Edition 6: March, 2017

Page 1

Australian Music & Psychology Society

March, 2017

Edition 6

Australian Music & Psychology Society Newsletter I got rhythm Welcome to the “March” issue of the AMPS Newsletter. We’d like to kick 2017 off with a a strong beat, in a topic that is personally of great interest to me: rhythm and entrainment! It really is a timely topic, that should be of interest to everyone. Music is a temporal art. Just as with comedy, it’s all in the timing. Although some musicians have certain reputations for being a bit loose with their tempo (as a classical singer, I would know), successfully making music with others requires us to agree on a beat. It doesn’t matter what notes we play, if they’re not in time, they’re wrong. As we’ll see in this issue, rhythm is more than just an integral part of a good performance. We start off with a very rapid overview of the biology of entrainment, drawn from my experiences on exchange at the Cognitive Biology department of the University of Vienna. One of the issues with the synchronisation/entrainment literature is that the words synchronisation, entrainment and even imitation are sometimes used interchangebly, an issue which James Richmond tries to disentangle with his piece. Nicholas Baker then takes a theraputic angle on the topic by considering the rhythms we all hear at the very start of life. Hopefully we’ll inspire a few of you to get out your dancing shoes. One of the perks of studying abroad is that I’ve been able to check out the local swing dance scenes as I’ve travelled. People say music is the universal language, but I’d say dance must be included in that sentiment. The only words you need to initiate some social rhythmic entrainment in a new country is the local equivalent for “would you like to dance?”

Don’t forget! The next Newsletter will be released in (or around) June, and will focus on music and memory. If this sounds like your thing, please submit your articles to us by the 15th of May, or even send us an email earlier to pitch an idea for an article (that way you can be sure we’ll save a space for you). You can also tweet to us at @AusMusPsySoc and use the #musicscience hashtag, or post on the AMPS Facebook group. These newsletters are only the start of the conversation, so we’d love to have any comments, feedback, fan art, etc. If you read nothing else in this edition, check out the back page for upcomming Music Psych events in Australia. Looking forward to seeing you all at at the 3rd AMPS conference! Tschüss, Joshua Bamford

Inside this issue The evolution of dance ............... 2 5 mins with Tom Dickson ............ 4 Coming to terms with synch ....... 5 The placental whoosh................. 6 Interpreting beats in the brain.... 7 Upcoming Aussie events............. 8

Calendar of events  15th of May, 2017. Articles for AMPS newsletter due. Submissions should be between 500 and 1000 words and may report original research, opinion or summary of others’ research. Submissions to: editors.AMPS@gmail.com  7th-9th of December, AMPS2017.

Editorial team Joshua Bamford, Anna Fiveash, Rebecca Gelding, Solange Glasser, James Richmond.

Previous AMPS Newsletters can be found at https://issuu.com/ ausmuspsysoc For more about AMPS, find us on social media!

The evolution of dance - dolphins, hormones and social bonding Joshua Bamford (University of Jyväskylä, University of Vienna)

While many readers may not agree, humans are really good at dancing. Our capacity for rhythmic entrainment is a unique skill possessed by only a handful of species on the planet. It requires complex cognition to perceive periodic stimuli, predict the beat, and then coordinate motor production in time with that prediction. Humans can do this, but we are still unsure about many other animals. Interest in the rhythmic abilities of other species exploded following the discovery of Snowball the parrot. Since then, it has been shown that a number of birds, in addition to sea lions, dolphins, elephants and some primates, possess some degree of rhythmic perception.

dance. The rhythmic complexity and coordination between large numbers of individuals is also quite exceptional in the animal kingdom. We are only just beginning to understand how complex the cognitive systems required to synchronise actions are, with researchers looking at everything from musical ensembles to tango dancers. An important principle in evolution is that costly traits don’t last long unless they convey some benefit. So, why would some species invest valuable brain power on the range of cognitive abilities required to dance? One of the primary theories, explaining why we invest so much time to moving in time, is the social grooming hypothesis.

