International Maintenance Excellence Conference September 22 to 24
Join the Experts in Toronto This sixth-annual gathering of industry and academic experts from around the world will again offer unparalleled insight to modern maintenance and asset-management techniques for plant and facility professionals. Hosted by Dr. Andrew Jardine of the University of Torontoâ€™s Centre for Maintenance Optimization & Reliability Engineering, and co-produced with Maintenance Technology magazine, IMEC 2010 offers two days of keynote presentations and one day of in-depth workshops at the Universityâ€™s conference venue in the heart of downtown Toronto. With a dinner at the famed CN Tower included, and unlimited opportunity to discuss the issues with international experts, IMEC 2010 provides a well-rounded, exciting learning opportunity for maintenance professionals everywhere. For more information about IMEC 2010, please contact Bill Kiesel at email@example.com / 847-382-8100, ext. 116 Registration online at www.imec.ca IMEC is organized by:
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Sustainability for the New Energy Era? Join the SAP for Utilities 2010 community and work together with SAP, ASUG and your peers to find the latest solutions and strategies that will help you achieve sustainability in an increasingly challenging and ever-changing energy landscape. Now is the time to invest in your utilityâ€™s future by exploring best practices and methodologies that will put you on top of your game. Access to Information AMI Asset Lifecycle Management Best Practices Business Network Transformation Capital Projects Change Management Compliance CRM / CIS / CRB Demand Response Developing KPIs Document Management Emissions Enterprise Architecture Environmental Health & Safety GIS Industry Value Network Integration Management of Change MDUS Meter to Cash Mobility Portfolio Transformation Rate Configuration Release Strategy Reliability
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M A I N T E N A N C E
JULY 2010 • VOL 23, NO 7 • www.MT-ONLINE.com
Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
FEATURES CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS 14
A New Solution For Flange Adhesion How easily and quickly you install and maintain the vital gaskets in your piping and process-equipment systems is critical to both their success and yours. Mike McNally, Howard Lockhart and Dave Burgess, Garlock Sealing Technologies
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES 20
Still Chasing The Chickens? With today’s proven maintenance strategies, there’s no reason for your operations to be in chasing mode, but there’s hope if you are. Enrique Mora, LeanExpertise.com
■ Big Money Talks
William C. Livoti
Bill Hillman, Ludeca, Inc.
The Green Edge
■ Maintaining Belt Drives For Maximum Savings
PROCESS IMPROVEMENTS 30
Protecting & Optimizing Your Air Compressors Count on synthetic lubricants to help you do it all. Jane Alexander, Editor, with Michael J. Hawkins, ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties
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Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2010 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ wdsmail.com. Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.
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The Low Cost Way To Convey! EXAIR’s compressed air operated Line Vac™ connects to standard hose, tube or pipe to create a powerful in-line conveyor. Line Vac conveyors are ideal for moving large volumes of material over long distances. No moving parts or electricity assures maintenance free operation.
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EXAIR’s most powerful conveyor has been engineered to convey more material over longer vertical and horizontal distances. The hardened alloy construction is ideal for abrasive materials and is available from stock in many sizes.
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Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief
Buying Into The Reliability Proposition
ome summertime, I’m into buying lots of casual shoes and sandals. Cool. Cute. Cheap. They just need to survive a few weeks of backyard barbecues, farmers’ markets, beach picnics, kids’ birthday parties and the like. I purchase with the expectation that I’ll probably be caught in more than a few rainstorms and plenty of sand, mud and unidentifiable child/pet-generated gunk before the season ends. By Labor Day, the shoddily made uppers of my once feisty-looking summer footwear are usually separating from their low-quality plastic soles. I throw ‘em away. My high-heeled pumps are another matter entirely. Chic. Classic. Not Cheap. They do the proverbial “heavy lifting” for me (in more ways than one). I’ll gladly pay extra for higher quality. My pumps take me many places—business-related and otherwise. They have to look fine, feel great and be ready to roll whenever I am, all year-round. I’ve learned to purchase recognized brands that offer superior style and fit and a reasonable expectation of long service life. Beyond the visual impact and comfort I demand, I guess I buy based on a reliability proposition: I can’t afford for my pumps to fail when I need them. Many of you say the same thing—but you’re not talking about shoes. Your “pump” concerns actually turned into a topic of conversation during a lovely, lively party hosted by ITT at the recent American Water Works Association (AWWA) Conference. There, a major equipment distributor asked me if Maintenance Technology could help him in “quantifying reliability” for his customers— reliability being at the top of their minds these days. I had to smile, not because I know that’s exactly what most of you are doing every day, but because I realized pigs had finally flown! Let me explain… For several years, suppliers of critical process equipment, led by some great minds in the pump industry, have worked tirelessly to transform the marketplace from one where end-users buy based on first cost, into one of buying based on life-cycle costs (LCC). “When pigs fly,” many thought— the day when pump users would “quantify life-cycle costs” would never come. They were incorrect. Rising energy costs have played a significant role in proving the naysayers wrong. As you’ll recall from the LCC pie chart, energy and maintenance (i.e., reliability) are the two big costs in the life of a pumping system, dwarfing initial purchase cost. As a result, a growing number of end-users are now making purchases that have higher initial costs, based on a calculated life-cycle savings in energy. (It’s an easy case to make. Simply dissect the enormous power bills your company is no doubt paying.) According to Mr. Pump Distributor, though, when it comes to proving the actual value of reliability, purchasing departments aren’t convinced: “The algorithm is harder to follow.” (Does that mean the “efficient equipment is more reliable” message really hasn’t stuck?) If you help keep any type of critical equipment up and running in a facility, you may want to become more involved with the suppliers of said equipment—well before it’s purchased and installed. Your suppliers are capable of providing products that are more reliable than ever. In turn, you could be more qualified than anyone else in your end-user organization to understand and quantify the value of that reliability. Perhaps you should be working together to deliver a truly compelling message to others. MT firstname.lastname@example.org
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Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor
Our Aging Workforce: It’s A War Out There Well, we are here! We’re now in the era of the aging Baby Boom Generation. For the next two decades, this generation will be marked by an unprecedented growth of older workers and retirees in the U.S. and most of the world’s industrialized nations. As our workforce ages and reaches the traditional retirement age, tough decisions must be made: first, to accommodate and possibly retain highly skilled older workers, and second, to prepare for an all-out assault in the “war for talent.” What can we do? What should we do? Since there’s no turning back, employers and older workers must face new challenges head-on and make the right decisions. Us boomers I’ll admit it: I am an aging baby boomer. Those of us born between 1946 and 1964 make up the largest generation and workforce this country has ever known. Our post-World War II generation was raised and educated in a system and an economy that had much to offer. We acquired skills that gave our nation and industries a huge competitive edge. We mastered advanced technologies in a wide variety of sectors. We learned from our parents, developed a powerful work ethic and became a central part of the most productive workforce on the planet. Over time, however, we subtly allowed the decline of the very values and programs that gave us our skills, knowledge and enthusiasm for working with our hands and our ingenuity. This included public-school career and vocational-technical education programs. Now, our capital-intensive industries, manufacturing plants, utilities, buildings and vital infrastructure are beginning to show their own signs of age, in the form of premature deterioration. This decline should not be ignored nor permitted. We are seeing signs of accelerated deterioration, failures and errors everywhere: bridge failures, tower cranes collapsing, pipeline leaks and failures, plant and mine explosions, offshore drilling catastrophes, aircraft maintenance issues, power blackouts and brownouts and ever-increasing unplanned downtime of “mission-critical” assets. There is a crucial need for aging baby boomers in maintenance and manufacturing. Many of the earliest-born boomers are not yet ready to retire. They like working. They like their jobs. They need the income and/or healthcare benefits. Take note, all you employers-in-need: Recognize the value of “older workers,” retain them and encourage their value-adding skills and knowledge. 8|
Beware the perfect storm The Employment Policy Foundation (EPF) estimates that 80% of the impending labor shortage will involve skills, not the number of workers available. I have written a number of times about the “perfect storm” related to skills shortages in today’s workplace—a storm that even despite recent recessionary times continues to intensify by the day! First, a reminder of what has happened to create this perfect storm: n There’s an accelerating rate of retirement among skilled maintenance and manufacturing workers. n Fewer and fewer young people are entering careers in maintenance and manufacturing. n There’s very little public-school emphasis on industrial careers or “learning a trade.” n In contrast to the 1960s, ’70s and ’80s, school shop classes and industrial-technology programs have become almost non-existent. n Capital assets and infrastructure are deteriorating. n Our nation has had a need to boost capacity and productivity in refining, manufacturing, mining, transportation, heavy construction, utilities, etc. For at least the next two decades, we will see our experienced senior workforce ease into retirement either by choice or due to physical limitations. The next generation— a smaller one, born from 1965 to 1985—is already at work. (We know who you are!) These employees, aged 25 to 45, are our future leaders, managers, supervisors, technicians and mechanics. Unfortunately, fewer of them have the maintenance and reliability skills, knowledge and experience that our capital-intensive businesses and industries require to be competitive. The benefits of older workers Studies of workers aged 55 and older have shown them to be much safer and less accident-prone on the job than their younger counterparts. Those 64 and older have the lowest number of workplace injuries. They’re often more loyal to their employers and will put up with a lot more stress and JULY 2010
It’s been estimated that 80% of the impending labor shortage will involve skills, not the number of workers available. pressures before they push back. Older workers have fewer avoidable absences and tardiness. They offer extensive skills and knowledge of the equipment, systems, processes and facilities—things that they have been accumulating over the years through experience and training. They are often respected by their younger peers and well-equipped to serve as technical leaders, managers, supervisors and on-job coaches. The lower turnover rate and work ethic of older workers are seen as positives by their peers and their supervisors. On the flip side, as we age, our physical abilities change, which can make it harder for us to do our jobs. Another note to employers-in-need: There are some very simple and inexpensive accommodations for the aging workforce that will improve their productivity and job satisfaction.
n Improve hearing-protection devices and encourage their use.
