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tiepOLO DrAWingS Stephen Ongpin

Stephen Ongpin Fine Art Ltd.

www.stephenongpin.com

2017

6 Mason’s Yard, Duke Street, St James’s London SW1Y 6BU tel. [+44] (20) 7930-8813 Fax [+44] (20) 7839-1504 e-mail: info@stephenongpinfineart.com

Stephen Ongpin Fine Art


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Front cover: Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (1727–1804) The Resurrection of Christ No.21

Back cover: Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696–1770) Allegorical Figures of Valour and Fame: The Apotheosis of a Warrior No.4


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MASTER DRAUGHTSMEN OF THE VENETIAN SETTECENTO: DRAWINGS BY GIOVANNI BATTISTA AND GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO

Stephen Ongpin Fine Art


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INTRODUCTION AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ‘All spirit and fire’ (‘tutto spirito e foco’) is how the paintings of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo were described, in 1732, by his earliest biographer, Vincenzo da Canal. The same phrase can equally be used to define the artist’s drawings, which, like those of his son Giovanni Domenico, have long been admired and sought after by collectors and connoisseurs. Several hundred drawings by both artists are today in museum and private collections throughout Europe and America, and many of these may be counted among the highlights of 18th century Venetian draughtsmanship. As James Byam Shaw, one of the finest modern scholars of Venetian drawings in general, and those of the Tiepolo in particular, so aptly wrote of one of Giambattista’s pen drawings, ‘who can describe the beauty and the skill of the execution of such a drawing? The writer seeks words to convey, in the language of poetry or music, the impact of the pen or the brush on the paper; and in the end must content himself with silent admiration of so magical a performance.’1 I am delighted to be able to present this selection of drawings by Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo, several of which are published here for the first time. I am, as ever, enormously grateful to my wife Laura for her advice and constant support, as well as her careful reading of the entries for this catalogue. I also wish to acknowledge my assistant Megan Corcoran for her invaluable assistance in all aspects of preparing this catalogue. I would also like to thank the following people for their help and advice in the preparation of this catalogue and the drawings included in it: Jean-Luc Baroni, Gabriel Batalla, Deborah Bates, Jonathan Bober, Woody Brock, Julian Brooks, Toby Campbell, Glynn Clarkson, Cheryl and Gino Franchi, Julie Frouge, Heidi Gealt, Stephen Geiger, Susan Grinols, Heather Anne Hales, Dean Hearn, Damiano Lapiccirella, David Leventhal, Sarah Lowther, Pascal Martel, Suz Massen, Ellida Minelli, Kevin Montague, Grace Murakami, Monica Arellano Ongpin, Guy Peppiatt, Sarah Perdue, Sarah Ricks, Todd-White Photography, David Tunick, Sarah Vowles, Joanna Watson, Catherine Whistler and Jenny Willings. Stephen Ongpin

Dimensions are given in millimetres and inches, with height before width. Unless otherwise noted, paper is white or whitish. Please note that drawings are sold mounted but not framed. High-resolution digital images of the drawings are available on request. All enquiries should be addressed to Stephen Ongpin or Megan Corcoran at Stephen Ongpin Fine Art Ltd. 6 Mason’s Yard Duke Street St James’s London SW1Y 6BU Tel. [+44] (20) 7930-8813 or [+44] (7710) 328-627 Fax [+44] (20) 7839-1504 e-mail: info@stephenongpinfineart.com website: www.stephenongpin.com


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DRAWINGS BY GIAMBATTISTA AND DOMENICO TIEPOLO

PRESENTED BY

STEPHEN ONGPIN

2017


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GIAMBATTISTA AND DOMENICO TIEPOLO Born in Venice in 1696, Giovanni Battista (or Giambattista) Tiepolo is thought to have joined the workshop of Gregorio Lazzarini around 1710, at the age of fourteen. In 1717 he is recorded as an independent master in the register of the Venetian Fraglia, or guild of painters, although by then he had already painted some works for the church of the Ospedaletto in Venice. Among Tiepolo’s first significant paintings were a monumental canvas of The Martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew for the church of San Stae, completed in 1723, and a vault fresco of The Glory of Saint Theresa for the church of the Scalzi, painted between 1727 and 1730. By the time he was thirty, Tiepolo could claim a place among the leading history painters in Venice. His fame soon spread beyond the city itself, and he received important commissions for frescoes, altarpieces and paintings in Udine, Milan, Bergamo, Vicenza, and elsewhere. As a painter, he became known in particular for his magnificent, illusionistic ceiling frescoes, which graced churches and palaces across Venice and throughout the Veneto. In 1719 Giambattista had married Cecilia Guardi, the sister of the painters Antonio and Francesco Guardi, and together they had nine children, with four daughters and three sons surviving into adulthood. Two of their sons, Giovanni Domenico (born in 1727) and Lorenzo Baldissera (born in 1736) followed in their father’s footsteps as artists, with both brought into the family studio at a young age. Giambattista’s reputation as a decorative painter was at its height in the late 1730s and 1740s, with the artist carrying out important work in Venice – in the churches of the Gesuati, San Alvise and the Scalzi, the Scuola dei Carmini and the Palazzo Labia – as well as at Sant’ Ambrogio and the Palazzo Clerici in Milan and the Villa Cordellina in Vicenza. Throughout this period, Domenico worked as his father’s chief assistant and, like him, received his first independent commission at the age of twenty, when he painted fourteen canvases depicting the Stations of the Cross for the church of San Polo in Venice in 1747. In 1750 Giambattista was summoned to Germany to work at the Residenz in Würzburg, on behalf of the Prince-Bishop Carl Philipp von Greiffenklau. Aided by Domenico and Lorenzo, he was active in Würzburg between 1750 and 1753, painting some of his finest and most overtly theatrical works. When the Tiepolo family returned to Venice, Giambattista and his eldest son continued to collaborate on important projects. While Domenico remained a dedicated member of the family studio, his role began to change in the later 1750s, as he gained more significant independent commissions. Domenico first appears to truly deviate from his father’s style when both artists were working at the Villa Valmarana in Vicenza in 1757, when the younger artist began to give fuller expression to his taste for lyrical genre scenes and quotidian subjects. Both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo were founding members of the Venetian Academy in 1756, with the former serving as its first president. In 1762 Giambattista and his sons went abroad again, when the senior artist was commissioned by King Charles III of Spain to fresco several rooms in the Royal Palace in Madrid. This was followed by a commission for seven altarpieces for the monastery chapel at Aranjuez. It was during his work on this final commission that, in 1770, Giambattista died unexpectedly. Although Domenico soon returned to Venice, Lorenzo chose to remain living and working in Madrid, where he died in 1776. After his return to Venice, Domenico enjoyed over a decade and a half of success. He had left Spain with an important commission for a series of Scenes of the Passion for the church of San Felipe Neri in Madrid, and these paintings were completed in Venice and exhibited in the Piazza San Marco in 1772. Numerous commissions for frescoes and altarpieces in Venice and the Veneto soon followed, culminating in a now-lost ceiling painting for the Sala del Maggior Consiglio of the Doge’s Palace. This was completed in 1784, as was another ceiling for the Palazzo Ducale in Genoa; this was, in fact, to be his last major painting commission. Soon after the end of his term as principe of the Venetian Academy in 1783, Domenico seems to have given up painting, perhaps in part due to the advent of Neoclassicism, a style at odds with the graceful decorative manner established by his father. He spent much of the last twenty years of his career working primarily as a draughtsman, and his last paintings, in the form of lighthearted frescoes decorating several rooms in the Tiepolo family villa at Zianigo, executed in the late 1790s, were done purely for his own pleasure.


