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j ISSN 0310 - 0367 I Official Journal of the AUSTRALIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec. 1978 Registered for posting as a publication -

Category 'B '.

$1.00

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EDITORIAL COMMITTEE

Chairman C. D. Parker Committee G. R. Goffln G. F. Scott F. R. Bishop R. L. Cllsby Joan Powllng B. S. Sanders A.G . Longstaff W. Nicholson J. H. Greer W. E. Padarin B. J. Murphy P.R. Hughes A. Wade J. Bales Editor: Publisher: E. A. Swinton A.W.W.A

BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS CANBERRA A.C.T. W. E. Padarin, P.O. Box 306, Woden, 2606. NEW SOUTH WALES G . .F. Scott, James Hardie & Coy. Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 70, Parramatta, 2150.

ISSN 0310 0367

Official Journal of the

!AUSTRALIA~ WATER AND) [WASTE WATEFCA$SOCIATION I Vol. 5, No. 4* December 1978

CONTENTS Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . Association News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Land Waste Conference........................

5 6 7

Odorous Conditions in Lagoons Treating High Sulphate Wastewater - K. J . Hartley ........................... .

8

Winery and Distillery Wastewater Disposal in the Barossa Valley - M. Makestas ... . ...................... . Phosphorus Removal in Extended Aeration Package Plants - P. Gebbie and G. Enbom ............... .

16

Cheap Water Treatment for Ballina, N.S.W. - G. W. Montgomerie .... . ............... .

21

QUEENSLAND P. R. Hughes, 46 Tucker St.. Chapel Hill, 4069

Conference Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22

Letters.... . .. . ............. .. ..................

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SOUTH AUSTRALIA R. L. Cllsby, C/- E. & W. S. G.P.O. Box 1751, Adelaide, 5001 . WESTERN AUSTRALIA B. S. Sanders, 39 Kalinda Drive, City Beach, 6015. TASMANIA W. Nicholson, 101 Acton Road, Lauderdale, 7021. NORTHERN TERRITORY A. Wade, P.O. Box 37283, Winnellie, N.T. 5789.

The Water Pollution Control Federation - T. L. Judell.............................

23

VICTORIA J. Bales , E.P.A., 240 Victoria Parade, East Melbourne 3002.

Editorial Correspondence E. A. Swinton, Box 310, South Melbourne, Vic. Or to Branch Correspondents. Advertising Enquiries Mrs L. Gaal, C/· Applta, 191 Royal Par., Parkvllle, 3052. Phone: (03) 347-2377. WATER

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• Apologies to all librarians, the cover of the September edition was incorrectly shown as Vol. 5 No. 4 instead of Vol. 5 No. 3.

- - -- - -- - - - - . INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS Articles should be of orlglnal thought or reports on orlglnal ·work of lnterett to the members of the A.W.W .A. In the range 1000 to 5000 words. Diagrams or photos would be appreciated. Full Instructions are available from Branch corretpondents or the Editor.

COVER STORY Since conversion of an anaerobiclfacultative lagoon system at Whyalla, South Australia, to a faculative-aerated/faculta tive lagoon system, odorous conditions have been found to occur periodically in the facultative lagoons. This is believed to result from the action of sulphur bacteria in the sulphatehigh wastewater during calm weather. The major modification being made to the lagoon system to overcome this problem is the provision of a mechanical mixer in the most susceptible lagoon, to be operated during calm weather. The aerial photograph of the treatment works clearly shows the extent of purple photosynthetic sulphur bacteria in the lagoons.


METCARBON Pty Limited

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MANOR FILTER PRESSES Manor Engineering Co. Ltd. equipment is supplied by Parbury Henty for sedimentation, thickening, filtration, chemical handling, pumping, elutriation, flotation, sewage and industrial effluent purification. Manor fully automated presses of the type i 11 ustrated have extensive uses for materials on short filtration cycles and having good cake release characteristics .

SIEBTECHNIK CENTRIFUGES The Siebtechnik Decanter is a screenless centrifuge, in which the solids are conveyed from the large to the small diameter against the centrifugal force. The worm acts as a conveyor as well as a regulating element, and its field of application includes materials which are too fine for the screening centrifuge, provided the solids have an adequate sedimentation rate, such as flotation concentrates and waste water.

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WATER


AUSTRALIAN WATER AND WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION

FEDERAL SECRETARY P. Hughes, Box A232 P.O . Sydney South, .2000. FEDERAL iREASLiRER J. H. Greer, C/- M.M.B.W ., 625 Lt. Collins St . , Melbourne, 3000. BRANCH SE=CRETARIES

Canberra, A.C.T. D. Coucouvinis, P.O . Box 306, .Woden, A.C.T., 2606

New South Wales P. J. Mitchell , C/- John S. Willcox, G.P.O . Box 5222, Sydney, 2001 . Victoria R. Povey, P.O . Box 409 , Werribee, 3030 . Queensland J. Ryan, C/ - Gutteridge Haskins and Davey , G.P.O . Box 668K, Brisbane 4001 , South Australia A. Glatz, C/ - Engineering & Water Supply Dept. Victoria Square , Adelaide, 5000 . Western Australia R.J . Fimmel, P.O. Box 356, West Perth, 6005. Tasmania P. E. Spratt,

Cl- Fowler, England & Newton, 132 Davey St.,

Hobart, 7000. Northern Territory

A. Wade, Cl - Dept. of Construction, Mitchell St., Darwin . WATER

EDITORIAL

THREE STEPS IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION Our effectiveness in governing the River Murray is twice constrained by factors other than money. One is the little we know of the ecology of the great river, and the other the administrative labyrinth that mediates our ideas and actions . In recent years three important initiatives have arisen , each with a promise of improvement in our managerial competence, and so in our future association wittithe Murray . Each perhaps is notable more for its promise than for what so far has been gained , but still there is cause for some optim ism . ¡ The first stems from the report in 1975 of a ¡Working party concerned with means of protection and improvement of water quality in the River Murray. It was recommended that the River Murray Commission be given some measure of control over mainstram water quality , and that the riparian s'tates be encouraged to co-ordinate their activities in pollu tion control . The states agreed informally , and planning began in the expectation that the Agreement soon would be ratified . However , to South Australia ' s frustration, complete accord on the proposed amendments is still awaited and the fate of the proposals seems uncertain. Even so, the call for a revised River Murray Waters Agreement has been repeated many times of late, and the issue remains alive . The second initiative has fared better. In 1978 the Federal Government announced that funds would be made available to the states finance to support salinity mitigation programs , with the proviso that these were co-ordinated between states . As a result, several new investigations have com menced . Shortly the outcome of studies in South Australia will be announced by the Minister of Work9. Third , is the completion of a three-year _survey of the ecology of the Murray in relation to development at Albury Wodonga. A report published recently by the AlburyWodonga Development Corporation provides a strong data base for future planners and managers, and describes generally the ecological character of the Upper River Murray. Still more pleasing than the appearance of the report itself is the decision of the Corporation to fund a continuing program of research and monitoring. The monies diverted to surveys of this kind are but a minor fraction of those expended in planning and development, yet the information they provide is vital in the long term, and of immense scientific value . When may we see like surveys elsewhere along the course of the Murray? Each of the three steps is , in some degree , a tentative one . It is imperative that we pursue initiatives like these , and see them through to fruition . Ideas are not enough ; Lake Alexandrina is full of good ideas. Dr . K. F. Walker, Department of Zoology , University of A delaide. Member , South Australian Water Resources Co uncil . 5


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ASSOCIATION NEWS NEW SOUTH WALES Our Christmas Party was held in the Kamaraigal Room of the North Sydney Leagues Club on Thursday, 30th November 1978. Eighty happy sou ls attended to celebrate the festive season. On Friday, February 9th , the Association held in conjunction with th e Royal Australian Chem ical Institute and The School of Civ il Engineering of the University of New South Wales, a Symposium on the " Handling , Storage and Feeding of Dangerous Chemica ls". The following papers were presented : " Latest regulations covering the storage an handling of dangerous chemi cals " , Mr. H. Blackmore, Department of Labour and Industry . "Some legal cons iderations in the handling of dangerous chemicals", Mr . F. Gormly Q.C. " The transport of bulk chemicals", Mr . K. Bishop, Brambles Pty. Ltd. "P rinciples of material equipment se lection in th e handling of dangerous ch emicals ", M r. J. Hart , W all ace & Tiernan Pty. Ltd. " Agricultural health pesticides ", Mr . G. R. Simpson, Health Commission of New South Wales. "The safe handling of chlorine in water treatment app lications", Mr . B. Copper, I .C.I . Pty. Ltd. · " Application of dangerous chemicals in water and wastewater treatment practice ", Mr . E: W . T. Pierce, Metropolitan Water Sewerage & Drainage Board . "Safe practices in the handling of pool chemicals ", Mr . R. McDonald, Olin Chem icals Pty . Ltd . The Conference Convenor, Dr. Dav id Barnes, reported that nearly one hund red delegates gained valuable knowledge at the symposium. A regional conference to examine " Blue Mountains Water Resources " will take place from 16th-19th March at the Everg lad es Motor Inn, Leura. The Conference programme is : Allocation of W ater Resources in the Blue Mountains Area - Mr. Neville P. Rees, Princ ipal Engin eer , Planning , Water Resources Commission. Blu e Mountains City Counc il Sewerage Treatment Works - Assortment and Variety - Mr. Robert Chono , Supervising Eng ineer Sewage Treatment, Public Works Department . 6

Extended Aeration Sewage Treatment Plants - Mr . Paul Dougas, Chemical Engineer , Sinc lair, Knight & Partners Pty . Ltd . Subsidised Sewer.age Schemes , Man Mr . agement and Operation John Clements , Water Supply and Sewerage Engineer , and Mr . Kevin Tom lin son, Water Pollution Quality Contro l Engineer, Blue Mountains City Counc il. Aspects of Aquatic Quality of the Hawkesbury Estuary - Implications of Further Sewerage Treatment Facil ities - Mr. Peter Co lli s, Schoo l of Biological Science, Sydney Uni versity. Speaker for Dinner , Senator Co lin Mason , Australian Democrats .

VICTORIA The 1978 weekend regional conference was held at Shepparton from 13th to 15th October, 1978. The theme for this fourth weekend conference was "Water - Its Use and Abuse in Central Victoria " . We were privileged to have as our guest speakers representatives from the Department of Agriculture, the State Rivers and Water Supp ly Commission and the City of Shepparton. The conference was attended by 34 AWWA members and their families, totalling 77 persons including 7 speakers . Both pub lic and private sectors were wel I represented . An informal welcoming was held in the private bar of the Victoria Hotel on Friday night during which supper was provided and a most interesting film was shown by Joe Rumble, Department of Agriculture, on lazer planning in agr iculture . The conference was officially opened on Saturday morning by the branch president, Mr . W . J. Duller. Three technical sessions were held on Saturday and Sunday mornings . The speakers at these sess ion s covered a wide range of topics including salinity in Central Victoria, current and future irrigation practices, wastewater refuse and th e Shepparton sewage systems . A techn ical tour on the Saturday afternoon included vi sists to Loch Garry, an irrigation farm and the Shepparton sewage lagoon system. The weekend coincided with the annual Shepparton Show and most families found t ime for a visit. A most enjoyable d inn er dance was held on Saturday night and the conference closed with a BBQ lunch at Gou lburn weir . The conference was a success both technically and social ly. Again, the weather was excell ent north of the Divide. The November meeting heard a report on th e ''C larif ication of Water

Supplies with Magnetic Particles · (The Sirofloc Process) " by Mr. L. Kolarik and Dr. A . Priestly, Water Technology Group, C.S. I.R.O . Division of Chemcial Technology . A Sirofloc plant treating 0.14 M1 /day has been operating for six months on a complex bore water at the Mirrabooka water treatment plant of the Perth Metropolitan Water Supply Board. The bore water is of low turbidity, high colour and contains hydrogen su lph ide and organically bound divalent iron. The process utilizes finely divided particles of magnetite together with polyelectrolytes to remove colour , turbidity and iron, while sulphide is removed by hydrogen peroxide. The use of magnetically assisted flocculation enables clarifier size to be greatly reduced and it is considered that filters will not be required in full scale plants. The magnetite is regenerated and reused, thus substantially eliminating sludge disposal probl ems . Product water quality is excel lent and predicted capital and operating costs are lower than the convent ional process now in use . The performance of the pilot plant has been equal or superior to that obtained in jar tests , confirming the suitability of the process design . An extens ive jar test program has demon strated the applicability of the process to a wide range of waters .

SOUTH AUSTRALIA Since our last report two General Meetings of the South Australian Branch have been held at the usual venue Institution of Engineers, North Adelaide . The first metlting on 27th October, had an attendance of approximately 50 members to hear an address ' Design and Construction of Ocean Outfalls for Wastewater Disposal' , by Dr. I. G. Wa!lis , Principal Investigations Engineer, Caldwell Connel l Engineers P/L, Melbourne. The details of this address were oublished in the June 1978 issue of Water. The second meeting on the 24th November, was a Guest (Ladies) night with a difference . Mr. Lance Fairclough described tours through the Galapagos and Easter Island, the South American continent , and the sp lendour , isolation and rugged·ness of a camp in g tour of the Himalayas .