Boosting boomer productivity Studies have shown that due to diminishing eyesight, a 60-yearold worker may need eight times more lighting than a younger worker to see clearly. Hearing declines with age as well—often due to years of working in high-noise workplaces. We also get shorter and sometimes stockier, and our muscle strength can decrease 20% by age 60. The ability of older workers to adapt to temperature change is reduced, which makes layered clothing worthwhile. The quality of workmanship and work-life of older employees can be improved by making some relatively simple changes in the way work is performed and in the work environment. The following accommodations and suggestions for improving productivity, safety, ergonomics and job satisfaction of an aging workforce are not just for employers. Workers, too, should be mindful of these approaches to their jobs:
n Install ground-level chain actuators for opening and closing valves.
n Improve walkway, area and task-specific lighting by up to 60%. n Increase the size of type and color contrast of signs and computer screens. n Eliminate glare on monitors and inspection windows. n Use visual cues and signals to augment audible alarms, telephones, etc. n Reduce noise as much as possible. Enclose your highnoise equipment. JULY 2010
n Eliminate heavy lifting. Use lifting devices. n Avoid overhead reaches in work tasks. n Eliminate working from long/tall ladders. n Use shallow-angle stairways to replace ladders. n Avoid bent-over work postures. n Avoid working in extreme temperatures.
n Install leveraged, textured and grip-enhanced handles and knobs. n Install skid-resistant flooring and stair treads. n Increase the time allotted for analyzing problems and completing tasks. n Encourage doing tasks RIGHT rather than FAST, i.e. accurately versus quickly. n Eliminate clutter. n Improve the quality of sleep. Minimize changes in schedules that alter sleep patterns. n Maintain a healthy diet with exercise and physicalstrength-training workouts. n Employees: Know your limits. Don’t attempt a task that exceeds your abilities (even if you “used to be able to do it”). n Employers: Modify your retirement and pension plans to enable older workers to remain gainfully and productively employed. mt-online.com | 9
War time In 1997, McKinsey & Company coined the term “the war for talent” as part of its research related to talent management—research that continued in 2000 to determine the impact and prescriptive actions to address looming skills shortages. So here we are, roughly 13 years later, still battling for talent in a huge and diverse war. The term “war” aptly describes what is beginning to happen as some companies, industrial sectors and regions search for skilled and knowledgeable employees, only to come up empty-handed. Some fail in their battles to recruit and retain talented workers because of outdated personnel policies and compensation systems. As we are now learning, there is a difference between a “labor
shortage” and a “skills” or “talent” shortage in maintenance and reliability job roles. As a nation we cannot afford to lose THIS war! Because of the perfect storm, it’s become extremely challenging to recruit skilled and knowledgeable maintenance and reliability workers. They’re just not out there any more! Thus, the war for talent MUST include an employer-led internal quest for talent to further develop. Knowledge transfer, mentoring, coaching and formal training and qualification processes are just a few of the preparations that employers must put in place sooner rather than later. Plant performance and reliability will suffer without plant- and equipmentspecific skills development. To get this done, focus on the most at-risk and
critical equipment and processes first. Develop detailed procedures for every aspect of operations and maintenance by tapping the skills and knowledge of your senior workforce. This IS your key to future competitiveness! Remember: In light of our aging workforce and war for talent, knowledge retention and knowledge transfer in our plants and facilities is a matter of survival! MT RobertMW2@cs.com Resources used in preparing this column: Aging Workforce News at www.aging workforcenews.com Dychtwald, Erickson, and Morrison. Workforce Crisis: How to Beat the Coming Shortage of Skills and Talent, Harvard Business School Press, 2006.
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Ken Bannister, Contributing Editor
Partnering With America’s Youth The majority of you reading this column are professionals in every sense of the word. You’ve probably spent an initial 6000 to 8000 hours in attaining an accredited trade, technical diploma or degree, along with countless hours in additional training programs. Many of you are in, or fast approaching, your fifth decade of life, and having spent an average of 2000 work hours for every year worked will have amassed anywhere from 65,000 to 80,000+ hours of “hands-on” maintenance experience. Over the course of those many hours, you’ve likely encountered every conceivable type of maintenance failure and repair issue. Some were memorable, others forgettable; all were learning experiences waiting to be shared and “passed on.” The travesty of the current skilledtrades crisis is that millions of precious maintenance experience hours are being bled out of industry annually as more and more of you retire (or get ready to over the next 5-10 years)— with little or no succession planning in the works! Too many school systems have forsaken “hands-on” vocational training by closing home economics and shop classes, for example. Couple that with a lack of formal apprenticeship programs and you begin to see why it is so difficult for a child to understand the value of being able to make something from nothing or bring something back to its original state and make it useful again. This situation has helped create a real void of talent that could be stepping up to alleviate our current skilled-trades dilemma. Now is the time to act! If we wait for government to do so, it will be too little, too late, if at all! As maintenance pros, YOU have a legacy to protect and a massive amount of skills and knowledge to share with the next generation. Only with YOUR help and creativity can we stave off an impending catastrophe. It’s time to set up a partnership with America’s youth and allow them to know the “rush” and rewards from engineering or building
something from scratch or repairing something that was about to be discarded forever. “Pass it on” strategies To ensure that YOUR experience is not wasted, YOU must find a way to “pass it on” to the workforce of tomorrow. By now, most of you are well aware of the television series Made in America, conceived, produced and hosted by John Ratzenberger (aka Cliff Clavin, the amiable postman from the wildly popular Cheers series). In Made in America, he put the spotlight on American manufacturing facilities and the pride their employees took in turning out products.
Millions of precious maintenance experience hours are being bled from industry annually as more and more of you retire, or get ready to retire over the next 5-10 years, with little or no succession planning in the works! You also probably know by now that Ratzenberger is a strong advocate for the skilled trades and the pursuance of “hands-on” vocational training through his role as founder and spokesperson for the Nuts, Bolts & Thingamajigs (NBT) Foundation, which he established with the Fabricators and Manufacturers Association. NBT provides young
Now is the time to act! If we wait for government to act on our behalf in solving the skilled-trades shortage, it will be too little, too late or not at all. people an outlet for serious tinkering through summer manufacturing camps and awards of scholarships for deserving students to pursue technical interests at trade schools and colleges. Through their unselfish actions, Ratzenberger and NBT have given hundreds of kids the opportunity to act out their innovative side through the simple act of making stuff at a summer camp. In the past, the tinkering rights of passage typically involved gifting a youngster with a tool kit, a miniature version of the real thing—not a plastic simulator like most of today’s tool kit offerings— or mechanical toys and building sets that came with real nuts and bolts and mini-wrenches. These types of products are still available. Giving them to your small children or grandchildren (or those of others) and supervising their use is a great way to pass on your knowledge and skills at a true grassroots level. Older kids require a different approach. With them, you’ll want to seek out opportunities to demonstrate the value of critical thinking and how to model a design or repair in their heads by working with them to restore an old car, build a deck or renovate a room. Even if they don’t go on to work in a trade, you will have fostered a thought process that encourages them to think about others and how their decisions affect processes and people. How many times have we all wished for that? It starts with YOU, one tinkerer at a time. Believe me, there are countless ways you can “pass it on” to America’s youth. Here are some ideas to get the ball rolling: n If your operations have apprentices, take time to mentor them. Don’t wait until the end of an apprenticeship to reveal the “secrets” of the trade. n Offer your mentoring services to your local college and trade-school technical programs. Even a simple question-and-answer session on machine failure can provide tremendous value for the students.
n Campaign at high schools for shop classes, or volunteer to speak to a graduating class on the rewards of a vocational “hands-on” career. n Help your company promote its own “Made in America” type of showcase. Invite local school children and show them the complexity (and excitement) involved in making and repairing things at your facility. n Encourage your company to set up a day of job “shadowing” for local high school students. n Hold a fund-raiser, or persuade your company to sponsor an NBT Summer Camp. For more details visit www.nutsandboltsfoundation.org. n Invite school administrators into your business to show the value of a “hands-on” vocation. n Work with local media outlets to show them why the designation “Made in America” means so much—i.e. products made in America with pride, not made halfway around the world under suspect circumstances. n Become a Big Brother or Sister for a youngster, and work together on a restoration project. Whatever strategy you choose, recognize the value of YOUR contribution to your company, your profession and the public at large through the product or service you deliver. Above all, be proud of what you do and share that pride. I challenge all “tinkerers” to unite and create a “Pass It On!” wave for our youth over the next five years. I guarantee you will receive much more than you will give. Good luck! MT
Ken Bannister is lead partner/principal consultant with Engtech Industries. Telephone: (519) 469-9173; e-mail: email@example.com.
MT-ONLINE.COM | 13
Freeing your operations from a sticky problem…
A New Solution For Flange Adhesion Gaskets in your piping and process-equipment systems are key factors in your plant’s ability to meet production goals, ensure process safety and comply with environmental regs. How easily and quickly you install and maintain these vital components is critical both to their success and yours.