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THE DRAWINGS OF GIAMBATTISTA TIEPOLO ‘The most brilliant comet of eighteenth century Venetian art, and certainly of its drawings, was Giambattista Tiepolo.’1 One of the two leading painters in Venice for much of his career, alongside Giambattista Piazzetta, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo was also undoubtedly one of the greatest draughtsmen of the 18th century in Italy. A precocious artist, he soon outgrew his early training with the painter Gregorio Lazzarini, and, as a draughtsman, assimilated the early influence of Piazzetta – whose school of life drawing he may have attended – to establish his own personal style. Tiepolo’s career spanned over fifty years, throughout most of which he enjoyed fame, wealth and considerable success. From the late 1730s until his departure for Spain in 1762 he experienced his most creative period as a draughtsman, producing a large number of vibrant pen and wash studies that are among the archetypal drawings of the Venetian Settecento. A gifted and highly prolific artist, Tiepolo seems to have made drawings not just when preparing his frescoes or paintings, or when studying a particular detail or motif that he might reproduce in a later work. Rather, as Adriano Mariuz has observed, he drew ‘because he wanted to express his inner vision as freely and completely as possible. For him, drawing was a sensitive instrument which he used to penetrate the secret depths of his own inspiration. In a drawing, he could give form to the most fleeting and fantastic images by capturing them in the light, or he could turn those aspects of reality that filled his fertile mind into bright images on paper.’2 Giambattista’s oeuvre of drawings, which is thought to number some two thousand sheets, includes compositional studies for paintings and prints, figure studies for large-scale decorations, landscape subjects and caricatures, as well as several series of drawings of oriental figures in exotic costumes, character heads, Punchinello subjects and depictions of the Holy Family. In terms of medium and technique, drawings by Giambattista, like those of his son Domenico, can be divided into two main categories; pen and ink studies and compositions drawn on white paper, and drawings in red or black chalk, usually on blue paper, but also occasionally on white paper. Most of the artist’s drawings were bound into albums according to theme or subject, and retained in his studio as a stock of motifs and ideas for use in his own work, or that of his sons and other assistants. Tiepolo’s early drawings – that is, those dating from before the middle of the 1730s – display an eclectic range of styles and techniques, from elaborate pen and ink drawings to compositional sketches in pen and wash, and figure studies in washed red chalk. In 1734 the artist received a commission to paint an allegorical fresco cycle for the villa of Count Nicolò Loschi, near Vicenza; the first significant project for which several preparatory studies survive. These drawings produced for the Villa Loschi are among the first to display the fluid line, light washes and luminous effects that are characteristic of the artist’s mature pen and wash drawings from this point onwards. This feature of Tiepolo’s draughtmanship is further seen in his studies for the frescoes of the Palazzo Clerici in Milan, painted in 1740, while at about the same time he began creating a distinctive group of independent pen and wash figure drawings that are closely related thematically to his two series of etchings, the Capricci and the Scherzi di fantasia. Pen and ink studies of figures seated in clouds, some of which may be related to the decoration of the Villa Valmarana, near Vicenza, in the late 1750s, are also among his finest works in this medium. Giambattista’s earliest drawings in black and red chalk can be dated to the 1740s; these are generally studies of heads, drapery, or parts of the body, and, unlike many of his pen drawings, are often specifically intended as preparatory studies for figures in much larger works. The studies of figures produced for the Würzburg frescoes of the early 1750s account for some of the finest of these chalk drawings. A charming and varied series of caricature studies may also be dated to the same period; such drawings,


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although apparently produced solely for the artist’s own enjoyment, were occasionally adapted later by his son Domenico in his own work. Also datable to late in Tiepolo’s career are a series of some seventy or so autonomous pen and wash drawings exploring variations on the theme of the Holy Family, which must have been completed before the artist left Venice for Spain in 1762. In contrast to the many drawings which survive from the Würzburg period and the artist’s final years in Venice, relatively few drawings by Giambattista can be firmly dated to the nearly eight years that he spent in Spain, where he seems to have headed a small workshop, largely confined to his sons Domenico and Lorenzo. He was never to return to Venice, dying suddenly in Madrid in 1770. Giambattista Tiepolo’s splendid drawings have long been counted among the highlights of Venetian Settecento draughtsmanship, and coveted by collectors and connoisseurs. As one scholar has noted, ‘From the start of his career [Tiepolo] had enjoyed drawing as an additional means of expression, with equally original results. He did not draw simply to make an immediate note of his ideas, nor to make an initial sketch for a painting or to study details; he drew to give the freest, most complete expression to his genius. His drawings can be considered as an autonomous artistic genre; they constitute an enormous part of his work, giving expression to a quite extraordinary excursion of the imagination; in this respect, Tiepolo’s graphic work can be compared only with that of Rembrandt.’3 Indeed, as James Byam Shaw has stated, Tiepolo may be justifiably regarded as simply ‘the most brilliant draughtsman of the XVIIIth century in Italy.’4