Of course, an important aspect of proper dancing is being able to adapt and respond to the stimuli (either music, or other dancers). This is a complex cognitive skill, requiring action and perception to be matched in real-time. At least parrots, such as the aforementioned Snowball, seem to be capable of entraining their movement to music in a manner that can be called dance, however other species may possess some kind of rhythmic abilities. Macaque monkeys may recognise a rhythmic stimulus, but they are not so good at identifying the beat. The difference between 3/4 and 4/4 may be lost on them, and they would probably clap on beats 1 and 3 at a concert. Sea lions, by contrast, are quite good at clapping in time, and have demonstrated an ability to predict the beat; they will keep clapping even if the rhythm they’re listening to skips a beat. Another sea dwelling mammal, the dolphin, has also been observed synchronising movement with others, although I’m unsure whether anyone has tested them with music. Incidently, rhythmic entrainment seems to only exist in animals capable of vocal learning, suggesting a possible relationship. In any case, it would seem that humans are in a highly specialised and exclusive club within the animal world.

Many primates spend an incredible amount of time grooming each other. This serves two functions: to keep the hair clean of dirt and parasites, and to forge relationships between members of the group. By comparison, humans don’t do much social grooming, which may be because most of us are not as hairy as chimps. Social grooming is also only effective in small social groups; to maintain the number of friendships that individual humans usually possess, would require them to spend most of their time on social grooming. It has been suggested that music-dance has developed as an alternative, specifically because we can sing and dance with many other people simultaneously, thus making for a much more efficient social bonding mechanism.

Humans are probably the masters of rhythm, as nearly every culture on earth practises some kind of music/


Studies have started to find evidence for a unique effect of the synchronous movement in music and dance. The silent disco paradigm is one way of manipulating synchrony between people, and my own research suggests that synchronous movement in a dance setting produces a social bonding effect. Other studies have shown that infants become more helpful following synchronous movement, and that simple finger tapping in synchrony may increase feelings of affiliation. This effect may also be more pronounced when synchronous movement is matched to music,

rather than a simple metronome beat. Even dolphins seem to like synchronous movement, with those who swim in synchrony more often also showing more optimistic behaviour. It has been suggested that interpersonal synchrony increases feelings of affiliation through the release of ‘feel-good’ endorphins, and a sense of self-other blurring when we perceive others moving in time with ourselves, perhaps not even being sure who is leading the movement and thus feeling part of a greater whole. Endorphins are typically associated with alleviating pain and making us feel good for behaviours that historically would have been beneficial for our survival, suggesting that the endorphin system may have been hijacked for social purposes (perhaps because being social is good for survival). Endorphins may not be the only neuro-hormone involved, as researchers in Denmark recently found that providing participants with a boost of oxytocin improved their performance on a finger tapping task. The role of endorphins is complicated further by findings of an Austrian group, that endorphins released through a placebo analgesic may actually reduce feelings of empathy for others. With two possible hormonal systems, one must wonder how they might interact? The action of many hormones in the brain is still poorly understood, although they have received a lot of hype in the media recently. Oxytocin in particular has gained a reputation as the bonding hormone. It may well be the case that oxytocin is released during synchronous action, with a dual aim of building affiliation and also enhancing our rhythmic abilities in order to be better

dance partners. Endorphins may also be multi-purpose, both making us feel good about social interactions, while perhaps also creating a negative feedback loop to prevent over-empathising. I’ve previously argued that a kind of motor empathy may be important to rhythmic entrainment, and the ‘self-other overlap’ explanation of bonding through synchrony would presumably rely upon our empathetic systems. Perhaps the capacity for endorphins to limit our empathy functions is a mechanism to avoid the self-other overlap from getting out of hand. One must maintain a sense of self, even in group dances. However, this is mostly speculation, and more work will certainly be required to truly understand how these hormonal systems interact.

Upcoming International Conferences

Answering the question of why we have evolved to move in synchrony is surely fertile ground for more investigation. More experimental data is required to understand how our hormonal systems are involved in social bonding, however measuring or even experimentally manipulating hormones is notoriously difficult. Even defining and measuring social bonding is still up for debate: prosocial behaviour, questionnaires and proxy measures for endorphin release (such as pain-threshold) have all been used to measure social bonding in some way. If we really wish to understand how we developed music-dance as a mechanism of social bonding, we must also look to our relatives in the animal kingdom for clues. Only then can we learn how, and why, humans found their groove.

6th Conference of the Asia Pacific Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (APSCOM 6), Kyoto, Japan, 25-27 August, 2017.

ISME European Conference, Salzberg, Austria, 18-22 April, 2017. Neuroscience and Music - VI, Boston, USA, 15-18 June, 2017. Movement 2017 - Brain - Body - Cognition, Oxford, UK, 9-11 July, 2017. 25 years of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music (ESCOM 2017), Ghent, Belgium, 31 July - 4 August, 2017. Society of Music Perception and Cognition (SMPC), San Diego, USA, 31 July - 4 August, 2017.