Mike McNally, Howard Lockhart & Dave Burgess Garlock Sealing Technologies 14 |
t has been one of industry’s stickiest problems: Flange adhesion by many types of gaskets has posed a continual challenge for operations and maintenance personnel. The often-difficult task of separating flanges is just one part of the problem; removing their adhering gasket material without damaging the flanges is another, possibly tougher one. While solvent-based gasket removers can be effective, they also can present health and safety issues. Thus, many plants turn to wire brushes or wheels, which, if improperly applied, can damage flanges on pipes and process equipment. Just try to imagine what could happen to your operations if particles loosened by a wire brush were to contaminate a mission-critical piping system at your facility… JULY 2010
CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
Separating flanges is just one part of the problem; removing their adhering gasket material without damaging the flanges is another. While solvent-based gasket removers can be effective, they also can present health and safety issues.
The mechanism of adhesion Many theories have been put forth to explain the mechanism of adhesion. To date, though, no single theory has been able to address the issue in a comprehensive way. What we do know for sure is that the bonding of an adhesive material to another surface is the result of a sum of mechanical, physical and chemical forces that overlap, interact and influence one another. As detailed here, the prevailing theories include adsorption, mechanical interlocking, chemisorption and electrostatic attraction. n The adsorption theory assumes that when an adhesive material is applied, it spreads spontaneously, “wetting” the adherent surface. For this to occur, the surface tension of the adhering material must be lower than the surface free energy of the adherent. Adhesive strength results from intimate contact between the adhesive and adherent through secondary intermolecular forces at the interface, collectively known as van der Waals forces. These include dipole-dipole forces, dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding. n The mechanical interlocking theory is based on the fact that at the microscopic level all surfaces are rough, consisting of crevices, cracks and pores. Bonding occurs when the adhesive penetrates or surrounds these irregularities and hardens. n The theory of chemisorption—like that of adsorption— is based on adhesive “wetting” of an adherent, resulting in the formation of ionic, covalent or metallic chemical bonds. These are much stronger bonds than those produced by van der Waals forces. n The electrostatic theory posits the formation of a double electrical zone at the adhesive-adherent interface, where the transfer of electrons creates positive and negative charges that attract one another. JULY 2010
It has been determined empirically that minimal flange adhesion occurs with flexible graphite gaskets, since they consist of interlocked “worms” of exfoliated flakes with no organic binders. In fact, flake graphite is often used as an anti-stick coating for other types of gaskets. It has also been established that PTFE-based gasketing is subject to only minimal flange adhesion. The well-known non-stick properties of PTFE are the result of its low surface energy. Like flexible graphite, it too is often used as an anti-stick coating for other gasketing compositions. The problem of flange adhesion is largely associated with the use of compressed fiber gasketing. While there are many available compositions, they all contain organic rubber binders. The extent of curing and degree of crosslinking between these binders are typically lower than that of homogeneous rubber gaskets. The result is a softer, less cross-linked rubber that allows the gasket to conform to the flange and create a seal. Under heat and pressure, however, the binder flows out and wets the flange, allowing adsorption, chemisorption and mechanical interlocking to occur. These forces can be quite high, resulting in flange adhesion. Preventing the problem Flange adhesion can be mitigated by coating gaskets with a low-surface-tension semisolid or liquid, e.g. PTFE, silicone, a platy solid or an anti-seize compound, to prevent the binder from wetting out on the flange. Anti-seize compounds vary in composition but typically consist of metal particles in a petroleum-based carrier with other additives. These compounds are not recommended for three reasons: Under heat and pressure, the metal particles can adhere to the flange, distorting the facing, filling in the serrations and eventually rendering the gasket incapable of sealing. Coating gaskets with anti-seize compounds can cause problems as the gaskets are compressed. A lubricated gasket not only has a tendency to extrude and split, but also can be forced out of the flange by internal pressures and lack of friction. In addition, the petroleum in anti-seize compounds can attack and soften some gasketing. MT-ONLINE.COM | 15
CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
Although the use of silicone anti-stick agents can be effective, they can contaminate system media. If they come into contact with paint or photographic chemicals, for example, these agents can cause a lack of adhesion. For this reason, the use of silicone is excluded from many gasketing applications. PTFE-based anti-stick agents can be effective, but lack thermal stability. PTFE begins to decompose above 500 F—well below the maximum service temperatures of most compressed fiber gasketing. In addition, hazardous and corrosive halogenated byproducts can be formed during decomposition. A better solution is to use an inorganic material, such as talc, mica, vermiculite or graphite, to prevent the binder from wetting out on the flange. Due to their layered crystal structure, these materials are effective as anti-stick agents, cleaving to form thin sheets which, when milled, result in flat, plate-like structures. These structures allow the particles to form a laminar barrier on the surface of the gasket. However, these naturally occurring substances vary in their morphology, degrees of purity and levels of undesirables. Graphite is also an electrical conductor that can result in severe galvanic corrosion in wet or humid environments. Wetted by seawater, graphite gaskets can cause rapid localized attack of most stainless-steel alloys, and at elevated temperatures they can carburize some stainless and nickel alloys, making them more susceptible to intergranular corrosion. Developing an advanced solution For end users seeking a solution to flange adhesion problems around their operations, an advanced anti-stick agent is now available (see Sidebar, pg. 19). It has the desirable flake morphology—but without some of the undesirable characteristics of mined materials. The particles used in the new gasket coating are synthesized from refined materials under highly controlled conditions, resulting in a uniform, high-purity material. Because these particles are extremely compliant, they stack well to create a continuous barrier and enhance gasket sealability. Unlike graphite, the particles are non-conductive and contain extremely low levels of potentially corrosive halogens and sulfur compounds. With an oxidation threshold of approximately 800 C, the particles are thermally stable and have unusually high chemical stability. This thermal and chemical stability contributes to their non-toxicity, making them more environmentally friendly than other anti-stick compounds. Relative to exposure, there are no specific limits for these particles; they are classified simply as “nuisance dust.” The particles are not classified as being carcinogenic to humans by any of the relevant agencies, and there are no regulations regarding their use, transport or disposal. A stable dispersion of the optimized coating formulation 16 |
was applied uniformly to sample gaskets for testing against both uncoated gaskets and gaskets coated with other antistick compounds. Among the factors evaluated were crush and blowout resistance, sealability and adhesion. Testing the new coating ASTM Test Method F607 provides a means of determining the degree to which gasket materials under heat and compressive load adhere to metal surfaces. The two-part test not only measures the force required to separate the flanges, but also evaluates the amount of residual gasket material left on them after the test. Compressed fiber gaskets with Neoprene binders were tested at 400 F (204 C) for 22 hours. Predictably, the rubber binder and fragments of synthetic fibers from the uncoated gasket adhered to the flange (Fig. 1), compared with only traces of the coating and ink from the printed side of the gasket coated with the new antistick agent (Fig. 1a). In addition to preventing flange adhesion, it was imperative that the new coating not adversely affect gasket functionality and performance.
Fig. 1. Residual deposits of the gasket after testing without the new antistick coating
Fig. 1a. Post-test disk surface after removal of a coated gasket
Crush and blowout resistance… Crush resistance is particularly vulnerable to the use of the wrong type of anti-stick coating. Crushed gaskets deform laterally toward their IDs and/or ODs when they cannot accommodate more compression. The friction between gaskets and flanges has a major impact on the amount of stress that can be applied before the gaskets begin to split apart. To the extent that a coating affects that friction, it can reduce the crush resistance of a gasket. Unfortunately, bolt lubricants are commonly applied to gaskets, causing them to crush and split or blowout. In compression testing, a gasket material treated with a copper anti-seize coating underwent a sudden reduction in thickness at a stress of approximately 17,000 psi, while the same material with the new anti-stick coating withstood 30,000 psi without crushing. JULY 2010
CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
Blowout Test (P x T Results) Millions
Pressure x Temperature Rating, PSI x F
1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7
New Anti-Stick Coating
Fig. 2. Testing showed that the new Flange Free™ anti-stick coating did not adversely affect the gasket’s pressure resistance.
Surface coatings also can affect blowout resistance, or the maximum internal pressure that a flanged joint can hold before gross leakage and/or gasket rupture. As with crush resistance, the friction between a non-metallic gasket and flange is the determining factor in a joint’s pressure capability. Blowout tests were conducted on a gasket treated with the new anti-stick agent, an uncoated gasket and an uncoated gasket on a flange with talc. The tests were run in two-inch 2500# raised-face flanges, heated to 1000 F (538 C) and pressurized until the joint leaked or the gasket ruptured. Test results (see Fig. 2) showed that the new anti-stick coating did not adversely affect the gasket’s pressure resistance. Sealability… Sealability also was studied, with the uncoated values serving as the baseline for comparison. Gasket sealability was determined using ASTM F 37 for fuel A and nitrogen tests. Fuel A tests were done at a compressive load of 500 psi and an internal pressure of 9.8 psig, while nitrogen tests were conducted at 3000 psi and 30 psig respectively. Test results indicate the new anti-stick coating had little to no effect on how well the gaskets sealed. Adhesion… In evaluating the adhesion properties of the gaskets, the same array of coated and uncoated materials was tested using ASTM F 607 methods. Test platens were assembled JULY 2010
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CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
Fig. 3. Carbon ďŹ ber gasket treated with new anti-stick coating
Fig. 4. Untreated carbon ďŹ ber gasket
Fig. 5. Vermiculite gasket
with a two-square-inch gasket at a stress of 3000 psi and heated in an oven at 212 F and 400 F. The force required to separate the platens was measured, quantifying the degree to which the gaskets adhered to them. The sample gasket with the new anti-stick coating exhibited dramatically lower separation stresses than the other treated and untreated test materials. As noted, the residue left on a flange face is just as important as separation stress. In some cases, entire gaskets can be stuck. In others, a thin film is left in the serrations. The new anti-stick coating minimized both separation stress and residue left on the flange. The carbon fiber gasket treated with the new anti-stick coating (Fig. 3) was easily removed by hand; the untreated carbon fiber gasket (Fig. 4) and the vermiculite gasket (Fig. 5) were completely adhered to the flange.
CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
Design your marketing
In addition to preventing flange adhesion, it was imperative that the new coating not adversely affect gasket functionality and performance. Conclusion The extensive research and testing that has gone into developing this new anti-stick coating confirms that the binders in compressed fiber gaskets act as visco-elastic materials that tend to flow at elevated temperatures and pressures. As these binders “wet out” and make contact with the face of a metallic flange, chemical adhesion, mechanical interlocking and other modes of adhesion occur. This fact has enormous implications for plant maintenance. That’s because removing such gaskets can be a tedious, laborintensive and costly task that can damage equipment. The coating referenced in this article acts as a barrier that prevents binders from wetting out, thereby making gaskets easier to remove. Moreover, gaskets treated with the new antistick coating reduce the potential for residual particles to adversely affect the performance of replacement
gaskets or to break loose, contaminate piping systems and impair the operation of downstream equipment such as pumps and valves. Because they can be removed intact, the gaskets are also easier to dispose of properly. MT Mike McNally is a senior chemist, Howard Lockhart is an applications engineer and Dave Burgess is a senior applications engineer with Garlock, in Palmyra, NY. For more information, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Editor’s Note: Garlock Sealing Technologies has recently moved to establish a trust to pay current and future asbestos claims under Section 524(g) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. The company ceased production of all compressed sheet gaskets containing asbestos in December 2000. For more details, visit www. enproindustries.com.
Take Advantage of Your Editorial Exposure Reprints create a powerful marketing tool of instant credibility and endorsement. Use this resource to amplify exposure of a product, company, or service that has been featured in this publication. Customize your reprints to create a sharp message for your media kits, conference materials, direct mail pieces, and more. Profit today from this cost-effective method of personalizing your marketing content.
Freedom at Last According to Garlock, gaskets treated with its new Flange Free™ anti-stick compound reduce the time and effort required to remove them after extended service. Unlike many anti-stick coatings, this high-temperature, inorganic coating is firmly adhered to the surface of the gasket material, and does not contain chemicals that can cause gaskets to crack or otherwise degrade. For more info, enter 01 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
866.879.9144 email@example.com For more info, enter 71 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
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Still Chasing The Chickens? With today’s proven maintenance strategies, there’s no reason for your operations to be in chasing mode, but there’s hope if you are. Enrique Mora LeanExpertise.com
© WENDI EVANS - FOTOLIA.COM
he time was many years ago. The site was a metalmechanics plant in Barranquilla, Colombia, where it had been concluded that most of the operation’s poor OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) was due to low compliance with the plant’s preventive maintenance (PM) program. According to the maintenance manager, the average PM completion rate was no greater than 30%. When asked why, he put it in simple, but graphic, terms: “We all are too busy chasing the chickens, so no one has the time to find the hole in the fence and fix it.” Many plants today face the same challenge. The good news is that this situation can be rectified with a little “imagination.” Imagine that you are suddenly told that two of your maintenance team members will stop working for you. Imagine that because of budget constraints you can’t replace them. Also imagine that although these workers are among your most valuable technicians, they spend most of their time chasing chickens. What will you do without them?
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
The belief that maintenance is simply those who repair machines when they fail, burn or break still exists. Those who subscribe to this flawed notion get just that.
Now, imagine that you will be spared from losing two valuable employees, but the thought of losing them has made you see the importance of giving them a new task: to complete all PM work orders and, while doing so, bring to you any possible improvement ideas. These workers will no longer be allowed to chase chickens. Instead, they will be assigned to “find the holes and fix the fence.” A process of PM optimization to remove unnecessary PM work orders and streamline the PM process will follow. At this point, you’ll be in a good position to embark upon the optimal situation—that of autonomous maintenance. It’s not fantasy. It’s very achievable. You must, however, expect the best. If you do, the best will happen. You can stop chasing chickens by putting your maintenance activity into high gear. Leadership and maintenance Much has changed in maintenance over the last 50 years. In the old days, maintainers were not the important professional force that they are today. Maintenance, as some often said, was a necessary evil. Nowadays, many operations— but not all—have realized that better maintenance means better performance and profits. The belief that maintenance is simply “those who repair machines when they fail, burn or break” still exists. Those who subscribe to this flawed notion get just that. In today’s competitive world, forward-thinking companies see maintenance activity as an integral part in the production process. Coincidentally, that is exactly what it should be, according to the principles of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)—a concept that is understood by only a very few. To clarify: The T in TPM refers to the Total responsibility of everyone. It is the Total human resource of the organization to keep and Maintain the Productive edge of the enterprise. A good way to achieve this totally shared responsibility is through compliance with preventive maintenance. A reasonable PM program can do what is needed to prevent failure and bring the reliability of the plant to the JULY 2010
highest level possible. That said, it is also wise to implement autonomous maintenance (AM). AM (considered to be the core discipline of TPM) combines two important workforces that have traditionally been antagonistic: production and maintenance. TPM achieves this harmony by getting both forces to understand how important the (good) functioning of the equipment is for the enterprise. Everyone in a plant is responsible for bringing the equipment to maximum performance. When this is done correctly, everyone will find a benefit from the improvement in productivity. The evolution of preventive maintenance While there’s no question that PM is valuable, historically its schedules were created to establish only the basic maintenance steps required to validate equipment guarantees. Some of these original measures were (and still are) exaggerated and costly. Here is where we need to make some improvements to the PM process: Fine-tune PM scheduling… Countless manufacturer-created PMs are scheduled on a calendar basis. This is effective only for equipment that runs a fixed number of hours per day. (When machines or systems run in irregular periods, it is good to install hour meters to measure their usage.) Consider the following example: Pump maintenance was an issue at a North Carolina biotech facility. PM instructions ordered parts changes at calendar intervals—something that led to totally new parts being removed, regardless of their condition. In short, perfectly good diaphragms and seals were being replaced time after time by robot-like technicians who didn’t have the authority to think on their own or use their own criteria. The diaphragms and seals at this plant, though, may have been just part of the costly picture. Other types of losses frequently caused by what can best be described as “irrational” PMs not only involve the labor, but the wear and tear on bolts, nuts, fittings, etc., during unnecessary disassembly and reassembly of equipment. MT-ONLINE.COM | 21
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
Table I. One Company’s Effort to Do Things Right in Its Maintenance Program
As in almost any activity related to lean manufacturing, maintenance must achieve a higher level of training and leadership than that detailed in the foregoing example. This empowers people to use critical thinking and, therefore, act in a more informed, autonomous and professional way. Technicians must also share their thoughts and ideas so the program gets improved with their feedback. Simplify inspection and repair procedures… Making equipment more maintainable should also be an ongoing concern. Far too many hours can be wasted removing covers only to learn that everything underneath is performing properly. All technicians should be trained to develop procedures that are inspection- and replacement-friendly. These include the use of: ■ Machinery guards that can be rapidly removed or contain see-through windows. ■ Motor bases that allow rapid belt changes without affecting alignment. ■ Visual temperature indicators. ■ Filters that can be changed on the run.
