Professional Pasta N. 2 April/June 2018

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Chairman Claudio Vercellone

Professional

Pasta

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Year XXIII - N. 2 April/June 2018

Editor in Chief Claudio Vercellone Scientific and technical committee Maurizio Monti Wheat and flours technician Roberto Tuberosa Agricultural Genetics

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Editing Coordinator Delia Maria Sebelin ufficiostampa@avenuemedia.eu Advertising Massimo Carpanelli carpa@avenuemedia.eu Edition, management, editorial, advertising and administration

Contents Editorial

Italian fresh pasta facing new markets by Delia Maria Sebelin

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features PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

From pasta drying to stabilization 12 by The experts of Professional Pasta

HERBS & SPICES

Focus on black pepper ground by Elio Di Curzio

24

research

Fortified pasta improves consumers’ health by Sarah Zimmerman

30

departments

Facts & news Pasta’s friends Supplier news Events

8 10 41 42



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EDI TORIAL

Italian fresh pasta facing new markets I

by Delia Maria Sebelin

April/June 2018

talian industrial fresh pasta is riding the wave of success. According to Appf, the Italian Association of fresh pasta producers, figures speak for themselves. The “values of sale” of industrial packed fresh pasta produced in Italy reached approximately +300% over the last twenty years; this figure is supported by the European market which tripled its sales over the last decade; they currently account for 40% of the whole business. Always according to Appf, it is now difficult to sell in Italy. Therefore, today the European market is a need, not an option. Italian fresh pasta is doing very well in the leading countries (Great Britain, France and Spain); it is also growing in Northern Europe where it is conquering consumers who are used to a different cooking style. Larger markets are overseas where, basically, they need local production sites. This was Giovanni Rana’s successful approach in the United States.

Big success in Uk, France and Spain

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EDI TORIAL

Italian fresh pasta: the reasons of success • The choice of excellent ingredients • The introduction of a modified atmosphere • The reduction in dough thickness • The reduction of pasteurization thermal treatments and shelf life maintenance at the same time • The shift from meat to vegetable fillings • Frenzy for new recipes and fillings

Today we need means, courage, determination and organization. The whole Italian fresh pasta sector, helped by its proximity to gastronomy, quality based on its excellence choices and also by the opportunity to offer new products, laid the foundations. Its merits and success are based on market moves, updated production technologies and - last but not the least - on law regulations that allowed it to be legally entitled to bear the word “fresh” in Europe, an almost exclusive claim on the market. What are the strategies required in order to conquer new markets and retain consumers? These suggestions • Ready-to-eat meals may be put into • Vegetarian practice by all proposals producers, be they • Vegan proposals Italian or not. • Gluten-free First of all, the quality proposals of ingredients is key. Some considerations concerning the history of pasta prove it, since they allowed the industry to obtain extraordinary results: the introduction of a modified atmosphere, the drastic reduction in the dough thickness, the reduction of pasteurization thermal treatments and shelf life maintenance at the same time, the big shift from meat to vegetable fillings. Today the trend is to meet vegetarian, vegan and gluten-free consumers’ needs. Someone already did. Moreover, the demand for fresh pasta-based “ready to eat” meals shall be taken into account. Market globalization and an on-going “frenzy for new products” turned these choices not only into a smart option, but also into a trade need, at least at a certain level of entrepreneurship. Minor producers can strive for “niche” markets or make up new sales means and strategies. Just think about on-line sales and promotions focused on consumer groups through campaigns on social media. Simply because people like fresh pasta, more and more, all over the world.

Trends to benefit from

Delia Maria Sebelin

6

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April/June 2018


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FACTS & NEWS Eating pasta won’t make you fat, study reveals

Pasta spats: Canadian wheat exports to Italy slump

Researchers at St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto conducted 30 randomized control trials involving almost 2,500 people who ate pasta instead of other carbohydrates as part of a healthy low-glycemic index diet. Their findings? Eating pasta doesn’t contribute to more body fat. «The study found that pasta didn’t contribute to weight gain or increase in body fat», said lead author Dr. John Sievenpiper, a clinician scientist with the hospital’s Clinical Nutrition and Risk Modification Centre. «In fact analysis actually showed a small weight loss. So contrary to concerns, perhaps pasta can be part of a healthy diet such as a low glycemic index diet». Researchers say those involved in the trials ate 3.3 servings of pasta a week instead of other carbohydrates. They lost about 1.1 pounds on average after 12 weeks.

Barilla - the world’s largest pasta maker - cutback Canadian imports of durum wheat. Barilla’s purchasing director Emilio Ferrari told grain groups in Toronto the company has cut back their Canadian wheat imports by 35%, despite the fact Canadian durum wheat is of exceptional quality. The reason is that some Italian consumers are fearful Canadian wheat has been “poisoned” because it tested positive for traces of the popular and widely-used herbicide glyphosate, even though glyphosate poses no risk to human health if residues are within accepted limits. Canada is one of Italy’s biggest suppliers of durum wheat. However, Canadian producers argue the current limits set by Italy are simply too low to meet because glyphosate is commonly used within acceptable limits and traces of the herbicide are found throughout this country’s bulk handling grain system.