10th International Conference of Students of Systematic Musicology (SysMus17), London, UK, 13-15 September, 2017. The 13th International Symposium on Computer Music Multidisciplinary Research (CMMR), Matosinhos, Portugal, 25-28 September, 2017. International Conference on Music Psychology and Music Performance, Madrid, Spain, 57 October, 2017. 1st Timing Research Forum, Strasbourg, France, 23-25 October, 2017. Combined ICMPC and ESCOM. Three hubs: Graz/Montreal/ Sydney, 23rd-28th of July, 2018. Stay tuned for more info—call for papers expected May, 2017!

Join the conversation! The AMPS Newsletter is a two way street, so we’d love to hear from you! If you have something to say about rhythm and synchronisation, or just want to share your dancing experiences, don’t hesitate to jump on Twitter and send your thoughts to @AusMusPsySoc and #musicscience or post in our Facebook group.


In the media So you think you can’t sing? It could be all in your mind ABC Science For fans, hip hop and heavy metal are more calming than aggravating ABC Radio National Music + VR = Respiratory Therapy for quadriplegics Healthiar.com

A selection of the latest writings in The Conversation: The power of ‘our song’, the musical glue that binds friends and lovers across the ages Amee Baird & Bill Thompson We created a song that makes babies happy Caspar Addyman Pop with purpose: In defence of Justin Beiber Ed Montano & Gene Shill Contested Spaces: You can’t stop the music—the sounds that divide shoppers Michael Walsh & Eduardo De La Fuente No proof music lessons make children any smarter Giovani Sala & Fernand Gobet How music benefits children Dawn Rose

This Sounds Like Science... Throughout 2017, Sydney City Recital Hall will feature a free lunchtime series of leading Australian researchers presenting the science behind music, including demonstrations and performances by local musicians. This Sounds Like Science is cocurated with Inspiring Australia, the national strategy for community engagement with the sciences. Upcoming talks include: Why Does This Hall Sound So Good? 11th April, 12:30pm Why Music Works: From Maths To String Theory To The Brain


5 minutes with... Tom Dickson Tom is currently completing a Masters of Research in Music Composition at the University of New South Wales. He is a student representative of the AMPS Committee, so we thought we’d take some time for us to get to know him a little better. What are your research interests? How musical elements can evoke emotions and the effects of generative music on listeners. Why did you choose this particular field of study? My interest in music comes from how it makes me feel. As a composer I wanted to know how to create more emotionally evocative music based on music psychology research. What is your favourite aspect of your job? Whilst Masters is my main workload, my job is my start-up Music For Sound Health (MFSH), an app that generates ambient music for relaxation, concentration & to improve sleep. My favourite aspect is exploring new research and implementing it into the app. In your opinion, what is the most challenging aspect of your job? Learning to code was the most challenging part of MFSH app development. What has been your proudest achievement to date? Presenting my honours research at the AMPS Conference poster presentation session. What has been the best piece of advice anyone has ever given you? By working on ourselves instead of worrying about the conditions, we are able to influence the conditions —Stephen Covey

What is your ‘go-to’ piece of music? I really like music that ‘breaks all the classical rules’ but still sounds pleasant. For example Fratres for String Quartet—Arvo Pärt would be my go-to piece of recent times. What was the first concert you attended? Judas Priest. What was the first Vinyl/Cassette/CD you bought for yourself? Offspring—Americana. If you could travel back in time, and give your first-year undergraduate self one piece of advice what would it be? I spent a lot of time trying to find out how to monetize the music I make. I would suggest that mobile has greater potential than film music.

Coming to terms with entrainment and rhythmic synchronisation James Richmond (University of Melbourne)

Rhythm and entrainment are rich concepts that traverse multiple fields of interest and inquiry. This makes for fertile discussion but also presents challenges. What constitutes rhythm for one may seem meaningless noise to another. Entrainment may evoke rich interpersonal interactions for one, and mechanical or biological oscillations for another. The multidisciplinary interest in these topics is a cause of confusion in the use of terminology and a reason to clarify matters for future work in these fields. Furthermore, across the fields of musicology, music therapy, psychology, and neuroscience, there is a growing body of evidence that these activities may promote pro-social behaviour (e.g. Hove & Risen, 2009; Kokal, Engel, Kirschner, & Keysers, 2011). In order to promote a more standardized approach to terminology, a review of the literature was undertaken, revealing that entrainment, and related behaviours of interest can be organized under the broad term interpersonal coordination as represented in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Interpersonal coordination and its subtypes (Bernieri & Rosenthal, 1991) .