The Later History of Giambattista Tiepolo’s drawings The provenance of many of the drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo that appear on the art market today can be traced to several large volumes or albums of drawings, put together by the artist or by his son Domenico. Probably shortly before his departure for Spain, the elder Tiepolo seems to have decided to arrange the many drawings that had accumulated in his studio – the product of some forty years of work – into a series of large, leather-bound albums, each containing about one hundred leaves. The drawings were sorted, mounted onto high quality paper, and bound into the albums by theme or subject, with titles on the spines to denote the contents of each album. When Giambattista and his sons Domenico and Lorenzo went to work in Madrid, some albums of his drawings (including one containing the drawings of the Holy Family) were placed for safekeeping with another of the artist’s sons, Giovanni Maria Tiepolo, a priest at the monastery of the Padri Somaschi in the church of Santa Maria della Salute in Venice. Following Tiepolo’s death in Spain in 1770, Domenico returned to Venice and retrieved some (though perhaps not all) of the albums from his brother Giovanni Maria, as well as perhaps compiling others. Following the suppression of the monastery of the Padri Somaschi in 1810, some albums of drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo seem to have come onto the market. Certainly, a number of albums of Tiepolo drawings were sold to Venetian and foreign collectors in the early 19th century. These include four volumes sold by Domenico Tiepolo’s widow Margherita Moscheni to the sculptor Antonio Canova (1757-1822) in 1810, as well as an album of ninety-six pen and wash drawings by Giambattista belonging to Count Grigori Vladimirovich Orloff (1777-1826), and another album acquired from the heirs of the eccentric novelist and collector William Beckford (1760-1844) by the English collector resident in Florence, Herbert Horne (1864-1916). Other albums of drawings were apparently acquired by Count Leopoldo Cicognara (1767-1834), then passed through several Venetian collections, including that of Canova, before being purchased from Francesco Pesaro in Venice in 1842 by the English collector Edward Cheney (1803-1884), of London and later Badger Hall in Shropshire, who became the most significant collector of Giambattista Tiepolo’s work in the middle of the nineteenth century. Cheney lived in Venice between 1846 and 1852, residing in the Palazzo Soranzo Piovene on the Grand Canal, and came to assemble an extraordinary group of Tiepolo drawings, as well as several paintings and oil sketches by the artist.


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A further set of at least eight albums of Tiepolo drawings were acquired by the Venetian collector Count Francesco Algarotti (1712-1764), who was a close friend and patron of both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo. These later passed to Algarotti’s great-nephew, Count Bernardino Corniani (c.1780-1856), in whose collection they are recorded in a catalogue published in 1840, together with a large number of loose drawings by Tiepolo kept in folios (‘molti in cartella’), which Corniani may have acquired separately. Several of these albums were acquired from Corniani in 1852 by Edward Cheney, and, two years later, when another catalogue of the Algarotti-Corniani collection was published, only two albums, both comprised of caricature drawings, remained in that collection. In addition to the albums of pen drawings by the elder Tiepolo, around 1,500 drawings in red and black chalk by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo are known, and these seem also to have been kept together as albums or sketchbooks. Some of these survive intact today, including a large sketchbook known as the Quaderno Gatteri in the Museo Correr in Venice, an album generally identified as the Beurdeley Album in the collection of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg, and a group of sketchbooks in the Martin von Wagner-Museum in Würzburg. Another large group of mainly chalk drawings, probably acquired directly from Domenico Tiepolo or his heirs by the German painter Johann Dominik Bossi (1767-1853) and known as the Bossi-Beyerlen collection, was dispersed at auction in Germany in 1882. The fact that much of Giambattista Tiepolo’s output as a draughtsman remained in albums for over a hundred years after his death meant that his drawings remained little known to most collectors and scholars until the 1880s, when two large groups of them appeared at auction. In March 1882, some eight hundred and fifty drawings, mainly in black and red chalk on blue paper, by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo, were sold from the Bossi-Beyerlen collection at auction in Stuttgart. Around one hundred and fifty of these drawings were purchased at the sale by the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, while the rest entered several German collections. Three years later, in April 1885, nine albums of pen and ink drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo from Edward Cheney’s extraordinary collection were sold as one lot at auction at Sotheby’s in London. (The auction catalogue incorrectly lists only two albums of drawings, but in fact a further seven volumes were added to the lot, containing ‘Sketches by G. B. Tiepolo of Figures, Costumes, Studies for Pictures, Landscapes, Architectecture, &c, bound in 7 vols.’). All nine albums of Tiepolo drawings were acquired at the Cheney sale, for the sum of just £15, by the art dealers E. Parsons and Sons of London. Only three of the bound albums of pen and ink drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo survive intact today. Two of these, entitled Vari Studi e Pensieri T.I. (‘Various Studies and Sketches Vol.I’) and Sole Figure Vestite T.I. (‘Single Draped Figures Vol.I’), were sold by Parsons to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London in 1885, while the third, entitled Vari Pensieri T.I. (‘Various Sketches Vol.I’), is that acquired by Herbert Horne and is today in the Museo Horne in Florence. Another album, also sold by Parsons and entitled Soffitti (‘Ceilings’), is now in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, although it has been unbound and the drawings mounted individually. The contents of a fifth album, known as the Orloff Album and containing drawings of Biblical subjects, were dispersed at auction in Paris in 1920, but are known from a compete photographic record, while another album, entitled Tomo Terzo di Caricature (‘Third Volume of Caricatures’) and containing 106 caricature drawings by Giambattista, was broken up at auction in London in 1943. The title of one further album or albums (Sole figure per soffiti, or ‘Single Figures for Ceilings’), also from the Cheney collection, is known, while yet another album, known as the Owen-Savile Album and containing numerous drawings on the theme of the Holy Family and studies of individual exotic heads, belonged to both Antonio Canova and Edward Cheney and was broken up by the Savile Gallery in London in 1928. Finally, a distinctive group of landscape drawings by Tiepolo, sold by Parsons around the turn of the 20th century, are likely to represent the contents of one, or part of one, of the Cheney albums.


