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generational theory & design audrey e. bardwell

spring 2016 UNLV | hd studio | Prof. Glenn NP Nowak

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preface Tasked with planning future development, much of the current conversation stems around preparing and accommodating for millennials and baby boomers. While one attempts to capitalize on the increasing buying power of the millennial, one must also prepare for the large aging population of the baby boomers. Addressing millennials has become far reaching to the point that every industry is trying to understand their market in terms of generations. For example, the U.S. Potato Board commissioned a study on how potatoes fit within the lives of millennials only to conclude that potatoes play no significantly different role in the lives of millennials as the rest of the population.10 If such a niche market is trying to understand generations, such a widely affecting industry like architecture should definitely be attempting the same. However, in the time scale of architectural work, preparing for just the currently existing generations is short-sighted and negligent. Also, understanding what should be acknowledged as generationally determined and what should be acknowledged as universal would need to be a priority of the architecture industry. In order to pursue the implications of generations on architecture, one must look to the study that coined the term “millennial,� which would be generational theory developed in the works of William Strauss and Neil Howe.

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table of contents 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Introduction

4

Thesis Proposal

6

Generational Theory Overview

10

20th Century Analysis

14

General Architecture: Spatial Analysis

28

Residential Architecture: Spatial Analysis

44

Las Vegas Architecture: Spatial Analysis

60

21st Century Projections

74

Complications

82

Conclusions

86

The Sahara: A Case Study

88

References

96

generational theory + design

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introduction According to the World Health Organization, the average lifespan for the global population is 71 years.7 According to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory the average commercial building life span is 70 to 75 years old.3 According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the longest lasting lodging buildings have a lifespan of 74 years.3 Human beings and buildings (as both products of and in service of human beings) are peers in the eyes of time. Consequently, an understanding of how these spans of time and the events of civilization that occur within these spans of time, not only affect the culture of the human beings through their stages of life, but how that culture shapes the architecture in each of its stages of life. Generation: a group of individuals [and buildings] born [and built] and living [and serving] contemporaneously While generations are often academically recognized as false and overly generalized categorizations, pursuing analysis of generations as they relate to the coincidental relationship between people, culture, and buildings becomes necessary to be fully informed designers not of buildings of the moment but of buildings with wholly realized existences. Furthermore, understanding of generational theory, as it informs the culture of groups of humans as well as the nature of architecture, will be effective in creating design that functions effectively for the entirety of its lifespan, possibly extending its lifespan.

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The concept of social generations has not been as prevalent in history as familial generations. It wasn’t until the 1920s, that a theory developed in order to explain the development and sociological impacts of these time-based cultural cohorts. Karl Mannheim’s Theory of Generations, developed in his 1923 essay, looks at how the social consciousness of age groups was influenced by historical events. Mannheim’s theory treated generations as sequential consequences. Predictions of generational traits are only possible with contemporary knowledge of major events. Another theory, which is the focus of this project, developed by William Strauss and Neil Howe, dictates a cyclical relationship between not only generations but the historical events that interact with them. It is this cyclical relationship that provides value in that it allows this theory to be used to predict generational impacts in decades to come.

“Architecture belongs to culture, not to civilization.” Alvar Aalto3

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thesis proposal By using information obtained in the various works of William Strauss and Neil Howe 5,6, 8, 9, a thorough analysis of the architectural generalizations of the last 6 generations within the context of the social generations will provide indicators to predict the future generalizations of architecture in the 21st century. The Strauss-Howe Generational Theory bridges the relationship between 4 generartional archetypes and the socio-economic and political climates these archetypes negotiate in various stages of their lives. STAGE OF LIFE childhood coming-of-age middle age elder

ARCHETYPE hero artist prophet nomad

TURNING awakening crisis high unraveling

Analysis of architectural generalizations will be structured as follows: 1. A broad understanding of political, economic, cultural, and technological contexts during the 20 year span. 2. Understanding the generations contemporary to the ‘Turning’ and where they are in their stages of life. 3. Identifying architectural typologies within the categories of General Architecture, Residential Architecture, and Las Vegas Architecture. 4. Identify the architectural typologies as contemporary to the ‘Turning,’ a generation removed, and historic. Architecture typologies are not at all limited to influencing only their contemporary time. 5. Each typology is then analyzed within the context of massing, siting/context, spatial proportions, programming/organization, structure/materials, and interiors/finishes. 6. The conclusions drawn across this spectrum of influences to understand generational preferences are then used to predict generalizations of future generational preferences.

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archetype

political CONTEXT

a

archetype

c

archetype

technological CONTEXT

d

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

LAS VEGAS ARCHITECTURE

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

TYPOLOGY ANALYSIS

INTERIORS & FINISHES

RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE

STRUCTURE & MATERIALS

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

PROGRAMMING & ORGANIZATION

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

SITING & CONTEXT

GENERAL ARCHITECTURE

MASSING

3

b

(20 year span)

cultural CONTEXT

1

archetype

turning

economic CONTEXT

child

coming-of-age

middle age

elder

2

4 5

2 7


20 years 20 years 20 years 20 years 20 years

8

20 years

20 years

6

20 years

Drawing the patterns dictated by the generational theory as well as the patterns indicated simply with the passing of time, more accurate predictions for future development are then possible.

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a child b coming-of-age c middle age

context

political economic cultural technological

context

political economic cultural technological

context

political economic cultural technological

context

political economic cultural technological

d elder

2 3

d child a coming-of-age b middle age c elder c child d coming-of-age a middle age b elder

4 1

b child c coming-of-age d middle age a elder a child b coming-of-age c middle age d elder

2

d child a coming-of-age b middle age c elder

3

c child d coming-of-age a middle age b elder

4

b child c coming-of-age d middle age a elder


CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

conclusions

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

conclusions

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

conclusions

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

conclusions

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

projections

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

projections

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

projections

CONTEMPORARY TYPOLOGY

GENERATION REMOVED TYPOLOGY

HISTORIC TYPOLOGY

projections

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stages of life CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE

MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

the archetypes DOMINANT GENERATIONS

NEGOTIATE CRISES AND AWAKENINGS PROPHET END OF CRISIS. indulged children of this post-Crisis era come of age as self-absorbed young crusaders focus on morals and principles in midlife emerge as elders guiding another Crisis

HERO AFTER AN AWAKENING protected post-Awakening children come of age as team oriented young optimists energetic, overly-confident in midlife politically powerful elders attacked by Awakening

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RECESSIVE GENERATIONS

NEGOTIATE HIGHS AND UNRAVELINGS NOMAD DURING AN AWAKENING. Indulged children of this post-Crisis era Come of age as alienated post-Awakening adults Pragmatic leaders during Crisis in midlife Emerge as resilient post-Crisis elders

ARTIST DURING A CRISIS protected by preocuppied adults come of age as socialized conformists, post-Crisis process-oriented leaders in midlife thoughtful post-Awakening elders


the turnings FIRST AND THIRD TURNINGS

NEGOTIATED BY NOMAD AND ARTIST GENERATIONS

HIGH

Strong Institutions Weak Individualism Collectively confident society Stifling conformity

UNRAVELING

Weak Institutions Strong Individualism Society is looking to come together

SECOND AND FOURTH TURNINGS

NEGOTIATED BY PROPHET AND HERO GENERATIONS

AWAKENING

Insitutions are attacked Individuals looking for personal autonomy and authenticity

CRISIS

Insitutions are destroyed and rebuilt Individuals look towards community building and rising civic authority

what is 0 introduction generational WHAT IS GENERATIONAL THEORY? theory?

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The cycle CHILD 1900-1920 Greatest Generation Born World War I/ Prohibition

1920-1940 Silent Generation Born World War II/ Great Depression

1940-1960 Baby Boomer Generation Born Post-War Boom

1960-1980 Generation X Born Social Revolution, Integration/Anti-War

1980-2000 Millenial Generation Born

Post-Modernism, Conservative vs. Liberal

2000-2020 Generation Z Born Great Recession, War on Terror; Climate Change

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COMING MIDLIFE OF AGE

ELDER


CHILD

COMING MIDLIFE OF AGE

ELDER 2020-2040 21st Century Prophet Generation Born 2040-2060 21st Century Nomad Generation Born 2060-2080 21st Century Hero Generation Born 2080-2100 21st Century Artist Generation Born

2100-2120 22nd Century Prophet Generation Born 2120-2140 22nd Century Nomad Generation Born

what is generational theory?

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In this section, the generational data from each period from Strauss and Howe will be cross compared to architectural (as well as technological) trends in the following categories. General General architecture tends to serve the masses while maintaining strong ties to both the authorities it represents as well as to an organizational history. Residential Residential architectural trends tend to affect large numbers of the population. Especially in the 20th century as America Suburbia spread, more and more people began to grow up in similar if not identical living situations. Las Vegas - Hospitality Hospitality architectural trends are important in that they tend to be focused almost exclusively on the consumer experience. Economy and technical practicality are negotiated with the heavier priorities of sensory appeal and consumer comfort.