Interactional synchrony refers to behaviours that are temporally aligned, while behaviour matching refers to behaviours or postures that are similar at a given time, without necessarily being temporally aligned (Bernieri, 1988). Aligned behaviours can be further differentiated by the presence or absence of intention. Rhythmic synchronisation typically involves intentional alignment to a shared temporal framework. Exemplified in music and dance, rhythmic synchronisation is a conscious, overt, interpersonal behaviour requiring attention, anticipation and temporal adaptation (Keller, Novembre, & Hove, 2014; Repp, 2005). Entrainment, on the other hand, refers more broadly to any form of temporal coupling in which two or more physical phenomena enter into some type of phase relationship (Clayton, Sager, & Will, 2005). This includes non-human animals like cicadas chorusing; machines like clocks and metronomes ticking in phase; neurons firing simultaneously; and circadian or infradian rhythms settling into alignment. Thus, entrainment may be neither interpersonal nor intentional, and is therefore

distinguishable from rhythmic synchronisation. To date, entrainment and synchronisation have been used interchangeably in the literature, so when evaluating a particular intervention, careful scrutiny of procedures is required to determine whether or not participants engaged in behaviours that were temporally aligned, intentional, and interpersonal. This distinction is warranted because a systematic literature review (Richmond, McLachlan & Wilson, under review) suggests that rhythmic synchronisation more reliably yields pro-social consequences than entrainment. The robust finding that rhythmic synchronisation yields pro-sociality suggests it could be a valuable feature of interventions to foster pro-sociality and social cohesion. However before such interventions can be developed, further understanding of the process and mechanisms underlying these effects is needed. To that end, the Cognitive and Music Neuroscience Laboratory at the University of Melbourne has recently gathered exciting rhythmic synchronisation data, which sheds light on several key outstanding issues, and has led to the development and piloting of a group drumming intervention for people with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Promising response to the pilot has stimulated ongoing research in partnership with Austin Health, charitable foundation Rewire Ltd and the Department of Veteran Affairs. References Bernieri, F. J. (1988). Coordinated movement and rapport in teacherstudent interactions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 12(2), 120–138. Bernieri, F. J., & Rosenthal, R. (1991). Interpersonal coordination: Behavior matching and interactional synchrony. http://doi.org/ Group & Interpersonal Processes [3020] Clayton, M., Sager, R., & Will, U. (2005). In time with the music; The concept of entrainment and its significance for ethnomusicology. European Meetings in Ethnomusicology, 11, 1–82. Hove, M. J., & Risen, J. L. (2009). It's all in the timing: Interpersonal synchrony increases affiliation. Social Cognition, 27(6), 949–961. Kokal, I., Engel, A., Kirschner, S., & Keysers, C. (2011). Synchronized Drumming Enhances Activity in the Caudate and Facilitates Prosocial Commitment-If the Rhythm Comes Easily. PloS One. Keller, P. E., Novembre, G., & Hove, M. J. (2014). Rhythm in joint action: psychological and neurophysiological mechanisms for realtime interpersonal coordination. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 369(1658), 20130394– 20130394. Repp, B. H. (2005). Sensorimotor Synchronisation-A review of the tapping literature. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12(6), 969–992.


The reassuring placental whoosh: Benefits of adapted music therapies on neonatal health & development Nicholas Baker (University of Queensland) The use of music to comfort distressed infants is one of the oldest forms and purposes of music in our species (McDermott & Hauser, 2005). More recently, a growing body of research has added to the long-held belief that music, specifically applications of music therapy, may benefit the health and development of newborns, especially at-risk or premature neonates (infants born ≤ 37 weeks gestational age). Many of these applications include the use of entrainment, which refers to the use of external rhythmic stimuli to optimise physiological and behavioural processes (such as heart rate and respiratory rate). To understand these benefits, it is important to understand the general treatment context of premature neonatal infants. These neonates are susceptible to health complications due to systemic underdevelopment. Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are purpose-built to minimise adverse outcomes. However, they are sterile environments, in which limited contact with parents risks distressing both infant and parent, and confronting auditory stimuli risks overstimulating neonates’ sensitive auditory systems, leading to distress, decreased sleep, exhaustion and poor feeding (Loewy et al., 2013). Increasingly, music therapy applications and entrainment have been implemented to mitigate the maladaptive effects of NICU environments and aid neonatal development. One key and recent application of entrainment in NICU contexts involves gestational mimicry: the simulation of in-utero auditory stimuli by specialist instruments. Loewy et al.’s (2013) recent two-year randomised clinical trial investigated two methods of entraining gestational mimicry, among other methods, in a sample of 272 premature neonates (≤ 32 weeks gestational age) over 11 hospitals. The first method featured the use of the Remo Ocean Disk: a shallow drum filled with small ball bearings that is tilted to create a gentle ‘whooshing’ sound, simulating the sound of the placental blood supply during gestation. This was entrained to the neonate’s inhalation-exhalation cycle, and used to optimise respiratory rates. The second intervention featured the Gato Box: a small wooden instrument that is tapped to mimic the sound of the maternal heart beat during gestation and to which the neonatal heartbeat is entrained.