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1 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid Saint Anthony of Padua and the Miracle of the Miser’s Heart Pen and black ink, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. 410 x 302 mm. (16 1/ 8 x 11 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Count Giovanni Rasini, Milan, by 1937; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 12 January 1990, lot 59 (bt. Taubman); A. Alfred Taubman, Detroit; Thence by descent. LITERATURE: Antonio Morassi, Disegni antichi dalla collezione Rasini in Milano, Milan, 1937, p.47, no.LXVII, pl.LXVII (as School of Piazzetta, probably by Marco Pitteri); London, Sotheby’s, Old Master Drawings, 6 July 1992, p.108, under lot 164; Ugo Ruggeri, ‘Solimena e Venezia: qualche appunto’, in Vega de Martini and Antonio Braca, ed., Angelo e Francesco Solimena: due culture a confronto, Naples, 1994, p.238, illustrated p.248; London, Christie’s, Old Master Drawings, 12 January 1995, p.64, under lot 54; Bernard Aikema, Tiepolo and His Circle: Drawings in American Collections, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge and New York, 1996-1997, p.312, under no.94, note 1 (as Mattia Bortoloni); Bernard Aikema, ‘Some Early Drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo’, Master Drawings, Winter 2004, p.365, fig.5; Giuliana Ericani and Federica Millozzi, ed., Il piacere del collezionista: disegni e dipinti della collezione Riva del Museo di Bassano del Grappa, exhibition catalogue, Bassano, 2008-2009, p.214, under no.70 (entry by Andrea Tomezzoli); Giuseppe Pavanello and Vania Gransinigh, Il giovane Tiepolo: la scoperta della luce, exhibition catalogue, Udine, 2011, p.128, under no.7 (entry by Andrea Tomezzoli); Giuseppe Bergamini, Alberto Craievich and Filippo Pedrocco, ed., Giambattista Tiepolo “il miglior pittore di Venezia”, exhibition catalogue, Passariano, 2012, p.255, under no.54 (entry by Giuliana Ericani). This large and superbly preserved sheet is a rare early work by Giambattista Tiepolo, by whom only a few drawings survive from the beginning of his career. Like several of Tiepolo’s drawings from the initial phase of his activity – between 1715, when he painted his earliest known work, and 1730, when he undertook his first commission outside the Venice or the Veneto – the present sheet is characterized by strong pen hatching and brilliant light effects, and displays the particular influence of Giambattista Piazzetta. However, relatively little is still known of Tiepolo’s draughtsmanship between 1715 and 1725, largely due to the paucity of drawings from this important formative period. Indeed, only around two or three dozen early drawings by the artist are extant today. At the beginning of his career Tiepolo is known to have made large, finished drawings for sale as independent works, probably as a means of earning a steady income, and also produced drawings for prints and book illustrations. From about 1725 onwards, once his reputation as a painter had become firmly established, he seems to have produced fewer such autonomous drawings. That Tiepolo’s drawings were greatly admired early in his career can be confirmed by contemporary accounts; indeed, as early as 1732 – when Giambattista was thirty-six years old, and within a few years of the likely date of the present sheet – the contemporary writer and biographer Vincenzo da Canal remarked of the artist that ‘His talent is most fecund; that is why engravers and copyists are eager to engrave his works, to glean his inventions and extraordinary ideas; his drawings are already so highly esteemed that books of them are sent to the most distant countries.’1 By the decade of the 1730s, however, Tiepolo seems to have stopped making drawings for sale, or dispersing of them in any way, and instead began the practice of carefully preserving his drawings in his studio. As such, drawings by Giambattista from the 1740s and beyond are numerous, since they were carefully kept by the artist and his son Domenico, but earlier drawings remain quite rare. The 13th century Saint Anthony of Padua was the subject of several works by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo. Born in Lisbon in 1195, Anthony joined the Franciscan order, living in Italy for a decade and becoming close to the founder of the order, Saint Francis of Assisi. Known for his preaching


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and his knowledge of scripture, Anthony died in Padua in 1231, and was canonized less than a year later. He has remained among the most popular saints of the Catholic church ever since, with an especially strong devotion to his cult in Venice and throughout the Veneto. The subject of this large drawing is taken from an episode in the life of the saint. Preaching in Florence at the funeral of a wealthy moneylender and speaking to his audience of the sin of greed, Anthony claimed that the body of the miser should not be buried in consecrated ground, for his soul was already suffering in hell. He claimed that the man’s heart was no longer in his body, in keeping with the words of the Gospel of Saint Luke: ‘For where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.’ (12:34). The body of the miser was cut open and it was found that indeed his heart was not within him, but was instead discovered in the dead man’s treasure chest. Giambattista Tiepolo’s use of a precise technique of parallel hatching in this drawing is a particular characteristic of many of the pen drawings from the early part of his career. Bernard Aikema has noted of this manner of hatching in Tiepolo’s youthful drawings that ‘its use was unprecedented in Venice, as compared to Bologna and Rome, where a number of draughtsmen were noted for the technique’2, and he further suggests the influence of the drawings of the 17th century Roman artist Pietro Testa (16111650). Aikema has also posited that this ‘meticulously elaborated drawing, with its painstaking registration of details, was probably not executed for a painting but rather for a print, like a number of other sheets by the artist with similar characteristics from this period’3, although no related print survives. In its upright format, composition, and style, the present sheet, like other early autonomous pen drawings by Giambattista, may in turn have influenced the artist’s later Scherzi etchings of the late 1740s and 1750s. Among a handful of large, highly finished and stylistically comparable early pen and ink drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo are an Annunciation with the Holy Spirit (fig.1) in the Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe of the Museo Biblioteca Archivio in Bassano del Grappa4, a drawing of The Holy Family Adored by Saints Sebastian and Francis (fig.2), sold at auction in 1992 and today in a private collection5, as well as a related, unfinished horizontal composition of The Virgin and Child with Saints in another private collection6. Drawings of The Adoration of the Magi in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York7, King Syphax of Numidia before Scipio (fig.3) in an Italian private collection8, and The Martyrdom of a Saint before a Statue of Jupiter, sold at auction in New York in 1995 and later in the Horvitz collection9, are likewise close to the present sheet in technique and handling, as is a drawing of The Virgin and Child with Saints in a private collection10. Also similar, although less refined in execution and probably earlier in date, are pen drawings of The Annunciation in the Fogg Art Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts11, and Classical Figures Gathered Around an Urn in the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.12 In a highly finished, independent pen drawing such as the present sheet, Giambattista Tiepolo’s consummate skill as a draughtsman, at a fairly early stage in his career, is readily evident. As Michael Levey has written of a similar youthful pen and ink drawing by the artist, ‘Here the true Tiepolo, speedy, brilliant, superbly, even insolently, confident, has emerged.’13

1.

2.