Here it comes the latest global pasta sauce market research Global pasta sauce market report emphasis on the detailed information relevant to the pasta sauce market. It focuses on the facts related to past, current and future possibilities related to growth, sales volume, and market share in the global pasta sauce market. Some of the major competitors profiled in the report are Mizkan, Campbell, Barilla, Dolmio, Hunts, Heinz, Knorr, Giovanni Rana, Del Monte Foods. Region-wise analysis competing in the pasta sauce market includes North America (Canada, Mexico and the Usa), Europe (Germany, France, Russia, Uk and Italy) pasta sauce market, Asia-Pacific pasta sauce market, South America, the Middle East and Africa pasta sauce market respectively. To access the comprehensive report: http://marketdesk.org/ report/global-pastasauce-market-2017hc/4072/#inquiry

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Gluten-free pasta brand to set to hit the Us market RP’s Pasta Co. is spinning off a new gluten-free pasta brand that will soon debut on Us supermarket shelves. Called Taste Republic, the brand will focus on gluten-free pasta varieties. All of Taste Republic’s products will be manufactured in a dedicated gluten-free facility located in Madison (Wisconsin). The products will be certified gluten-free by the Gluten Free Certification Organization. The company’s products include plantain linguini, spinach fettuccini, four-cheese tortelloni, organic chickpea linguini, lasagna sheets, organic red lentil fusilli and organic black bean penne. RP’s Pasta and Taste Republic are owned by Tribe 9 Foods, a specialty food company formed in 2016 through the merger of several natural food companies. Professional

Pasta

April/June 2018


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pa sta’s friends La Moderna opens pasta plant in Texas

Us Food companies’ interest in wheat production grows Campbell Soup Co. and General Mills, Inc. announced initiatives suggesting deepening interest in how the grain they use is grown. Campbell Soup announced plans in its annual corporate responsibility report to enroll 70,000 acres of wheat in a fertilizer optimization effort by the end of 2020. General Mills announced an agreement with Gunsmoke Farms in South Dakota to convert 34,000 acres of farmland to certified organic acreage by 2020. General Mills said the wheat would be used in Annie’s pasta products. Both efforts reflect intensifying consumer pressure for food companies to visibly demonstrate a concern about sustainability. For the milling industry, this trend represents a chance to help their customers while showcasing and enhancing the sustainability bona fides of production wheat.

Last March Interamerican Foods Corp. held a grand opening ceremony for its La Moderna pasta plant in Cleburne, Texas. The $50 million, 150,000-squarefoot facility is La Moderna’s first in the United States. The company plans to produce approximately 4,000 tons of pasta per month at the plant. Founded in 1920, La Moderna is Mexico’s largest pasta manufacturer. «We are proud to not only have built La Moderna’s first facility in the United States, but also to have created one of the most high-tech and self-sufficient factories in the history of food manufacturing», said Luis Miguel Monroy, chairman of the board at La Moderna. «The end result reflects the convergence of our Mexican heritage and dedication to product quality, Texas’ entrepreneurial spirit and business-friendly climate, and unparalleled state-of-the-art production technology».

Demaco recognized for safety while making pasta machines Demaco was recognized for its safety program by the United Safety Council on Friday, March 23 during the 65th Annual Safety Awards Banquet at the Citrus Club in Orlando. At the ceremony, Demaco received the 2018 Corporate Safety Achievement Award - Bronze for outstanding safety performance. Glenn Victor, Occupational Safety Director presented the award to Demaco. The Annual Safety Awards Banquet is one of the largest of its kind in the nation. Since 1953, the United Safety Council has promoted safety in every phase of American life, including at businesses, and industrial facilities. Demaco builds stateof-the-art, high capacity industrial pasta machines used by the largest food companies in the world and it has also installed numerous large-scale pasta machines this past year. Additionally, Demaco implemented its plan for hurricane preparation as Irma swept through Florida last September.

Wheat imports rising in the Philippines Demand for milling and feed wheat in the Philippines is expected to increase in 201819 due to considerable investments in the domestic flour and feed milling industries, according to Global Agricultural Information Network (Gain) report from the Us Department of Agriculture. The report said wheat imports are expected to increase 550,000 tonnes to 5.75 million tonnes, driven mainly by growing feed demand. There is no commercial wheat production in the Philippines, but there are 20 flour mills in the country with an aggregate milling capacity of over 5 million tonnes, the Gain report said. «Milling wheat demand is poised to increase modestly in 2018-19 due to economic growth and the increasing Philippine population», the report said.

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Professional

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April/June 2018



Product ion techniques

From pasta drying to stabilization How to obtain the product you want by The experts of Professional Pasta

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ll the steps of the pasta static drying process (heating, predrying, drying, stabilization) have already been described and specific technological principles for “heating” and “pre-drying” steps have thoroughly been illustrated in Professional Pasta 1/2018. The purpose of this article is to thoroughly analyze pasta “drying” and “stabilization” steps in the technological static drying process.