Upgrade to predictive maintenance… The last decade has seen the rapid evolution of predictive maintenance (PdM). This “new wave” helps move maintenance efforts in the right direction by tracking the health of equipment as it is used—and allowing technicians to make smarter repair/ upgrade decisions. With PdM, maintenance has reached adult status, meaning it is time for all maintenance professionals to update their thinking and bring technicians and everyone else to a higher awareness and knowledge levels. Metrics tell the story The numbers shown in Table I reflect one company’s 10-year effort to do things right. They are quite interesting. This company is surviving—even in these hard times. It considers that its effective implementation of TPM and better understanding of PMs and PdM efforts have been of substantial importance to achieving its goals. Needless to say, this company is very proud that only 3% of its maintenance effort is spent “chasing the chickens.” MT Enrique Mora is an expert in lean manufacturing and Six Sigma, with 56 years of experience as both a consultant and practitioner. California-based, he has worked with hundreds of organizations across a range of industries in the U.S., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Colombia and elsewhere. Telephone: (760) 450-6025; e-mail: Enrique@ LeanExpertise.com. JULY 2010
BIG MONEY TALKS XX UM William C. Livoti
Calculating True Motor Efficiency
he Energy Independence Security Act of 2007 (EISA) becomes law December 19, 2010. A portion of EISA covers induction motors from 1-500 hp. It’s safe to say most end users will be affected. What does EISA have to do with calculating true motor efficiency? More than you would think. At some point, you’ll need to replace a motor covered by EISA. Replacing it with a duplicate that meets the new law would seem to make perfect sense. Not so fast! Before rushing a purchase order through, take time to determine: ■ Motor efficiency versus nameplate ■ Motor efficiency versus load To clarify: Yes, you’ll improve overall efficiency around two efficiency points by replacing a standard efficient motor with a new EISA premium efficient model. There’s much more to be gained, however, by making a few calculations. Facts Motor nameplate data doesn’t identify precise motor efficiency—only a range as defined by NEMA. An induction motor is highly efficient when operating close to its rated torque and speed, but it still has five major components of loss: iron loss, copper loss, frictional loss, windage loss and sound loss. Together, they add up to the total loss of the motor. Frictional, windage and sound losses are constant, independent of shaft load and typically very small. The major losses are from iron and copper. Iron loss is essentially constant and independent of shaft load, while copper represents a I2R loss, which is shaftload dependent. Since iron loss is voltage-dependent, it will reduce with reducing voltage. Most electric motors are designed to run at 50% to 100% of rated load, with maximum efficiency usually near 75%. Thus, a 10 hp motor has an acceptable load range of 5 hp to 10 hp, with peak efficiency at 7.5 hp. Motor efficiency tends
VOLUME VOLUME 52 // NO. NO. 32
to decrease dramatically below about 50% load. The range of good efficiency, however, varies with individual motors and tends to extend over a broader range for larger units. A motor is considered under-loaded when it’s in the range where efficiency drops significantly with decreasing load. Throw in a poor motor rewind, and you could have a far-less-efficient motor than the nameplate data indicates. It is also a well-known fact that motor pumping systems (most pumps are motor-driven) operate at less than 40% efficiency. Clearly, there’s an opportunity to save additional energy by reducing the size of the motor. Calculating Keep these points in mind when you set out to calculate true motor efficiency: ■ Use power, amperage or slip measurements to identify the load imposed on the operating motor. ■ Obtain a motor part-load efficiency value consistent with the approximated load from the manufacturer. Or, if direct-read power measurements are available, derive a revised load estimate using both the power measurement at the motor terminals and the part-load efficiency. Help If your company tracks energy savings and justifies projects based on documented payback, evaluating your motor performance/load is important. Help is out there. Several commercially available devices will do these calculations for you. If you don’t have the resources within your plant to make the calculations, contact a local EASA (Electrical Apparatus Service Association) shop that offers this service. UM Bill Livoti is a fluid power and power industry engineer with Baldor Electric Company. Telephone: (864) 281-2118; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
UTILITIES UTILITIES MANAGER MANAGER || 23 23
UM UTILITIES MANAGER
Maintaining Belt Drives For Maximum Savings You might be surprised at how much energy is wasted when these systems operate poorly. Bill Hillman Ludeca, Inc.
roperly maintained V-belt drives can be up to 97% efficient. Poorly operating belt drives can waste as much as 10% additional input power. Letâ€™s consider a scenario that ignores motor losses and only considers losses in the belt drive. With electricity costs of seven cents per kWh, a rotor operating three shifts per day, five days per week and requiring 50 horsepower from a belt drive would consume over $16,000 of power annually. An additional drop in efficiency of only 5% would result in increased costs of over $800 per year. In some industries, such belt drives may comprise more than 50% of the total drive population. This example clearly shows that big savings can be realized by properly maintaining them.
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VOLUME 5 / NO. 3
UTILITIES MANAGER UM
Belt misalignment, heat, worn pulleys and improper tensioning can eat away at a belt’s efficiency and an operation’s profits. Problems that can cause loss of efficiency in belt drives include belt misalignment, heat, worn pulleys and improper belt tensioning.
■ The belts may need re-tensioning.
Belt misalignment. . . Belt-drive misalignment is a common cause of premature belt failure. Belt-drive performance is greatly reduced when misalignment causes increased belt wear and belt fatigue. Misaligned belts can fail quite rapidly due to the additional stresses imposed on the drive. Misaligned belts also increase machine vibration. The energy required to produce the vibration is wasted, adding to increased efficiency losses. Properly aligned belts will greatly increase both belt and pulley service life. The industry standard for V-belt alignment requires that the belts be aligned to within 1/10 in. per ft. of distance between center of shafts and 1/16 in. for synchronous belts. For V-belts, this means that with a shaft-to-shaft center distance of 60 in., the misalignment can total ½ in. and still meet the standard. Modern belt-alignment tools allow for much greater precision than the standard requires. Uneven wear of belts and pulleys is an indication of misalignment problems—which need to be corrected before replacing these components.
■ The sheaves may be excessively worn.
Heat. . . According to a Dayco and Gates reference, belt life is cut in half by every 35 F degree temperature rise above 85 F. Belt life should be 15,000 - 20,000 hours. This means that at three shifts per day, five days per week, a set of belts should last from 1.7 to 2.2 years. One study even predicts 25,000 hours at 85 F. Belt temperatures should be held below 140 F; above that point, belt life will drop to about 6500 hours. Totally enclosed belt guards trap heat, making them a problem. Guards are for safety and to prevent debris from falling into belts and pulleys. Vent guards on the sides and near the top so heat can escape. Belt guards should conform to OSHA regulations. Keep belts as cool as possible. Measure operating pulley groove temperature with an infrared thermometer or infrared camera to see if temperatures are higher than those suggested above. If they are, the belt is probably slipping—which leads to the question of what should be done. The typical response is: “Tighten the belts.” That’s incorrect. The right answer? “Address the problem causing the belts to slip.” Potential problems include: VOLUME 5 / NO. 3
■ The belts may be damaged.
■ The belts may be misaligned. ■ The belts may not be matched in length. Worn pulleys. . . Worn sheaves may reduce belt life by as much as 50%. Use a sheave gage and check sheaves for wear. The total wear should not exceed 1/32 in. If sheaves are replaced every three belt changes and belt life is as stated above, sheaves should last 6.5 years. The top of the belt should not be below the outside diameter of the sheave. The belt should not contact the bottom of the pulley groove. (A shiny groove bottom is an indication of contact.) Move pulleys in as close to bearings as possible, to reduce loads on bearings. Reducing the load on a bearing by half can increase bearing life by a factor of 8. Larger sheaves can increase belt life. Increase both the driver and driven-pulley diameters by the same percentage, and speeds will remain the same. Larger pulleys reduce bearing loads because they allow for more contact area between the belt and pulley, permitting operation with less belt tension. Improper belt tensioning. . . Belt tension charts show the amount of tension that will allow a belt to deliver maximum horsepower—which is usually much more tension than is required by the application. Contact the belt manufacturer and provide drive information to get more accurate tension information for the applicable loads. The proper tension for a belt is the minimum tension at which the belt will not slip under the maximum load. Belts should not squeal on startup. If a belt is adjusted to proper tension and the drive squeals on startup, the drive is probably inappropriate for the application. If belt drives are properly maintained and fail frequently, the drive may not be properly engineered. Call the belt manufacturer and provide drive information to determine proper application. UTILITIES MANAGER | 25
UM UTILITIES MANAGER
Don’t just tighten belts when they slip. Identify the problem that’s causing the slipping and deal with it. Belt-changing tips ■ Don’t pry belts off pulleys. Loosen motor-base bolts or the adjusting screw to release belt tension. Rolling belts on with a screwdriver may damage cords, causing the belt to be thrown off the pulley or turn over in the groove. ■ Tighten pulley-bushing bolts in proper sequence to prevent axial runout on pulleys. ■ Check and correct motor soft foot. Evidence of soft foot correction on belt drives is rare. Many craftspeople think motor shims are used only for shaft-to-shaft alignment. Soft foot conditions can also exist in belt-drive motors. ■ Tension belts with a belt-tensioning tool. Run machine then re-tension. After 24 hours, re-tension belts again. Proper tension is the lowest tension at which the belt will not slip under maximum load. Over-tensioning shortens both belt and bearing life. ■ Don’t use belt dressings. Oil and grease shorten belt life. ■ Check pulley runout with a dial indicator. Correct any runout problems before changing belts. ■ Don’t mix brands of belts, and don’t mix new belts with old. ■ Beware thick-sided pulleys when aligning belts as they may introduce error into the alignment. The goal is to align the belts, not the pulley faces. The best laser pulley-alignment tools offer optional magnetic targets that can be adjusted for different sheave-wall thicknesses. UM
Bill Hillman is a technical contributor for LUDECA, INC., vendor of laser pulley-alignment tools. Telephone: (903) 407-9488 or (972) 429-3670; e-mail: email@example.com
The Case for Laser Alignment: A Personal Perspective Many years ago, my wife gave me a battery-powered electric screwdriver as a gift. While I graciously accepted it, I didn’t think I would ever use it. In fact, I wondered why anyone would want one! I had more than a dozen regular screwdrivers in my toolbox; they had served me quite well over the years. I saw this new version as a gimmick for the gullible. How could I have been so wrong? The electric screwdriver soon became one of my favorite tools. I went through a similar shift in thinking about laser belt-alignment tools. When I first heard about the technology, I wondered why I would want such a device when all I needed was a piece of string. Perhaps I’m just a slow learner. After trying out a laser belt-alignment tool, I realized that it was far superior to anything I had used previously for aligning pulleys and belts. The accuracy achieved, ease of use and speed of performing the alignment makes this tool a requirement for good belt-drive maintenance. Belts are not aligned unless the shafts are parallel. Getting the shafts parallel can be difficult with strings and straight edges; a laser alignment tool makes the job quick and easy. An additional, more important advantage of the advanced laser belt-alignment tool is that I don’t need anyone to help me align a drive. As I move a machine, the laser striking my targets on the opposing pulley allows me to see when I reach proper alignment—a one-man operation! … BH
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VOLUME 5 / NO. 3
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THE GREEN EDGE
Survey Says: Energy Investments Strong Despite Economic Challenges ÂŠ SUZANNMEER - FOTOLIA.COM
espite a tough economy, the investment levels in energy efficiency have remained strong, according to the Energy Efficiency Indicator (EEI) survey released last month by solution-supplier Johnson Controls. The company surveyed those responsible for making investments in energyefficient systems and managing energy in commercial buildings around the world, including those associated with manufacturing operations. Based on a total of 2882 completed responses, findings indicate, overall, that 56% invested the same or more in energy efficiency over the last 12 months compared with historical levels. Leading this group was China, where 60% of those surveyed said they maintained or increased energy investments, followed by the U.S. (59%), Europe (55%) and India (45%).