20th century analysis

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1900-1920 Greatest Generation Born World War I/ Prohibition CHILD

POLITICAL World War I occurs from 1914-18. Prohibition of alcohol begins in 1919. ECONOMIC Recession occurs at the end of World War I. CULTURAL Women gain the right to vote in 1920. Anti-communism begins after the Russian Revolution. TECHNOLOGICAL Advances during this time include, radio transmissions, escalators, airplanes, mass produced automobiles, as well as E= mc2 Radios were in most homes and electricity was begining to get widespread installation.

Fig. 4.1

GAMING Lotteries, both national and state-sanctioned, dominated gambling in the U.S. From the post-civil war era to pre-prohibition.

Fig. 4.2

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1900-1920 HISTORIC

GENERATION REMOVED

CONTEMPORARY

GENERAL

Fig. 4.3

RESIDENTIAL

Fig. 4.4

LAS VEGAS

Fig. 4.5

20th century analysis

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1920-1940 Silent Generation Born World War II/ Great Depression CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE

POLITICAL FDR comes into office in 1932. Hitler comes into power in 1933. FDR’s New Deal policies come into effect. ECONOMIC From 1929, Great Depression occurs until World War II. CULTURAL The economic high of the 1920s, lead to a cultural crisis of the ‘Roaring Twenties.’ TECHNOLOGICAL Advances during this time include the television, the iron lung, penicilin, analog computers, the jet engine, electron microscope, and radar. Radios, telephones were in most homes. Electric light was planned for architecturally in a ostentatious way.

Fig. 4.6

GAMING During prohibition, a golden age of pari-mutuel betting emerged. Horse racing maintained immense popularity from 1920 to 1960.

Fig. 4.7

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1920-1940 HISTORIC

GENERATION REMOVED

CONTEMPORARY

GENERAL

RESIDENTIAL

Fig. 4.2

LAS VEGAS

Fig. 4.3

Fig. 4.8

Fig. 4.4

Fig. 4.9

Fig. 4.5

Fig. 4.10

20th century analysis

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1940-1960 Baby Boomer Generation Born CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

POLITICAL U.S. enters WWII. FDR dies, Hitler dies. Atom bombs are dropped on Japan. WWII ends. ECONOMIC The Golden Age of Capitalism begins in 1945, brought on by increased production during WWII. CULTURAL Brown v. Board of Education marks beginning of end of segregation in schools. TECHNOLOGICAL Advances include the atomic bomb, microwave, color television, electronic computer, birth control pill, and bar code. Radios, telephones, and televisions were in most homes. Hvac equipment and communications equipment began to have architectural effects. Automobile industry and mass-produced housing boomed.

Fig. 4.11

GAMING Pari-mutuel betting was still king, but the gambling scene in las vegas was emerging, notably with strong ties to organized crime. Fig. 4.12

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1940-1960 GENERATION REMOVED

HISTORIC

CONTEMPORARY

GENERAL

RESIDENTIAL

LAS VEGAS

Fig. 4.3

Fig. 4.8

Fig. 4.13

Fig. 4.4

Fig. 4.9

Fig. 4.14

Fig. 4.5

Fig. 4.10

Fig. 4.15

20th century analysis

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1960-1980 Generation X Born Social Revolution Integration/Anti-War

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

POLITICAL JFK is assassinated. Anti-war movement becomes popular. RFK and MLK are assassinated. ECONOMIC The 1970s Energy Crisis causes high gas prices and economic hardships on middle class. CULTURAL Civil Rights marches and movements take hold of the U.S. south. The Beatles come to the U.S. and the popular music scene changes. TECHNOLOGICAL Advances include MRI, CDs, ATM, artificial heart, gene splicing, ethernet. Radios, telephones, and televisions were in most homes. Hvac equipment and electricitybecame solutions to architectural problems. Consumer electronics had their beginnings.

Fig. 4.17

GAMING Lotteries and pari-mutuel betting still outperformed casino gambling, but las vegas’s casino scene was rising, with casinos additionally being opened in NJ’s atlantic city. Fig. 4.18

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ELDER


1960-1980 GENERATION REMOVED

HISTORIC

CONTEMPORARY

GENERAL

RESIDENTIAL

LAS VEGAS

Fig. 4.8

Fig. 4.13

Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.9

Fig. 4.14

Fig. 4.20

Fig. 4.10

Fig. 4.15

Fig. 4.21

20th century analysis

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1980-2000 Millenial Generation Born Post-Modernism Conservative vs. Liberal

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

POLITICAL Reagan takes offic, sets Republican agenda for 1980s. Gulf War takes U.S. troops to Iraq. Bill Clinton is elected. ECONOMIC Reaganomics era. Gas prices drop. Economic growth during Clinton presidency. CULTURAL MTV changes music scene of 1980s. The internet and personal computers change research and entertainment in the 90s. TECHNOLOGICAL Advances include MS-DOS, CDRom, Digital Cellphones, cloning of Dolly, HDTV. The personal computer and the internet came about. Mobile communications began to have widespread use. Personal electronics and operational electronics were widely employed in daily living.

Fig. 4.22

GAMING In the early 1990s, for the first time casinos overtook other forms of gambling in the U.S. In 2000, with license-ownership expanding, macau began to develop a more global casino scene. Fig. 4.23

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ELDER


1980-2000 GENERATION REMOVED

HISTORIC

CONTEMPORARY

GENERAL

RESIDENTIAL

LAS VEGAS

Fig. 4.13

Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.24

Fig. 4.14

Fig. 4.20

Fig. 4.25

Fig. 4.15

Fig. 4.21

Fig. 4.26

20th century analysis

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2000-2020 Generation Z Born

Great Recession War on Terror; Climate Change

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

POLITICAL George W. Bush takes office. 9/11 sets a decade of foreign policy, focused on Afghanistan and Iraq. Barack Obama takes office. ECONOMIC The Great Recession begins in 2008. CULTURAL Same sex marriage becomes federally legal. LGBT issues become new civil rights issue. TECHNOLOGICAL Advances include smart phones, wireless internet , AI, Google, Facebook. Large non-discerning collection of personal data.Mobile technology expands to widespread use. Automation begins to take hold in operational tech.

Fig. 4.27

GAMING A wave of poker playing strikes in the early 2000s. Screen-based, theme-based slot machines take over the casino floor.

Fig. 4.28

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ELDER


2000-2020 GENERATION REMOVED

HISTORIC

CONTEMPORARY

GENERAL

RESIDENTIAL

LAS VEGAS

Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.24

Fig. 4.29

Fig. 4.20

Fig. 4.25

Fig. 4.30

Fig. 4.21

Fig. 4.26

Fig. 4.31

20th century analysis

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In this section, each typology will be analyzed further, including within the following categories Massing General assembly and figure of typology. Siting & Context Typology’s general relationship with its surroundings.. Spatial Proportions Generalized spatial relationship to occupants. Programming & Organization Typology’s general layout of required spaces. Structure & Materials Contemporary building technologies employed by typology. Interiors & Finishes Contemporary interior design preferences as employed by typology.

general architecture spatial analysis

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1900-1920 neoclassical

CHILD

Neoclassical architecture had been popular for the previous two centuries. That popularity continues in the 20th century. Often times credited to the idea that American architects sought to give European and Classical legitimacy to the young nation. Using classical proportions and details, neoclassical architecture lends a formalism to its buildings. Neoclassical’s use in the late 19th century and early 20th century was actually a safe, inoffensive design choice.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Masonry still dominated the turn of the century. Stone and architectural details were prominent on institutional and commercial buildings.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Plaster walls, papered walls, and wood floors are popular, with wood moulding as ornament. Fig. 4.3

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Neoclassical architecture, when manifested as stand-alone buildings, possess a massing with a commanding presence, following the proportions of Greek Classical architecture.

MASSING While urban row buildings possessed neoclassical details, the stand-alone building was sure to be sited with its own autonomy.

SITING | CONTEXT Passive strategies for lighting and ventilation dictated a lot of the spatial proportions. Tall ceilings giving space for rising hot air and large windows to maximize natural lighting were popular.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

These neoclassical building often had a highly formal layout and organization. Central halls with perimeter spaces were the basis for most neoclassical buildings.

general architecture spatial analysis

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1920-1940 art deco

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE

Art Deco largely created a large shift in architectural ornament. No longer restricted to the Greek details of neoclassicism, these details prioritized clean lines and elegant composition. The wealth of the 1920s, before the crash of ‘29, was on display in Art Deco architecture without the unflinching attachment to tradition.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete begin to have more dominance in the structure. Concrete and stone being used to create the clean lines on the Art Deco exterior.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Polished stone, terrazzo with metallic details were popular as a means to show the wealth of the day without needing the more traditional European components. Fig. 4.8

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Art Deco massing still largely was limited to construction technology. However, art deco buildings still had an inherent verticality to their massing. The formal arrangement of masses prioritized the tallest figures first.

MASSING

SITING | CONTEXT

Civic art deco buildings were sited similarly to their neoclassical predecessors. Particularly, during this Crisis Turning building a presence of civic authority was crucial.