Drying Approximately two hours and a half after the beginning of the process, pasta should reach 22-21% of residual moisture, at 43-45 °C (1). Pasta changes its physical condition and turns into “elastic”. This means that each deformation in pasta structure, even the slightest, generates a force that tends to eliminate it. In other words, even the slightest reshaping of a rigatone caused by a very light dehydration determines the creation of dynamic forces inside.

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product ion t echniques

Pasta turns from “plastic” into “elastic” progressively Obviously, pasta does not immediately turn from “plastic” into “elastic”, this does not occur instantaneously, but rather progressively. This means that, starting from a level of moisture of about 22-20%, pasta (at 43-45 °C) is no longer “completely” plastic, but not even “completely” elastic. Therefore, between these moisture levels there is a tolerance margin for any little mistake in the new drying parameter settings and this consideration shall also be taken into account. From a technological point of view, upon changing its physical status, forces and tensions generated by pasta are not particularly strong yet and pasta structure is able to support them. Later on, pasta structure will no longer be able to support generated forces and tensions that shall then be really reduced to a minimum (zero being impossible), or else it will be a... disaster. In order to avoid that, the drying program must be suited to this new technological situation. First of all, the “ventilation/pause” ratio shall be modified completely. For instance, if in the pre-drying process that ratio could be “3:1”, now it must be reversed “1:3”, and then decrease even more (1:4 and 1:5), and more when pasta residual moisture is lower than 16-15%, increasing pauses strictly (very strictly) related to mass/surface ratio of the shape and the thickness.(2) April/June 2018

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Product ion techniques

For pasta drying, the enthalpy of humid air is taken into account, i.e. dry air plus relevant vapour

Obviously, one should bear in mind that after changing its status, pasta structure mass increases gradually - although very slowly: water micro-particles reach pasta surface going through passages that narrow and therefore, it takes considerably longer for micro particles to pass through them. Under such conditions, too much pasta ventilation is not just a waste, but it is actually a brutal attempt to its integrity. During this critical step of the process, the pasta maker must deeply prove his professional wisdom: in the ventilation air and in the drying chamber environment in general evenly (in the upper, central and lower part), it is essential to keep humidity at a sufficiently high level in order to avoid pasta surface to become encrusted, and too dry compared to inner layers that are closer to the surface, so that passages for water micro-particles will not be too narrow or even completely closed. Therefore, not only ventilation intensity shall be reduced and air shall be sufficiently humid in relation to its temperature, but thermal energy (heat) and pasta

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At this stage - i.e. when pasta residual moisture is equal or lower than 16-15% - the biggest mistake would be to cool it down, thus increasing the structure concentration and trap water micro-particles inside. By capillary action, these particles push toward the surface strongly enough to open those passages also called veining, cracking, in pasta makers’ nightmares. A significant contribution on this is shown in the table 1 and in graph 1.

temperature shall also be maintained as high as possible, in order to increase the quantity and width of passages for water micro-particles. table 1

Changes in humid air enthalpy in a static dryer with constant temperature (46 °C) and relative humidity gradually decreasing RH70%

RH65%

RH60%

RH55%

RH50%

RH45%

RH40%

RH35%

X Value

44.1

40.8

37.4

34.1

30.9

27.7

24.5

21.3

J Value

38.0

35.9

33.9

31.8

29.8

27.8

25.9

23.9

X Value = weight of water vapour (grams) per kilo of dry air J Value = Heat content or enthalpy (cal/kg) of 1 kilo of dry air and X weight of water vapour

graph 1

Variations in Enthalpy/RH%

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 RH%70

RH%65

RH%60

Vapour weight (gram/kilo)

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RH%55

RH%50

RH%45

RH%40

RH%35

Humid air enthalpy

April/June 2018



Product ion techniques

They show that - given the same temperature value - humid air enthalpy inside the dryer changes when the value of the RH% parameter is set to gradually decrease in the drying program that is saved on the PCB of the process logic control or on the Plc. We would like to remind that enthalpy is a status function of a thermal dynamic system that indicates the quantity defined by the inner energy of that system in relation to volume and pressure. For pasta drying, the enthalpy of humid air is taken into account, i.e. dry air plus relevant vapour.

Pasta cooling Pasta cooling shall be postponed to the last step of the drying process, when residual moisture will be as

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Pasta cooling shall be postponed to the last step of the drying process low as 12.5 or slightly higher; at that stage, the small quantity of water left inside pasta will only have to be slowly redistributed from bottom layers - where concentration is higher towards layers closed to the surface, where concentration is lower. And reach stable balance at last (3). However, pasta stabilization always comes after drying and even at this final step of the whole process, despite its partial cooling, pasta must keep the required thermal energy in order to obtain, at least within a reasonable time, a homogeneous Professional

Pasta

distribution of water particles in the product that is already dry. At any stage of the drying process, the migration of water micro particles inside pasta takes partially place by diffusion (the Fick’s law)(4), and partially by capillary action(5). These two phenomena are quite complex and therefore we suggest that you should study them a little, it will certainly be useful also for pasta makers.