QUEENSLAND 1978 was successful ly concluded with two meetings in November. A dinner meeting was well attended at which Dr . Harlin Jnr ., Chief, Environmental Research Centre , Ada , (contiuned next page) WATER


LAND TREATMENT CONFERENCE The Association co -sponsored an international conference on " Devel opments in Land Methods of Wastewater Treatment and Uti I ization ' ', · which was held in Melbourne from 2327 October, 1978. The conference was held under the auspices of the International Association of Water Pollution Research . Some 270 delegates attended , in -

eluding 52 from overseas . Papers· were presented concerning irrigation , overland flow , heavy metals, aspects of the M .M .B .W. Werribee Farm , lagoons , soil filtration, sludge disposal, animal health and aquaculture . The keynote speakers were : Dr . C. C. Harlin, Chief , Wastewater Management Branch , Environmental Protection Agency , U .S.A .

IAWPR Conference

Mr. J. B . McPherson, Manager, Werribee Farm. M.M. B.W. Professor E. J. Underwood , Institute of Agriculture, University of Western Australia. Professor E. Gloyna, University of Texas , U.S .A . Mr . C. D . Parker, Director, Water Science Laboratories Pty. Ltd., Melbourne . Dr . G. G. Gillie, Director, National In stitute for Water Research, South Africa . Professor G . Shelef, Environmental Engi.neering Laboratory, Israel Institute of Technology. A- number of post conference tours to Victorian and South Australian waste treatment faci lities was arranged. A busy social programme was also provided and included a State Government reception, conference dinner, and an evening at a theatre restaurant. The conference was an outstanding success. The Organizing Committee, under the chairmanship of Mr. W. J . Robertson is to be congratulated for the smooth functioning of the entire programme.

ASSOCIATION NEWS CONTINUED Oklahoma , U .S.A . spoke on "U .S. scene regarding land dillposal of wastewater ". A mixed social Christmas gettogether and was also wel I attended. Sad news v,as received in early December that Committeeman Bill Garsden was involved in a car accident which has left hrm a paraplegic. All members are requested to contact Bill who is in Ward 57, P.A. Hospital, Brisbane. Bill has been a very active member for years and on the Queensland Committee for the past five years. His activity will be sadly missed by all his friends and professional colleagues .

A.C.T.

Top - Official Opening of the Land Waste Conference (left to right) Mr. D. Montgomery, then Federal President, A.W.W.A., Hon. Sir Oliver J. Gillard, Chancellor of the University of Melbourne, Mr. A. H. Croxford, Conference President, Dr. D. E. Weiss, C.S.I.R.O., Mr. W. J. Robertson, Chairman of the Organising Committee.

Bottom - Conference delegates examine a nutrient recovery operation during the inspection of the M.M.B.W. Farm, Werribee, Victoria. (photos by courtesy of the Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works)

WATER

The general election for office bearers for 1978/ 79 resulted as · follows : President - D. Philp Vice-President - R. Rudd Secretary - D. Coucouvinis Treasurer - P. Samara-Wickrama Committee - R. Badger, P. Cullen, T . Daniell, L. Devin , A. Hatfield ,.D . Henley and C. Price. The November meeting was addressed by Mr . A . Strom who discussed ' Reuse of Sewage' . 7


ODOROUS CONDITIONS IN LAGOONS TREATING HIGH-SUL_ PHATE WASTEWATER by K. J. Hartley* SUMMARY Since conversion of an an·a erobic/facultative lagoon system at Whyalla, South Australia, to a faculative-aerated/facultative lagoon system, odorous conditions have been found to occur periodically in the facultative lagoon s. This is believed to result from the action of sulphur bacteria in the sulphatehigh wastewater during calm weather. The major modification being made to the lagoon system to overcome this problem is the provision of a mechanical mixer in the most susceptible lagoon , to be operated during calm weather. INTRODUCTION The sewage treatment works serving the City of Whyalla in South Australia was commissioned in 1965. Designed and operated by the Engineering and Water Supply Department, the works had an initial design population of 25 000 and consisted of two anaerobic lagoons in parallel followed by three facultative lagoons in series. Effluent was discharged through a mangrove swamp into nearby Spencer Gulf. Irrigation with effluent had originally been contemplated, however this proved impossible because of the ingress of highly saline groundwater to the sewerage system. It soon became evident that an increase in the capacity of the works would be necessary, and during 1968 the design population was raised to 37 000 by increasing the number of facultative lagoons in series from three to five . The treatment works is located two kilometres from the nearest housing, and it was believed when the works was designed that this separation would ensure the absence of any odour nuisance from the anaerobic lagoons. This belief, unfortunately, proved incorrect and cons iderable public nuisance was caused by odour transport over the city under certain weather conditions. This problem was the subject of a detailed investigation during 1973 and 1974. Subsequently the works was modified to prevent the production of odours by abandoning the two anaerobic lagoons and converting the_ first facultative lagoon to a facultative-aerated lagoon, At the same time the design population was increased to 50 000, and seven 15 kW floating surface aerators were installed. The resulting arrangement of the treatment works is shown in Fig, 1 and relevant information is set out in Table 1. The aerated lagoon system was commissioned in January, ' 1976 and operated successfully without odour nuisance for · the whole of that year. RECURRENCE OF ODOURS Unexpectedly, public complaints of odours from the treatment works were received on the 8th of January, 1977. Lagoon no. 4, the faculative lagoon immediately following the aerated lagoon , had suddenly become anaerobic, was milky white in appearance and foul smelling. All the o·ther facultative lagoons retained their normal green condition although white streaks were present. A sampling survey was immediately conducted to determine the cause. Sulphide concentrations at the surface of lagoon 4 were found to average about 5 mg/I and ranged up to 10 mg/I. Hydrogen peroxide was distributed throughout the lagoon to increase the supply of oxygen and oxidi ze the su lphide. This was done on the 12th, 14th, 15th and 16th of January, * Ken Hartley is Planning Engineer, Water and Sewage Treatment Branch, Engineering and Water Supply Department, G.P.O. Box 1751, South Australia, 5001.

8

and from late on the 14th until noon on the 16th the lagoon influent was held back in lagoon 3. It was noted that although the sulphide concentration was reduced by each dosing , it increased significantly again within the next twenty-four hours. Reintroduction of lagoon influent had no significant effect on sulphide concentrations. On the 17th of January, two 15 kW aerators from lagoon 3 were installed in lagoon 4 and during the next few days three 5.5 kW aerators from another sewage treatment works were also installed. None of the aerators was commissioned immediately because the lagoon began to recover naturally and by the 19th of January odour was undetectable. Although the lagoon returned to an aerobic state with TABLE 1: Details of Whyalla Aerated Lagoon System Design Loads Population Average Flow Average BOO. Load

50 000 12.5 MUd 3 000 kg/d

Facultative-Aerated Lagoon (No. 3) Volume 68 000 m' Surface Area 4.8 ha Detention 5.4 d Aerators 7 iowspeed 15 kW floating aerators Oxygen transfer rate at 3 mg/I 0 .0 . Facultative Lagoons Volume (m' ) Surface Area (ha) Detention (d)

No. 4 49 000 4.6 3.9

No. 5 50 000 5.0 4.0

No.6 47 000 5.0 3.7

f

No. 7 43 000 4.8 3.4

No.G

i 0 /

No. 3

v /

>/

,--E:ffk,.,-,t

chann<.I

/

Fig. 1: Whyalla Sewage Treatment Works after. the anaerobic lagoons were abandoned and No. 3 facultative lagoon was converted to a facultative-aerated lagoon.

WATER


adequate concentrations of dissolved oxygen and a healthy suspension of algae, the aerators were operated for about two weeks beginning on the 24th January. All aerators except one of the 15 kW units from lagoon 3 were then removed. The aerator remaining was left switched off. Two months later, in March, 1977, further odours from lagoon 4 were reported and the aerator was started up. Within two days the lagoon had recovered. A mqre surprising event occurred in December, 1977, when lagoon 6, the third facultative lagoon in the series of five, was the only lagoon to turn milky and odourous. The lagoon recovered naturally within a few days. A further observation was made at that time. Even though six aerators were operating in lagoon 3, that lagoon was observed to have a milky appearance instead of its usual grey-green colour. On one day the milky appearance was also evident in lagoon 4, although the single aerator in that lagoon was operating at the time. No odours were associated with the colour change.

wavelength light is available and the dissolved oxygen con centration may be low. They also grow at the surface of anaerobic lagoons and were responsible f~ the characteristic pink colour of the anaerobic lagoons at Whyalla before these were abandoned . The sulphur bacteria comprising the next group are chemoautotrophic aerobes. Sulphide is oxidized to sulphate, and sulphur granules may also be deposited inside or outside of the cell . One of the best known species in this group is Thiobacillus thiooxidans. These bacteria are not usually active in facultative lagoons because sulphide is chemically oxidized by dissolved oxygen (Almgren & Hagstrom 1974, Chen & Morris 1970) and does not often exist in its presence. The last group of sulphur bacteria are "algal-like" gliding bacteria, which are again chemo-autotrophic aerobes. A typical representative of this group is Beggiatoa, which deposits sulphur granules within its cells and can occur in white or creamy felted masses . This group, like the previous one, is not often active in facultative lagoons.

POSSIBLE CAUSES

When the first incident occurred various posible reasons were considered, but it was some time before an understanding of the phenomenon was reached . Poisoning by a slug of toxic material such as heavy metal was discounted after analyses for cadmium, chromium , copper and lead indicated nothing unusual. Another obvious possibility was organic overloading . The average BOD, loading on lagoon 4 over the week 17th-23rd January, (see Table 2), was 93 kg/ha/day based on total influent BOD,, or 38 kg/ha/day based on total BOD, removed . Although the actual loading could have been greater than these figures suggest because of feedback from the accumulated sludge layer, the calculated loadings are so light that anaerobic conditions would be unlikely to occur. There was no evidence to suggest that loadings had been any higher during the preceding weeks. The high sulphide concentrations and milky appearance of the lagoon focussed attention on the high sulphate concentration in the sewage and possible activity of sulphur bacteria; in addition it was observed during the recovery of the lagoon that dissolved oxygen concentrations exhibited a marked gradient with depth suggesting that stratification may have played a part. The impact of groundwater ingress to the sewerage system is shown by the concentration of total dissolved salts in Table 2. These salts are further concentrated by evaporation from the lagoons. Table 2 also shows the high concentration of sulphate in the sewage, which provides an ideal substrate for sulphate reducing bacteria. No oxygen is formed by these photosynthetic reactions. Because of their need for light these bacteria can normally only grow in a facultative lagoon at mid-depth, where long

TABLE 2: Recorded Conditions During January 1977

Connected Population 33 000 Sewage Flow 7.2 MUd AVERAGE VALUES FOR WEEK 17. 1.77 t o 23.1 .77 Sewage Lagoon 3 Lagoon 4 Lagoon 5 Effluent Effluent Effluent

BO·D. total (mg/I) filtered (mg/I) SS (mg/I) pH TDS (mg/I) SO, (mg/I)

290 340 7.6 6 700 600

59 43 176 7.3 7 500 670

35 30 107 7.7 8 000 710

WEATHER FOR WEEK 1.1.77 to 9.1.77 Average wind velocity 8.3 km/h (Average for January 18 km/h) Average daily maximum air temperature 32.5°C WATER

46 25 200 8.4 8 900 780

SULPHUR BACTERIA

There are four groups of sulphur bacteria which can be active in waste stabilization lagoons. The first group comprises the sulphate reducing bacteria, the most characteristic of this colourless group being Desulfovibrio sp. (Gloyna & Espino 1969, Middleton & Lawrence 1977). These heterotrophic anaerobes reduce sulphate to sulphide and are inhibited by dissolved oxygen, therefore in facultative lagoons they are usually only active near the floor. 2SOr

+ organics - 2S + 4CO! + 3H , + organics

As with other biochemical reactions, the rate of sulphate reduction is affected by water temperature and for temperatures below 15°C a sharp decrease in rate is reported . Th e oth er three groups o f sulphur bact eria all ox idize sulphid e. On e group compri ses th e photosynthetic sulphur bac teri a, mad e up of two famili es commonl y referred to as the purple sulphur bacteria and the green sulphur bacteria. These are photo-autotrophic anaerobes which oxidi ze sulphide in two main steps. CO, + 2 H,S _. (CH ,O) + H,O + 2S 3 CO, + 2S + 5H,O