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2 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Sheet of Studies of Three Heads of Satyrs and the Head of Bacchus Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Two small made up areas at the right centre and right centre edge. 229 x 135 mm. (9 x 5 1/ 4 in.) As one modern scholar has written of Giambattista Tiepolo, ‘the basis of his art was draughtsmanship, and he drew as instinctively as he breathed. From the first, drawing was for him much more therefore than a matter merely of preparatory studies for paintings. As a medium it was the obvious one for an artist of such fecund ideas, such spontaneity and bubbling energy...In the medium of drawing lay the greatest freedom for the artist, and there again the medium suited Tiepolo from the first.’1 A splendid example of Tiepolo’s facility as a draughtsman, this lively sheet of sketches may be dated to the 1740s or 1750s, and is likely to be contemporary with the series of etchings by the artist known as the Scherzi di fantasia, in which similar satyrs’ heads appear2. While the dating of the twenty-three Scherzi etchings has remained problematic, with opinions ranging from the mid-1730s to the late 1750s, they appear to have been produced over a period of at least a decade, although were only published after Tiepolo’s death. The present sheet may likewise be associated with a number of other drawings by Giambattista of similar subjects. A pair of drawings with similar studies of the heads of satyrs, women and masks – both signed ‘Tiepolo fecit’ – is in the collection of the Musée Atger in Montpellier3. (As one scholar has noted of one of the Montpellier drawings, ‘Tiepolo’s fertile and restless imagination generates one extravagant head after another, some plainly intended to be viewed as transformations, others as counterpoints.’4) The studies of horned satyr’s heads in this drawing also have much in common with two pen and wash studies of a single head of a satyr; one formerly with the dealer F. A. Drey in London5 (fig.1) and the other in the Fogg Art Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts6. Also comparable is a sheet of studies of masks and heads of satyrs in the Museo Civico Sartorio in Trieste7 and a drawing of Four Masks and a Swag of Fruit in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York8. A drawing of the head of a satyr and Medusa was sold at auction in 19969, while a similar sheet of studies of fantastical or grotesque heads, in grey ink and wash, is in a private collection in New York10. Similar masks also appear individually in other drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo, such as a study of ceiling figures in Trieste11 and another in the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen in Rotterdam12, as well as a drawing on the London art market in 196313. Drawings such as this seem to have served as a repertoire of motifs to be used in paintings or prints by the artist or his studio. Indeed, drawings of this type may have been studied by Domenico Tiepolo, who etched a frieze of similar studies of satyrs’ heads14, as well as by Tiepolo’s friend and patron Francesco Algarotti, who produced a number of etchings of comparable subjects15.

1.


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3 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid The Head of a Bearded Man, Looking Down Red chalk, heightened with touches of white chalk, on faded blue paper, the corners cut. Numbered Xrs.4. No.3522. in brown ink and 444 in pencil on the verso. 258 x 189 mm. (10 1/ 8 x 7 3/ 8 in.) Watermark: Indistinct. PROVENANCE: Possibly Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, Venice; Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich; His daughter, Maria Theresa Caroline Bossi, Munich, and by her marriage to her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen, Stuttgart; Their posthumous sale, Stuttgart, H. G. Gutekunst, 27 March 1882 onwards, probably as part of lots 640-649; Probably Dr. Oskar Eisenmann, Kassel; Probably Wilhelm Lübke, Stuttgart; Probably Joseph Baer & Sons, Frankfurt; Probably Dr. Hans Wendland, Lugano. This fine drawing may be grouped with a number of chalk studies of heads produced by Giambattista Tiepolo in the 1740s and 1750s, which, unlike comparable drawings by his son Domenico, are only occasionally to be identified as preparatory studies for figures in his paintings or frescoes. Most of the red chalk drawings of heads of this kind by the elder Tiepolo appear to have been done as independent exercises in the study of facial types and expressions. Taken from life and invariably drawn in red and white chalks on blue or blue-grey paper, these head studies were retained in the Tiepolo studio to serve as a repertory of physiognomical types that could be used in later commissions, and indeed a few reappear in the extensive fresco decoration of the Residenz in Würzburg, painted by Tiepolo and his studio between 1751 and 1753. While both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo produced head studies in red chalk, the drawings of the former display a confidence and firmness of outline that is sometimes lacking in those of the younger artist. As has been noted, ‘Giambattista used chalk to model the head, enhancing the sculptural effect by means of light and shade, while Domenico tended toward the decorative: He faithfully recorded every detail, but in his drawings the forms are less densely modeled.’1 The present sheet is a fine example of the elder Tiepolo’s robust draughtsmanship, seen in the confident application of strokes of red chalk, slightly dampened in places to create subtle effects of shadow, set against the contrasting middle tone of the Venetian blue paper and the delicately applied highlights of white chalk. Catherine Whistler’s description of a similar drawing by the artist may equally be applied to the present sheet: ‘Tiepolo took pleasure in the sensuous qualities of red chalk...the artist’s forceful gestures can be felt as he used the chalk with different pressures to create a sculptural form...Tiepolo wetted the chalk to make pools of wash, suggesting the play of light, and expanded the tonal range with white highlights. The orange-red tones and thick texture of the chalk work harmoniously with the fibrous blue paper, giving the drawing a vibrant energy.’2 A number of stylistically comparable drawings of the same distinctive model, and executed in the same technique of red chalk on blue paper, are known. Among these is a Head of a Bearded Man, Looking Down and to the Right (fig.1), formerly in the Mestral de Saint-Saphorin collection and now in the Achenbach Foundation for the Graphic Arts in San Francisco3; this drawing was later used by Domenico Tiepolo as the model for an etching from his series of sixty small prints entitled Raccolta di teste, executed between c.1770 and c.1774 after his father’s drawings. Other red chalk drawings by Giambattista, in the collections of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford4 and the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid5, depict the same bearded man, as does a drawing sold at auction in London in 19636 and also a Head of a Bearded Man Looking Up, from the Bossi-Beyerlen and Duc de Talleyrand collections, which appeared at auction in New York in 20027.