Similar to neoclassical, due to lack of active building systems, spaces were tall to accommodate rising hot air with generous windows for maximized lighting.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Formal arrangements around a central hall maintained dominance.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

general architecture spatial analysis

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1940-1960

midcentury modern

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

Modernism began to have a wide spread appeal. Highly functional buildings with maximized lighting and spatial openness became dominant. Creating, at least the illusion of, lightness in the structure becomes the architectural goal. The heavy-handed authority in neoclassicism and art deco styles was no longer preferred.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete will still serve as the base for most structures. Glazing will be minimal.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Interiors have finishes of manmade materials. Mass-produced carpets and vinyl flooring (often with toxic adhesiives) are being employed. Fig. 4.13

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Modernism buildings allowed for taller buildings, but in order to maintain high-function, they were typically thinner towers.

MASSING Siting of these modernist towers tended to be based on best function at their base. Directional orientation was still important.

SITING | CONTEXT Maximizing structural capacity was important to rationalize the investment of these modern towers. As a result lower height spaces were common with ribbon windows.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Natural light was still considered necessary in many spaces of these early modern buildings. As a result, spaces were organized efficiently in order for each to have access to natural light.

general architecture spatial analysis

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1960-1980 modernism

structuralism international style brutalism

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

Modernism continued to flourish in the 1960s and 1970s. Derivatives of the modernist movement include structuralism, brutalism, and the international style that came about during this time. Simple forms are built as the direct manifestation on building function and materials. However, as building technologies became more cost efficient, buildings also became susceptible to serving their systems technologies over their occupants. As a result, some sustainable practices of the early 20th century were forgotten as technology could mitigate these design challenges.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete will still serve as the base for most structures. Glazing will be minimal.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Interiors have finishes of manmade materials. Mass-produced carpets and vinyl flooring (often with toxic adhesiives) are common-place. Fig. 4.19

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Modernism still dictates hyper function in forms. Taller building than in the 40s and 50s due to developing building technologies.

MASSING

SITING | CONTEXT

Siting of these modernist towers tended to be based on best function at their base. As building systems developed siting was less concerned with sustainable lighting and ventilation

Building systems and maximizing capacity has caused relatively short spaces with smaller horizontally oriented finestrations.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Towers rely on a central core for vertical circulation. However, as building systems dominate, the inside organizations did not prioritize the function or or natural pleasantness of the spaces.

general architecture spatial analysis

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1980-2000 post-modernism

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

While the roots of post-modernism are much older than 1980, it entered the mainstream in the late 1970s. The aesthetics of the building form became more referential and ornamental. Instead of priortizing function and economy like modernism, post-modernism blended multiple styles and forms, at times, while even sacrificing the architectural function. The abstraction of modernism was abandoned in favor of more identifiabe architectural traditions which were employed somewhat antagonistically to the practice of the modernists.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete will still serve as the base for most structures. However, as form and ornament become so important figures fabricated via materials like EIFS become popular.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Like the exterior, interiors were largely traditionally inspired. Unlike the midcentury modern movement and it’s derivatives in the 1970s, interiors of the 80s and 90s were more traditional in form. That being said, some post-modern structures were well-served by minimalist interiors.

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Fig. 4.24


Building technology allows for taller and taller buildings. Post-modern aesthetics however dictated less modernist forms beyond the rectangular tower.

MASSING The post-modern aesthetic tended to create selfinterested siting of new buildings.

SITING | CONTEXT Spaces are taller than their 1970s predecessors however, smaller finestrations were prevalent in direct response to the stylistic choices made on the exterior.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Towers rely on a central core for vertical circulation. However, as the form was no longer dependent on function, the inside organizations did not prioritize the function or pleasantness of the spaces.

general architecture spatial analysis

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2000-2020

early 21st century

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

New construction in the 21st century becomes less post-modern and reimagines modernist principles in a technology heavy world. As the architectural world negotiates the same crises of the current turning, sustainable design practices become common place, including adapting older constructions for new programs. As a result, mixing new construction technologies with those of older generations becomes the required technical skill in some construction markets.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete will still serve as the base for most structures. However, material systems like unique curtain walls and metal panel cladding systems have been employed to create a new and different aesthetic.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Engineered materials in the realm of floors, wall coverings, and ceilings allow for more aesthetic based choices. Engineered or imitation wood, stone, etc. products have increased in quality to the point of widespread use. Fig. 4.29

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MASSING

Building technology allows for taller and taller buildings, and contrary to the towers of their predecessors, 21st century towers understand the psychological need and passive benefits of maximized natural light. Consequently, taller and thinner towers are being constructed.

Urban context is more and more understood. However, individual building siting will depend on the individual project.

SITING | CONTEXT

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Work spaces, in particular, are becoming large and more open, with taller ceilings with larger opening to the outside. Unlike their predecessors modern day work spaces are not completely relying on building systems to provide light and comfort.

Towers still rely on a central core for vertical circulation. However, occupied interior spaces will be at a minimum.

general architecture spatial analysis

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General architecture typologies of the 20th and early 21st centuries had some relatively clear reactions to their ‘Turnings’ as well as to spatial conditions experienced in previous generations. 1900-1920

MASSING Over the 120 years analyzed, taller more efficient forms became more popular. During times of post-Crisis, economy was valued in an extend unseen in other turnings.

SITING | CONTEXT The siting of these typologies began by affecting an air of authority and transitioned into self-contained development. Large constructions as those analyzed tended to not be ingrained in an urban context as smaller more vernacular buildings.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS Spaces moved from large and well-lit, due to technological requirement, to lower wider spaces, due to technological advances. However, when the discomfort of these spaces was noted as inhospitable to its occupants, the (over-) reaction was to create larger more generous spaces.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION Generally, space arrangement moved from more formal arrangements to those of function to those that were simply reactive to the exterior form.

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1920-1940


1940-1960

1960-1980

1980-2000

2000-2020

general architecture spatial analysis

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44


residential architecture spatial analysis

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1900-1920 victorian style

CHILD

Victorian style single family homes were often efficient wood or masonry constructed homes. Architectural ornament was often the dictating factor of Victorian style. Heavy ornament is how the homes were differentiated in what was largely similar layouts.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Wood framed homes and masonry were popular and efficient.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Wood floors, plaster walls, and papered walls were popular, with plaster details on ceiling and wood moulding at walls and openings. Fig. 4.4

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Before cars and home-based hvac systems, density with maximized lighting and ventilation was important. As a result, the single family home (sfh) in the Victorian style were mostly thin and tall residential buildings.

MASSING Because neighborhoods tended to need to be walkable, density was at a relative high in Victorian neighborhoods with single family homes.

SITING | CONTEXT Tall spaces for maximized air circulation and tall thin windows were popular.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Due to the thinness of the victorian form often times they were organized with two rows of layered spaces, 1 wide for occupancy and 1 thin for more functional spaces.

residential architecture spatial analysis

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1920-1940 bungalow style

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE

Bungalow style single family homes were distinctly less overrun with detail than the Victorian predecessor. Lower profile lines and simpler wood details were popular. Due to new found manufacturing techniques, this style was widespread with the Craftsman style kits sold through catalog companies like Sears.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Wood frame structure, mixing wood clapboard with masonry was popular.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Wood floors with plaster walls are popular. if there is wood detailing, it is often unpainted and without complicated moulding. Fig. 4.9

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Bungalows featured wider building forms with relatively low profiles.

MASSING

SITING | CONTEXT

Most neighborhoods featuring bungalows still required relative density to maintain walkability. Often times bungalows infilled older Victorian neighborhoods.

The spaces tended to be more horizontal in nature with generaous but lower profile windows.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Similar to Victorian, but due to the wider massing, both rows of spaces could be wide.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

residential architecture spatial analysis

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1940-1960

post-war American style

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

Post-war housing specializes in economy and simplicity. The detail of the previous generations are traded for simple articulation. Prioritizing speed of construction, efficiency of material, and economy of space, these single family homes were often as bare-bones as possible, meeting the demands of a growing population.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Wood frame construction on concrete slabs were popular. Clapboard siding with asphalt shingles were common plance.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Simple rooms with minimal trim and moulding and wood floors with painted gypsum wallboard were standard interior finishes. Fig. 4.14

50


Post-war housing maximized efficiency due to demand, speed of construction, and economic use of resources. As a result, small and minimal rectilinear volumes were dominant.

MASSING

SITING | CONTEXT

Post-war neighborhoods were the beginning of the large and widespread suburban development. With relatively generous yards compared to their Victorian and bungalow predecessors, post-war homes were arranged on new streets, some with artificial serpentine paths. The economy of post-war housing dictated relatively small spaces, with lower ceilings and small windows, few in number.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

As the neighborhoods had less density, homes were organized with the wide overal dimension facing the street. As a result, public family spaces were organized on one side of the home (often adjacent to a driveway or garage) while bedrooms were organized on the other.

residential architecture spatial analysis

6 51


1960-1980 ranch style

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

Influenced by the prairie style of Frank Lloyd Wright from several generations previous, the ranch house of the 1960s and 1970s prioritized low profiles and long lines. It was the first time a derivative of modernity was aesthetically present in residential architecture. Neighborhoods of ranch homes were numerous as they continued to provide for the expanding population.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Masonry and wood frame construction on concrete slab was popular.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

As new technologies found their way into the single family home, wood floors were often replaced with plush carpeting, linoleum, and tiles. Fig. 4.20

52


The ranch house exaggerates the form of its postwar predecessor. The rectilinear volume was larger and lower.