The two interventions and control were delivered over two weeks in a crossover design with randomised delivery regarding time of day (which eliminates potential carryover effects of the treatments). The results indicated significant reductions in heart rate to optimum levels by both the Ocean Disk (d = 0.17) and Gato Box (d = 0.14). The Ocean Disk also significantly improved sleep quality (d = 0.26) and marginally, significantly improved respiration rate (p = .070, d = 0.11). The Gato Box additionally significantly increased non-nutritive sucking behaviour (a rhythmic sucking reflex measured without food being present; d = 0.14), which leads to higher caloric intake during feeding, thereby aiding development. The results of the study support the use of music therapy in optimising physiological and behavioural patterns that promote development and health of neonates in the NICU. Additionally, these interventions show evidence of mitigating the effects of overstimulation in the NICU. However, it is important to note the small effect sizes listed above, regardless of statistical significance. The use of gestational mimicry is a novel application of entrainment and is still being explored. The therapeutic significance of mimicking the sounds of the gestational environment by instrumental timbre and rhythm in these interventions has been debated. Foetal auditory development has long been investigated, and both foetal physiological and behavioural responses to auditory stimuli have provided evidence that the maternal heart beat is heard consistently by the foetus from 16 weeks gestational age, as is maternal respiration, vocalisation, movement and blood flow to the placenta (Hepper & Shahidullah, 1994; Abrams & Gerhardt, 2000). This visceral (pun intended) soundscape is the first thing a foetus hears and is constant throughout gestation. Premature neonates are exposed to external soundscapes in the NICU environment that distress the infant; this has been identified as an area for improvement in NICU environments (Liu et al., 2007). Recreating the gestational soundscape with familiar musical elements is an innovative adaption to the benefits of entrainment, however, empirical evidence specifically supporting gestational mimicry as additionally beneficial is yet to be provided, although live and entrained interventions are noted to be

The combination of entrainment and gestational mimicry in the NICU environment is a relatively novel avenue of music therapy research. However, as demonstrated by Loewy et al., this intervention has provided some promising results in optimising neonatal physiological and behavioural responses (leading to favourable developmental outcomes), and mitigating the adverse effects of overstimulation in the NICU soundscape (and resultant distress, which inhibits development). These interventions represent a promising approach by which the NICU environment could be greatly improved and support a more holistic view of neonatal health. Further research may serve to further quantify the physiological and behavioural reactions to entrainment with gestational mimicry in NICU contexts, and additionally quantify the follow-on effects to longer-term developmental outcomes.

References Abrams, R. M., & Gerhardt, K. J. (2000). The acoustic environment and physiological responses of the fetus. Journal of Perinatology, 20 (8), S31-S36. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7200445 Hepper, P., & Shahidullah, B. (1994). development of fetal hearing. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 71(2), F81-F87. doi:10.1136/ fn.71.2.F81 McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2005). The origins of music: Innateness, uniqueness and evolution. Music Perception, 23(1), 2959. Liu, W. F., Laudert, S., Perkins, B., MacMillan-York, E., Martin, S., Graven, S. (2007). The development of potentially better practices to support the neurodevelopment of infants in the NICU. Journal of Perinatology, 27(S2), S48-S74. doi:10.1038/sj.jp.7211844 Loewy, J., Stewart, K., Dassler, A., Telsey, A., & Homel, P. (2013). The effects of music therapy on vital signs, feeding, and sleep in premature infants. Pediatrics, 131(5), 902.