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Further studies of the same model by the senior Tiepolo include a drawing formerly in the de Cérenville and Rouit-Berger collections offered for sale in Paris in 19348, and a small Head of Saint Sylvester sold at auction in New York in 20149, as well as a somewhat faded sheet at one time in the Hans Wendland and Tomás Harris collections and sold in London in 197410. The last of these drawings bears the number 3523 on the verso, and as such must have been placed immediately after the present sheet, which is numbered 3522, in an early inventory. This Head of a Bearded Man, Looking Down was once part of a large and significant group of Tiepolo drawings in the Bossi-Beyerlen collection in Munich, formed by the painter Johann Dominik Bossi (17671853), who was born in Trieste and may have been a student of Domenico Tiepolo in Venice. He worked primarily as a miniaturist in Germany, Austria, Sweden and Russia before settling in Munich, where he was appointed a court painter. Bossi owned some eight hundred and fifty drawings by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo, of which about six hundred and thirty were studies in black or red chalk on blue paper – including nearly three hundred studies of heads – and the remainder in pen and grey or brown ink. At his death, Bossi’s collection of drawings passed to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline Bossi (18251881) and her husband Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881). In March 1882, six months after the death of Maria Theresa Bossi, the drawings were sold at auction in Stuttgart and dispersed. A large number of the Bossi-Beyerlen drawings (although none of the studies of heads) were acquired at the 1882 sale by the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart. Another one hundred and twenty of the drawings, possibly including the present sheet, passed through several German collections until they were dispersed in the early 20th century. The numeric code on the verso of the present sheet is found on many drawings with a Bossi-Beyerlen provenance. The Xrs.4 refers to the price of the drawing in Austrian kreutzers, and is followed by the serial number 3522. It has been suggested that this number may have been a code devised by either Domenico Tiepolo or Johann Dominik Bossi while in the process of preparing an inventory of the family studio. Some of the drawings, including the present sheet, have a second set of numbers in pencil. This may refer to the Bossi-Beyerlen inventory, the order of which was loosely followed when the drawings were divided into groups and sold at auction in Stuttgart in 1882.

1.


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4 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid Allegorical Figures of Valour and Fame: The Apotheosis of a Warrior Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Inscribed M. Fauchier Magnan / J. B. Tiepolo / Allegorie in black ink on a label pasted onto the old backing board. 216 x 289 mm. (8 1/ 2 x 11 3/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: William Bateson, Merton House, Grantchester, nr. Cambridge, in 1910; Adrien Fauchier-Magnan, Neuilly-sur-Seine (according to a label on the old backing board); Winterfeld collection; Anonymous (Winterfeld?) sale (‘The Property of a Gentleman’), London, Sotheby’s, 9 December 1936, lot 59 (as ‘The Genii of Victory and Fame’), bt. Walford Wilson for £90; E. V. Thaw and Co., New York; John R. Gaines, Lexington, Kentucky; His sale (‘The John R. Gaines Collection’), New York, Sotheby’s, 17 November 1986, lot 23 (sold for £82,500); Private collection. LITERATURE: Eduard Sack, Giambattista und Domenico Tiepolo: Ihr Leben und ihre Werk, Hamburg, 1910, p.252, no.103 (not illustrated). EXHIBITED: London, Burlington Fine Arts Club, Exhibition of Venetian Painting of the Eighteenth Century, 1911, no.65 (as The Genii of Victory and Fame, lent by Bateson). ‘Tiepolo originally drew mainly for himself, but this does not prevent his drawings from being aesthetically completely autonomous. Far from constituting mere preparatory exercises for paintings, they can be seen as independent and distinctive works of art in their own right which exist in many cases alongside his paintings as a vast and exceptional body of work. Going through them page by page is like reading an extraordinary adventure of the imagination.’1 This splendid drawing by Giambattista Tiepolo may be dated to the late 1740s or 1750s, and can be related to a handful of other drawings by the artist that depict the apotheosis of a bearded man in military dress (sometimes identified as representing Valour), accompanied by an allegorical female figure of Fame. These include two drawings in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York2 and another in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, also in New York3, as well as drawings in the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven4 and the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin5. Also to be included in this group are two compositionally related drawings of The Apotheosis of a Venetian Hero, in the collections of the Courtauld Gallery in London6 and the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm7. The late Tiepolo scholar George Knox related several of these drawings to Tiepolo’s ceiling fresco of an Allegory of Merit Between Nobility and Virtue (fig.1) in one of the rooms of the Ca’ Rezzonico in Venice8, painted in the spring of 1757 to celebrate the forthcoming marriage of Ludovico Rezzonico and Faustina Savorgnan, and one of the last major decorative works completed by the artist in Italy before his move to Spain in 1762. As James Byam Shaw has noted of Tiepolo’s drawings of this type, however, ‘there is seldom an exact correspondence with the finished work, so that sometimes it is difficult to decide whether the drawing is a preliminary idea, or a return to an earlier motive.’9 As such, some of these drawings may perhaps also be related to a number of other ceiling paintings of analogous subjects. Indeed, as Knox has pointed out, ‘The theme of the apotheosis of the hero recurs often in the Tiepolo oeuvre, both in his painting and in his drawings’10, a statement echoed by another recent scholar, who writes that ‘[A] type of figure, where a member of a patrician family is shown with the attributes of Valor, would prove to be one of Tiepolo’s most durable creations.’11


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A similar laurel-wreathed soldier accompanied by a trumpet-bearing figure of Fame, for example, appears in Tiepolo’s ceiling canvas of The Glorification of the Barbaro Family (or Valour with Virtue and Fame and Other Virtues) of c.1750 (fig.2), painted for the Palazzo Barbaro in Venice and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York12. Other ceiling paintings of similar subjects executed in the 1750s include a vast Apotheosis of Francesco Morosini (or Fame with Valour and Virtue), painted for the Palazzo Morosini a Santo Stefano in Venice and now in the Palazzo Isimbardi in Milan13, and a fresco of The Apotheosis of Orazio Porto (or Valour Crowned by Virtue Overcoming Time), painted for the Palazzo Porto in Vicenza and now in the Seattle Art Museum14. As a draughtsman, Giambattista Tiepolo favoured pen, ink and brush, and the present sheet is a superb example of his abilities. As James Byam Shaw has described the artist’s technique, ‘Often he used a hard black chalk, or a lead point, to indicate first, very roughly, the main character of the composition; then comes the finely cut quill – more rarely a reed – to sketch the forms; and finally a brush, with a tawny bistre or greyish-brown colour, for the shadows. This wash is often the lightest possible, and of a single tone, or varying only according to the fullness of the brush; but often, and especially in more pictorial compositions, there are two distinct tones...strong accents being added with a drier brush, over the lighter and more transparent wash, before this was completely dry...there is a remarkable degree of volume and solidity, which, with his delicate line and apparently casual washes, the artist is able to impart to all his forms.’15 The first known owner of this superb Apotheosis of a Warrior was the eminent biologist William Bateson (1861-1926), who owned a choice group of pen and ink drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo. In 1911 Bateson lent this drawing, along with several others by the artist, to the important Exhibition of Venetian Painting of the Eighteenth Century at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in London. The present sheet, however, does not seem to have been included in the posthumous sale of Bateson’s collection of drawings, held at Sotheby’s in London on 23-24 April 1929, which included twenty-six drawings by Tiepolo.