MASSING Neighborhoods composed of ranch houses featured largely generous lots and gently serpentine streets.

SITING | CONTEXT Low spaces with low profile windows were popular. Central heat and air conditioning had become more widespread and the lower spaces could be more comfortable.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Similar but larger than post-war housing, in ranch homes, public family spaces were organized on one side of the home (often adjacent to a driveway or garage) while bedrooms were organized on the other.

residential architecture spatial analysis

6 53


1980-2000

mcmansion style

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

McMansions, perhaps as a reaction the small, economic homes of their childhood, were the prized homes of the baby boomer generation. They were mass produced similar to their ranch and post-war predecessors. The priority was given to grand aesthetics. Non-functional dormers and overly articulated roof lines create for an aesthetic that is not perceived on the interior.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Masonry with wood elements, faux stone or faux stucco, were popular choices for exterior materials.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Wood floors and carpeting were popular in living spaces and bedrooms, while tile was often used in kitchens and bathrooms. Fig. 4.25

54


The garage became a prominent appendage to the ever-expanding mass of the single family home.

MASSING Economic use of land was not a priority, so McMansion neighborhoods often had large lot sizes to match their building volumes.

SITING | CONTEXT Perhaps as a reaction to the low spaces of the ranch homes from the generation before, the main spaces of the McMansion were overly large, often cavernous.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

McMansions were often organized simply as bloated versions of the layouts of their predecessors with the increasingly common place appendage of a two-car garage.

residential architecture spatial analysis

6 55


2000-2020

contemporary suburban

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

Simply a derivative of the McMansion predecessor, these neo-eclectic homes of the early 21st century still valued aesthetics to the point of falseness. However, the footprint became more condensed as the lots became smaller. To note the housing market crash of 2008, drastically reduced new construction of the single family home. Consequently, older neighborhoods received greater attention as new buyers entered the market, while current owners were saddled with large yet cheap contemporary suburban homes.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Brick, wood, faux stone, faux stucco are still dominant in exterior finishes.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Engineered materials in the realm of floors are becoming more popular. Painted walls with simple moulding is popular. Fig. 4.30

56


Due to the need for increasing density as the population grew, the first suburban constructions of the 21st century were similarly large like the McMansions of the 80s and 90s but with a smaller foot print and taller height.

MASSING

SITING | CONTEXT

The population demanded more single family housing so land economy became important so these large homes were arranged much more closely together than those in the previous generation.

Large but smaller than the McMansion spaces were popular within these contemporary suburban designs.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

Due to the shrinking footprint, the two-car garage was no longer an appendage but the front face of the single family home.

residential architecture spatial analysis

6 57


Residential architecture typologies of the 20th and early 21st centuries had some relatively clear reactions to their ‘Turnings’ as well as to spatial conditions experienced in previous generations. 1900-1920

MASSING The massing of the single family home simply expanded over 120 years. Larger and larger homes were built. Large Victorians and spatious bungalows gave way to small economic post-war homes only briefly, expanding to the gargantuan McMansion a few decades later.

SITING | CONTEXT Neighborhoods transitioned from maximized density to larger and larger lots only to be reduced to maximizing density again as a new Crisis era took hold.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS Generous and tall spaces transitioned to low and wide spaces to jump back to cavernous interior spaces in the late 20th century.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION Organization of the single family home went from narrow street orientation to wide street orientation, with the addition of the two-car garage becoming moreor-less standard from 1980 and beyond.

58

1920-1940


1940-1960

1960-1980

1980-2000

2000-2020

residential architecture spatial analysis

6 59


60


las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 61


1900-1920 frontier town

CHILD

At the turn of the 20th century, Las Vegas was a young town, relatively isolated from much of the West.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Imported wood served largely as the primary construction material.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Simple wood finishes were necessary.

Fig. 4.5

62


Hyper functional spaces created basic 1-story or 2-story rectilinear forms.

MASSING As the city was developing a mix of commercial row building and stand-alone structures occured.

SITING | CONTEXT

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Tall spaces to fight the desert heat were popular. Because most people were from less arrid climates, more traditional, less desert-specifc strategies were employed. Furthermore, wood structures were a quicker build than the mass of masonry or adobe.

Minimal spaces with simple arrangements were popular.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 63


1920-1940 gambling town

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE

A small desert town suddenly became a destination as gambling was legalized in the 1930s. A more urban center developed in the downtown.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Masonry and wood construction were being employed.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Simple finishes of wood and tile were being used.

Fig. 4.10

64


As the city grew, more resources arrived for large structures.

MASSING More of an urban environment was developing within the valley.

SITING | CONTEXT Taller spaces to help alleviate the desert heat were popular.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

More complicated programs became necessary but were organized with still simple arrangements.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 65


1940-1960

casino destination

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

Suddenly, with the personal vehicle having wide ownership, Las Vegas saw an onslaught of California tourists driving in to take advantage of the gambling and entertainment.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Concrete and steel make an impact on Vegas construction.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Lights and colors begin to overwhelm the Las Vegas aesthetic and are seen in interior carpets and wall coverings. Fig. 4.15

66


MASSING

SITING | CONTEXT

With the increasing popularity of motorists coming into town rather than rail-riders, the motor hotel became the necessary appendage to the Las Vegas gambling hall. The beginning of the resort, low rectilinear strips of hotel rooms were added to a larger main form to accomodate a line of parked cars. No longer being organized on the city grid but rather along the motorways coming in to town. The new typology were simply oriented to the highway with generous space between.

Economy was stll rather necessary so lower, small spaces were common.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Rows of small functional hotel rooms flanked the main casino/entertainment spaces.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 67


1960-1980 resort town

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

The number of tourists increased as did the number of properties. Moving beyond just casinos and lounges, the entertainment aspect became more popular in Las Vegas with pools and larger venues being built.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete with EIFS cladding became popular.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Brightly colored and patterned materials were found all over the interiors of these resorts. Fig. 4.21

68


As the need for more hotel rooms came about, the hotel tower became a dominant form of the Las Vegas resort property and began to develop the Las Vegas Strip skyline.

MASSING Still oriented towards the highway, these properties still maintained space around each other.

SITING | CONTEXT Larger hotel rooms were becoming more popular but due to economizing tower construction and utilizing building systems, lower spaces were popular.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Hotel towers with adjacent casino/entertainments spaces were popular.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 69


1980-2000 themed resort

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

Suddenly, baby boomers with millennial children were looking to travel to Vegas for vacation. As a result, the spectacular and entertaining themed resort took shape, with larger casinos, pools, and entertainment venues accompanied by things like roller coasters becoming the bait for these family oriented consumers.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete with EIFS cladding dominates, as the EIFS was able to be manipulated to create these thematic forms.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

More brightly colored patterned materials at interior, now usually within the theme of the property. Fig. 4.26

70


As the casino expanded its program and footprint large bases to large hotel towers were popular.

MASSING The tower-base model still oriented itself to Las Vegas Boulevard, but these larger bases began to infill spaces between the towers.

SITING | CONTEXT Catering to increasing demands of tourists, larger hotel rooms were more popular.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Hotel towers located above expansive casino/ entertainment properties was popular.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 71


2000-2020

entertainment capital

CHILD

COMING-OF-AGE MIDDLE AGE

ELDER

No longer vacationing as families, millennials and baby boomers suddenly required a luxurious exclusive vacation. Baby boomers are looking for decadent relaxation, and millennials are looking for overwhelming entertainment.

STRUCTURE|MATERIALS Steel and concrete with more modern panel cladding systems and glazing systems.

INTERIORs | FINISHES

Engineered materials in the realm of floors and wall coverings allow for a luxurious aesthetic with an economic price tag. Subtler designs are used as the audience is more design-wise mature. Fig. 4.31

72


The demand for space increased but properties had less ability to expand. Consequently, multiple towers became common place.

MASSING More towers with lower spaces infilling the gaps is dominant, still oriented towards the roadway.

SITING | CONTEXT Large spaces with generous lighting and maximized but economical floor-to-floor heights create for more luxurious spaces.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS

Multiple towers are organized on increasingly larger bases.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 73


Las Vegas architectural typologies of the 20th and early 21st centuries had some relatively clear reactions to their ‘Turnings’ as well as to spatial conditions experienced in previous generations. 1900-1920

MASSING Massing in Vegas expanded mostly due to the fact of going from a very small town to an international destination within 100 years.

SITING | CONTEXT Siting began within the urban understanding of the older towns of the country, but quickly moved to highway based to accommodate the influx of motorists.

SPATIAL PROPORTIONS Spaces became larger but with lower ceilings to accommodate the required numbers these buildings had to serve.

PROGRAMMING| ORGANIZATION Growth in population, dictated simple building transitioning into large expansive public spaces with multiple towers of lodging.