-o

3 (CH ,O) + 2 H,SO,

EXPLANATION OF LAGOON BEHAVIOUR

From observation of the Whyalla lagoons the following behaviour has been deduced. In windy conditions, with a significant degree of mixing in the lagoons , dissolved oxygen is distributed through most of the depth and sulphate reduction can occur only in the sludge layer and very close to it. There is little transfer of sulphide to the upper liquor, and any such sulphide is oxidised chemically by dissolved oxygen . If light winds now prevail , causing gentle mixing only, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the lower layers of the lagoon will be depleted, allowing sulphate reducing bacteria to spread upwards and multiply. There will now be a significant depth of the lagoon containing a high concentration of sulphide. The gentle mixing will carry sulphides into the surface layers where dissolved oxygen still exists. This sulphide will now be oxidized both chemically by dissolved oxygen, and by aerobic sulphur bacteria which multiply under these conditions . Sulphide will exist near the surface of the pond, the actual concentration depending on the balance between the rates of generation and transfer from lower layers and the rate of oxidation . The two mechanisms of sulphide oxidation will exert an additional oxygen demand on the lagoon. This may cause the concentration of dissolved oxygen to fall , resulting in a further increase in sulphide concentration . Four factors may now lead to a reduction in the oxygen supplied by algal growth. Firstly, sulphide can be toxic to 9


algae at concentrations above about 5 mg/I. Secondly,_ multiplication of the aerobic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, which is believed to be the cause of the characteristic milkiness in the lagoon, will reduce light penetration. Although no detailed microbiological study of the lagoons was carried · out during the occurrence of anaerobic conditions, Beggiatoa was identified in both lagoons 3 and 4 and it seems reasonable to assume that the milky colour could have been caused by the growth of these bacteria. Thirdly, under conditions of severe stratification, nonmotile algae can settle out of the surface layers, reducing the active algal population (Marais 1966). And fourthly, stratification can result in a substantial rise in the temperature of the surface water, imposing a thermal shock on the algae. Surface water temperatures of up to 35°C have / been measured in stratified lagoons in Africa. As a result of these factors, dissolved oxygen will be depleted, sulphide oxidizing bacteria will multiply and cause the lagoon to become milky in appearance, and high sulphide concentrations will produce offensive odours. The depletion in algal population can be illustrated by algal counts recorded at Whyalla on the 17th January, 1977, when lagoon 4 was just beginning to recover; see Table 3.

these regions sulphate reducing bacteria can flourish. The-· sulphides produced are then circulated through the aerobic · regions near the aerators, where the .ieerobic sulphide oxidizing bacteria can grow. This explains the milkiness evident at times within the aerated lagoon. Such activity can worsen the oxygen supply situation within the aerated lagoon if the aerator capacity is inadequate, because it imposes a sulphide oxygen demand and reduces algal oxygen production . It is evident that aerators in facultativeaerated lagoons treating wastewaters high in sulphate should have ample oxygen transfer capacity if adequate dissolved oxygen concentrations are to be maintained . The value of the sulphide oxygen demand which can occur in facultative or facultative-aerated lagoons has not been determined, but it cculd theoretically reach values of the same order as the carbonaceous demand.

I

l

TABLE 3: Whyalla Sewage Treatment Works Biological Characteristics at 0800 Hours on 17.1.77

Euglena Cyclotella Scenedesmus Micractinium Beggiatoa

ALGAL COUNTS (a.s.u./ml) Lagoon 3 Lagoon 4 Lagoon 5 23 000 3 000 4 000 9 600 2 200 4 000 400 35 000

+

There appear to be two possible reasons why lagoon 4 alone of the facultative lagoons became anaerobic at that time. Firstly, lagoon 4 had two baffle fences, which inhibited natural mixing and exacerbated Local stratification in calm weather. Secondly, lagoon 4 was more heavily loaded organically than the following lagoons, had a much greater accumulation of sludge on the floor, and had a much heavier solids loading. Brockett (1976) has indicated that the higher the proportion of the organic loading which is in the suspended form, the higher the resulting concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the lagoon. This can apparently restrict algal activity and hence oxygen production. The third occurrence of anaerobic conditions, in December, 1977, offers further confirmation of the significance of mixing intensity. Lagoon 6 alone became milky and odourous during calm weather, and the milkiness was first noticed around the single baffle fence in that lagoon, where mixing was most inhibited. In addition, although the aerator in lagoon 4 was operating at the time, some milkiness was evident in a corner of that lagoon protected by a baffle fence . The other two facultative lagoons, Nos. 5 and 7, did not contain fences and they remained facultative, although their green colour was less intense than usual. Windy conditions subsequently developed, and with algal seed entering from lagoon 5, lagoon 6 was faculative again within two days, although some milkiness was still evident around the baffle fence . It may be noted that on this occasion the water temperature in the lagoons was only 16°C. Although the lagoon behaviour described has only been noticed since the anaerobic lagoons were abandoned, it is believed to have occurred periodically since the works was commissioned, the resulting odours being masked by odours from the anaerobic lagoons. The severity of odours from the anaerobic lagoons is also believed to have resulted from the high-sulphate environment. It has become evident that the facultative-aerated lagoon can b·e a source- of sulphur bacteria which may seed the following lagoons, particularly when the dissolved oxygen concentrations are low. With wide aerator spacings there are areas of the lagoon with little dissolved oxygen, and in 10

Aerators operating in Lagoon No. 3 at the Whyalla Sewage Treatment Works. SOLUTION

The recurring problem of odours from the facultative lagoons can be avoided by preventing the reduction of sulphates in the lagoon liquor. Prevention is automatic during windy weather, when dissolved oxygen is distributed through the depth of the lagoon , but requires artificial mixing during calm weather. Two approaches can be used to estimate·the mixing power required . The first is based on destrati l ication practice. Considerable data has been published on power requirements fQr reservoir destratification (J.A.W.W.A., 1971), In addition , Marais (1976) has published extensive information on stratification in lagoons antl he states that a 4 kW aerator installed in a 20 hectare lagoon in Cape Town has proved satisfactory for destratificatlon (Marais 1974). Bradley and Alvares da Silva (1976) claim 4 kW is sufficient for up to 30 hectares. Assuming the lagoon to be 1.5 metres deep, this latter figure is equivalent to 8W/1000m ' of lagoon volume, a value which is consistent with reservoir practice. The second approach is to estimate the power input provided by wind blowing over a lagoon surface from Daugherty & Franzini (1965). Power per unit volume

Surface drag x wind speed area x depth

=

Cfp U,/2.A x U 1.2 A = Cf p U 3 2.4 where Cf = drag coefficient

=~ Nr

258 (log Nr) · = Reyr:,old's No. = LU V

p U L v

1.2

= Air density = Wind speed = Length of water surface = kinematic viscosity of air = assumed depth (m) WATER


The approximate power input to a lagoon by wind is graphed in Fig . 2 and it can be seen that a power input of 8W/1000m' is provided by a wind speed of on ly 5 km/hour. E.'<perience at Whyalla indicates that with high su lphate wastewater problems wou ld be experienced at that level. Lack of stratification strict ly impl ies on ly isothermal conditions, whereas at Whya lla relatively uniform disso lved oxygen concentrations are required . This necessitates a greater rate of turn over of the lagoon volume. A design power input of 50-100 W/1000 m' is warranted, rough ly equiva lent to a 15 km/h wind . This power cou ld be provided by an air bubb le system, or a mechanical surface aerator, and is needed on ly during ca lm weather. 800

r-,

"'

t

80

-.:;:___ ~

700 GOO

"-...,

~g:i -:i

I

~

&

REFERENCES Almgren T. and Hagst rom I. , (1974). 'Th e Oxidat ion Rate of Sulphide in Sea Wat er', Water Researc h, 8, 395. AWWA Committee Report (1971). 'Artifi cial Dest ra tif icati on in Reservo irs', J . AWWA , 63, 597. Bradley and Alvares da Silva, (1976). 'Stabili sation Lagoons Inc luding Exp er· ience in Brazi l - Part 1', Eff . & Wat. Tt. J ., 16, 619. Broc kett 0 . D., (1976). 'Some Causes of Bi ological In stability and Th eir Effect on Algal Popu lati on Levels in Was te Trea tm ent Lagoons', 8th Int. Cont . on Wat. Po ll Res., Sydn ey . Chen K. Y. and Morr is J . C. , (1970). ·Qxida\'io n oi Aqueous Sulfide by 0 ,, 5t h Int. Cont. on Wat. Poll. Res. , San Francisco. Daughert y R. L. and Franzini J . B., (1 965). ' Flu id Mechani cs with Eng ineering Appli ca tions', 6th ed ., McGraw.Hill , New York. Gloy na E. F. and Espin o E., (1969). " Sulfide Produ cti o n in Was te Stabi lizati o n Pond s" , J . SEO., Proc. ASC E, 95, SA3, 607; (di sc ussion 96, SA2, 628, 1970). Marais, G. v. R., (1966). ' New Fac tors in th e Des ign, Ope rat ion and Perfo rm· ances of Waste·stabiliza t ion Ponds,' Bull. Wld. Hlt h. Org. , 3 , 737 . Marai s G. v. R., (1974). ' Faecal Bac terial Kineti cs in Stabilizat io n Pon ds', J . EEO, Proc. ASC E, 100, EE1 , 11 9. Middl eton A. C. and Lawrence A. W., (1977). 'Kin et ics o f Microb ial Sulf ate Redu c ti o n,' J . WPCF, 49, 1659.

5 00

4 00

A.W.W.A. MEMBERSHIP

300

Requests for Application Forms for Membership of the Association shou ld be addressed to the appropriate Branch Secretary.

-2

....:i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The perm ission of the Engineering and Water Supp ly Department to publish this paper is gratefully'~ cknowledged .

2 00

100

0

5

10

15

Wind .Spud

20

25

(km/ h )

Fig . 2: Approximate power input to lagoons provided by the wind.

At 100 W/1000 m', the power required in lagoon 4 at Whyal la is 5 kW. However, to provide interchangeability with the other seven aerators, and to increase the aeration capacity in lagoon 3, two additional 15 kW aerators have been purchased and the disposit ion is now eight in lagoon 3 and one in lagoon 4. Other modifications include removal of the baffle fences and bypassing of lagoons 5 and 6. Lagoon 7 is too shal low for mechanical aeration (0.9 metres) but has never been observed to turn anaerob ic; no artificial mixing is therefore planned. An alternat ive approach with new lagoons, recommended by Gloyna (1969), is to limit the organic loading in proportion to the su lphate concentration in the wastewater in an effort to ensure that anaerobic conditions do not deve lop . Gloyna has derived relat ionships between limiting BOD loadings and sulphate concentrations from the results of experiments carried out in drums which exh ibited some degree of strat ification. Based on experience at Whyall a, two objection.s can be raised to Gloyna's procedure. First ly, Gloyna's equations indicate that the first facu lative lagoon at Whyalla, both before and after abandoning the anaerobic lagoons, has been too highly loaded for aerobic conditions to exist, whereas under the usua l weather conditions no prob lems have been experienced over many years of operation. It wou ld be cheaper to provide mechanica l mixing equipment to prevent the occasional occurrence of odourous condi tions than to increase the sizes of the lagoons. Second ly, anaerob ic conditions have been experienced in lagoon 6, which has a very light organic load . It is therefore doubtfu l whether restriction of organic loading alone could guarantee the complete absence of odours. WATER

Membership is in four categories: 1. Member - qual ifications su itab le for membersh ip in the Inst. of Engineers, or other suitab le professiona l bodies . ($12 p .a.) 2 . Associate - experience in the W .&.W .W . Industry , without forma l qua lifications . ($12 p.a .) 3. Student. ($5 p .a.) 4. Sustaining Member - an organisation involved in the W. & W .W . Industry wishing to sustain the Associat ion . ($65 p .a .) Plus State levy of $3 in N .S.W. and Vic. 1978 / 79 MEMBERSHIP SUBSCRIPTIONS NOW DUE

JOURNAL SUBSCRIPTIONS AUSTRALIAN WATER & WASTEWATER ASSOCIATION JOURNAL I enclose herewith the sum of $ .. .. .. .... ... (Australian) as prepayment for supply of the fol lowing issues of 'WATER'. March D June D Sept. D Dec. D 1979 Note: All subscriptions conc lude with the December issue, renewals are due by the end of February for a full year's subscript ion . Price, inc l uding surface mai l to all countries, is $1.00 (Aust.) each issue, made payable to the A.W .W.A . - 'WATER' .

Name . ........ ... . . .. .. .. . ... . ... .. .. .. .. . .. ... .. . .... .. . .. . .. ... . .... .. . Adress .... . ... . .. .. .... ... .. .... ... . ... . . .. ......... ... . .. ... .. . ... .... .

Mai l this form to : Subscriptions Manager , F. R. Bishop, cl- Camp, Scott & Furphy

390 St . Kllda Road,

Melbourne, 3004.

11


EIGHTH FEDERAL AWWA CONVENTION 12th to 16th NOVEMBER, 1979 GOLD COAST QUEENSLAND

NOTE THE REVISED DATE

l

Theme: 'Water - The Indestructible Resource'

PROGRAMME SUNDAY

3.00 6.00-7.30

Registration Desk opens Pre-conference informal gettogether - drinks and hors d'oevres

MONDAY

Offic ial opening followed by keynote address Balance of Day Technical Sessions 6.00-9.00 Barbeque by 'canal 10.00-11 .30

NOTE: Bus orientation tours of Gold Coast

on Sunday afternoon and Monday morning. TUESDAY

Morning Afternoon Evening 6.00-9.00

Technical Sessions Technical Sessions

WEDNESDAY

Inspection tours Morning & Afternoon with barbeque lunch Free evening

Official Conference Dinner with Guest Speaker

THURSDAY

Morning Afternoon

Technical Sessions Evening choice of three venues (Restaurants) Block Bookings at each e.g. a. Revue b. Exotic c. Formal

FRIDAY

Morning Lunch

12

Technical Session Official Closing luncheon by poolside.