1. (detail)

2. (detail)


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5 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Caricature of a Man seen from Behind, with a Cane and Holding a Tricorne Hat Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. The corners of the sheet cut. Inscribed Coll. Count Sacchetto di Padova / Coll. Count Valmarana, Vicenza / Coll. Paul Wallraf. prob. Coll. Algarotti in pencil at the bottom of the old album page on which this drawing is mounted. 156 x 107 mm. (6 1/ 8 x 4 1/ 4 in.) PROVENANCE: Probably the Conti Sacchetto, Padua; The Conti Valmarana, Vicenza; Paul Wallraf, Paris and London; Galerie Pardo, Paris; Purchased from them in 1972 by Eileen and Herbert C. Bernard, New York. It is thought that caricature drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo once made up at least three or four albums. Two such albums, containing ‘una copiosa collezione di disegni umoristici del Tiepolo’ (‘an ample collection of humorous drawings by Tiepolo’), are recorded in the collection of Count Bernardino Corniani degli Algarotti in Venice in 18541. A further album of 106 caricature drawings, entitled Tomo terzo di caricature (‘Third volume of caricatures’) and possibly also from the Algarotti-Corniani collection, belonged to the 20th century collector Arthur Kay and remained intact until it was broken up and the drawings sold at auction in London in 1943. Assuming that there was a Tomo primo and a Tomo secondo (quite possibly the two albums recorded in the Algarotti-Corniani collection in 1854), and a roughly equal number of drawings in all three albums, it may be determined that there must have been at least three hundred of these caricatures. Around two hundred examples survive today, most of which are by Giambattista Tiepolo. Apart from the drawings known to have come from the Tomo terzo di caricature album and a group of some twenty caricatures in the Museo Civico Sartorio in Trieste, almost every other known Tiepolo caricature has cut corners, which again suggests that they were once pasted into albums. This and the following drawing may be presumed to have originated in the collection of the Conti Valmarana of Vicenza, which seems to have included a large number of Tiepolo caricatures2. (It should be noted that both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo worked at the Valmarana family villa in Vicenza in 1757.) The caricature drawings associated with the Valmarana collection are, for the most part, depictions of single figures, with most seen from behind, and all have cut corners. Thirty-two of the caricatures from the Valmarana collection, including the present sheet, were acquired at an unknown date before 1959 by the dealer and collector Paul Wallraf (1897-1981)3. Giambattista Tiepolo’s caricatures seem to have been done for his own amusement. These delightful drawings, in the words of one author, ‘call for no elaborate explanations – they are so simple and direct they speak for themselves. I do not fancy that they served any directly useful purpose or that they were ever intended as notes or sketches for larger or more important undertakings...They are the fruit of the artist’s leisure hours, the work of a man for whom the act of drawing was always the source of the keenest of pleasures...they are the work of a man who was the most gifted artist of his generation and are the outcome of that same calligraphic skill and acute observation that contributed so largely to the success of his major achievements.’4 In these charming works, Tiepolo may have been inspired by the caricature pen drawings of such 17th century artists as Annibale Carracci, Pier Francesco Mola and Guercino, while older contemporaries such as Pier Leone Ghezzi in Rome and Marco Ricci and Anton Maria Zanetti in Venice also produced caricatures. However, Tiepolo tended not to introduce into his drawings the unsympathetic and often malicious inferences typical of earlier caricatures. As one scholar has noted, ‘Often a Tiepolo caricature will evoke a kindly smile; at other times, compassion or curiosity. Whatever the response, however, the artist’s most poignant images are to be found among his caricatures. The compromise between style, license, and observation which they represent opened caricature fleetingly to a new expressiveness, a glimpse of a loftier mode of feeling.’5


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6 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Caricature of a Short Man seen from Behind, Wearing a Large Hat Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. The corners of the sheet cut. Inscribed Coll. Count Sacchetto di Padova / Coll. Count Valmarana, Vicenza / Coll. Paul Wallraf, London in pencil at the bottom of the album page on which this drawing was formerly mounted. 141 x 88 mm. (5 1/ 2 x 3 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: Probably the Conti Sacchetto, Padua; The Conti Valmarana, Vicenza; Paul Wallraf, Paris and London; Galerie Pardo, Paris; Purchased from them in 1972 by Eileen and Herbert C. Bernard, New York. Giambattista Tiepolo’s caricature drawings have generally been dated to his last Venetian period, between his return from Germany in 1753 and his departure for Spain in 1762. As has been noted by one recent scholar, ‘By the time Giambattista turned to caricature, he was in his fifties and well established, with two grown sons following in his creative footsteps...These drawings expressed his lighter side, describing, in an economical yet convincing manner, the quirkier and funnier aspects of the men who crossed his path day by day. Over time, Giambattista produced a fascinating sampling of society, from noblemen, priests, and senators, to merchants, dockworkers, cooks, and artisans...Caught unawares, these men were reduced to their essentials, summarized most effectively through swift and insightful strokes of the pen...[They are] a brilliant blend of observation, memory, and distillation.’1 In many of these caricatures the subject is seen from behind; indeed, this is a particular characteristic of caricature drawings by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo. As another scholar has recently written of this type of lively caricature, ‘Tiepolo did not represent specific people but rendered generalized types that must have been immediately recognizable to contemporaries. Their gestures are minimal, the details of their clothes are understated, and indications of setting are scant. Here, even their faces are not shown, yet enough is communicated by their physiques, shoulders, stances, and costumes to distinguish types.’2 Giambattista’s caricature drawings must have remained in the family studio after his death, since several were adapted by Domenico Tiepolo for figures in his late series drawings of the 1790s, notably the socalled ‘Scenes from Contemporary Life’ and the Punchinello series. Indeed, an almost identical figure, albeit dressed as a woman, appears as an onlooker in Domenico’s drawing of The Donkey Stable (fig.1), from the ‘Contemporary Life’ series; signed and dated 1791, the drawing is today in the Muzeum Narodowe in Szczecin, Poland3.