74

1920-1940


1940-1960

1960-1980

1980-2000

2000-2020

las vegas architecture spatial analysis

7 75


76


21st century projections

8 77


child

prophet

elder

2020

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

general architecture typology

As millennials reach middle age, dramatic design shifts like those seen in the shift from neoclassical and art deco to mid-century modern will be scene again. How this manifests will likely be in how new building technologies operate. The potential for a building boom of mass customized structures is great.

residential typology

Post-crisis, economy and efficiency will be prioritized. However, unlike the post-war boom of the 40s, sustainable development will be prioritized. Including but not limited to the renovation and likely gentrification of older neighborhoods of ranch homes and even the McMansion neighborhoods of the 1980s.

las vegas typology

As millennials reach middle age, they’ll have the most significant buying power, but similar to baby boomers in the 90s, they’ll be vacationing with families. So Vegas properties will have to appeal to the tech-loving, energetic families of heroes & prophets.

78


child

nomad

elder

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

How mid-century modern transitioned into its 1970s iteration in the 20th century, likely the innovations seen in the previous generation will grow into a modified version for this generation. As the crises of 40 years ago were in many cases solved with building technology, design during this time period may rely on building technology in a crippling way preventing any progressive innovation.

Similar to the design-oriented shift of the 1960s and 70s, likely enough exposure to new ideas of architecture over the past 40 years will finally make their way to residential architecture. Due to environmental concerns, density will likely dominate siting, unlike the Frank Lloyd Wright inspired ranch houses of the 1970s. Likely, the neo-modernism of today’s more unique residential designs will become mainstream.

Assumedly, the density of the Strip will increase as it has in the last few generations. More and more towers with glass facades with maximized natural lighting will be built. Building technology will continue to battle the natural problems associated with building in Vegas. Suddenly, as millennials reach retirement age (likely not retiring due to changes in work culture), creature comforts will take hold. The low ceilings of the 60s and 70s, when the last hero generation was at this age will not satisfy the millennial.

21st century projections

2040 general architecture typology

residential typology

las vegas typology

8 79


2060-2080 general architecture typology

residential typology

las vegas typology

80

hero

elder middle-age coming-of-age child

born 21st century

As postmodernism met the complacency of modernism in latter half of the 20th century, likely a major combative design shift will take place during this Unraveling period. However, how the innovation of the first half of the 21st century is criticized and compared remains to be seen. As a new nomad generation comes of age, they will likely feel alienated from the status-quo, so they with prophet-sympathizers will likely be the instigators of this design shift.

Perhaps in a knee-jerk reaction to the dramatic design shift of the last generation, a return to a modified traditional will likely take place. As millennials’ children will be the prime buyers of real estate during this time, their prophet mentality will inform how this traditional typology manifests. As McMansions in the 1980s abandoned the economy found in post-war housing of the baby-boomers’ childhoods, this new prophet generation’s ideal housing will likely combat the conscientious economy of their parents’ homes 40 years prior. Suddenly the buying power will be in the hands of the millennials’ children. This next prophet generation having come of age during an Awakening, will likely be more moralistic than the previous dominant family generation. So when these prophets are looking for a vacation with their hero children, it will resemble the more family oriented Vegas of the 90s. Consequently, similar to Vegas in the 90s, properties should look at family themed destinations to compel all the buying power of these prophets. This nomad generation that is coming of age will likely not influence design as millennials and their children. The nomad archetype likely feels alienated during this time and will not be seeking a vacation of mass appeal.


child

artist

elder

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

2080-2100

Likely, facing a new crisis, the architecture of the last few decades of the 21st century will be fixing problems caused in the middle of the 21st century. Experimenting with architectural strategy will likely produce a mixed image without a dominant typology taking hold.

general architecture typology

As a new crisis takes hold, residential design will likely see no dramatic changes as other issues become more prevalent. Simply, taking advantage of existing/ historic structures will likely be the design strategy. The new hero generation coming of age will be optimistic and community-oriented. Therefore, the adaptive reuse of older generations’ housing communities will be the design focus of this generation.

residential typology

A new hero generation will be coming of age. Likely, the environmental crises experienced in 2000-2020 will be reaching a new breaking point prior to the next century. As a result the architecture and infrastructure of Las Vegas will likely face an unprecedented strain. However, if bringing in the buying power of the dominant generations is still the focus of properties on the Strip, catering to the new hero generation coming of age and the prophet generation as it ages. Like the current climate, the hero generation’s entertainment tastes will dictate entertainment venues in Vegas. As the prophets are aging, medical advances will likely change the scope of design for an aging population.

las vegas typology

21st century projections

8 81


architecture & members of generations

CHILD

82

COMING-OF-AGE

MIDDLE AGE

ELDER


project

design

user

Projects are most often dictated by the mid-lifers or elders who control the funding. While programming aspects and finite details might perhaps be directed by more specific market research, the final decision makers are in these periods of life.

The design of a project in today’s practice is largely directed by the mid-life serving as the lead on a project. While those comingof-age might do the majority of the production work in order for the design to manifest, mid-lifers are the primary decision makers. Elders might serve in advisory capacities.

Currently, the largest percentages of the population are Millenials and Baby Boomers. Currently, one is in coming-of-age and one is in elder phase. However, neither is serving in the primary decision maker role of the project or design.

complications

9 83


FUTURE ALTERNATIVES

RAPIDIZED-OVERLAPPING CYCLING OF TURNINGS

INDISTINCT OVERLAPPING ARCHETYPES 2000-2100

As globalization takes place, more countries entering into the global economy will be facing different turnings in their national experience. However, should globalization continue, national experiences will be more likely to overlap with global experiences. Generational experiences will be vast and overlapping. Consequently, the experiences of the archetypes will be inconsistent with the pattern of generational theory.

84


RAPIDIZED CYCLING OF TURNINGS

INDISTINCT ARCHETYPES 2000-2100 As the information age quickens the response and arrivals of new crises, the turnings model may have a more rapid rate cycling while generational trends become less and less distinct. Generations will begin to face multiple turnings during singular stages of their lives. Consequently, the predictive nature of the generational theory model becomes potentially too complicated to understand in relation to personalities of the archetypes.

complications

9 85


nomad

prophet

Understanding the relationship between generations and how they dominant recessive affect the next generations’ typologies is the ultimate sucess of this analysis. The architecture progresses through time with similar effects and responses as the generations that design and occupy it.

hero

artist

g e n e r at i o n a l t h e o ry a n d d e s i g n

types

Developed by William Strauss and Neil Howe, Generational Theory makes the argument that there is a cyclical relationship among generational behaviors and the events that shape them. Analyzing this cyclical relationship within the context of architecture, general, residential, and architecture in Las Vegas, will inform generational design attitudes to come about in the future. Understanding dominant generational trends will allow for more effective hospitality design as properties must adapt to the newest consumer/generational archetype.

turning

silent generation

baby boomer

middle-age elder

M A S S I N G

SITING & CONTEXT

SITING & CONTEXT

SITING & CONTEXT

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

1920

middle-age elder

M A S S I N G

M A S S I N G

M A S S I N G

SITING & CONTEXT

SITING & CONTEXT

SITING & CONTEXT

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

1940

middle-age

1960

child

generation x

1980 born

elder

1980

middle-age

coming-of-age

millennial

child

Insitutions are attacked. Individuals looking for personal autonomy and authenticity.

middle-age

coming-of-age

born

offic, sets 980s. Gulf o Iraq. Bill ECONOMIC rices drop. ng Clinton TV changes he internet rs change ent in the

elder

Advances m, Digital Dolly, HDTV,

2000 born

generation z

2000

middle-age

coming-of-age

Bush takes e of foreign nistan and kes office. Recession RAL Same federally come new NOLOGICAL

elder

t phones, I, Google, Facebook.

2020

prophet

As millennials reach middle age, they’ll have the most significant buying power, but similar to baby boomers in the 90s, they’ll be vacationing with families. So Vegas properties will have to appeal to the tech-loving, energetic families of heroes & prophets.

Post-crisis, economy and efficiency will be prioritized. However, unlike the post-war boom of the 40s, sustainable development will be prioritized. Including but not limited to the renovation and likely gentrification of older neighborhoods of ranch homes and even the McMansion neighborhoods of the 1980s.

As millennials reach middle age, dramatic design shifts like those seen in the shift from neoclassical and art deco to mid-century modern will be scene again. How this manifests will likely be in how new building technologies operate. The potential for a building boom of mass customized structures is great.

Assumedly, the density of the Strip will increase as it has in the last few generations. More and more towers with glass facades with maximized natural lighting will be built. Building technology will continue to battle the natural problems associated with building in Vegas. Suddenly, as millennials reach retirement age (likely not retiring due to changes in work culture), creature comforts will take hold. The low ceilings of the 60s and 70s, when the last hero generation was at this age will not satisfy the millennial.

Similar to the design-oriented shift of the 1960s and 70s, likely enough exposure to new ideas of architecture over the past 40 years will finally make their way to residential architecture. Due to environmental concerns, density will likely dominate siting, unlike the Frank Lloyd Wright inspired ranch houses of the 1970s. Likely, the neo-modernism of today’s more unique residential designs will become mainstream.

How mid-century modern transitioned into its 1970s iteration in the 20th century, likely the innovations seen in the previous generation will grow into a modified version for this generation. As the crises of 40 years ago were in many cases solved with building technology, design during this time period may rely on building technology in a crippling way preventing any progressive innovation.