While motivations differ by region, cost savings emerge as the most important factor driving energy investments, with 97% of respondents identifying it as significant. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions (74%) is the second-most important motivator for energy efficiency in all regions except North America, where boosting public image (63%) and taking advantage of government/utility incentives (62%) rank higher. Globally, 63% of respondents said they plan to make capital investments in energy efficiency, and 70% plan operating budget expenditures in efficiency programs over the next 12 months. The most popular measures taken in these programs were those with low initial cost and/or rapid payback. Lighting retrofits topped the list, with 73% of respondents having moved to energy-efficient lighting products. Other frequently employed tactics include staff
education (64%) and the replacement of inefficient equipment before the end of its useful life (37%). The survey also touched on carbon emissions, with nearly one-third of the organizations surveyed having publicly committed to make reductions. While many said their most important strategy for carbon reduction was energy efficiency in buildings (34%), others listed the installation of on-site renewable energy, the purchasing of renewable power and improving efficiency in their vehicle fleet. The Energy Efficiency Indicator survey was conducted during March and April 2010. Participants included global CEOs, CFOs, real-estate leaders and facility managers. Johnson Controls Milwaukee, WI For more info, enter 30 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
DOES YOUR COMPANY HAVE A GREEN EDGE? E-mail your product and service news to: firstname.lastname@example.org For information on advertising in the Green Edge section, contact JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / Fax: (480) 264-4789 / E-mail: email@example.com
THE GREEN EDGE
Vegetable-Based Honing Fluid
unnen’s SHO-500 is a long-life, general-purpose honing fluid based on a renewable vegetable formulation. Offering improvements in oxidation stability, the product is formulated without additives such as sulfur, chlorine and fluorine. According to the manufacturer, it is well-suited for honing applications where additives cannot be used, as well as for use with conventional vitrified honing abrasives and metal-bond superabrasives. SHO-500 joins Sunnen’s two other planet-friendly oils, MAN-863 and KG3X, which are listed as BioPreferred™ products by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The new oil is available in 5-gal. pails, 55-gal. drums and 330-gal. totes.
Unit Converts Waste Heat Into Electricity
roRenewables offers the Green Machine, an innovative, clean-energy technology that uses water no hotter than a cup of tea to produce emissionfree electricity on an industrial scale. Pioneered and manufactured by Nevada-based ElectraTherm, Inc., the Green Machine is designed to help industrial facilities substantially increase energy efficiency, reduce fuel consumption and comply with environmental regulations. The product works by capturing waste heat to boil fluid that powers an electric generator. According to ProRenewables, using a robust twin-screw expander in place of turbine technology results in low maintenance outlay over the life of the machine. A modest 5’ x 5’ footprint makes the product modular and scalable. The payback period at most installations is reported to range from two to five years, depending on installation cost, electric rates and available financial incentives. ProRenewables Kalamazoo, MI For more info, enter 31 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Sunnen Products Co. St. Louis, MO For more info, enter 32 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Energy Management Standard Moves Along Approval Track
SO 50001, a standard providing energy management system guidelines for industrial plants, commercial facilities and others, has been approved as a Draft International Standard (DIS). This document is based on the common elements found in all ISO management system standards, assuring a high level of compatibility with ISO 9001, Quality management systems, and ISO 14001, Environmental management systems. At this stage, national member bodies of ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) are invited to vote and comment on the text of the proposed standard until August 26. If approved, it’s expected to be published by early 2011. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Washington, D.C.
For more info, enter 33 at www.MT-freeinfo.com MT-ONLINE.COM | 29
Protecting & Optimizing Your Air Compressors Count on synthetic lubricants to help you do it all!
Jane Alexander, Editor with Michael J. Hawkins ExxonMobil Lubricants & Specialties
ir compressors are everywhere. They’re one of the most valuable and widely used power sources for industrial and commercial businesses in the world. Over the past decade, the marketplace for these workhorses has gone through a dramatic transformation. The need to improve productivity and lower costs has led to significant changes in compressorcomponent technology and designs, with leading manufacturers introducing increasingly advanced units that are more compact— and more powerful—than ever. If your processes require air compressors, protecting and optimizing their performance should be at the top of your to-do list. Consider the following tips. They can help you ensure that your compressors deliver the reliability and performance your operations demand. Protection and optimization start with the correct lubricant In most industrial facilities and many off-highway applications, today’s air compressors operate under extreme pressures and generate extremely high amounts of heat through adiabatic compression. (This is similar to the process used to ignite the fuel-air mixture in a diesel engine.) In these types of operating conditions, high-performance, fully synthetic lubricants offer a number of advantages over mineral-based products. For example, Mobil Rarus SHC 1020 Series oils are formulated with an advanced base oil and a proprietary additive system that assures exceptional resistance to oxidation, enabling them to deliver long-lasting protection and reliability. By comparison, conventional mineral oils often break down when subjected to hightemperature conditions, leading to harmful deposits that can damage critical compressor components.
ROI From Oil Analysis Use of synthetics results in a number of benefits, including… ■ Cleaner compressors, which leads to longer running periods between maintenance intervals ■ Enhanced oxidation and thermal stability, which minimizes sludge and deposit formation, even under extremely high and low temperatures, and extreme load conditions ■ Higher load-carrying ability, which minimizes wear of bearings and gears ■ Increased water separability, which reduces sludge formation in crankcases and discharge lines, as well as blockages of coalescers and inter- and after-coolers ■ Improved rust and corrosion resistance, which protects internal components More protection and optimization “must-dos” Check for air leaks. You’ve heard it before: Running a compressor with air leaks is like driving a car with the emergency brake engaged. It wastes energy, reduces output capacity, shortens equipment life and increases maintenance costs. For example, the air leaking from a typical 1/8” hole consumes about one horsepower of energy. Keep operating pressures at the minimal requirement. This is best accomplished by identifying the maximum application-pressure requirement of the system. To this, add the conveyance pressure loss, as typically about 5 psi are required to move air from the compressor to this application. The sum of these two pressures should be the pressure setting of the receiver tank. For example, if the maximum system application pressure requirement is 75 psi, then the receiver tank should be maintained at 80 psi. Only minor adjustments should be necessary to fine-tune this set-point.
For most companies, quarterly oil analysis is recommended for both reciprocating and rotary screw compressors. Such testing should be used to identify the condition of the in-service lubricant, as well as the presence of any wear metals indicative of a potential developing failure. The presence of any harmful contaminants, such as dirt, water and/or coolant, should also be identified. According to ExxonMobil, its Signum Oil Analysis Program is an advanced, online oil-analysis service that lets users register equipment, specify tests, print out labels required to send samples to ExxonMobil laboratories for analysis, and then download results, all from the convenience of their computers. …JA
Similar to air leaks, running at excessively high pressures results in shortened compressor and component life, along with increased maintenance and repair costs. Increased pressures also result in increased heat, which can significantly shorten the life of compressor lubricants, requiring frequent oil changes. (For every 2-psi reduction in operating pressure, there’s about a 1% increase in efficiency.) To get the most out of your compressor, make sure that intake air filters are routinely replaced and that all induction air piping and manifolds are tight and leak-free. Periodic white-glove inspections of all induction-piping surfaces should be performed to validate that internal surfaces are maintained dust-free. The source of any dirt or deposits found should be immediately traced back to the point of origin and repaired. MT A 17-year veteran of ExxonMobil, Mike Hawkins is the global brand manager for the company’s flagship Mobil SHC brand of high-performance synthetic lubricants. For more info, enter 02 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Understanding Lube Compatibility Many compressor manufacturers offer their own line of lubricants. These are often supplied under private-label agreements with lubricant manufacturers and blenders. These products are engineered to promote optimal equipment performance, as well as to be compatible with the materials used for internal components like seals and hoses. Before changing lubricants, it is important to consider the new product’s compatibility, not only with the materials of the compressor’s components, but with the previous lubricant used in the unit. The new lubricant’s formulation and
performance can be compromised if it is not compatible, potentially resulting in increased component wear, accelerated instances of oxidation, degradation of additives and elevated particle count. Since lubricants are engineered with complex chemistries, maintenance professionals are advised to seek the technical advice of an expert lubricant supplier with an in-depth knowledge of compressors. This type of expert will be able to provide data about compatibility testing and instructions for the proper flushing procedures to help promote a smooth conversion.