During the process How long does the drying stage last? It depends on the characteristics of pasta shapes and structures and, obviously, on set parameters (temperature, relative humidity, ventilation and heating times, rest and reconstitution times). However, it also depends on the compliance with principles that have been specified in the first April/June 2018


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product ion t echniques

part of this article, from the initial heating stage on (see Professional Pasta n. 1/2018, experts’ note). For a size with a medium difficulty level, for instance, a fusillo presents two or three principles, and if we consider the parameters that have been applied so far in the example (process average temperature), we can suppose approximately 4 hours, 6 for rigatoni with 0.8 mm(6). These times are approximate, we quote them because that is what we have concretely obtained in our experimental laboratory for years, using a static dryer with a capacity of 28 trays and 6 kW installed thermal power, built in the late 90s.

Installed SM2 CPU board, T/RH probe side position and an effective automatic extraction system of humid air taken on the two lower sides of the dryer, at the floor level. The real diagram for rigatoni drying in about 9 hours in total is shown in graph 2. The final drying stage is characterized by a balanced condition between air and pasta temperature. Therefore, it is highly advisable to keep air temperature unchanged, graph 2

Stabilization As we have repeated several times, this stage is meant to redistribute residual water particles in dried pasta homogenously, therefore in a stable way, in its whole mass, avoiding different moisture concentrations among product layers (from outer towards inner layers).

Rigatone Test

The stabilization process of statically dried pasta is a delicate stage

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by setting (gradually decreasing) the relative humidity value.

Temperature °C

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Relative humidity %

April/June 2018



product ion t echniques

Basically, in order to obtain this result, let pasta stabilize by cooling in a not traumatic way and let hygrothermal conditions inside the dryer (air temperature and absolute and relative humidity) gradually adjust to laboratory environmental conditions. Obviously, these shall be conveniently controlled and adjusted. The stabilization process of statically dried pasta is a delicate stage

and must not be underestimated, especially in those periods when weather conditions represent a risk. In automated continuous driers, the final pasta stabilization is less critical instead. Quite often, pasta factories reach stabilization by simply storing short pasta - still relatively warm - into dried product storage silos, letting the mass “dispose of” the residual heat as long as it is necessary, before packaging.

For continuous automatic lines, there is always a specific area for pasta stabilization, a virtual extension of the plant, perfectly suited in terms of capacity and volume, where the most suitable air temperature and relative humidity are maintained. A similar process can also be applied to a small pasta factory using static drying equipment, by simply choosing a suitable area, protected from unexpected air flows and with stable temperature and relative humidity, where it is possible to place and leave trolleys with horizontal trays - or those with long pasta supports until pasta stabilization and its hygrothermal balance with the environment have been reached. The experts of Professional Pasta

Notes (1) Temperatures are not related to air, but rather to pasta that has a moisture content that varies according to the process stage and to its reference moment. Therefore, in the drying program, temperature setting shall take into account: the efficiency of the thermal exchange system in the dryer (air speed, flow homogeneity at the entrance and exit of spaces located among overlapped trays or pasta curtains hung on special racks); and above all, the mass/surface ratio of pasta shapes to be dried, since this ratio significantly affects heat exchange between warm air and pasta, as well as the quantity of air released in the time unit, as vapour, from the shape surface. (2) When using the static dryer, it is always advisable not to change the temperature parameter set at the beginning of the drying stage for the entire duration of the stage, if lower than 55-50 °C (e.g. 48 or 45 °C). The idea is to comply, in the best way possible, with the hygrothermal process dynamics as to specific values of the psychrometric chart of humid air in the dryer and the relevant enthalpy, by setting then values gradually lower than relative humidity in the drying program. In this way, air absolute humidity decreases in the dryer, but pasta temperature remains stable.

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(3) Under this specific condition, pasta temperature tends to come closer and closer to the actual temperature of warm air flow inside the dryer until they match. Normally, this balance also indicates that the drying stage is going to end or that it is actually over. (4) The Fick’s law of gas molecular diffusion, also applicable to liquid molecular diffusion, defines the diffusion flow and speed of molecules in relation to their concentration gradient, i.e. the concentration difference in different body areas in which the phenomenon takes place. Molecular flow here water molecules - always moves from high-concentration to low-concentration areas. Diffusion speed (number of molecules moving by time unit) also depends on the concentration gradient, as well as on (thermal) energy in the body concerned. (5) Capillarity is the phenomenon through which liquids in tubular channels or interspaces with very small diameter or thickness (approximately lower than one tenth of a millimetre) are pushed to a different level, higher or lower than the liquid outside the interspaces or tubular channels (capillaries). In the pasta drying process, water micro-particles rise to the surface and adhere to the walls of interspaces

Professional

Pasta

located between inner layers and the surface. This phenomenon is strictly related to water surface constraining forces. (6) In the pasta static drying process, due to a misunderstood “tradition-oriented rigour” related to the concept of “low-temperature slow drying”, the whole process duration is often far too long, in that it actually lasts days and not only hours. This is often due to the pasta-maker’s old strict mentality, related to generational ancestral experience. To tell the truth, the long duration of the drying process is also often due to caution and limits required when using the dryer, which is also ancestral, although recently built, and therefore “genetically” suited to tomato drying, less - much less - to pasta drying that is a sort of “alien” compared to tomatoes. However, one thing must be clear: “low temperature” indicates a technology that does not lead - in dried pasta - to any biochemical or organoleptic change in the characteristics of raw material. And this implies - for such a result to be achieved that the drying temperature shall not exceed 60 °C. To tell the truth, this limit would be even higher, let’s say 65 °C, but 60 °C is still a good temperature in order to obtain good results, within a reasonable time; these results meet production needs and costs, as well as trust and respect of strict traditions).