Suddenly the buying power will be in the hands of the millennials’ children. This next prophet generation having come of age during an Awakening, will likely be more moralistic than the previous dominant family generation. So when these prophets are looking for a vacation with their hero children, it will resemble the more family oriented Vegas of the 90s. Consequently, similar to Vegas in the 90s, properties should look at family themed destinations to compel all the buying power of these prophets. This nomad generation that is coming of age will likely not influence design as millennials and their children. The nomad archetype likely feels alienated during this time and will not be seeking a vacation of mass appeal.

Perhaps in a knee-jerk reaction to the dramatic design shift of the last generation, a return to a modified traditional will likely take place. As millennials’ children will be the prime buyers of real estate during this time, their prophet mentality will inform how this traditional typology manifests. As McMansions in the 1980s abandoned the economy found in post-war housing of the baby-boomers’ childhoods, this new prophet generation’s ideal housing will likely combat the conscientious economy of their parents’ homes 40 years prior.

As postmodernism met the complacency of modernism in latter half of the 20th century, likely a major combative design shift will take place during this Unraveling period. However, how the innovation of the first half of the 21st century is criticized and compared remains to be seen. As a new nomad generation comes of age, they will likely feel alienated from the status-quo, so they with prophet-sympathizers will likely be the instigators of this design shift.

A new hero generation will be coming of age. Likely, the environmental crises experienced in 2000-2020 will be reaching a new breaking point prior to the next century. As a result the architecture and infrastructure of Las Vegas will likely face an unprecedented strain. However, if bringing in the buying power of the dominant generations is still the focus

As a new crisis takes hold, residential design will likely see no dramatic changes as other issues become more prevalent. Simply, taking advantage of existing/historic structures will likely be the design strategy. The new hero generation coming of age will be optimistic and

Likely, facing a new crisis, the architecture of the last few decades of the 21st century will be fixing problems caused in the middle of the 21st century. Experimenting with architectural strategy will likely produce a mixed image without a dominant typology taking hold.

2040

nomad

2060

hero

artist

born 21st century

coming-of-age

86

child

elder

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

child

elder

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

child

elder

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

2080

1900

elder

Strong Institutions, Weak Individualism Collectively confident society. Stifling conformity.

1960

nated. Antis popular. sassinated. 0s Energy prices and n middle il Rights s take hold atles come ular music NOLOGICAL CDs, ATM, g, ethernet.

M A S S I N G

coming-of-age

born

generation removed historic typology typology

child

Institutions are destroyed and rebuilt. Individuals look towards community-building and rising civic authority.

generation removed historic typology typology

M A S S I N G

coming-of-age

born

1940

WWII. FDR bombs are WII ends. n Age of 45, brought ion during n v. Board ginning of schools. ces include wave, color computer, d bar code.

contemporary typology

generation removed historic typology typology

child

Weak Institutions, Strong Individualism. Society is looking to come together.

1920

into office o power in icies come rom 1929, until World economic o a cultural Twenties.’ ces during television, analog e, electron and radar.

general architecture typologies

contemporary typology

coming-of-age

born greatest generation

residential architecture typologies

contemporary typology

child

ccurs from of alcohol ECONOMIC he end of L Women 920. Antihe Russian NOLOGICAL me include, escalators, produced as E= mc2

child

1900

las vegas architecture typologies

child

archetypes

year

2020

2040

2060

2080


child coming-of-age elder child coming-of-age middle-age elder

contemporary typology

prophet silent generation

born 21st century born

Institutions are destroyed and rebuilt. Individuals look towards community-building and rising civic authority.

babynomad boomer

bornborn 21st century

Strong Institutions, Weak Individualism Collectively confident society. Stifling conformity.

herox generation

born 21st century born

Insitutions are attacked. Individuals looking for personal autonomy and authenticity.

born

SITING & CONTEXT

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

Suddenly the buying power will be in the hands of the millennials’ children. This next prophet generation having come of age during an Awakening, will likely be more moralistic than the previous dominant family generation. So when these prophets are looking for a vacation with their hero children, it will resemble the more family oriented Vegas of the 90s. Consequently, similar to Vegas in the 90s, properties should look at family themed destinations to compel all the buying power of these prophets. This nomad generation that is coming of age will likely not influence design as millennials and their children. The nomad archetype likely feels alienated during this time and will not be seeking a vacation of mass appeal.

Perhaps in a knee-jerk reaction to the dramatic design shift of the last generation, a return to a modified traditional will likely take place. As millennials’ children will be the prime buyers of real estate during this time, their prophet mentality will inform how this traditional typology manifests. As McMansions in the 1980s abandoned the economy found in post-war housing of the baby-boomers’ childhoods, this new prophet generation’s ideal housing will likely combat the conscientious economy of their parents’ homes 40 years prior.

As postmodernism met the complacency of modernism in latter half of the 20th century, likely a major combative design shift will take place during this Unraveling period. However, how the innovation of the first half of the 21st century is criticized and compared remains to be seen. As a new nomad generation comes of age, they will likely feel alienated from the status-quo, so they with prophet-sympathizers will likely be the instigators of this design shift.

A new hero generation will be coming of age. Likely, the environmental crises experienced in 2000-2020 will be reaching a new breaking point prior to the next century. As a result the architecture and infrastructure of Las Vegas will likely face an unprecedented strain. However, if bringing in the buying power of the dominant generations is still the focus of properties on the Strip, catering to the new hero generation coming of age and the prophet generation as it ages. Like the current climate, the hero generation’s entertainment tastes will dictate entertainment venues in Vegas. As the prophets are aging, medical advances will likely change the scope of design for an aging population.

As a new crisis takes hold, residential design will likely see no dramatic changes as other issues become more prevalent. Simply, taking advantage of existing/historic structures will likely be the design strategy. The new hero generation coming of age will be optimistic and community-oriented. Therefore, the adaptive reuse of older generations’ housing communities will be the design focus of this generation.

Likely, facing a new crisis, the architecture of the last few decades of the 21st century will be fixing problems caused in the middle of the 21st century. Experimenting with architectural strategy will likely produce a mixed image without a dominant typology taking hold.

M A S S I N G SITING & CONTEXT S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

Post-crisis, economy and efficiency will be prioritized. However, unlike the post-war boom of the 40s, sustainable development will be prioritized. Including but not limited to the renovation and likely gentrification of older neighborhoods of ranch homes and even the McMansion neighborhoods of the 1980s.

M A S S I N G SITING & CONTEXT S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

2020 1920

As millennials reach middle age, dramatic design shifts like those seen in the shift from neoclassical and art deco to mid-century modern will be scene again. How this manifests will likely be in how new building technologies operate. The potential for a building boom of mass customized structures is great.

M A S S I N G SITING & CONTEXT S P A T I A L P R O P O RT I O N S PROGRAMMING& ORGANIZATION

2040 1940

2060 1960

2080 1980

2000

coming-of-age

generational study of middle-age

2535 South Las Vegas Boulevard

1960

elder

1950

child

1940

prophet

As millennials reach middle age, they’ll have the most significant buying power, but similar to baby boomers in the 90s, they’ll be vacationing with families. So Vegas properties will have to appeal to the tech-loving, energetic families of heroes & prophets.

coming-of-age

born 21st century

2030

As millennials reach middle age, they’ll have the most significant buying power, but similar to baby boomers in the 90s, they’ll be vacationing with families. So Vegas properties will have to appeal to the tech-loving, energetic families of heroes & prophets. However, born 21st the entertainment will becentury the priority not the families.

nomad

audrey e. bardwell

2060

hero

entertainment

coming-of-age

artist

born 21st century

child

elder

middle-age

coming-of-age

born 21st century

2040

As millennials age and prophets come of age, the family vacation will be out and the vacation for the young 20 and 30 year olds will be catered will the comfortable vacations of reAssumedly, the density of the Strip tirement age millenials will be served, as well. will increase as it has in the last few As a result of this dichotomy of vacations, generations. More and family more towers middle aged millennial properties will expand again. with glass facades with maximized natural lighting will be built. Building technology will continue to battle the natural problems associated with building in Vegas. Suddenly, as millennials reach retirement age (likely not retiring due to changes in work culture), creature comforts will take hold. The low ceilings of the 60s and 70s, when the last hero generation was at this age will not satisfy the millennial.

child

elder

middle-age

spring 2016 UNLV | hd studio

2080

SITING & CONTEXT

How mid-century modern transitioned into its 1970s iteration in the 20th century, likely the innovations seen in the previous generation will grow into a modified version for this generation. As the crises of 40 years ago were in many cases solved with building technology, design during this time period may rely on building technology in a crippling way preventing any progressive innovation.

generation z

2020

2040

SITING & CONTEXT

2000 1900

child

2100 2000

M A S S I N G

Similar to the design-oriented shift of the 1960s and 70s, likely enough exposure to new ideas of architecture over the past 40 years will finally make their way to residential architecture. Due to environmental concerns, density will likely dominate siting, unlike the Frank Lloyd Wright inspired ranch houses of the 1970s. Likely, the neo-modernism of today’s more unique residential designs will become mainstream.

ude MS-DOS, CDRom, Digital ellphones, cloning of Dolly, HDTV,

ITICAL George W. Bush takes ce. 9/11 sets a decade of foreign cy, focused on Afghanistan and . Barack Obama takes office. ONOMIC The Great Recession ins in 2008. CULTURAL Same marriage becomes federally Bingo was issues the first become property to al. LGBT new at this location. It was quickly l rights issue. TECHNOLOGICAL ances include smart of phones, ed by the first iteration the internet , casino, AI, Google, a.less A motor hotel, and Facebook. ainment venue. During the s and 50s, the Sahara property lized on the Hero generation’s as a consumer. Hotel 2020 towers added as the Baby Boomer ation first descended on the Vegas Strip.