MT-ONLINE.COM | 31
Seeing is believing…
Optical Gas Imaging & Furnace Inspection M
any, often harmful, industrial gases and chemical compounds are invisible to the naked eye. Still, companies around the globe transport and transform these substances every day. What happens when leaks occur in the process? Can they be found before they impact personnel safety and the environment? FLIR Systems says “yes.” According to the company, optical imaging with its FLIR GF-Series thermal cameras has a number of advantages over the use of traditional gas “sniffers.” These cameras safely scan a broader area much more rapidly, and do so in areas that can be extremely difficult to reach with contact measurement tools. Infrared displays a leak as a plume of vapor in the thermal image. Once a leak is identified, a TVA can be used to quantify the concentration. The company offers a number of GF-Series products for a range of inspection tasks: ■ For electric utilities, the GF306 detects and visualizes SF6 (Sulfur Hexafluoride) and 25 other harmful gases quickly, from a safe distance and without the need to interrupt a plant’s production process. SF6 has a globalwarming potential 24,000 times higher than CO2 emissions; that’s more than any other greenhouse gas. Early detection and repair of such leaks is an important way that power plants can help protect the environment. ■ The GF309 is designed for high-temperature industrial furnace applications. It’s well-suited for monitoring 32 |
all types of furnaces, heaters and boilers, particularly in the chemical, petrochemical and utility industries. Custom-built to see through flames, the GF309 features a detachable heat shield to reflect heat away from the camera and operator, thus providing enhanced protection. ■ FLIR’s GF320 is a preventive maintenance solution to spot leaks in piping, flanges and connections in petrochemical operations. Literally thousands of components can be scanned per shift without the need to interrupt the process. Exceptionally safe, the GF320 lets users monitor potentially dangerous leaks from several meters away. Images from all FLIR GF-Series cameras are recordable to any off-the-shelf video recorder for easy archiving and documentation. FLIR Systems, Inc. Billerica, MA
For more info, enter 34 at www.MT-freeinfo.com JULY 2010
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Engineered Solutions For Fluid Pulsation, Noise & Surge
Identifying Opportunities For Automation Parts-Management
PULSCO Inc. Irvine, CA
ABB Wickliffe, OH
ccording to PULSCO, its engineered Liquid Pulsation Dampeners (Acoustic Filters) offer a number of advantages for end-users dealing with pulsation, vibration and noise problems in fluid-piping systems. The result is reduced piping and component deterioration and a quieter environment. PULSCO’s solutions can be designed to meet a variety of industrial codes including ASME, API and ANSI, using any material, in any thickness to compensate for temperature, pressure and flow conditions. The diameter and length, as well as the inlet and configuration can be varied to meet specific installation situations. There’s no gas charge to maintain or bladder to replace. With no moving parts, maintenance is minimal.
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BB now offers Parts Fingerprint, a spare-parts-management optimization service for critical ABB processautomation systems and products. The service reviews the effectiveness of existing spare-parts-management practices and identifies potential risk associated with insufficient stock, overstock, out-of-date inventory and end-of-life-cycle issues. It includes an on-site spare-parts-inventory validation, and comprehensive analysis of stock conditions, status, stocking levels, version management, warranty management, part criticality and historical parts usage. Existing processes and conditions are compared with established ABB best practices. The resulting report provides recommendations for improving overall spares management, including cost-saving strategies, and management of issues related to equipment lifecycle status and equipment supportability.
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Lab-Quality Lube Analysis On-Site In Real-Time
ccording to A2 Technologies, FT-IR is a proven technique for oil condition monitoring in laboratories. The company’s advances in sampling, software and miniaturization now make this powerful analytical tool available for real-time, on-site lube analysis. Its PAL FTIR analyzers provide instantaneous measurement of degree of oxidation, depletion of additive packages and the amount of water present in a lubricant, all on one system. A2 notes that these analyzers are ideal complements to instrumentation that provides particle count, viscosity and dielectric measurements. A2 Technologies Danbury, CT
For more info, enter 37 at www.MT-freeinfo.com JULY 2010
COOL ELECTRONIC CABINETS. UL Listed Cabinet Coolers are the low cost way to cool and purge heat sensitive electronics. The compact Cabinet Coolers produce cold air at 20°F from compressed air. NEMA 4, 4X (stainless steel), and 12 models are available with thermostat control to minimize compressed air usage. No moving parts assures long life and maintenance free operation. Ideal cooling capacities for control panels. 11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 452491621. (800) 903-9247. E-mail: techelp@ exair.com. www.exair.com/48/140.htm EXAIR CORPORATION For more info, enter 73 at www.MT-freeinfo.com MT-ONLINE.COM | 33
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Versatile, Hand-Held Indoor Air-Quality Monitor
he Temperature & Process Instrument AQ-200 series indoor air-quality monitor, available through E Instruments, is designed to perform in a variety of air-quality situations. With optional interchangeable probes, this hand-held device can measure carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ambient temperature, humidity, current, voltage and temperature. The product is available in three preconfigured kits that represent the most popular configurations.
Multi-Function Calibration For Hazardous Areas
E Instruments Langhorne, PA For more info, enter 38 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
REPRINTS: Design your marketing
E’s hand-held DPI 620 IS advanced multifunction calibrator/HART® communicator is now approved for use in potentially explosive environments by the British certification body Baseefa. This approval carries both ATEX and IECEx certification that allows the instrument to be employed globally in Zone 0 areas. Extending to the instrument’s battery pack, the certification permits hot swapping within hazardous locations. Baseefa approval further expands the range of potential applications of this device, especially in the oil and gas and process sectors. GE’s introduction of the IS version follows the recent incorporation of HART® compatibility into the DPI620 platform. All versions of the DPI 620 now contain a complete HART library of registered device descriptions. GE Sensing & Inspection Technologies Billerica, MA For more info, enter 39 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Take Advantage of Your Editorial Exposure Reprints create a powerful marketing tool of instant credibility and endorsement. Use this resource to amplify exposure of a product, company, or service that has been featured in this publication.
Renewal Service Reformulates Used Oils & Chemicals
Customize your reprints to create a sharp message for your media kits, conference materials, direct mail pieces, and more. Profit today from this cost-effective method of personalizing your marketing content.
ull Circle Renewal™ from Rock Valley Oil & Chemical Co. processes used oils and chemicals back to their original specification or will reformulate them to meet specific application needs. Because the service reduces inventory and disposal expenses, cost savings compared to purchasing new fluids can reach 60%, according to the company. Rock Valley Oil & Chemical Co. Rockford, IL
866.879.9144 • firstname.lastname@example.org For more info, enter 74 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
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CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Automated Protection From Dangerous Overfills
IS-TECH’s Automated Overfill Protection System (AOPS) is designed to prevent dangerous overfill conditions in terminals, tank farms and process vessels. It is a low-cost, standalone, non-PE logic solver for use up to SIL 3. Rated for -30 to +75 C, it can be installed in the harshest of process units near the tank and communicate with the control system by way of hardwire, Modbus, Ethernet or wireless technology. SIS-TECH Houston, TX
Fast, Powerful, Colorful Vibration-Analysis Tool
udeca’s VIBXPERT II Vibration Analyzer is the latest addition to the company’s extensive line of condition-monitoring tools. Its easy-to-use menu-driven setups help resolve simple and complex machinery vibration issues. Fast data acquisition and analysis for routine data collection, cross-channel measurements, transient analysis, modal/ODS and balancing are among the many tasks this new product can handle. Data can be stored in OMNITREND PC software for analysis, reporting and trending. Ludeca, Inc. Doral, FL For more info, enter 42 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 41 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Refrigeration Leak-Detection Kit
liplight’s Flash™ professional refrigeration system leak-detection kits include three cans of Flash “no mess” dye, a reusable charging hose, an ultraviolet detector light and carrying case. Each can of dye treats up to one 5-ton unit or 64 ounces of system oil. Instead of using an injector or polyolester oil as a carrier, Flash relies on a drying agent combined with the hose’s 29/1000ths” orifice to mist dye into the system, keep it stable and prevent crystallization. Cliplight Mfg. Toronto, ON For more info, enter 43 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 75 at www.MT-freeinfo.com MT-ONLINE.COM | 35
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Wear-Resistant Hardfacing Wire
toody says its 1/16” (1.6 mm) 160 DM Nickel Tungsten Carbide Hardfacing Wire offers superior wear resistance, in fine-particle slurry jobs. Its evenly dispersed macro-crystalline particles are supported by a tough nickel silicon and boron matrix. Process pipe cladding, oil field stabilizers and mill hammers are some of the applications to which this product is suited. Stoody® Company A business unit of Thermadyne Industries St. Louis, MO
For more info, enter 44 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Simplified Ballast Change-Outs
he Push-In Luminaire Disconnect from Thomas & Betts lets electricians change ballasts safely and easily without having to trip the main power breaker. The Sta-Kon® Luminaire Disconnect is for use in all non-residential fluorescent lighting applications up to 4A, 600V. Installation is as simple as stripping the de-energized wires and inserting them in the housings. Designed to eliminate incorrect installation and reverse polarity, the housings are finger-safe on both sides. Thomas & Betts Corp. Memphis, TN For more info, enter 45 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Heavy-Duty, Moderate-Speed Tapered Roller Bearings
ccording to AST, its new High Carbon Chromium Steel Tapered Roller Bearings are interchangeable with those of major bearing manufacturers. Featuring durable steel cages, they are intended for heavy-duty, moderate-speed applications. The manufacturer notes that these components offer dimensional stability under heavy loads and long-life performance in harsh and contaminated environments. Most standard industrial sizes are available via quick delivery in inch and metric versions. Custom sizes are also available by special request. AST Bearings LLC Montville, NJ
For more info, enter 76 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
36 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY
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CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Low-Friction Shaft-Sealing Solution
he new low-friction Waveseal® seal from SKF incorporates a specially molded radial lip design that forms a sinusoidal (“wave”) pattern around the surface of the shaft on a rotating machine. This, in turn, allows lubricants to be pumped back to the bearings, thus helping optimize lube retention while sealing out contaminants. An alternative to conventional double-lip seals, the product’s design lets the seal run cooler and reduces lip pressure and shaft wear.