TECHNICAL EXHIBITORS REGISTRATION The A.W.W.A. is desirous of presenting a comprehensive approach to its next Federal Convention and as such cordially invite manufacturers, suppliers of equipment and sy~tems, pertaining to the industry, to display their expertise at the convention. f

Arrangements have been made for space to be used for technical exhibits in the main convention room. We request your co-operation. For further details please contact Leo Roessler at P.O. Box 839, Fortitude Valley, 4006 or phone Brisbane 07-528866.

Conference Enquiries Convention Secretary, P.O. Box.~29, Brisbane Markets, 4106.

WATER


WINERY AND DISTILLERY WASTEWATER DISPOSAL IN THE BAROSSA VALLEY, SOUTH AUSTRALIA by M. MAKESTAS* INTRODUCTION The Barossa Valley is one of Australia's oldest and best known wine and spirit producing areas. It encompasses about 55 000 hectares of land, with the southern end being only 40 kilometres north-east of Adelaide. Grape vines for wine production were first planted in 1850. Plantings have gradually expanded to encompass over 8 500 hectares of land yielding son1e 40 000 tonnes of grapes. The area represents about 30% of the State's total grape growing area, and at the current average market value of $5 000 a hectare, represents an investment of over $42 million. · Virtually all the grapes grown in the Valley are processed in the 27 wineries whose capacity ranges from 200 to 15 000 tonnes of grapes per year (1973 values). National winemaking firms have tended to concentrate their activ ities in the Valley, result ing in an estimated capital investment of $77 million. Whilst the Valley's share of South Australian grape productiorr-ls about 20%, its share of wine production is much higher due to the extensive transportation of grapes and must from other vineyards in the State to the Barossa Valley for processing . The major distillery at Nuriootpa processes material for all wineries in the region, and from other wine-making areas in South Australia. The population of the Valley is about 13 000 with the majority living in the three major towns of Nuriootpa, Tanunda and Angaston . Development of the Valley has been along the major Valley stream, the North Para River, and its tributary creeks (see Fig. 1). This stream has served as a source of water supp ly for irrigation, as well as a natural • drain out of the Valley for industrial wastewaters.

_ _ _,._,..,uri~tpa Angaston

An important feature of the Valley is its extensive tourist trade. The Valley's closeness to Adelaide (approximately 1 ½ hours' drive), the large number of wineries, its German heritage and picturesque countryside make it a prime tourist attraction . Viticulture and wine-making are well established in the Valley and along with the tourist trade, constitute the major economic activities in the region as well as contributing significantly to the State's economy. WASTEWATER PRODUCTION Three types of wastewaters are produced from winemaking operations. These have been classified as nonpolluted wastes, winery wastes and disti llery wastes. Non-polluted wastes result from boiler distillate, juice concentrator and refrigeration plant coolant, as well as general cooling water from condensers and wine storage tanks. Concentrations of chemical pollutants are minimal and although warm, disposal of these wastes does not present a problem. Volumes for disposal are gradually decreasing as firms tend to recircu late cooling water. Wastewaters from bottle washing are included in this category, but are only significant from a few of the larger wineries. · Medium polluted wastes comprise washwaters from crushing areas, the cleaning of fermentation tanks, bottling areas and general floor cleaning, and are referred to as winery wastes. Production of wastes varies during the year being highest during the vintage period February to June. Reported total volume in 1973 was 200 ML and varied between 0.3 and 2.0 kl/tonne of grapes crus,hed . Composition of these wastes varies widely depending on operation , time of day and the winery concerned. However, an average composition is given in Table 1. TABLE 1 -

Average Compositipn of Winery Wastes

Parameter Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Suspended So li ds (SS) pH Units Total Kje ldahl Nitrogen (TKN) Ammonia Nitrogen Total Phosphate Total Organic Carbon (TOG) Total Disso lved Solids (TDS)

LEGEND Wineries • Scale Klm.0~-~ 10_ _~20

Fig. 1. The Barossa Valley in South Australia.

• Michael Makestas is Assistant Planning Engineer, Water and Sewage Treatment Branch, Engineering and Water Supply Department, G.P.O. Box 1751, South Australia, 5001.

WATER

Median Value (mg/L)

3 700 420 4.8

28 1.3 9.8 2 000 1 000

Heavily-polluted wastes or distillery wastes comprise wastewaters from continuous and pot stills used for spirit production. Production of wastes is seasonal commencing in February and decreasing towards July, with small quantities being produced in September and early February. Reported total volume produced in 1973 was 62 ML and of this, one firm produced two thirds. This firm is a distillery, crushing no grapes and marketing no wine or brandy products. It distills under contract mare, low wine and lees to produce fortifying spirit and brandy for wineries in the Barossa Valley, McLaren Vale and Clare-Watervale areas. The effect of this central processing is to remove wastes from other areas of the Valley and the State and concentrate them at Nuriootpa.

13


The composition of these wastes is variable, depending main ly on the type of material being distilled. However, Table 2 presents an average set of parameters for distillery wastes. PRESENT DISPOSAL METHODS Non-po lluted wastes and storm waters are discharged directly to the North Para River, under the terms specified in the Water Qual ity Order issued by the Minister of Works to each winery. A ll pol luted wastewaters are stored in dams adjacent to the winerfes. Some evaporation of these wastewaters occurs, with the remainder being discharged into the North Para River or its tributaries during periods of heavy rain and rising floods. Such discharges are authorised by the Minister through the North Para Water Resources Adv isory Committee. Over the years, these storage dams have been upgraded and expanded to provide a total Valley storage of approximately 380 ML. The latest major extens ion was the construction of 67 ML of shallow lagoons by the North Para Environment Control Pty. Ltd ., about 3 km west of Nuriootpa. Th is company was formed to dispose wastewaters from the Nuriootpa complex of large wineries and disti lleries consisting of Kaiser Stuhl, T.S.T., Penfolds and Tarac. One winery at Angaston part ially treats its combined winery and disti llery wastewaters by aeration, using compressed air and draft tubes. Further treatment occurs in facultative ponds, but the fina l effluent is still relatively po lluted (> 500 mg/L BOD) and cannot be discharged to the River. Disposal is by irrigation of pastures for stock purposes. EFFECTS OF PRESENT DISPOSAL METHODS These disposal methods are cheap requiring little maintenance and supervision. However the dams quickly become anaerobic, leading to the production of strong object ionable odours. Th is problem is particularly severe' at Nuriootpa due to the closeness of dams containing large quantities of highly polluted distillery wastes. Such odours are a nuisance to both local residents and tourists, particularly at vintage time. The occasional discharge of these highly pol luted winery wastewaters into the North Para River, even at times of high f lows, adverse ly affects the stream biota, creating odours and unsight ly condit ions . The water turns black, extensive frothing on the stream surface occurs and disso lved oxygen is severe ly depleted: An inspection of the River after the release of winery wastewaters in September 1975, revealed a number of dead golden carp, yabbies, snails and worms amongst the f lood debris. However, it was also noticed that the dissolved oxygen levels recovered within two days and that recolonization by the more resistant species occurred. A further disadvantage of such discharges is the severe deteriorat ion in water quality at a time when the maximum quantity of best quality water in terms of salinity is normally found in the River, thereby restricting the use of such water for storage in irrigation dams. Recent discharges have not indicated such severe effects on water quality during heavy floods, although the long term biological effects have not been evaluated .

TABLE 2 -

TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL METHODS

In the past, the cheapest and simplest disposal method was the one normally adopted . However, the r.cent increased concern for protection of the environment, reinforced by public pressure and anti-poll ution legislation, has resulted in a need to treat winery wastewaters. Another factor favouring treatment is the large quantity of these wastewaters at the one location due to the scale of production and the concentration of activity in that area. Whilst a number of processes are available for treating winery wastewaters, only a few are applicable in the Barossa Valley. This is due to local conditions, the location of the variou s wineries and the failure to develop successfully processes to continuous operation of a full scale plant which produces an acceptable effluent. An outline of the treatment and disposal options which have been considered is presented . LAND DISPOSAL The disposal of winery wastewaters onto th land by intermittent or check-plot irrigation has been successfully used at Fresno, California since 1950. This method relies on the rapid seepage of wastewaters into the soi l before they become anaerobic and develop odours. Wastewaters are run onto plots of sandy loam, up to a depth of not more than 100 mm . The liquid seeps into the ground within 48 hours, leaving a cake of solids on the soil. After a few days the solids dry and break into small pieces which resist taking up moisture on subsequent applications of wastewaters. Occasionally, the dried solids are ploughed into the ground, breaking up any crust which may have developed on the surface, as well as aerating the soil. The rate of wastewater application varies accord ing to its solids content, but for normal distillery wastes is about 900 kl/hectare per 24 hours, followed by a six-day drying period . An essent ial requirement is the availability of sandy-loam soil which has good drainage characteristics. Essential requirements for trouble free operation are: (a) The removal of gross solids especially for distillery wastes. (b) The use of pipes rather than channels for the transport of wastewaters to prevent odour emission during transport. (c) Maintaining a sufficiently level plot to prevent the formation of poo ls. Such a disposal method has limited app lication in the Barossa Valley due to the poor drainage characteristics of ., the soil. BIOLOGICAL METHODS Both aerobic and anaerobic biological processes are available for the treatment of distillery was tes. Aerobic processes include biological f il ters, aerated lagoons and activated sludge. Biolog ical filters have been used as a roughing step for treating medium strength (ca 4 000 mg/L BOD) wastewaters with the effluent requiring further treatment. The suspended growth processes wou ld achieve high reductions, but are not favoured for high strength wastes due to large quantities of biomass produced, the high aeration requirements and the high colour of the effluent produced . Based on South African experience of the only fu ll-scale

Average Composition of Distillery Wastes

Main Distillerv

Parameter (median Values)

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (mg/I) Total Organic Carbon (mg/L) Total So lids (g/L) pH Units Total Dissolved Solids (mg /L)

14

Vintage 17 800 11 900 32.8 3.0 to 4.3 3 800

Post Vintage 22 .800 18 800 51 .3

Others

4 400

3 000

18100 8 400 19.0

WATER


plant treating distillery wastes, the anaerobic contact process was selected for treatment of these wastes. The process involves digestion followed by solids separation (see Fig. 2). tVas t e

Sludge

t Distillery Waste

Effl ue nt

Solids Recycle

Fig. 2. Schematic of Anaerobic Contact Process

The recycling of solids enables .the sol ids retention time (or sludge age) in the digester to be maintained at 20 days, but at a lower hydraulic retention time. The consequently smal ler volume of digester required results in capital saving wh ich is offset to some extent by the cost of the so lids . separation equipment. The min imum hydraulic retention time is limited by the efficiency of the solids separation process, and the need for effective mixing within the digester. Digester operating parameters were determined by a series of experiments using four laboratory digesters. Solids separat ion is comp licated by the presence of bot h disso lved and suspended gas bubbles in the digester eff luent and requires further development at the pilot-plant stage. Effluent from the process wou ld have a BOD greater than 200 mg/L and would thereby require further treatment, possib ly in facultative lagoons. Treatment in a series of aerobic lagQons was selected for the treatment of lower strength winery wastes. This process has been successfu lly used elsewhere is not very susceptible to variable loading and requires little supervision and maintenance of plant. An economic advantage is the existence of evaporation dams which could be easily mod ified to an efficient aerobic lagoon system . Some laboratory experimentation was undertaken to evaluate the viability of the process for winery wastes and determine des ign criteria. Based on this work, it was dec ided to adopt the process and parameters as shown in Fig. 3. Mechanical surface aerators would be used to provide oxygen and mix the contents in the aerated lagoon. Th is lagoon wou ld be completely mixed, with all biological so li ds kept · in suspension and aerobic cond itions maintained throughout the lagoon depth. The majority of suspended so lids contained in the aerated lagoon effluent would be removed in the sett ling lagoon. The final stabi lisation lagoon wou ld remove any res idual bio logical solids as we ll as provide for a further reduction in organic pollutional load. TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WINERY WASTEWATERS

The wide scatter of wineries throughout the Valley presents a major prob lem to any combined Valley treatment or disposal alternative . Three major alternatives however, have been cons idered for the disposal of all winery wastewaters.