April/June 2018



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Herbs & spices

Focus on black pepper ground

24

Professional

Pasta

April/June 2018


Herbs & spices

Why quality parameters do really matter

by Elio Di Curzio President of Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry direzione@dicurzio.com

W

ould you ever buy flour, tomato or meat without checking in your laboratory the protein content, the Brix degree or the percentage of lean meat? Certainly not! Conversely, when it comes to spices and herbs and specifically to black pepper, buyers’ focus is very much on food safety and on price, and very little on the physical and botanical parameters which are in one-to-one correspondence with the production yield and hence with the fairness of the price charged by spices’ suppliers.

Carbonara with ground black pepper

April/June 2018

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Herbs & spices

1

Both glass jars seem to contain black pepper ground, but it isn’t so

Remember: the quality parameters for black pepper are volatile oil and piperine because they are associated to production yield. Just like any other industrial ingredient, black pepper’s production yield and fair purchase price are strongly correlated. Moreover, the colour itself of the ground pepper is the first clue to its overall quality: unexpectedly, the lighter it is, the better! Two products in comparison Here we have a photograph that refers to a real case: it will help us understand what lies behind a low value of essential oil and piperine, and a dark-greyish colour of the black pepper ground (photo 1). In both jars, there seems to be some ground black pepper. It is not so! Indeed, in the one on the right we detected about 40% of an extraneous matter that is euphemistically named filler, whose

26

Lots of pasta dishes need ground black pepper presence serves the sole purpose to dilute the product to lower its price. Which filler was used? How can lab findings on essential oil and piperine help us answer this question? To find out, let’s start with some basic information on the production process of the black pepper.

The production process

2

Peppercorn spikes

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The pepper spike (photo 2) If you look closely at the spike of the Piper Nigrum L, you will clearly discern three different-sized berries: 1. the unripe, fully grown ones, who become black pepper after fermentation and drying; April/June 2018



Herbs & spices

2. the medium-sized berries

whose exocarp, or the peel, is predominant on the core. They are processed into the so-called light black pepper (light is for low density); 3. the aborted berries, the smallest ones, which are dried and sold as pepper pinheads. They are not actually black pepper but just its peels.

Black pepper grades Let’s now look at the values of the quality parameters of the three types black pepper.

3

Black pepper

4

Light black pepper

5

Pepper pinheads

Black pepper (photo 3) It is derived from the fermentation and drying of the unripe, larger berries. The relevant parameters are as follows: • Piperine 3.5% ÷ 6% • Volatile oil 2% ÷ 4% • Crude fibre 10% ÷ 12% • Density 500 ÷ 600 g/l Light black pepper (photo 4) Medium-sized berries are processed into the so-called light pepper (more peel and less core), whose parameters indicate: • Piperine 3% ÷ 4% • Volatile oil 1.5% ÷ 3% • Crude fibre 26% ÷ 28% • Density 300 ÷ 450 g/l The commercial value decreases in proportion to the value of the characterizing parameters, i.e. essential oils, and piperine. Pepper pinheads (photo 5) Pinheads are the dried aborted berries: low volatile oil and piperine, along with high crude fibre, entail little or none commercial value: • Piperine ~ 0.8% • Volatile oil ~ 0.6% • Crude fibre 26% to 28% • Density 150 ÷ 300 g/l

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Herbs & spices Quality explained Let’s now go back at the products of photo 1 and see what the laboratory analyses reveal about the content of the two glass jars. Photo 1A - Black pepper ground of a cream yellow colour. Lab results for the relevant parameters are: • Piperine ~ 6% • Volatile oil ~ 2% • Colour: cream yellow with black dots A 550 g/l black pepper has been ground to get this nice product. Many would be surprised for the fact that the true colour of the ground black pepper is actually cream yellow (that is, the colour of the inner part of the berry) with dark parts (the exocarp, i.e. the peel), and not grey or dark grey, like in the following case. Photo 1B - Ground black pepper of

a darker grey colour. Values are: • Piperine ~ 3% • Volatile oil ~ 1% • Darker grey colour, with predominant black particles The product is likely to contain approx. 40% of light berries or pinheads. The more the colour is grey and dark, the more pinheads or light black pepper has been added during the milling process.

Final comments When a filler (like light pepper, pinheads or spent pepper) is mixed and ground with the true black pepper, carbohydrates and crude fibre increase, while volatile oil and piperine decrease; the product yield falls sharply and the saving in the purchase price vanishes into thin air. Indeed, selling prices can be tailored simply working on the percentages of filler and pepper in the blend.