Interpreting those beats in the brain Rebecca Gelding (Macquarie University)

It probably comes as no surprise that in a simple rhythmic pattern, you and I are pretty good at finding the beat. It doesn’t matter if it’s a pattern of white noise, sine tones or a Mozart symphony. But can we see this perceived beat in our brain signals? A recent study by Molly Henry and colleagues from University of Western Ontario, sought to investigate. They set about doing this because of a specific application of the popular ‘frequency-tagging’ approach, which takes the frequency spectrum of the auditory stimulus, and compares it with the frequency spectrum of the neural responses to those rhythms as measured with electroencephalography (EEG). In this approach, increases in beat related frequencies in EEG are interpreted as a reflection of the internal representation of the beat. If true, this approach would be incredibly useful. It would mean we could record children, patients unable to complete a task, or even potentially animals whilst listening to stimuli and determine their subjective beat representation or perception. Is it too good to be true? Well, there are some pretty simple ways that Henry and colleagues explored this interpretation of the ‘frequency-tagging’ approach to find out. Firstly they varied the tone durations and onset/offset ramp durations of sine tones in simple and

complex patterns and showed that simple rhythms were perceived as having a stronger beat than complex patterns. But that doesn’t tell us anything about the brain, does it? Crucially, they found that changing the acoustic features of the tones did not affect the perceived beat strength, but did affect the frequency domain spectrum of the auditory stimulus. So stimuli with different spectrums still had the same perceived beats. Conversely, using two rhythms that had the identical number of frequency domain representations, they showed that differing beat percepts were evoked. That is, they found evidence that different perceived beats could have the same spectrums. Hence, they were able to show that beat perception is not predictable from a rhythms’ stimulus spectrum— that the two were dissociable. What’s the moral of this story? They concluded that we shouldn’t be rushing to interpret and directly compare rhythms and brain signals in the frequency domain, instead suggesting that a more fruitful approach is the combination of solid behavioural paradigms with EEG records to get a better understanding of just what our brains are doing as we perceive that beat.


Check out these great Australian events organised by AMPS members this year:

Global Arts & Psychology Seminar on 28th—29th April, 2017.

Australian Music & Psychology Society (AMPS) AMPS was formed in 1996 and since, has grown steadily. It now represents the national body of researchers in this field, and is a member of APSCOM. The idea to form a psychology and music society came about during the Fourth International Conference on Music Perception & Cognition (ICMPC4) held at McGill University, Montreal. At that meeting, there was interest for ICMPC to be held in Australia. The first step was to form a group that could coordinate the organization of such an event and to form a music and psychology society similar in focus to those in Europe (ESCOM), Japan (JSMPC), and the United States (SMPC). Our aim is to bring Australian researchers together and to represent Australian research overseas. The members of AMPS regularly meet to discuss research, with local and overseas presenters addressing a variety of topics. These have ranged from psychophysics and psychoacoustics, cochlear mechanics, rhythm and pitch perception, to emotional responses to music, musical development, skill acquisition, and social aspects of ensemble performance. At present our Seminar Series, Music Auditory Cognition & Mind (MACAM), meets regularly at The University of Melbourne. We welcome new members, students and researchers alike. Membership is free! Becoming a member is as simple as joining our mailing list.

This inaugural international event will present current research by top postgraduate students at four hubs on three continents: Australia, Europe, and North America. UNSW Sydney will be acting as the Australian hub. The program at each hub will be divided into two half-days (morning and evening), during which participants will communicate in real time with 1-2 other hubs, depending on time differences. Various communication technologies will be used. All talks will be live-streamed and recorded on YouTube. Both live streams and videos will be unlisted: they will be available to registered participants only, in a password-protected teaching platform (Moodle).

Peace, Empathy and Conciliation Through Music: A Collaboratory on 21—22nd September, 2017 at the University of Melbourne. Submissions are open and due by Thursday 1st June. Organised by the ARC Centre of Excellence for the History of Emotions, The University of Melbourne, in collaboration with the Faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts & Melbourne Conservatorium of Music, and Multicultural Arts Victoria, this collaboratory will bring together researchers, practitioners (musicians including performers, community musicians, music educators, music therapists; community development workers; social service workers; arts organisation delegates), and arts and community policymakers to share ideas around the ways that music is used to develop peace, empathy and conciliation. We invite submissions from local, national and international researchers and practitioners, and hope that the symposium will produce thought-provoking discussion and fruitful partnerships between industry, community and education sectors.

SAVE THE DATE: Our next AMPS Conference will be held from 7th—9th December 2017 at the University of Queensland.

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