1. Biological Treatment Seven treatment sites have been selected. These sites are either near groups of wineries or where evaporation dams already exist. The largest works wou ld be at Nuriootpa, comprising of a 300 kl /day anaerobic digester for disti llery waste and a 650 kl/day aerob ic lagoon system for treating winery wastes and digester effluent. Treatment at the other sites would be in aerobic lagoon systems. Quantit ies of distillery wastes produced at these other wineries is small and cou ld be combined with winery wastes for treatment in aerobic lagoons. 2. Treatment at the Bolivar Sewage Treatment Works This alternative involves the co llection and pumping of al l wastewaters to Gawler and from there, via the Gaw ler Trunk Sewer, to the Bolivar Sewage Treatment Works for biological treatment. The works has been des igned for a dry weather flow of 160 Ml/day and a pollutional load (domestic and industry) equivalent to 1 300 000 people. It comprises of primary treatment fo ll owed by seco ndary treatment in biological fi lters and humus tanks, with further treatment in long-detention time stabilisation lagoons. Anaerobic digestion of solids is practised. New work required would be the construction of 39 km of 125 mm dia. pipe and pH correction for protection of sewer maintenance workers and the trunk sewer. 3. Storage in Evaporation Lagoons This dispos~I method wou ld involve the coll ection and pumping oVall wastewaters in the Val ley to large, shallow evapor~ion lagoons located remotely from residentia l development. Two possible sites for these lagoons have been considered. This alternative is only an extension of the present practice, but lagoons wou ld be located in a higher evaporation rate area and be sufficient ly isolated to prevent odour nuisance in the towns. Six, one metre deep lagoons covering an area of 20 hectares would be required. The length of pipe which might be needed to collect and transfer the wastes to this facility depends on the site and wou ld be up to 76 km of pipe ranging in size from 80 to 200 mm dia. These alternat ives have been costed and biolog ical treatment wou ld be the most expensive due mainly to the provision of anaerobic digestion. Effluent disposal especially from the Nuriootpa works wou ld stil l be e problem due to the high level of nutrients and its average salinity of 2 100 mg/L. The econom ic ranking of the other two alternatives depends on a number of factors v,c lud ing how much cost should be attributed to the treatment of these winery wastewaters at the Bolivar Sewerage Treatment Works and the remoteness of the site chosen for the evaporation lagoons. The preferred alternative will be one determined by financial considerat ions and environmental acceptability. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The work undertaken by M. C. Saunders, Sen ior Chemist, State Water Laboratories in investigating the nature of winery wastewaters and in conducting the experimental • work on anaerobic and aerobic treatment of these wastewaters is gratefully acknow ledged, along with the work done by K. J . Hart ley, Planning Engineer in the development of the treatment processes. The ·permission of the Director"General and Engineer-in-Chief of the Eng ineering and Water Supply Department to write and publish this paper is also acknow ledged.

Fig. 3. Schematic of Aerobic Lagoon Treatment Process

Inf low wi ne r y wastewate r s

. .

Fi ne Sc r een

.-

Aerat e d Lagoo n

De t e ntion Time= 10 day s Eff e ctive Depth = 3 m WATER

-

.

Sludge Se ttling Lagoon

...

Sta b i 1 i s at io n Lagoon

D.T.

9

d

[) . T .

5

E. [).

2 . ?. m

E. D.

1. 2 m

Efflu e nt

-

d

15


PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN EXTENDED AERATION PACKAGE PLANTS P. Gebbie and G. Enbom* INTRODUCTION Tightening effluent discharge legislation may soon require package sewage treatment plants discharging into inland waterways or protected catchments (e.g . Westernport Bay, Vic.) to incorporate phosphorus removal facili ties. At present few sewage treatment plants in Australia feature phosphorus removal: Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre and Sunbury Water Pollution Control Centre are notable examples. Extended Aeration (EA) Package Sewage Treatment Plants (PSTP) have proved to be a successful means of providing temporary wastewater treatment facilities for domestic sub-divisions. At present little experience is available as to the application of phosphorus removal facilities to EA package plants, either by chemical/biological or direct addition methods using aluminium salts. This paper presents results of an EA PSTP effluent survey establishing likely levels of total P in package plant effluent (influent), as well as other effluent quality characteristics . Results ,o f a bench-scale treatability study using direct addition of NaAIO 2 are outlined. Operating and capital costs for P removal facilities for EA PSTP are presented . Alum and sodium aluminate are the most commonly used Al salts for P removal. Locally, alum is the cheapest source ot Al, particularly if purchased as "liquid alum" (45% solution). Grigoropoulos (1971), Jenkins (1971), Minton and Carlson (1972), Bowman (1975), Schmidke (1976), Hsu (1975), Long and Nesbitt (1975) and others have presented data for removal of P from activated sludge (AS) processes using alum. The alum is added directly to the biomass at the end of the aeration tank, or between the aeration and secondary sedimentation tanks. Typi cally, total and soluble P is reduced to 1.5 and 0.1-0.5 mg/I respectively, depending on the Al :P ratio adopted

(1 .3-1.5). Sodium aluminate (NaAIO,) addition is not as popular as alum for chemical/ biological P removal. At an Al:P ratio of 1.8 (W/W) approximately 85-90% total P removal is expected. It has been • Peter Gebbie and Graeme Enbom are Chemi'cal Engineer and Chemist re spectively, Boby Laboratory Services, William Boby and Co. (Australia) Pty. Ltd. , 44 Koornang Road, Scoresby, 3179.

16

suggested by Jenkins (1971) that total P levels of less than 1 mg/I will be difficult to achieve with aluminate addition due to solubility considerations. Lin and Carlson (1975) have suggested ttiat NaAIO, is not as effective as alum in low alkalinity wastewaters . On the other hand , packaged EA sewage treatment plants often show high levels of nitrification. Since alkalinity is consumed during nitrification, for soft, low alkalinity · wastewaters considerable pH depression can result. Sanders & Fimmel (1978) and Salvador & O'Brien (1977) have discussed the lowering of mixed liquor pH due to nitrification and the importance of bicarbonate alkalinity in EA plants. Sherrard (1976) has indicated that the primary factors affecting alkalinity destruction in nitrification are the sludge age of the process and the influent BOD. :N ratio. Complete destruction of wastewater alkalinity causes the pH to decrease, resulting in dispersed AS floe , increased effluent turbidity and reduced treatment plant performance. Sludge "bulking " {)lay occur due to "sourness" accompanying nitrification with subsequent denitrification leading to sludge rising in the final settling tank. For mixed liquor alkalinities of less than 20-40 mg/I, pH buffering of the mixed liquor may not be adequate. The addition of alum .to precipitate phosphorus results in a maximum alkalinity loss of 5.6 kg/kg Al. For EA processes, it is obvious that addition of Al salts will cause a further loss of alkalinity resulting in lowering of mixed liquor pH, reduced phosphorus and possible BOD. removal. Although more expensive, NaAIO, provides alkalinity whilst still being a source of Al. This offers process advantages in EA plants where chemical/biological P removal is required . PACKAGE PLANT SURVEY In order to determine likely levels of total and soluble phosphorous present in EA package plant effluents, a sampling programme was undertaken. For EA processes Stall and Sherrard (1976) indicate that little removal of P occurs by sludge synthesis because of the high sludge age. It can therefore be assumed that influent concen trations are virtually the same as the observed effluent concentrations. Twelve PSTP's, varying in capacity from 2.7 - 36 m 3 /d, were examined during June-September 1976. Seven plants were installed at factories, one in an office block, two at

hotels and one each at a caravan park and school. Several of the factories discharged limited amounts of tradewaste to the package plants. Most PSPT's were gravity flow ; several being grossly overloaded with respect to flow and BOD • . A total of 27 samples were taken . Results obtained are given as probability plots, Figures 1-3 In addition, NH,-N was determined on three EA package plant effluent samples and noted to be in the range 41-50 mg/L. Nitrate-N was present to the extent of 22-40 mg/I. Package plants achieving a high degree of nitrifica-

20

18 16

14

10 8

20

40

60

80

90 95

.,.

Percent time equal to or less than Fig. 1: probability occurrence plot of EA PSTP effluent total and soluble orthophosphate P.

60

~ 40 O'>

I=

20

40

60

80

90 95

Percent time equal to or less than Fig . 2: probability occurrence plot of EA PSTP effluent BOD. and SS. WATER


tion were noted to have effluent alkalinities in the range 0-76 mg/L, with pH as low as 4.1- 6.2, confirming the importance of alkalinity in EA PSTP's. From Figure 1 the 80 percentile total P level noted is 14.8, whilst soluble orthophosphate phosphorus 13.2 mg/L. It is suggested that in the absence of additional data, an influent total P level of 14- 15 mg/L be used to des ign P removal faci lities for EAPSTP.

It is interesting to note the poor quality of effluent produced from the package plants with respect to BOD, and SS. Fifty percent of the time the BOD, and SS were less than 37 and 32 mg/I respectively. These results may be compared with those obtained by a Department of Health, Victoria (1978) survey of nine AS package plants of capachy 1.2- 60 m' /d . For 49 grab samples taken, 37 % showed a BOD, greater than 20 and 53% a SS greater than 30 mg/L. Possible reasons for poor perSTOCK SOL . NO .

CONSTITUENT

FEED SOLUTION CONC ' N , mg/ I 780 24 228 160

300

8

l

BONOX GLYCEROL VEGEM ITE t,,rl, Ci!.

200

7

2

Mgso, . 7H2o

1 00 7.4 0.8 8.8 22 . 0 160 . 0 20.0

K2HP0 4 Na 2co 3

36 . 0 300 . 0

1 00

MnSO, . 4H 20 cuso 4 . 5H 20 ZnS0, . 7H20 FeS0 4 . 7H20 Na 2S0 4 CaC i!. 2

6

3 5 20

40

60

80

90 95

Percent time equal to or less than Fig. 3: probability occurrence plot of EA PSTP effluent alkalinity and pH.

Table 1: chemical composition of synthetic wastewater (based on hydrolysed meat and yeast extracts with added minerals).

---@

0

BENCH-SCALE STUDY To determine the practicability of direct addition of sodium aluminate to achieve P removal in an activated sludge plant operated in the EA mode, a bench-scale study was undertaken . EXPERIMENTAL A 3.65 I cy li ndrical activated sludge unit fitted with an internal settling compartment (0.25 I) was dosed with a synthetic wastewater of composition given in Table 1. This allowed wastewater of a constant composition to be fed to the AS plant . Figure 4 gives details of the bench-scale treatment plant.

The wastewater was prepared as 3 stock solutions and diluted as required with tap-water (30 ml/I). The waste typically had a BOD, between 250-300 mg/I with no SS present. Total P was typi cally 9.4-11.4 mg/I. This solution was usually prepared daily and was dosed continuously via a timer-controlled metering pump at 3.6-4.4 lid. to provide an aeration detention time of 19- 25 h. BOD, loading rate and aeration detention time of the plant were selected to simulate EA operation . BOD, removal rates were maintained at 0.04- 0.06 kg BOD,/kg MLSS.d. throughout the study. These removal r,ites are typical of EA PSTP. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was typically maintained between 4500 and 6500 mg/I. The SVI was between 47 and 72 ml/g . Following acclimation of "seed" sludge to the wastewater (first screened through #18 mesh sieve), influent and effluent samples were taken to determine the performance of the plant. This served to establish the " contro l" performance of the plant without addition of NaAIO,.

CD

In f luent Wastewater 2 Diaphragm Feed Pump 3 Activated Sludge Aeration Compartment

4 Settling Chamber 5 Effluent Receiver 6 Air Pump

7 NaAIO, Dosing Pump 8 NaAIO, Solution 9 Dosing Pump Timer Contro l

Fig. 4: schematic of bench-scale activated sludge plant.

WATER

formance of the package plants examined in this paper include: 1) majority were gravi tÂĽ flow subject to extreme peak hydraulic loading conditions, 2) several plants were later found to be overloaded with respect to flow and BOD,, 3) several of the plants received poor maintenance and attention.

Sludge was wasted directly from the aeration tank once a day to maintain an approximately constant MLSS level in the reactor. The mean cell residence time (8c} of the process was within the range 25 - 48 d, typical of EA treatment processes. Allowance was made for effluent SS and ML withdrawn to estimate MLSS in calculating 8c. At each Al:P ratio, samples of influent and effluent were analysed in accordance with Standard Methods, and the EPA (Vic.) Guide (1976) for the following : total and soluble orthophos-

17


I NFLUENT

At:P (\v/W )

TOTAL p

0 O·. 36 0 . 85 1.10 L 33 1. 52 1 . 93 3.12 3 . 54 OV J.::H-

ALL

EFFLUENT

BODs

TOTAL

%

p

SOL . ORTHO.P

BODs

ss

B0D 5

phate P, BOD, , SS, pH and residual Al. Al was determ ined using Cyanine-R co lorimetric method. DO was monitored regularly (YS I Mode l 5' Oxygen Meter) and noted to be in the range 3-6 mg/L. The wastewater feed was adjusted to maintain a constant residence time in the aeration tank. Commercial NaAIO, was made up into solutions contain· ing between 110 and 550 mg/I Al. Thi s solution was dosed direct ly into the aeration tank, using a timer-controlled peristaltic pump so that varying A I/P ratios were established .

REMOVAL

TOTAL p

SOL . ORTHO .P

11. 45 11. 56 9 . 40 10.40 9 . 70 9 . 95 10 . 08 9.40 9 . 63

149 26 1 283 277 288 322 259 257 275

6.45 1. 42 0.92 0 . 89 1. 06 0.38 0 . 83 0.60 0.48

5 . 95 0. 31, 0.30 0 . 65 0.40 0.05 0.04 0 . 02 0.02

5 11. 3 8 4 10 . 7 9. 3 14.3 8.7 8.0

6.5 26.9 10 12 16:7 12 . 7 17 . 5 21. 0 9 .8

96.6 9 5. 8 97 . 2 98 . 6 96.2 97 . 2 94.6 96.5 97 .1

. 43 . 7 87 . 7 90 . 2 9 1. 4 89. 1 96.2 91. 8 93 . 6 95.0

48.0 97.4 96.8 93 . 8 95.9 99.5 99 . 7 99.8

10.49

262

-

-

10 . 4

18 .4

-

-

-

'l').fl

RESULTS

A summary of average resu lts at each Al:P ratio is given in Tab le 2.