1A

Black pepper ground of a cream yellow colour

We do not wish to enter the debate of what can be sold as ground black pepper and what cannot, though we have a considered opinion grounded in botany and the law. The point is that a cream yellow ground pepper is the most suitable for industrial use because both volatile

1B

Ground black pepper of a darker grey colour

oil and piperine are likely at their highest; the production yield is higher as well and pays back with interest the difference in price incurred to get the pure black pepper in the fullness of its aromatic properties. Elio Di Curzio

Di Curzio Fine Ingredients for the Food Industry - direzione@dicurzio.com - www.dicurzio.com

April/June 2018

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rese arch

Fortified pasta improves consumers’ health

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April/June 2018


rese arch

How fortifying flour is relevant for sustainable development goals by Sarah Zimmerman Communications Coordinator for the Food Fortification Initiative

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very year, 600 million tons of wheat and maize flour are produced and consumed in the form of noodles, pasta, bread and other flour products. Fortification of industrially produced wheat and maize flour is therefore a simple and effective way of providing the world’s population with vitamins and minerals. On 25 September 2015, countries adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure prosperity for all. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over 15 years. That may seem irrelevant for pasta producers, but pasta could be one of the tools countries use to meet these goals. Of the 17 “Sustainable Development Goals,” some of them can be addressed through flour fortification, including fortifying the flour used to make pasta. About 14 million tons of pasta are produced annually worldwide, according to one of the last World Pasta Industry Status Report from the International Pasta Organization. With production at 3.4 million tonnes, Italy is the world leader in pasta production. The United States is a distant second at 2 million tonnes.

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Yet only half of the countries that produce more than 300,000 tonnes of pasta each year have active wheat flour fortification programs (table 1). When it comes to total pasta consumption, the United States leads the world at 2.7 million tons a year, according to the International Pasta Organization. Italy is second at 1.5 million tonnes. But the population of the United States is more than five times the population of Italy. On a per capita basis, Italy is the global leader in pasta consumption at 25.3 kilograms; Tunisia is second at 16 kilograms. With bread and all other wheat flour products included, Italy ranks twelfth in global availability at 146 kilograms person per year, according to 2013 data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Fao). Azerbaijan is first at 222 kilograms per capita per year. The world average is 65 kilograms per capita per year. On a regional basis, wheat flour available for human consumption in highest in Europe at 109 kilograms per capita per year, and lowest is Africa at 48 kilograms per capita per year. Women and children are the groups

table 1 Six of the top 12 pasta producing countries have active

wheat flour fortification programs

Without Active Fortification Programs1 Country

Tonnes of pasta produced

With Active Fortification Programs1 Country

Tonnes of pasta produced

Italy

3,408,499

United States

2,000,000

Turkey

1,202,440

Brazil

1,204,900

Russia

1,083,000

Iran

560,000

Egypt

400,000

Argentina

353,895

Germany

334,179

Mexico

337,000

303,100

Venezuela

329,540

Tunisia (1)

Food Fortification Initiative annual survey, 2016

who most need the vitamins and minerals that are commonly added to wheat flour via fortification. The World Health Organization (Who) recommendations for wheat flour fortification advise against fortification if wheat flour availability is less than 75 grams per person per day. Enough nutrients to meet the needs of women of childbearing age cannot be added to flour if consumption is that low. However only 35 of 175 countries fall below that threshold, according to Fao data.

Flour that has been fortified with nutrients added at Who recommendations for people who consume more than 75 grams per capita per day does not affect the flour’s organoleptic qualities. This has been tested in Africa and Asia, including shelf life studies with instant noodles that were made with fortified wheat flour. Globally, about 31% of the world’s industrially milled wheat flour is fortified, according to the Food Fortification Initiative (Ffi). If more of the world’s flour were fortified,

Fortification of industrially produced wheat flour is an effective way of providing the world’s population with vitamins and minerals 32

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Wheat availability and fortification legislation

including the flour used to make pasta, countries that are not fortifying now would make progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals. And using fortified flour for fortified food producs such as pasta improves the consumers’ health.

The Sustainable Development Goals The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that were adopted in September 2015 have 169 targets. Meeting these targets by 2030 as hoped will require multiple strategies. In many countries fortifying commonly consumed grain products would be a practical step toward meeting the SDGs. In general, the SDG targets include people, the planet, prosperity, peace, and partnership. Some of the overarching themes are to «free human race from tyranny of poverty to heal and secure our planet». Objectives include peace,

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justice, and inclusiveness through protecting human rights and promoting gender equality. While fortifying flour cannot address all these issues, vitamins and minerals contribute to cognitive development, maternal health, and productivity. Following are details about addressing several of the SDGs with flour fortification. The nutrients included in fortification are most often iron, zinc, and the following B vitamins: folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. Here we describe some of these goals.