M A S S I N G

Assumedly, the density of the Strip will increase as it has in the last few generations. More and more towers with glass facades with maximized natural lighting will be built. Building technology will continue to battle the natural problems associated with building in Vegas. Suddenly, as millennials reach retirement age (likely not retiring due to changes in work culture), creature comforts will take hold. The low ceilings of the 60s and 70s, when the last hero generation was at this age will not satisfy the millennial.

artist millennial

generation removed historic typology typology

M A S S I N G

As millennials reach middle age, they’ll have the most significant buying power, but similar to baby boomers in the 90s, they’ll be vacationing with families. So Vegas properties will have to appeal to the tech-loving, energetic families of heroes & prophets.

born 21st century born

ITICAL Reagan takes offic, sets ublican agenda for 1980s. Gulf takes U.S. troops to Iraq. Bill ton is elected. ECONOMIC ganomics era. Gas prices drop. nomic growth during Clinton sidency. CULTURAL MTV changes sic scene of 1980s. The internet personal computers change earch and entertainment in the . TECHNOLOGICAL Advances

generation removed historic typology typology

elder middle-age coming-of-age child elder middle-age coming-of-age child

elder middle-age coming-of-age child elder middle-age coming-of-age child

archetypes

general architecture typologies

contemporary typology

generation removed historic typology typology

elder middle-age coming-of-age child elder middle-age coming-of-age child

Weak Institutions, Strong Individualism. Society is looking to come together.

2080 1980

residential architecture typologies

contemporary typology

elder middle-age coming-of-age child elder middle-age coming-of-age child

generation z

born born greatest generation

2060 1960

ITICAL JFK is assassinated. Antimovement becomes popular. and MLK are assassinated. ONOMIC The 1970s Energy is causes high gas prices and nomic hardships on middle s. CULTURAL Civil Rights ches and movements take hold he U.S. south. The Beatles come he U.S. and the popular music ne changes. TECHNOLOGICAL ances include MRI, CDs, ATM, icial heart, gene splicing, ethernet.

design

las vegas architecture typologies

elder middle-age coming-of-age child elder middle-age coming-of-age child

turning

2040 1940

ITICAL U.S. enters WWII. FDR s, Hitler dies. Atom bombs are pped on Japan. WWII ends. ONOMIC The Golden Age of italism begins in 1945, brought by increased production during II. CULTURAL Brown v. Board Education marks beginning of of segregation in schools. HNOLOGICAL Advances include atomic bomb, microwave, color vision, electronic computer, birth control pill, and bar code.

g e n e r at i o n a l t h e o ry

Developed by William Strauss and Neil Howe, Generational Theory makes the argument that there is a cyclical relationship among generational behaviors and the events that shape them. Analyzing this cyclical relationship within the context of architecture, general, residential, and architecture in Las Vegas, will inform generational design attitudes to come about in the future. Understanding dominant generational trends will allow for more effective hospitality design as properties must adapt to the newest consumer/generational archetype.

2020 1920

ITICAL FDR comes into office 932. Hitler comes into power in 3. FDR’s New Deal policies come effect. ECONOMIC From 1929, at Depression occurs until World II. CULTURAL The economic h of the 1920s, lead to a cultural is of the ‘Roaring Twenties.’ HNOLOGICAL Advances during time include the television, iron lung, penicilin, analog mputers, the jet engine, electron microscope, and radar.

millennial

middle-age

nomad

prophet

born

1960

The ultimate purpose of studying generational theory as it relates to architecture is to avoid short-lived, knee-jerk reaction architecture. Architecture that simply follows a short-lived trend is reactionary and as a result not well-planned and wastes physical and financial resources. Understanding the underlying current of generational shifts ahead of1980 time will result in better design andabetter n duse of resources.

middle-age

ICAL W. Bush takes ITICALGeorge World War I occurs from 9/11 sets a decade of 4-18. Prohibition of foreign alcohol , focused Afghanistan and ins in on 1919. ECONOMIC Barack Obama takes office. ession occurs at the end of OMIC The Great Recession ld War I. CULTURAL Women in right 2008.to CULTURAL Same ns the vote in 1920. Antimarriage begins becomes federally mmunism after the Russian LGBT issues TECHNOLOGICAL become new olution. ights issue. ances duringTECHNOLOGICAL this time include, ces include smart escalators, phones, o transmissions, ss internet mass , AI, Google, lanes, produced automobiles, as wellFacebook. as E= mc2

Insitutions are attacked. Individuals looking for personal autonomy and authenticity.

elder

2000 1900

recessive

child

e MS-DOS, CDRom, Digital phones, cloning of Dolly, HDTV,

generation x

artist

1980

ICAL Reagan takes offic, sets blican agenda for 1980s. Gulf akes U.S. troops to Iraq. Bill n is elected. ECONOMIC archetypes nomics era. Gas prices drop. mic growth during Clinton ency. CULTURAL MTV changes scene of 1980s. The internet personal computers change ch and entertainment year in the TECHNOLOGICAL Advances

born

dominant

hero

ICAL JFK is assassinated. Antimovement becomes popular. and MLK are assassinated. OMIC The 1970s Energy causes high gas prices and mic hardships on middle CULTURAL Civil Rights es and movements take hold U.S. south. The Beatles come U.S. and the popular music changes. TECHNOLOGICAL ces include MRI, CDs, ATM, al heart, gene splicing, ethernet.

elder

Collectively confident society. Stifling conformity.

1960

coming-of-age

sion, electronic computer, birth control pill, and bar code.

1970

2050

1980

conclusions

Post-crisis, economy and efficiency will be prioritized. However, unlike the post-war boom of the 40s, sustainable development will be prioritized. Including but not limited to the renovation and likely gentrification of older neighborhoods of ranch homes and 2060 even the McMansion neighborhoods of When the next prophet generation vacations with their hero generation children, the family the 1980s. will take precedent over the entertainment. Therefore, like the 1990s and early 2000s, Similar to the design-oriented shift to family oriented venues. additions similar ofnthe aging millen i a1960s ls &and 70s, likely enough new ideas of archic o m i n g o f ag eexposure p ro p h to ets tecture over the past 40 years will finally make their way to residential architecture. Due to environmental concerns, density will likely dominate siting, unlike the Frank Lloyd Wright inspired ranch houses of the 1970s. Likely, the neo-modernism of today’s more unique residential designs will become mainstream.

e x pa n s i o n

1990

2070

2000

As millennials reach middle age, dramatic design shifts like those seen in the shift from neoclassical and art deco to mid-century modern will be scene again. How this manifests will likely be in how new building technologies operate. The potential 2080 for a building boom of a crisis takes hold, it will likely drastically massAs customized change spending habits of the dominant structures is great. generation, therefore like the early 2010s, the property will have to change dramatically to How mid-century moderndemographic. transimeet this changing family entertainmenttioned into its 1970s iteration in the 20th century, likely the innovations prophets with hero children seen in the previous generation will grow into a modified version for this generation. As the crises of 40 years ago were in many cases solved with building technology, design during this time period may rely on building technology in a crippling way preventing any progressive innovation.

Suddenly the buying power will be in the hands of the millennials’ children. This next prophet generation having come of age during an Awakening, will likely be more moralistic than the previous dominant family generation. So when these prophets are looking for a vacation with their hero children, it will resemble the more family oriented Vegas of the 90s. Consequently, similar to Vegas in the 90s, properties should look at family themed destinations to compel all the buying power of these prophets. This nomad generation that is coming of age will likely not influence design as millennials and their children. The nomad archetype likely feels alienated during this time and will not be seeking a vacation of mass appeal.

Perhaps in a knee-jerk reaction to the dramatic design shift of the last generation, a return to a modified traditional will likely take place. As millennials’ children will be the prime buyers of real estate during this time, their prophet mentality will inform how this traditional typology manifests. As McMansions in the 1980s abandoned the economy found in post-war housing of the baby-boomers’ childhoods, this new prophet generation’s ideal housing will likely combat the conscientious economy of their parents’ homes 40 years prior.

As postmodernism met the complacency of modernism in latter half of the 20th century, likely a major combative design shift will take place during this Unraveling period. However, how the innovation of the first half of the 21st century is criticized and compared remains to be seen. As a new nomad generation comes of age, they will likely feel alienated from the status-quo, so they with prophet-sympathizers will likely be the instigators of this design shift.

A new hero generation will be coming of age. Likely, the environmental crises experienced in 2000-2020 will be reaching a new breaking point prior to the next century. As a result the architecture and infrastructure of Las Vegas will likely face an unprecedented strain. However, if bringing in the buying power of the dominant generations is still the focus

As a new crisis takes hold, residential design will likely see no dramatic changes as other issues become more prevalent. Simply, taking advantage of existing/historic structures will likely be the design strategy. The new hero generation coming of age will be optimistic and

Likely, facing a new crisis, the architecture of the last few decades of the 21st century will be fixing problems caused in the middle of the 21st century. Experimenting with architectural strategy will likely produce a mixed image without a dominant typology taking hold.