Table 2: P-removal using direct addition of NaAl02 to aeration tank

Figures 5 and 6 give otal and soluble orthophosphate P in the effluents as a function of Al:P ratio and Al dose. Figure 7 is a composite plot showing all resu lts for remova l of total P and soluble orthophosphate P.

..J

',;;6 E ,.:

6

~

3

\

.J

\

<

l-4

Fig. 5: effluent total and soluble orthophosphate Pas a function of Al :P using direct addition of sodium aluminate to activated sludge aeration tank (far left).

~

0..

1-

1-

z

z

"'3 2 ...

~2 ..J

IL

IL IL

"'

"' I

0

2

AL : p RATIO

10 AL

0

(w/w)

zo

oost, "'9/L

AL: P RAT\O (W/W) 0

OS

1·0

1·5

2-0

40

30

Figure 6: effluent total P as a function of Al(lli) dose using direct addition of sodium alumlnate to activated sludge aeration tank (left).

3·S

2·S

DISCUSSION

2

0

90

.J

ztn E

~80

> 0

~

... ..,

l

«

3Z

t2

..J i. i.

"'10

:::>

11,1

+w

u

~

"'

Q..

5 I.TOTAL P 2. SOLU&LE ORTHO P

5

10

15

20

ZS

'30

AL DOSE,.-ng/L

Fig. 7: composite diagram: total and soluble orthophosphate P in the effluent and percent removed as a function of Al: P ratio and Al dose . 18

From Figures 5 and 6 it will be noted that an eff luent total J;> of less than 1 was achieved at an A l:P ratio of appro ximately 1, corresponding to 90% removal at an Al dose of 10 mg/I. Th is remova l is considerab ly higher than that reported in the litef ature. Also shown on Figure 5 are P remova ls reported by Lin and Carlson (1975) and Grigoropou lus (1971). It wil l be noted that the performance of alum and NaAIO, addition is simi lar and that considerab ly higher Al :P ratios are necessary to achieve an eff luent total P less than 1 mg/I for domestic wastewater. The higher efficiency in the bench-scale study is probably due to the synthetic nature of the feed wastewater used. Percent phosphorus in effluent SS was computed to be between 2- 7 .1 % (average 4.3%). This is generally higher than that expected of normal AS (2-3%), due to accumulat ion of AIPO, in the biomass. The fo llowing correlation was derived (least squares) describing eff luent insoluble total phosphorus as a function of SS (correlation coefficient, r = 0.84): P where: P

SS

= 0.03 +

0.04 (SS)

= insoluble total P

=

(i)

(tota l minus so luble orthophosphate), mg/L eff luent SS, mg/L WATER


Equation (i) suggests that effluent SS contained on average 4% P. (I) compares with a similar relation given by Schmidke (1976) for P removal using alum addition to a conventional AS sewage treatment plant. (ii) TOTAL P = 0.54 + 0.025 SS (r = 0.91) Schmidke's correlation indicates effluent total soluble P to be typically 0.54 mg/I with SS containing 2.5% P. Equation (ii) probably describes more realistically the influence of SS on effluent P levels to be expected following alum addition to domestic sewage. Microscopic examination of the activated sludge showed a complete loss of rotifers and higher micro-organisms upon dosing of NaAIO,. This agrees with earlier reported findings ot Anderson & Hammer (1973) and Bowman (1975). It would appear that finely divided bacteria and cellular debris is flocculated by the coagulant action of Al. Sludge was observed to compact well ·on settling, with low SVl's. As a consequence settled sludge SS levels were considerably higher. From Table 2 it is noted that BOD. removal following aluminate addition was still high (94-99°io), compared to that achieved before Al dosing (97%). Suspended solids in the effluent were s11gnt1y higher. Although influent and effluent NH,-N were not determined, low effluent alkalinities (0-52, av. 6.9 mg/L CaCO,) indicated a high degree of nitrification and the consequent advantage of aluminate addition in preference to alum since no alkalinity supplement was required. Low residual Al levels suggested nearly complete utilization of Al during P removal. It would appear that direct addition of Al to achieve P removal in EA package plants is tech1.~A l"STf'

2.1' lll!MOVAL FACILITIES, ALUM 'I< LIM£

~ ,...

3. P RRMOVAL irACILITll'.S,

1&1100

N•ALOz

z80

::, ~60

nically feasible, substantiating the find ings of Bowman (1975} and Sutton (1975).

4 . PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL COSTS FOR EA PSTP IN AUSTRALIA 4.1 Capital Costs Figure 8 gives estimated installed cos ts of P removal facilities for EA PSTP , using direct addition of liquid alum (45% solution) and liquid sodium aluminate (23 % Al,O,) to the aeration tank . The following assumptions apply: 1. influent total P is 14.8 mg/I, effluent total P to be 2 mg/ I, (86 .5% removal) , 2. Al :P = 1.4 (W/W), 3. liquid alum (45 % Al , (SO4), 13.4 H2O) and liquid sodium aluminate (23 % Al ,O,, 12% Al) is used, diluted with recycled , treated efflu ent to achieve a 0.9% Al solution , 4. raw sewage alkalinity 200 mg/L CaCO, , 5. alkalinity supplement 104.9 mg/L lime for liquid alum addition . N·o alkalinity supplement is required for NaAIO, addition , 6. "15:20" effluent required, 7. influent and effluent NH,-N 50 and 10 mg/I respectively. Using addition of liquid alum , costs include the following : liquid alum dosing tank , lid and stand; dual-head metering pump (1 head liquid alum , other dilution effulent) ; lime preparation tank , lid , stirrer and support stand ; lime metering pump; dosing tubing and access platform . Lime and alum dosing pumps would be activated on start-up of the raw sewage influent pump with lime addition to the influent pump discharge. Using liquid sodium aluminate , costs include the following : liquid NaAIO,, dosing tank, lid and stand ; dual -head metering pump (1 head liquid NaAIO, other dilution effulent) ; dosing tubing and access platform. Costs of a car -port shelter are excluded. Costs for BOBY EA PSTP as previously outlined by Gebbie (1977 , 1978) and Gebbie & Sorensen (1977) are also presented.

Figure 8 suggests that the capital costs of P removal facilities using direct addition of liqu-.d sodium aluminate to be less costly than using liquid alum/lime . Schmidke (1976) has suggested that costs of a P removal plant by direct alum dosing will be 3-4% for a 3800 m'/d. conventional treatment plant. For sewage treatment plants below this capacity, direct alum addition was shown by Minton and Carlson (1972) to be the least costly P removal option. By extrapolation, the data of Figure 8 predict 4.6% at 3800 m'/d., indicating these estimates to be reasonable. Operating Costs

a.

Expected operating costs are given as Figure 9 for 355 days/yr. The following assumptions apply: 1) Capital cost amortized at 12% over 10 years, 2) maintenance at 1 % of capital cost per year, 3) labour at $15/hr. (direct and indirect): varying from 1 hour per week for 50 and 100 m3/ day plants to 2.5 hours per week for 500 m3/ day plants , for alum addition; varying from 0. 75 to 2 hours per week for NaAiO, addition, 4) power at 4c/kWh, 5) liquid alum (4.1% Al), 20.7 mg/I Al dose at $4 / kg A I ex works in 260 kg drums, 6) lime, 105 mg/I dose at 7.8c/kg ex works in 4tl kg bags. 7) liquid sodium aluminate (12% Al), 20.7 mg/L Al dose at $5.10/kg Al ex works in 260 kg drums. Percentage breakdowns of total operating costs are shown on Table 3. Although 70-80% additional sludge by weight is produced as a consequence of Al additiorf, the percent DS in the settled sludge approximately doubles, indicating that the same volume of sludge will require disposal, with no additional operating cost penalty incurred . Clearly from Table 3 chemical costs are the major operating cost component, with labour and capital

0

g+o <

*i-= zo

ITEM 50

Ill

0

u < 10 !:: 8 Cl.

capital

% TOTAL 0 & M COS T FLOW , m3 /d 1 00 200

24.1( 1 6 . 5) 1 8 . 6(10 . 9)

( 3. 5)

9. 7

0 . 7 ( 0. 4)

0.6

2 1. 5(18 . 6 ) 1 4 . 0 (11. 4 ) 12. 0 ( 8 . 3 )

9.0

( 0.2 ( 7 .2 )

4.3

( o. 8

maintenance 1. 4(0 . 9 )

6

labour

..,j4

power

7. 7 ( 2 . 9 )

chemicals

45.5(61.0)

0

... <

I}

13.7(7.4)

...J

~

380 +

500

1. 0 ( 0 . 6 )

6.7(1.8)

5. 7 ( 2. 0 )

·-

19

11*

)

59.5 (7 4 . 9 ) 67 . 9(8 1. 9 ) 76.5 ( 88. 0)

70

en

zZL.....+~o_,..1....6~0.....,,.ao.......,_ 10_0_--=",~:-e---'-~+oo="-~~~oo~ WASTl!:WAT!~ ~LOW, ml/d

Fig. 8: installed capital costs of extended aeration package plant (without P removal facilities) and extra costs of P removal plant.

WATER

Percentage breakdown of total operating costs are shown on TABLE 3. figures in brackets apply to direct addition of sod ium aluminate , other entries to alum addition. • exc luding sludg e handling t Schmidke (1976) Table 3: breakdown of total operating costs for P removal plant.

19


age plants located in Perth . For a 140 m' /d. plant O & M charges totalled 2344c/m ' , v,hi lst for 650 m'/d. PSTP: 1013c/m'. These seem reasonable compared to the data of Figure 10.

Fig. 9: total and direct O & M costs for P removal facilities .

The cost advantage of large package plants is obvious from the view of both capital and operat ing costs. For large EA PSTP (and contributing popu lation) the additional capital expense of installing P removal facilities is not sign ifi cant. Operating costs show a different pattern , with considerab le addit ional 0 & M charges resulting from the installation of P removal plant.

cost components decreas ing with PSTP size.

SUMMARYANDCONCLU~ONS

Data given as Figure 9 suggests that the total operating costs using alum/l ime addition are less than those for sod iu m alumi nate add ition for f lows ) 450 m' /day. Direct O & M costs ind icate that direct addition of alum is t he least cost ly opt ion at f lows ) 130 m'/day. Liquid sodium aluminate sol ution is extreme ly unstable with an expected storage li fe of 1-2 weeks . Un less equipment is regu larly c leaned and ingress of moisture prevented , alum ina may precipitate from solution, red ucing the Al, 0 , co ntent and caus ing solution de livery prob lems . Although cap ital costs of P removal fac il ities us ing direct add ition of sodium aluminate are less cost ly, storage and hand ling difficu lties cou ld prompt the se lection of liqu id alum/lime for flows be low 450 m'/d. This suggests that for EA PSTP's of 200-500 m' /d. capacity, installation of bulk chem ical and hand li ng fac il ities would be worthwhile. Althoug h the capi tal cost of the P remova l plant would rise, alum and lime costs wou ld decrease as a resu lt of purchasing in multip le tonne lots. For small EA PSTP, the chemical cost component is not so obvious (Tab le 3). Maintenance and power costs only account for 1.0- 9.1 % of total operating costs for the size plants exam ined. Operating costs for EA PSTP are given also as Figure 10. Bases and assumptions have been discussed by Gebbie (1977). Sanders & Fimmel (1978) have given O & M costs for EA pack-

I.TOTAL.INCLUDING CAP ITAL 2.l>IRECT Ol<M 40

ts11fT1r'w11Tlr'f°LOW~/r

Fig. 10: total and direct O & M costs for EA package plant . 20

1) Resu lts of an EA package plant effluent survey have been outl ined. It is suggested that in the absence of add itional data an inf luent wastewater total P of 14-15 mg/ I be used to design EA phosphorus removal facilities. 2) The resu lts of a bench-scale treatability study suggests that an AS treatment plant operated in the EA mode can be dosed successfu lly with sodium aluminate to achieve low eff luent total P levels. Effluent P and percent P remova l resu Its correlated well with the Al:P ratio and Al dose used. Unusually high remova ls of P observed were attributed to the nature of synthetic waste used as feed . Total insoluble P in the effluent was fo und to correlate with effluent SS, fo ll owing alum inate dosing. 3) Wastewater alkalinity is of major importance in EA package plants particularly if P removal is desired. Alkalinity is consumed during nitrification , and if P remova l using Al addition is adopted, low effluent alkali nities may resu lt with problems of pH depression. The ad vantage of using sod ium al uminate is that a supplemental source of alkalinity is not required to make up that lost during nitrification.