No poverty Anemia occurs when the body lacks hemoglobin which carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. Anemia has many causes; Who estimates that 42% of anemia in children and 50% of anemia in women is related to iron deficiency. Folic acid, zinc, riboflavin, and Professional

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Many countries adopted a set of goals to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all vitamin B12 deficiencies can also cause anemia, and these nutrients can all be included in fortified flour. People who have had anemia say it is like being a zombie. Routine tasks like catching a bus or walking up a flight of stairs become monumental. Consequently, anemia reduces an individual’s work capacity. Anemia is estimated to contribute to 17% lower productivity in heavy manual labor and 5% lower productivity in other manual labor. Additionally, children who are iron deficient do not develop their full April/June 2018


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Pasta could be one of the tools countries use to meet these goals mental capacity. This means iron deficiency in childhood affects individual’s academic performance and future earnings potential. Consequently, childhood anemia is associated with a 2.5% drop in wages in adulthood, affecting productivity and economic growth and contributing to poverty. According to the 2015 Global Nutrition Report, the returns on investing in improved nutrition outperformed returns generated by the Us stock market over the past 70 years. As of 2017, the cost of undernutrition is at least 8 to 11% of the gross national product. Reducing this cost could help bring communities out of poverty.

Zero hunger Part of this goal is to end all forms of malnutrition. Globally, 45% of deaths of children under 5 years of age are attributed to malnutrition.

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About 31% of the world’s industrially milled wheat flour is fortified

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This SDG specifically mentions stunting and wasting in children. Stunting is when children are more than two standard deviations below the expected height for their age. Poor nutrition, repeated infections, and inadequate psycho-social stimulation can cause it. Wasting is when children’s weight is too low for their height. It is usually from a lack of food or from an infectious disease such as diarrhea which has caused the person to lose weight. Who estimates that 155 million children under 5 years of age are stunted, and 52 million children are wasted. Fortifying flour used to make pasta that children often eat, such as Pastina, is one step toward preventing stunting and wasting and reaching this Sustainable Development Goal. Additionally, adequate nutrient intake increases productivity in adults, leading to improved productivity in April/June 2018



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The nutrients most used in fortification are iron, zinc and B vitamins agricultural labor. This will increase agricultural production, subsequently providing growth in the food supply and helping to combat hunger.

Good health This goal is split into sections including maternal and newborn health, infectious disease, and non-communicable diseases. Fortification helps to reach the goals in each of these categories. Maternal and Newborn Health Fortifying with folic acid greatly reduces women’s risk of having a pregnancy affected by a birth defect of the brain and spine. These birth defects develop within 28 days after conception. Women often do not realize they are pregnant during this time, and if they have not been planning a pregnancy, they are not likely to be taking folic acid supplements. But fortification

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increases folic acid intake as people eat their favorite foods. One metaanalysis showed that fortifying wheat flour with folic acid reduced the incidence of these severe birth defects by an average of 46%. Infectious and Non-Communicable Diseases - Zinc is a mineral that promotes immunity, resistance to infection, and proper growth and development of the nervous system, and is integral to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Zinc deficiencies increase risk of malaria,

pneumonia, diarrhea. Zinc is included in Who recommendations for fortifying wheat flour. Fortifying with zinc has improved people’s zinc status around the world. In Cameroon, researchers evaluated people’s nutritional status two years before and one year after wheat flour fortification was implemented. After fortification, they found improvements in iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin B12 status among women and children in urban areas, according to a study published in The Journal of Nutrition. Maternal anemia prevalence was also significantly lower after fortification. A three-year project in China showed that fortifying wheat flour with zinc increased zinc levels in blood. Researchers provided fortified flour to 4,700 rural adult women and unfortified flour to 2,750 rural adult women. The fortified flour included zinc as well as iron, vitamin A, and the following B vitamins: folic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. Blood samples were taken annually. Women who received fortified flour had increased amounts of zinc in their blood samples each year,

Fortifying flour used to make pasta that children often eat, such as Pastina, is one step toward preventing stunting and wasting and reaching this Sustainable Development Goal

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while the women who received unfortified flour showed no change in the blood zinc levels.

Quality education Poor health in childhood leads to reduced educational achievement. A large body of literature documents that iron deficiency causes cognitive deficits and developmental delays. On the other hand, children who have adequate iron intake have more energy to participate in classroom exercises, and they are more mentally prepared to master the material. Fortifying flour used to make foods commonly eaten by school-age children is one way to help students maximize their educational experiences.

Reduced inequalities Developing countries, where 25% of children are vitamin A deficient and 40% women are anemic, bear most of the burden in nutrient deficiencies. This increases the risk of death, morbidity, and susceptibility to poor health. The 2015 Global Nutrition Report states that stunting rates by

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wealth quintile show that current inequality predicts future inequality. Yet vitamin and mineral deficiencies are not limited to developing countries. The Who notes that iron deficiency is “significantly prevalent” in industrialized countries. Birth defects of the brain and spine are also found in countries of every economic status. For example, by 1 January 1998, all grain products labelled “enriched” in the United States, including pasta, had to include folic acid. Researchers at the Us Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 767 live-born cases of spina bifida are prevented each year as a result. Fortifying with folic acid in the Us has also nearly eliminated the type of anaemia that is caused by folic acid deficiency.