Bevel Gearbox For Belt Drives
s a mechanical add-on to servo drive trains, Wittenstein’s alpha LPBK+ bevel gearbox for belt drives offers high power density and long service life. It was developed by adding a pulley-drive to Wittenstein’s right-angle LPK+ gearbox. A compact integrated solution that’s been optimized for linear drives, it offers easy motor mounting, is available with flexible output variants and comes in IP64 for food-grade applications. Wittenstein, Inc. Bartlett, IL For more info, enter 48 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
SKF USA, Inc. Lansdale, PA For more info, enter 47 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Motor Plugs Aid In Safety Compliance
eltric Motor Plugs simplify compliance with NFPA 70E electrical safety requirements because they maintain a standard-defined hazard risk category of zero during the motor connection and disconnection processes. The UL-approved products give existing motors plug-and-play simplicity, reducing downtime up to 50%. The plugs’ dead front construction eliminates the possibility of access to live parts, so there’s no need for personal protective equipment when changing out a motor. Meltric Franklin, WI For more info, enter 49 at www.MT-freeinfo.com JULY 2010
Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs
ATP List Services Ellen Sandkam www.atplists.com 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100 x110 / 800-223-3423 x110 email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org For more info, enter 77 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
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INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: email@example.com Web Spotlight: MAINTENANCE
PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing member’s internal standards for design, procurement, construction, and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: http://pip.org/practices/index.asp. For more info, enter 79 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.pip.org
Online home of Maintenance Technology magazine, the dynamic MT-online.com portal serves the critical technical, business and professional-development needs of engineers, managers and technicians from across all industrial, institutional and commercial sectors who have specific interest in and responsibility for the availability, energy efficiency, safety and environmental integrity of countless equipment systems and processesand, thus, the viability and profitability of their organizations. The goal of MT-online.com is quite simple: to help plants and facilities leverage their increasingly precious time and resources and achieve best-of-class/worldclass status via state-of-the-art asset management strategies, technologies and methodologies. For more info, enter 78 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.MT-online.com
LUDECA, INC. - Preventive, Predictive and Corrective Maintenance Solutions including laser shaft alignment, pulley alignment, bore alignment, straightness and flatness measurement, monitoring of thermal growth, online condition monitoring, vibration analysis and balancing equipment as well as software, services and training. For more info, enter 80 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.ludeca.com
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Customized, Targeted Lists For Your Marketing Needs www.atplists.com Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010
For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 e-mail: email@example.com
M A I NM TA EI NNT EAN N A NCC EE
July 2010 Volume 23, No. 7 •
Suite SOLUTIONS 105, Your1300 Source S. For Grove CAPACITYAve., ASSURANCE Barrington, IL 60010 1300 South847-382-8100 Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 FAX 847-304-8603 RS #
A2 Technologies...................................www.a2technologies.com .............................................67 ............... 7 ATP Lists................................................www.atplists.com............................................................77 .............37 Azima DLI ............................................www.azimadli.com.........................................................69 .............11 Baker Instument Co............................www.bakerinst.com .......................................................68 .............10 Baldor Electric Company...................www.baldor.com.............................................................72 .............27 Engtech Industries Inc. .......................www.engtechindustries.com ........................................76 .............36 Eventure Events - SAP for Utilities ...www.sap-for-utilities.com.............................................63 ............... 2 Exair Corporation ...............................www.exair.com/48/464..................................................66,73.....5,33 FosteReprints........................................www.fostereprints.com..................................................71,74...19,34 Generac Power Systems, Inc. .............www.generac.com/mt7 .................................................82 ............BC Int’l Maintenance Excellence Conf....www.imec.ca ...................................................................61 ...........IFC Ludeca Inc.............................................www.ludeca.com ............................................................79 .............38 Marcus Evans .......................................www.marcusevansch.com/chempetrochem2010 ....81 .......... IBC Mobil Industrial Lubricants...............www.mobilindustrial.com............................................62 ............... 1 Process Industries Practices ...............www.pip.org ....................................................................70 .............17 Strategic Work Systems, Inc...............www.swspitcrew.com.....................................................75 .............35 Wilcoxon Research ..............................www.wilcoxon.com........................................................64 ............... 4
Access MT-freeinfo.com and enter the reader service number of the product in which you are interested, or you can search even deeper and link directly to the advertiser’s Website. Submissions Policy: M T gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc., permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. Reproduction of Materials: Materials produced by Maintenance Technology may not be reproduced in any form for any purpose without permission. For Reprints: Contact the publisher, Bill Kiesel - (847) 382-8100 ext. 116.
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Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS JULY 2010
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AR, AZ, NV, NM, OK, UT 3629 N.Sonoran Heights Sales Staff Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 AL, AR, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, LA, JERRY MI, MN, MO,PRESTON MS, NC, ND, NE, OK, SC, SD, TX, WI, Ontario Canada email@example.com 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100; Fax 847-304-8603 CT, ME, MA,BILL NH, KIESEL NY, RI, VT, ON, QC P.O.atpnetwork Box 1059.com bkiesel@ Osterville, MA 02655 KY, OH, TN 508-428-3331; Fax 508-428-2545 135 N. Rocky River Road VINCENT LeGENDRE Berea, OH 44017 firstname.lastname@example.org 440-463-0907; Fax 440-891-1254 JOHN DAVIS email@example.com IL, IN, KS, LA, MI, MN, AK, AZ, CA,OR, CO,TX, ID,WA,WI, MT, NM,BC NV, OR, MO, UT, WA,WY, British Columbia Canada 1300 South 1300 South Grove Grove Avenue, Avenue, Suite Suite 105 105 Barrington, Barrington, IL IL 60010 60010 847-382-8100; FaxFax 847-304-8603 847-382-8100 x108; 847-304-8603 TOM MADDING MADDING TOM firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com CT, DC, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VA, VT, WV, Quebec Canada, IA, MT, NE, SD,Street WY, Space Age, 225ND, Fuller Brookline, MASK 02446 AB, MB, 617-232-2000; Fax 617-232-2951 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 VINCE CAVASENO Barrington, IL 60010 firstname.lastname@example.org 847-382-8100 x106; Fax 847-304-8603 L. RICE Classified ARTHUR Advertising/Electronic Sales: 1300 South Grove Avenue, Suite 105 email@example.com Barrington, IL 60010 847-382-8100; Fax 847-304-8603 TRACY RYLE CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING firstname.lastname@example.org 3629 N.Sonoran Heights Mesa, AZ 85207 480-396-9585 JERRY PRESTON email@example.com
MT-ONLINE.COM | 39
Stephen Shaiman, Attorney
hen something man-made goes wrong, who is responsible? Normally in the United States, when a misfortune or catastrophe involving a product or service strikes, the corporation producing the product or service is liable in a civil proceeding for compensation to the victims. Occasionally, a corporation, even as a fictitious person and not a natural person, may be charged in a criminal proceeding (i.e., the Arthur Andersen accounting firm). Infrequently, an individual in senior management may be held accountable in a civil action. The rarest of cases would seem to be that of an individual in senior management at a large corporation being prosecuted under any relevant criminal statute. Why should we care about this? Because in recent decades, whether in industries or with specific products, major failures have caused grave harm to people, property, industries, commerce, even local and national economies. So, back to the question of who is responsible. Here’s some food for thought: The U.S. Supreme Court, on two different occasions, 32 years apart, has enunciated a helpful doctrine—the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine. It would hold senior-level people in a major corporation, or business owners in smaller corporations who have organizational authority (power), personally and strictly liable in a criminal proceeding for non-compliance of regulations dealing with health, safety and public welfare rules resulting in death, personal injury, property damages and damage to an industry, commerce or the economy. Usually, senior leaders would be able to avail themselves of the corporate entity as a shield to ward off their responsibility. They couldn’t do that under the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine. Instead of the corporation being charged as a wrongdoer, the individual would bear the responsi-
bility personally. The typical defenses would not be available: “I did not intend to do harm,” “I did not know” and “I did not participate” would not prevail. As long as such people owed a duty of care, organizations under their “watch” should have complied with relevant rules and regulations.
The U.S. Supreme Court, on two different occasions, 32 years apart, has enunciated something known as the Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine. Under this doctrine, inaction or, more particularly, non-compliance, would trigger prosecution. The law provides for no escape or allowance for people and organizations to be careless, reckless or take excessive risks. They can’t elevate profit above all other considerations in regulated industries. Safety matters. (The Responsible Corporate Officer Doctrine also applies to the environmental area. Federal and state environmental laws are civil and criminal.) Fortunately, for those who are concerned, cautious, willing to abide by the rules and be held responsible and accountable to both shareholders and other stakeholders, there are ways to mitigate the failures from even occurring: Something known as GRC applies. This acronym stands for Governance, Risk and Compliance, and it will be the topic of a later article. MT Steve Shaiman is an attorney, based in the Philadelphia area.
The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY magazine.
40 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY
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Android Industries, a supplier of auto parts, in Flint, Michigan, defines reliability with Generacâ€™s Modular Power System. For this and more case studies, visit generac.com/mt7.
To you, reliable means dependable, trustworthy, and steadfast. To Generac Industrial Power, reliable means precision machine-wound, inserted and varnished stators; advanced digital controls; and rigorous prototype testing on solutions as large as 9MW. Thatâ€™s just how we see the world. And thousands of mission critical service providers, municipalities and other commercial and industrial facilities that installed a Generac industrial power system, know just what we mean. For more information on our products, call 1-888-GENERAC or visit us at generac.com/mt7.
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