REFERENCES Anderson , D. T. & Ham mer, M. J.: (1973), Water & Sewage Works , Jan . 63-67. Bowman, C. E.; (1975), Water & Sewage Works, Mar, 51 -52. Oept. Healt h, Vi c; (1978). Sewag e Treatm ent Practi ce, Part B. Commiss io n of Public Heal th Melb Jan. ' ' E.P.A., Vic; (1976). " A Guide to the Sampling & Analysis of Water & Wastes", Mi nistry of Conservation, Report No. 23177, Melb. Gebbie, P.; (1977). 5th Aust. Con/. Chem. Eng; Canberra, 14-16 Sep, 239-245 . Gebbie, P.; (1978). Semina r on Small-Scale Sewage Treatment, Uni. Canterbury, N.Z. 16-17 May. Gebbie, P. & Sorensen, E. P.; (1977). Symp. Pack· age Wastewater Treatment Plant, UNSW, Sydney, 21 Jan, (1977). Grigoropoulos, S. G.; et al (1971) . JWPCF, 43, 2366· 2382. Hsu, P. H.; (1975). Water Research, 9, 1155-1161 . Jenki ns, D; et al ; (1971). Water Reserach, 5, 369.a. 389. Lin , S. S. & Carlson, D. A.; (1975). JWPCF, 47, 1978-1986. Long, D. A. & Nesbitt, J. B. (1975). JWPCF, 4 7, 170. Minton, G. R. & Carlson, D.A. ; (1972). JWPCF, 44, 1736-1755. Sanders, B. S. & Fimmel , R. J.; (1978). Water, 5, 1, Mar, 16-19. Salvador, M. E. & O'Brien , J .; (1977). Deeds & Data WPCF, Feb, 3-7. Schm ldke, N. W.; (1976). 8th IAWPR Conference, Post Con/. Continuing Ed. Courses, Un i. Melb, Oct. Sherrard, J. H.; (1976). JWPCF, 48, 1834-1839. Stall, T. R. & Sherrard, J. H.; (1976). JWPCF, 48, 307-322. Sutton, P. M., et al, (1 975), JWPCF, 47, 2667.

• • •

14 Railway Parade, Dandenong, 3175. Phone: 791 -2982

44 Koornang Road , ~ Telephone 763 8988 Scoresby 3179 •• ,,. " ,

BOBY

J

~

BOBY ANALYTICAL LABORATORY SERVICES

4) P removal costs for local EA package plant have been out li ned. Details of operating and capital costs are given . The capital cost of P remova l faci liti es using liquid sodium aluminate addit ion is considerably less expensive than for direct addition of li qui d alum and lime. However, total operating costs show that sodium aluminate addit ion is cost effect ive for f lows less than 450 m'/day . The diff icu lty with storing and handling liquid sodium aluminate solutions reduces th is cost advantage. For this reason it is suggested that direct add ition of liquid alum and lime slurry be used for effecting P removal in EA PSTP.

PETTIGREW CONSULTANTS PTY. LTD. Pollution Control & Water Treatment Engineers P.O. Box 94, Rock lea 4106 Te lep hone 200-1 176 WATER


CHEAP WATER TREATMENT FOR BALLINA, N.S.W. G. W. Montgomerie* Ballina and Lennox Head townships are supplied with water from the Emi grant Creek storage darn located about 5 km north of Tintenbar. Water was previously pumped to a balance tank on Knockrow Hill from whence it gravitated to both towns, with chlorination the only treatment. Algal blooms in the darn during the summer months have worsened over recent years with subsequent odour, taste and colour problems. Rather than wait for a subsidised plant, Council decided to proceed with their own funds, to construct a high rate plant, comprising a first stage of

dual media (sand and anthracite) fi lters only, similar to those seen in California by Shire Engineer, Mr. P. Thorpe. Costs were kept to a minimum by:• Housing the control conso le in a stainless steel waterproof cabinet (left centre of photo). • Providing waterproof control console for the two filters. • Providing two rectangu lar concrete bulk-storage tanks for liquid alum and liquid caustic soda with chemical feed pumps feeding direct from the tanks (left rear of photo) with bulk mixer on top for emergency use.

• Backwashing into concrete channel (right front of photo) with concrete pipe drain therefrom to holding pond, thereby eliminating cast iron pipework. Emergency overf low weir from inlet channel drops into same channel. • Eliminating filter rate control valves. • Using asbestos cement pipes for backwash pipework. • In-line flocculation with alum . only. The plant has been designed so that the adjacent balance tank can be converted into a clarifier, should it be required in the future. The plant treats 11 MUday, (2.4 MGD) at a fi ltration rate of 245 l/rnin/rn 2 (5 g.p.rn./ft2). When backwashing, the other filter is loaded to double this rate, hence the provision of the overf low weir. However, to date the filters have operated satisfactorily at this rate for the short time involved. The plant was completed in November 1977 at a cost of $211,000 made up as follows:$113,000 Civi l 18,000 Chemical Electrical 29,000 13,000 Backwash pump 5,000 Blower 33,000 Design

$211,000

Total

The Ballina Water Treatment Plant is a 'no frills' facility designed to cope with large summer holiday overloads in Ballina and Lennox Head, N.S.W. The photo shows the two filters at right and top slab of rectangular filtered water storage tank to left thereof. Backwash pump and pipework is located at a lower level behind filters. Test

Odour pH Value Equilibrium pH Value (pHs) Saturat ion Index (pH-pHs) Colour 0 Hazen Turbidity - Silica Standard Carbonate Hardness as CaCO, Non-Carbonate Hardness as CaCO, Total Hardness as CaCO, Total Alkalinity as CaCO, Calcium Hardness as CaCO, Magnesium Hardness as CaCO, Acidity to pH 8.3 as CO, Iron - Total as Fe Ch lorides as Cl

Raw Water

Filtered Water

Nil

Nil

6.55 10.2 - 3.6 10 11 14

6.60 10.3 - 3.7

Nil

2 14

Nil

0.5 12

14 14

12

8 6 8

8 6 6

0.15 16

0.05 16

• Graham Montgomerie is Managing Director, Laurie, Montgomerie & Pettit Pty. Ltd., . 8-24 Kippax Street, Sydney,

The plant produced a water of high clarity during the summer months, despite very heavy algal blooms. Taste and odour were reduced to acceptable levels with min imum filter runs of 12 hours betweeQ backwashing. The table shows a recent analysis of the raw and filtered water:Consu ltants were Laurie, Montgornerie & Pettit Pty Ltd assisted by James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. of California, U.S.A. The plant was bui lt by day labour under the direction of Mr. P. Thorpe .

RIVER SANDS PTY. LTD. High Quality

FILTER MEDIA Manufacturers at REDLAND BAY ROAD CARBROOK, Q. 4130 07-2098344

2010. WATER

21


CONFERENCE CALENDAR 16th-19th March, 1979. 'Blue Mountains Water Resources', A.W .W.A. Regional Conference, Everg lades Motor Inn, Leura. Enquiries : Mr. G. F. Scott, James Hardie & Coy. Pty. Ltd ., P.O. Box 70, Parramatta, 2150. 19th-23rd March, 1979. 'Wastewater Treatment - Operation and Design', Chevron Hotel , Surfers Paradise, sponsored by the University of Queensland. Enquiries: Mr. P. Greenfield, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, 4067 . 25th-29th March, 1979. ' 'Water Re-use - From Research to Application", Washington, D.C. Enquiries: Conference Organising Committee, American Water Works Association Research Foundation, 6666 West Quincey Avenue, Denver, Colorado , 80235, U .S.A . 15th-18th May, 1979. "The Agricultural Industry and its Effects on Water Qu_ality " , Hamilton, New Zealand, organised by the New Zealand Committee for Water Po llution Research and the Royal Society of New Zealand . Enquiries: Dr. C. J. Schouten, Water and Soi l Division, Ministry of Works and Deve lopment, Private Bag, Hami lton, New Zealand. 15th-18th May, 1979. '' Artific ial Groundwater Recharge Research Results and Practical Applications", Dortmund , West Germany . Enquiries: Dr. Karlheinz Schmidt, lnstitut fur Wasserforschung Gm6H , Dortmund. 18th-21st May, 1979. Annual Conference, Australian Society of Limnology, Tallangatta, Victoria . 24th May, 1979. 'Energy and Water - The Long View', Royal Society Bu ilding, Melbourne, 2.30 to 8.30 p.m ., organ ised by the Victorian Branch . Enquiries: Mr. R. Povey 741-4171 (YV). · 16th-20th July, 1979. "The Life in Time of Lakes", Freshwater Biological Association, Jubilee Symposium, University of Lancaster, England . Enquiries: Dr . T. B. Bagenal, Windermere Laboratories, F.B .A . , Ambleside, Cumbria, LA 22, OLP, England . 26th-31st August, 1979. "Evolv ing Ecosystems" , Fourth International Symposium on Environmental Biochemistry, . Canberra. Enquiries : The Conference Secretary, Australia Academy of Science, P .0. Box 783, Canberra City, A.C.T., 2601 .

22

27th-31st August, 1979. "Role of Water in Urban Ecology " , Amsterdam, Holland. Enquiries : Mr. K. C. Plaxton, Secretary, Organising Committee , P .0 . Box 330 , Amsterdam, Netherlands. 22nd-26th October, 1979. Internat ional Symposium on Athal assic (Inland) Salt Lakes, University of Adelaide, South Australia. Enquiries: Professor W. D . Williams, Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001. 12th-16th November, 1979. Eighth Federal A .W.W.A . Convention, Gold Coast , 1979. Water, Sun, Surf, Meter Maids, Friendly Beaches , Hospitality, Entertainment, Wide Choice of Accommodation, Pre-printed Papers, Tours and Inspections . Enquiries : Convention Secretary, P.O . Box 129, Brisbane Markets, Queensland , 4106 . The astutue reader will recall that this convention was previous ly advertised for 1st-5th October , 1979. The change of date is not due to a printing error, but was requested by the I.A .W .P.R. 4th-8th February, 1980. "Water for the 1980's?" , A.W .W.A. Summer Schoo l , Adelaide . Enquiries : Dr. 'J. Cug ley, State Water Laboratories , Private Bag P.O . Salisbury, South Australia, 5108 . 23rd-27 June, 1980. 10th International Conference, International Association on Wate, Pollution Research, Toronto , Canada. Enquiries : Secretary-Treasurer, I.A.W.P.R. , Chichester House , 278 High Ho lborn , London WC1 , U .K .

NEW WASTE TREATMENT COMPANY Mr. Mike Walker , former member of the Victorian Committee , has resigned from I.C.I. Australia Ltd ., to establish Pengelly & Walker Industries Ply . Lts. (P .O. Box 118, Newport, 3015) . Pengelly & Walker have exclusive approval to use the I .C. I . Flocor trademark , and are the sole suppliers of Flocor plastic media biological trickle filters in Australia. Other pollut ion control services inc lude site surveys , analytical work , laboratory treatment feasibility studies , process design, and the instal lation and commissioning of treatment facilities. The Pengelly group has operated for some years , and specialises in construction work and mechanica l and electr ical insta llations .

LETTERS Crockett , J . A .; "Giving New Life to Extended Aeration Packaged Plants ' ', Water, 5, 2, (1978), 20-21 . Crockett has raised quite a few interesting points as to upgrading the performance of planned and existing extended aeration (EA) packaged sewage treatment plants (PSTP). Several points raised in his paper are noteworthy. It is the writer 's opinion that the problem of high sludge volume and subsequent effluent suspended . solids often encountered in EA PSTP is due to a lack of regular operation/maintenance attention by the plant operator/ owner. By carrying out a daily sludge settlement test, the plant operator can anticipate the need for desludging. In most metropo litan areas of Victoria, tanker service can be arranged for disposal of waste activated sludge to a municipa l treatment plant, etc. Regarding denitrification in secondary sett lement tanks in EA PSTP , it is contended that denitrification is the exception rather th;rn the ru le . Inexpensive timer contro ls can be arranged· so that sl udge return air lifts can be operated intermittently so that sett led sludge is returned promptly to the aeration tank , avoiding long detention times with the possib ility of anoxic conditions and subsequent denitrification . Return sludge contro lled by timer operated air lifts also reduces the hydrau l ic loading on the second ary sett ling tank , reduces turbulence and wi ll increase the sludge solids underflow. Crockett has raised an im portant aspect of denitrificaticin and that g is oxygen and i lkal inity gain . Dur in_ nitrification , typically between 4.3 and 4.5 kg0 ·2 is required per kgNH 3-N oxidised with alkalinity consumed at approximately 6.6 - 7.1 kg/kgNH '3 -N . If a denitrification step is employed approximately 65% of oxygen and 50% of alkalinity is returned to the process. The writer doubts the cost/benefit of a denitrification step for small EA packaged plants , as outlined in the paper . In particular the writer cannot see how such an arrangement can be easily installed into existing circular and rectangular plant without installing a wet well between the aeration and secondary sett ling tanks to control the flow of mixed liquor . Additionally such a system must include an influent holding tank so that waste water f lows can be maintained constant and to allow constant mixed liquor recycle . The rotating bio logical contractor type of packaged plant avoids many of the operational problems outlined in Crockett's paper. Effluent from a final rotating disc stage contains suspended solids approximately an order of magWATER


nitude less than activated sludge mixed liquor suspended solids levels , conse- ?J quently settling tanks can be designed as true clarifiers . Additionally problems of bulking and rising sludge do not occur . Peter Gebbie .