Partnerships for the goals Effective partnerships are essential for fortification because no one sector can be successful on its own. The nutrition community needs to be involved in setting appropriate standards for the type and amounts of nutrients to include in fortification. The government needs Professional

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to include fair monitoring practices in its food safety program. The industry needs to make systematic changes to fortify its products routinely with quality nutrients. Ffi’s first recommendation to any country considering fortification is to form a national alliance. Seek participation and commitment from national leaders representing public, private, and civic sectors. Be sure each stakeholder understands the health and economic benefits for fortification. Involving all sectors early in the process prevents overlooking key information. It also builds commitment from each group to work toward success. To form a functioning national food alliance, different partners are necessary, such as: public institutions that oversee food quality and safety; business and industries providing staple foods; health groups and consumer associations; United Nations or multilateral agencies; scientific and academic groups involved in nutrition; ministers of finance or leading economists. Food fortification in Chile, Costa Rica, and Guatemala has improved nutritional outcomes in those countries. What do the programs have in common? Researchers examined the programs to answer that question. They found that each country had the following: an influential individual supported fortification, an institution with research capacity helped monitor impact, food industry participation was essential, programs were well-designed including choice of food(s) that would reach the vulnerable population, fortification was mandatory nationwide, bioavailable fortificants were used at appropriate levels, monitoring to ensure compliance was enforced. Sarah Zimmerman April/June 2018


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Sial Paris innovates with Future Lab

ial is one of the world’s largest food innovation exhibition. It will take place in Paris (21-25 October). Since its creation, it has given pride of place to food innovation, with almost 10% of the world’s innovations presented by its exhibitors. In 2018, Sial Paris will once again be the biggest laboratory of Planet Food, where professionals will be able to try out thousands of innovations, live and direct. With Future Lab Sial Paris will be going still further, creating a forecasting space, for keeping one step ahead!

An essential link Before any innovation there is reflection, trial and error, and a whole raft of tests conducted by researchers, R&D departments, and so on. Out of all this mysteriously coalesces: creation! Invention. The thing you believe in, the thing that develops its own momentum, to find its place on the shelves and aisles of stores the world over. This grey matter has found its place at a major food-focused event.

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An essential link that was missing in the chain. The starting point of it all, indeed, the very germ from which it all springs. A laboratory that is packed full of extraordinary grey matter, just waiting to do its thing! So how about turning the spotlight, here and now, on Future Lab?

Food invention Sial Paris wishes to bring into the light this hidden face of Planet Food. «There truly is only Sial Paris that is capable of this! Admittedly, I’m in the position of both judge and jury, and therefore perhaps not best placed to comment objectively», acknowledges Nicolas Trentesaux, Sial Network Director: «Yet there is a reality that emerges from our 54 years of history and all the experiences and success stories testified to by our partners, exhibitors and visitors: the biggest food laboratory happens here, in Paris!». In 2018, with Future Lab, this laboratory will really be buzzing, as a new nerve centre of the event. Future Lab: echoing Sial

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Innovation. This is no doubt just a first step: «We wanted to go further than the Sial Innovation competition, and understand the history, even the prehistory, of Food innovation», Nicolas Trentesaux explains.

#SialFutureLab So let us imagine Future Lab as a peek into the future. You enter a space where dreams and reality converge. Welcome to the Planet Food of tomorrow. It is in the area at the entrance to Hall 6 that this is all happening. #SialFoodLab, an immersive tunnel for addressing topics that will be central to our food concerns in the not too distant future. For example, which alternative proteins will assert themselves, for feeding the world’s 8.6 billion population in 2030? While some people bank on meat “cultivated” in the lab from stem cells, others envisage vegetal solutions, and the alternative proteins adventure holds out the promise of lots more great innovations to come. The other

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stage of their existence: their launch. #SialRisingStartup will, in particular, provide them with the opportunity to share their experiences with a panel of entrepreneurs, investors, potential clients and the media, with a view to conquering, one day - who knows - Planet Food.

#SialVRLab, or when virtual reality conquers Planet Food

themes addressed at #SialFoodLab include the digitally-assisted “homemade”, and how artificial intelligence will revolutionise our food practices, no matter what the technology or scenario that ends up on top.

#SialRisingStartup The second dimension of Future Lab is #SialRisingStartup, a space that offers the opportunity to some 50 budding European businesses to participate in Sial Paris 2018. #SialRisingStartup will be throwing the spotlight on young creators, on the cusp of

making a success of their adventure: finding solutions for the food of the future, in terms of new products, services, packaging, and so on. Conceived in partnership with the Idefi-Ecotrophelia (ecotrophelia. org) network, #SialRisingStartup will be Europe’s first forecasting space dedicated to rising start-ups in the food industry sector. Selected for their boldness and inventiveness, in a partnership with the European university network, these young start-ups will get to be offered maximum visibility at a crucial

Yet Future Lab is more than that. Welcome, now, to its third dimension: #SialVRLab stands for Virtual Reality Lab. Created in partnership with Laval Virtual/Easycom, this spectacle offers a virtual reality voyage through the food sector, for understanding how this technology will revolutionise our daily diet: in the restaurant, at work, or quite simply in the home. #SialVRLab proposes 4 virtual reality shows, with several types of headset, usage and sectoral applications. The issues around virtual reality in food will soon be as plain as day to visitors. Find out in early July about the selected start-ups, and the three event spaces of Future Lab (www.sialparis.com).

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