As the baby being middle millennial c modified itself attractive fixtur gaming and e boomers 2020beca upscale vaca become youn entertainment, itself as SLS L

10

2010

2090

reinvention

2040

newgenerationbecomepriority

2060

87

2080


generational study of

2535 South Las Vegas Boulevard 1940

Fig. 12.4

1950

Club Bingo was the first property to exist at this location. It was quickly replaced by the first iteration of the Sahara. A motor hotel, casino, and entertainment venue. During the 1940s and 50s, the Sahara property capitalized on the Hero generation’s power as a consumer. Hotel towers were added as the Baby Boomer generation first descended on the Vegas Strip.

Fig. 12.1

Fig. 12.2, 12.3

Fig. 12.6

Fig. 12.5

1940-1960 Baby Boomer Generation Born Silent Generation Coming of Age Greatest Generation Middle Age born

Post-War Boom

88

coming of age

middle age

elder


Fig. 12.8

Fig. 12.7

Fig. 12.11

1960

Fig. 12.9

Fig. 12.10

Fig. 12.13

1960-1980

Fig. 12.12

1970

Fig. 12.14

Generation X Born Baby Boomer Coming of Age Silent Generation Middle Age Greatest Generation Elder born

coming of age

middle age

elder

Social Revolution, Integration/Anti-War

the sahara: A case study

11 89


generational study of

2535 South Las Vegas Boulevard 1980

Fig. 12.15

1990

Fig. 12.16

1980-2000

Fig. 12.17

Fig. 12.18

Fig. 12.19

Millenial Generation Born Generation X Coming of Age Baby Boomer Middle Age Silent Generation Elder born

Post-Modernism, Conservative vs. Liberal

90

coming of age

middle age

elder


Fig. 12.20

Fig. 12.21

Fig. 12.23

2000

2010

As the baby boomers moved into being middle aged consumers with millennial children, the Sahara modified itself to include more family attractive fixtures while maintaining its gaming and entertainment. As baby boomers became retirees looking for upscale vacations and millennials become young tourist in search of entertainment, the Sahara reinvented itself as SLS Las Vegas.

Fig. 12.22

Fig. 12.24

2000-2020

Fig. 12.25

Generation Z Born Millennials Coming of Age Generation X Middle Age Baby Boomer Elder born

coming of age

middle age

elder

Great Recession, War on Terror; Climate Change

the sahara: A case study

11 91


generational study of

2535 South Las Vegas Boulevard 2020

2030

entertainment middle aged millennial family

As millennials reach middle age, they’ll have the most significant buying power, but similar to baby boomers in the 90s, they’ll be vacationing with families. So Vegas properties will have to appeal to the tech-loving, energetic families of heroes & prophets. However, the entertainment will be the priority not the families.

2020-2040

born

92

coming of age

middle age

elder


2040

2050

e x pa n s i o n a g i n g m i llen n i a ls & c o m i n g o f ag e p ro p h ets

As millennials age and prophets come of age, the family vacation will be out and the vacation for the young 20 and 30 year olds will be catered will the comfortable vacations of retirement age millenials will be served, as well. As a result of this dichotomy of vacations, properties will expand again.

2040-2060

born

coming of age

middle age

elder

the sahara: A case study

11 93


generational study of

2535 South Las Vegas Boulevard 2060

2070

family entertainment prophets with hero children

When the next prophet generation vacations with their hero generation children, the family will take precedent over the entertainment. Therefore, like the 1990s and early 2000s, additions similar to family oriented venues.

2060-2080

born

94

coming of age

middle age

elder


2080

2100

reinvention newgenerationbecomepriority

As a crisis takes hold, it will likely drastically change spending habits of the dominant generation, therefore like the early 2010s, the property will have to change dramatically to meet this changing demographic.

2080-2100

born

coming of age

middle age

elder

the sahara: A case study

11 95


WORKS CITED 1. Aalto, Alvar. BrainyQuote.com, Xplore Inc, 2016. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alvaraalto537626.html, accessed February 18, 2016. 2. Baucom, Alfred H., and Robert J. Grosch. Hospitality Design for the Graying Generation: Meeting the Needs of a Growing Market. New York:Wiley, 1996. 3. “Buildings Energy Data Book.” Buildings Energy Data Book. Accessed February 18, 2016. http://buildingsdatabook.eren.doe.gov/TableView. aspx?table=3.2.7. 4. “Generations at Work.” Research – Herman Miller. Accessed February 21, 2016. http://www.hermanmiller.com/research/research-summa ries/generations-at-work.html. 5. Howe, Neil, and William Strauss. 13th Gen: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail? New York: Vintage Books, 1993. 6. Howe, Neil, and William Strauss. Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation. New York: Vintage Books, 2000. 7. “Life Expectancy.” Accessed February 18, 2016. http://www.who.int/gho/mortality_burden_disease/life_tables/en/. 8. Strauss, William, and Neil Howe. Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: Morrow, 1991. 9. Strauss, William, and Neil Howe. The Fourth Turning: An American Prophecy. New York: Broadway Books, 1997. 10. “Understanding Millennials-How Do Potatoes Fit into Their Lives?” US Potato Board. 2013. Accessed February 20, 2016. http://uspotatoes. com/understanding-millennials-how-do-potatoes-fit-into-their-lives/.

ARCHITECTURAL TYPOLOGY INFORMATION Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th ed., s.v. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2009. GENERAL HISTORY INFORMATION “AP U.S. History Timelines - Study Notes.” AP U.S. History Timelines Study Notes. Web. 13 April 2016.

“Timeline of Inventions of the 20th Century.” Inventors. About. com. Web. 27 Apr. 2016.

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Fig 4.25 Digital image. Flickr. N.p., n.d. Web. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/therefore/276306604>. Fig 4.26 Digital image. CSU Chico. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/Images/Strip.JPG>. Fig 4.27 Digital image. Las Vegas Condo Experts. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.lasvegascondoexperts.com/xsites/Agents/TheStarkTeam/content/ uploadedFiles/veer%20towers%20pic%201.jpg>. Fig 4.28 Digital image. Casino Top 10. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://casinotop10.it/assets/_resampled/resizedimage300200-Titanic-slot-machine-las-ve gas.jpg>. Fig 4.29 Digital image. Prudential Headquarters. Wikiwand, n.d. Web. <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Prudential_Tow er_Complete.JPG>. Fig 4.30 Digital image. Neo-eclectic Architecture. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. <https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Suburban_tract_ house.JPG>. Fig 4.31 Digital image. Luxury Holidays Direct. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.luxuryholidaysdirect.com/IOLImages/Documents/imagelibrary/Zoom/ USA517_View_at_dusk.jpg>. Fig 12.1 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Club-Bingo>. Fig 12.2 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Club-Bingo>. Fig 12.3 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Club-Bingo>. Fig 12.4 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/6>. Fig 12.5 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara>. Fig 12.6 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/2>. Fig 12.7 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/2>. Fig 12.8 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/3>. Fig 12.9 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/2>. Fig 12.10 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/2>. Fig 12.11 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara>. Fig 12.12 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/4>. Fig 12.13 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/5>. Fig 12.14 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara/page/5>. Fig 12.15 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara>. Fig 12.16 Digital image. Vintage Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vintagelasvegas.com/tagged/Sahara>. Fig 12.17 Digital image. Classic Las Vegas. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://classiclasvegas.squarespace.com/classic-las-vegas-blog/2013/3/30/saying-good-bye-to-the-sa hara-hotel.html>. Fig 12.18 Digital image. Get a Room. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://news.getaroom.com/tag/sahara-hotel-and-casino/>. Fig 12.19 Digital image. Hotel Online. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://www.hotel-online.com/News/PR2007_1st/Mar07_SBEStockbridge.html/>. Fig 12.20 Digital image. Vegas Click. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://vegasclick.com/vegas/images/speed.jpg>. Fig 12.21 Digital image. Destination 360. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://www.destination360.com/north-america/us/nevada/las-vegas/sahara-hotel-and-casino.jpg>. Fig 12.22 Digital image. Las Vegas Sun Tumblr. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://40.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m1zeln5u781rnom7fo1_1280.jpg>. Fig 12.23 Digital image. Multivu. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://www.multivu.com/players/English/7289851-sls-las-vegas-opens-as-first-major-casino-resort-in-years/gal lery//image/36aeb2db-e2c9-4c98-901e-64d63a49f10e.jpg>. Fig 12.24 Digital image. Turnberry Towers. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://www.turnberrytowers.com/turnberry_OLD/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/tb2.jpg>. Fig 12.25 Digital image. Gannet CDN. N.p., n.d. Web. < http://www.gannett-cdn.com/-mm-/a084f4bc063b4df86ac4cc998d720912997ac80d/c=145-0-4376- 3181&r=x513&c=680x510/local/-/media/USATODAY/USATODAY/2014/09/12/1410529450000-20140905_SLSLasVegas01.JPG>.

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Generational Theory and Design