Mr. Crockett replies : Operation/ Maintenance Attention I agree that performance can be improved by paying more attention to operation , but question whether the degree of attention required can be practically provided . It is also my view that tanker disposal of excess sludge is impractical without an on-site storag e. Den itrification In my experience, denitrification in final settling tanks is a common problem which occurs periodically in many plants when adjustment is not quite right . As many plants treat varying loads , control of aeration and sludge return to avoid anoxic conditions in the plant is often impractical. By providing for denitrification within the plant , the stability of the process could be improved. The bacteria responsible for denitrification are naturally present in large numbers in all activated sludge plants. They readily switch from aerobic respiration to anaerobic respiration, using nitrate and viceversa . Denitrification is really very easy if you provide the right conditions in the plant. There is nothing magical of highly technological about it .

Cost The physical modifications to existing plants are very simple , consisting of a light dividing baffle in the aeration tank, a mixing device and a mixed liquor recirculation line, probably an air lift direct out of the aeration tank. No wet well is required As the mixed liquor recycle should be many times the inflow , no special control of the inflow is required .

It is difficult to put a value on the benefit, but it is certain that many plants currently operating are not meeting effulent quality requirements. It is suggested that this modification would improve the performance of existing plants . Rotating Biological Contactor It is agreed that this form of plant avoids many of the operating problems experienced with current extended aeration plants .

J. A. Crockett WATER

THE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL FEDERATION The Association is a Member Organisation of the Water Pollution Control Federation. Australian Directors of the Federation are elected for terms of three years by Federal Council. In the following article, Dr. T. L. Jude/I, the Australian Director and Member of the W.P.C.F. Board of Control [1978-81), discusses the Federation with a view to encouraging a wider interest by members of the Association. Composition and Structure The Water Pollution Control Federation is an organisation of about 25,000 individual members . The Federation is composed of sixtythree member associations spread over some twenty-one countries throughout the world . Th e Australian Water and Wastewater Association is a member association and has the same status, privileges and responsibilities as any other member association such as the California Water Pollution Control Association and the Institute of Water Pollution Control in the United Kingdom . The Board of Control of the Federation is composed of the elected Directors of the sixty-three member associations and Board of ControL Meetings are held immediately before and during each Annual Conference of the Federation . The Board of Control Meetings occupy a period of about two days. Currently the President of the Association is Mr. Martin Lang, who is a Member of the New York Water Pollution Control Association and President-elect is Mr. Geoffrey Scott, a Canadian and Member of the Ontario Water Pollution Control Association. It is necessary for the President of the Federation to spend a year away from his usual activities in order to visit Member Associations in the United States and other countries during his year of Office . fhe Federation has a full -time staff exceeding forty persons who are responsible to the Executive Director, Robert A . Canham and this Staff is based in Washington D.C. The Staff gives much assistance to the particular Member Association which is responsible for the organisation , in its area , of the Annual Conference. Annual Conferences About ten thousand persons attend the Federation's Annual Conferences and there are a limited number of cities in the United States capable of providing facilities required for accommodating delegates and staging the Equipment Exhibition . An excellent Equipment Exhibition is conducted in conjunction with each Annual Conference . The United States Equipment Manufacturers give great support to this Exhibition and last year at Anaheim , California, the income derived by the Federation for rental of space to Equipment Manufacturers and Chemical Suppliers exceeded $600,000 .

Committees The work of the Federation is conducted by Committees of which th ere are currently thirty-six in number comprising approximately 900 Committee Members. a. The activities of the International Committee of which your Australian Director is a Member, include preparation of a forthcoming issue of the Journal of South African Papers, implementation of an Engineer-Scientist Exchange between the U.S.A . and Australia , the seeking of possible speakers for the Houston Conference to be held during the period ~ -1th October, 1979, the promotion of the Federation Awards System , and the formulation of a ten year programme for International visits of the Federation Executive . All work and travel involved in membership of Committees is carried out at the expense of individual members , however, there are special funds available for the travelling and incidental expenses of the President and President-Elect . International Visits It is traditional now for the President and the Executive Director of the Federation to attend the Annual Meeting of The Institute of Water Pollution Control in the United Kingdom and fot the President of that organisation to attend The Water Pollution Control Federation annual conference . . In 1979 an invitation has been to the President and extended Executive Director of the Water Pollution Control Federation to attend this year's Biennial Conference of the Australian Water and Waste Water Association to be held in Queensland . Publications In addition to the Federation's Journal and "Highlights" which are published monthly, the Federation has produced several excellent manuals of practice dealing with various aspects of water pollution control technology. These manuals review technical practices and emphasise detailed procedures that research and practice have shown to be effective. Substantial discounts (usually 50%) on the purchase of these manuals are available to members of the Federation. Other publications involving laboratory , operational and administrative procedures are also available to members at discounted prices.

23


SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS: COMPUTERISED ACCESS TO INFORMATION by G. R. T. Levick* SUMMARY Engineers, chemists, biologists and others in the fields of water and wastewater can now obtain inexpensive computerbased literature searches . The Central Information Service of CSIRO subscribes to the Selected Water Resources Abstracts of the U.S.D.I. and now offers this service throughout Australia. For $50 a year, a user is provided with a monthly " current awareness" printout . For a normal fee of $20 , a retrospective search can be made back to 1968 . CSIRO will assist intending users to construct an effective "profiles" of interest, and can run sample searches to test their accuracy. .INTRODUCTION It is a characteristic of applied research and technology that it is problem-oriented : the work , and therefore the information need , is interdisciplinary . No worker can be expected to regularly keep abreast of the literature in all of the specialised fields which might impinge upon his problem .area; so there is a particular place in applied sciences for what are called "secondary" information sources . These are produced by centres which assume the delegated tasks of monitoring potentially relevant literatures, selecting relevant items , and analysing , describing and collating them in such a way as to display their relevance to particular problem areas. One such centre is the Water Resources Scientific Information Centre (WRSIC) of the U.S . Department of the Interior (Jensen 1974), which, in association with selected "centres of competence" in the water resources field , produces Selected Water Resources Abstracts (SWRA) . SWRA SERVICES In its printed form , SWRA is a fortnightly publication providing indexed abstracts of articles in ten major fie lds , each of which is broken up into smaller, more specific groups . The Water Resources Scientific Information Center (1974) lists the fields as follows : 01 Nature of Water 02 Water Cycle 03 Water Supply Augmentation and Conservation 04 Water Quantity Management and Control 05 Water Quality Management and Protection 06 Water Resources Planning 07 Resources Data 08 Engineering Works 09 Manpower, Grants and Facilities 10 Scientific and Technical Information The printed indexes, however, are only one way of utilizing the computerised data base from which they are produced . The Central Information Service of CSIRO has computeraccess to this data base, and can provide any interested user with information from it in either of two modes : (a) Current Awareness In this mode, a user is provided monthly with a printout on perforated cards of those items appearing in that month 's SWRA issues which correspond to his individual interests, as defined by a machine-readable "profile" . (The term "profile" is discussed in more detail below.) The printout of each item contains the full SWRA entry, i.e . author(s) ; institutional afmlation ; title; publication and citation ; abstract ; and listing of index subject headings and keywords . An annual subscription of $50 is charged for this service , _by which, in effect, the computer performs for the user the task of consulting the index and selecting and recording the references to articles of interest to him. (b) Retrospective In this mode, the computer searches the cumulated entries to SWRA since its inception in 1.968 , and selects, by means of his individual profile, all those items of interest to the user. In this way, a user can perform a comprehensive literature search of his topic in a matter of hours - or days , if

â&#x20AC;˘ CS/RO Central Information Service, East Melbourne 3002 .

24

postage is involved. Because of the storage volume required , it is not possible in the retrospective mode to provide abstracts of each item retrieved ; however, all other details are provided , together with a reference to the appearance of the abstract in the printed SWRA journal . For this service, there is a minimum charge of $20 per search , or the actual rec urrent costs of performing the search if they exceed that figure. PROFILE CONSTRUCTION As noted above , a user's subject-matter interests are defined , for the purpose of machine-searching , by the construction of a " profile". The profile is essentially a logical combinat ion of sets of character strings ; character strings may make up words , or parts of words , or arbitrary alphanumeric symbols (as , for instance , in the SWRA data base, "06" represents the field " Water Resources Planning"). For simplicity of exposition, let us take an example, and assume that the computer is instructed to search only the titles of articles in til e data base for specified words (numerous other options are available, depending upon th-erequirements of the particular topic). The subject area::.ro- be defined is " The design and performance of waste water treatment facilities ". Leaving aside the concept "water" , whi ch we may take as " given " by the nature of the data base , the essential component concepts of this topic are : I. designperformance ; II. waste ; and Ill. treatment-facilities. Each concept is then specified by a set of relevant characterstrings (in this case , representing words), as , for example : I. DESIGN, PLANNING, PERFORMANCE, EFFICIENCY , (etc .) II. WASTE , EFFLUENT, SEWAGE , (etc .) Ill. FACILITIES , EQUIPMENT , PLANT, (etc .) By suitable presentation of these sets , the computer can be instructed to search all titles for an occurrence of a string from set I, and to reject all entries which do not contain at leas t one of the stated alternatives ; then to search the " surviving " titles for the occurrence of one of the strings in set 11 , and so on . The items which finally satisfy the requirements for retrieval will contain in their titles at least on e string from each set; if the sets are effectively chosen and the titl es themselves are suitably informative - these retrievals should bear a close relationship to the specified topic. -, This has been , of course, a very brief and simple introduction to profile construction : there are many refinements and options which can be exercised to define subject areas to any desired level of specificity . :ro give an example , one of the most useful is "truncation " (symbolised by " "" ), by which , e.g . the terms PHOSPHORUS, PHOSPHATE , MONOPHOSPHATE , etc ., may all be represented by the simple string â&#x20AC;˘ PHOSPH". Complete details of profiling options in SWRA may be found In a Technical Communication of CSIRO (Jackson 1975). Central Information Service staff will assist intending users with the construction of an effective profile on request ; test searches on a sample of SWRA data can be performed free of charge . For any further information regarding SWRA, or any other data bases available for searching through CSIRO , readers are cordially invited to write to: The Manager, CSIRO Central Information Service, P.O. Box 89 , East Melbourne , Vic . 3002 Request forms for Current Awareness subscriptions or retrospective searches may be obtained from the same address. REFERENCES 1. Jensen , R. A. U.S. (1974) Engineering Information Services and the role of the Water Resources Scientific Information Centre. J.lnst.Engrs.Aust . 46 (11 -12): 9-12 , 15 2. Water Resources Scient ific Information Center (1974) . Abstracting and Indexing Gulde . WRSIC, Washington 3. Jackson , G. L. (1975). Profiling for Selected Water Resources Abstracts . CSIRO Central Information , Library and Editorial Section Tech .Memo . No. 6

WATER


total call~b,,,ty ~,- • Q

1n

MUNICIPAL WASTE· INDUSTRIAL WASTE · INDUSTRIAL PROCESS. POTABLE WATER Grit Removal Plant Trummer Tube Screw Pumps Screenings Press & Bagger Unit Circu lar Sedimentation Tank Scrapers Rectangular Sed imentation Tank Scrape rs Sludge Consolidation Tank Thickeners Sludge Mixing Tank Stirrers Sludge Drying Bed Mechanical Lifters Sand Bed Lifters Standard ised Activated Sludge Plant for Small Populations up to 20,000 persons Aerobic Sl udge Digestion Di ffused Air Activa ted Sludge Plant Automa tic Con trol Systems fo r Activated Sludge Plant

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"- ~ef!~~~n~y~i!!!~!tey Engineering ~:o,:~eT}!~ Offices: Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Auckland (N.Z.) Hawker Siddeley Group supplies electrical and mechanical equipment with world-wide sales and service. Agents for: Hawker Siddeley Water Engineering Ltd. (Templewood Hawksley Activated Sludge) 2077HS


Study the basic features of a solid-bowl, continuous-discharge Sharples Super-D-Canter ÂŽ centrifuge.

2 3

4

5

6

7 8

9

10 11

Internal design and operating G level selected for optimum performance on sludge to be handled. Wide range of sizes. Torque overload release is simpl e and can be reset without tools. Provision for coagulant additions (internal or external) where optimum use can be made of them. Selected hard surfacing provided where needed most - feed ports of conveyor, feed zone, discharge ports, housing, flight edges and faces of conveyor. All components designed to highest standards for operation over a wide range (up to 3100 x G) of G forces . G level selected according to type of sludge. Replaceable liners protect casing in solids-discharge area, and in the bowl opposite feed ports. One-piece, heavy, cast-iron base reduces vibration. Conveyor and bowl-speed differential infinitely controlled to optimize process performance. Forced-feed oil circulating system is floor mounted and connected to the centrifuge by flexibl e connections. Heavy-duty bearings, designed for long life, support rotating assemb ly. High throughput and cost/perform ance because of many internal designs and G levels available. Highest Sigma (pool surface area x G) available.

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12 Tungsten -carbide feed-port inserts for long wear. 13 Heavy duty planetary gear boxes. 14 Automatic operational monitoring systems. 15 Tungsten-carbide tiles in beach area, if required, for particularly abrasive sludges.

The Sharp les Super-D-Canter centrifuge is built to the highest standards with no-compromise design. Our philosophy is to give water and wastewater treatment plants a cost-effective, rugged, and adaptable thickening and dewatering centrifuge. As a result the Sup~ _,,_ r:;}-Ganter centrifuge is not limited by de-

Operation of a horizontal Super-D-Canter cent rifuge.

Profile for australianwater

Water Journal December 1978  

Water Journal December 1978