English translations: Tongue Tied, London. TeleLingua, Zurich. Copy editing: Text help Control AG, Zurich. Infographics: Daniel RĂśttele, Zurich, p. 20–21, 30-31, 63, 78; Michael StĂźnzi, Zurich, p. 20–21. Printing: Galledia AG, Flawil, Switzerland. Photos: Getty Images, Cover and p. 6–7, 8; istockphoto, p. 77; -XGLWK $ÄłROWHU S Ĺ&#x; options. Predictive maintenance in our industries,Âť he adds. enables them to enhance the quality Thomas Eugster, p. 4, 10, 14, 16–19, 22–25, 34–35; AndrĂŠ Gutzwiller, p. 26–28, 44–45; Ehrin Macksey: p. 4, 5, 36–43, 64-69; Carmen PĂźntener, p. 5, 56–57; Ralph Richter, p. 9, 24, 25; Jason p. 12–13, 15; Andreas Zuber, p. 52–55. Font: Cover, now p. 7, 11, Timberline Font, Illustrations: Shutterallows them toWalsmith, perceptibly reduce ÂŤWe have the capability to of their products and to respond p. 48-51; Shutterstock, stock, Maria Epine, p. 4, p. 10-19. maintenance costs and downtimes. connect more than 85% of our quickly and in a targeted manner solutions to the cloud,Âť says Ian to production errors. Fewer manual 78 diagram #177 More than 20 digital innovations Roberts, BĂźhler Cto. And he checks and lower production losses At Ipack Ima BĂźhler presented over adds: ÂŤWe are convinced that digital allow the capital investment to be 20 digital services to its customers. technologies are key to deliver on fully paid back within one year. These solutions are designed to our promise of achieving a 30% Predictive maintenance make food safer, to save energy, and reduction of waste and energy With its Osiris vertical pearler, to prevent waste. ÂŤDigitalization is consumption in the food value BĂźhler presented for the first time unlocking an enormous potential in chain.Âť (Look at the Diagram). PERFORM ANCE

No. 01-18-246377 – Š myclimate – The Climate Protection Partnership

July/September 2018




supplier news

Omnia lines: created for the customers’ satisfaction O mnia line is a multi-format line, compact and versatile, created for the production of a great range of shapes, either standard and special ones, using one machine only. High quality and small footprint to manufacture short pasta, such as maccheroni, or long pasta, such as spaghetti or also special shapes, like paccheri and candele, or optional pasta, such as nests and lasagna. Thanks to the bow-tie machine, it can also produce “farfalle”. Omnia line, our top product, can boast several patents. • Premix Plus, Storci’s worldwide patent, is the best pre-mixing system on the market. It is the outcome of our long experience in this sector and can mix large quantities of dough with very low power costs, high quality, no operator. • The double head, also internationally patented, is the only one of its kind in the world that can produce long, short and special pasta, A specific device directs the dough from a head to the other one,

without filling the wrong head and consequently no waste of product. As an alternative to the double head, there is the spreading cone. • The pre-dryer Omnidryer, thanks to its original internal configuration, allows the diversion of air flows and adapt them to the shape that has been producing at the very moment. Such a variable configuration, Storci patented, is absolutely unique and can pre-dry both short and long pasta, as well as special pasta, with no changes of the line.

Automation at the top Omnia line can be automated with sticks monitoring, trays stacking and unstacking units or with Omnirobo, automatic system that streamlines the process and needs a limited number of operators.Today Omnia stays a step ahead: it can currently meet




the need of whoever wants to produce larger quantities, such as 1,000 kg/h of short pasta and 800 kg/h of long pasta. Thanks to Omnia 1000, in fact, the area of application is ever wider . Omnia success is mainly due to its most important feature: versatility. I mean, it can be used either by a start-up pasta-making factory or by established companies which would like to produce special formats other than standard ones. In this last case, specific parameters are necessary and Omnia is definitely up to it! It is also important to highlight its great value for money and the fact that, on request, it can be equipped with instant pasta as well as glutenfree production units, therefore utmost potentiality and versatility. New Omnia 1000, to be precise, has immediately gained the trust of a clear-cut market share throughout the world: Europe, Asia and Africa, proving that its great potentialities have been recognized at once by those who intend to produce high quality pasta. July/September 2018

agenda 15-20 September 2018 - Munich (Germany)

25 October 2018 - Dubai (Uae)



The world’s leading trade fair for bakery, confectionery and snacks

6-8 November 2018 - Dubai (Uae)


19-21 September 2018 - Bologna (Italy)

The region’s biggest food and beverage processing industry event

FROM SEED TO PASTA Durum wheat chain international conference

17-20 November 2018 - Rimini (Italy)

27-29 September 2018 - Mumbai (India)



International fair entirely dedicated to gluten-free products and market

International supplier fair for the food and drink industry

8-12 October 2018 - Moscow (Russia)

26-29 November 2018 - Paris (France)

AGROPRODMASH International exhibition for equipment, technologies, raw materials and ingredients for the food processing industry

ALL4PACK International tradeshow for packaging and logistic

27-29 November 2018 - Frankfurt (Germany)

21-25 October 2018 - Paris (France)



The world’s largest food innovation exhibition

Europe’s leading health, natural and nutrition show

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