1.


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7 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid Study of a Draped Figure Red chalk. Inscribed J. B. Tiepolo in black chalk on the verso, laid down. 242 x 163 mm. (9 1/ 2 x 6 3/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Possibly Armand-François-Louis de Mestral de Saint-Saphorin, Vienna; Possibly by descent to Madeleine and Marguerite de Mestral, Saint-Saphorin-sur-Morges, Switzerland; Possibly Édouard de Cérenville, Lausanne; Possibly by descent to René de Cérenville, Lausanne; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 16 January 1986, lot 174. ‘Tiepolo had always managed, it seems, to find time to draw; and what at first must have been training and exercise became a habit – even, perhaps, a compulsion. He probably always made drawings for their own sake: not only for sale, nor as specific studies for work in hand, but thrown off by sheer creative energy.’1 The present sheet is a fine example of a type of drapery study that Giambattista Tiepolo produced throughout his career, sometimes as studies for figures in his paintings but also simply as exercises, to provide a repertory of models for future projects, or for his sons and assistants to use. Although it has not been possible to relate this drawing to any work by the artist, similar draped figures are found in a handful of paintings dating from throughout his long career, such as an oil sketch of The Madonna of the Rosary of c.1727-1729 in the Courtauld Gallery in London2, and both a modello and a finished altarpiece of The Immaculate Conception of c.1767-1769; the former in the Courtauld Gallery and the latter in the Prado in Madrid3. In the early part of his career, Giambattista Tiepolo drew in chalk on white paper, but from the early 1740s onwards adopted blue paper almost exclusively for his studies in black or red chalk. In his catalogue raisonné of the chalk drawings of the Tiepolos, however, George Knox noted that Giambattista occasionally used white paper for his chalk drawings in his later years, mainly during his time in Würzburg between 1751 and 1753, and again in Madrid, where he worked from 1762 until his death in 1770. A stylistically and compositionally analogous drapery study by Giambattista, drawn in red and white chalk on blue paper, is found on the verso of a drawing in the Beurdeley Album in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg4, both sides of which are preliminary studies for a large altarpiece of The Adoration of the Magi, painted for the Benedictine abbey church at Münsterschwarzach in 1753 and today in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Another comparable drawing by Giambattista is a drapery study of a standing man, drawn in red and white chalk on white paper, which is part of the mass of Tiepolo drawings from the Bossi-Beyerlen collection in the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart5. A number of similar studies of drapery are also to be found in several pages of the large sketchbook known as the Quaderno Gatteri, in the Museo Correr in Venice, which contains drawings in both black and red chalk on blue paper, and seems to have been used by Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo between 1749 and 17526. This drapery study is likely to have been part of the large collection of drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo assembled by the 18th century collector Armand-François-Louis de Mestral de Saint-Saphorin (17381805). Born in Switzerland but naturalized as a Danish citizen in 1776, he served as Danish ambassador to Poland, Spain, the Netherlands, Russia and Austria. He is known to have been in Madrid in 1774, and seems to have bought around a hundred drawings – both pen and ink drawings and chalk studies – directly from the Tiepolo studio in Madrid, or possibly in Venice. As such, his was one of the earliest and most significant collections of Tiepolo drawings to be found outside Italy. The Mestral de Saint-Saphorin collection eventually passed by descent to the Swiss physician Édouard de Cérenville (1843-1915) and thence to his son, René de Cérenville (1875-1968). At his death, part of the collection was left to the Musée Jenisch in Vevey, but many other drawings were dispersed on the art market in Switzerland.


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8 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Study for a Ceiling: A Standing Draped Figure, Looking Up Pen and brown ink and wash. Laid down. 227 x 166 mm. (8 7/ 8 x 6 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: From an album (or albums) entitled Sole figure per soffiti in the collection of the Conte Algarotti-Corniani, Venice, until c.1852; Edward Cheney, London and Badger Hall, Shropshire; By descent to his brother-in-law, Col. Alfred Capel Cure, Blake Hall, Ongar, Essex; His sale, London, Sotheby’s, 29 April 1885, part of lot 1042 (bt. Parsons); E. Parsons and Sons, London; Anonymous private collection, Ireland; William Fagg, Sydenham; Messrs. B. T. Batsford, London; Their sale, London, Christie’s, 14 July 1914, part of lot 49 (bt. Parsons); E. Parsons and Sons, London, until c.1922-1926; [Mrs. Frederick?] Havemeyer collection; Lillian Sapirstein, New York; Dr. and Mrs. Victor Sapirstein, New York; Gallery Kekko, Toronto, in 2004; Private collection. EXHIBITED: Austin, Texas, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery [on loan, 1988-c.1992]; Austin, Texas, Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery, European Drawings from the Collection of Lillian Sapirstein, 1992, unnumbered. The contemporary Venetian artist, engraver, critic and connoisseur Anton Maria Zanetti (1680-1767), writing in 1733, noted of Giambattista Tiepolo that, ‘What makes him such an outstanding and excellent artist is his prompt inventiveness and his abilty to distinguish and at the same time to depict so many figures with a very fresh and novel approach.’1 Similarly, as a modern scholar has written, ‘As a draftsman, Tiepolo constantly played with variations and permutations of particular motifs, partly for the joy of experimentation and discovery...foreshortened figures on clouds are [one] of the motifs he endlessly explored in a mode of musical creativity, improvising and reprising in rapid, versatile sketches. Besides stimulating his inventive capacities, this restless activity provided a repertoire of figures, poses, and potential themes that could be used for teaching or reference.’2 Figures seen from below in steep, illusionistic perspective – ‘di sotto in su’, to use the Italian term – are a particular characteristic of Tiepolo’s work from almost the very start of his career. This is especially true of his large-scale mural decorations, beginning with the artist’s first known ceiling fresco; the large Allegory of Eloquence in the Palazzo Sandi in Venice, painted in the first half of the 1720s. Foreshortened figures continued to appear in Tiepolo’s oeuvre for the next forty or so years, in frescoes for churches and palaces in Venice and numerous villas in the Veneto, as well as decorative projects further afield; in Udine, Milan, Brescia, Vicenza, Verona, Würzburg and Madrid. This fine sheet is one of a large group of virtuoso studies by Tiepolo of figures in clouds viewed from below in steep perspective, which seem to have been done as compositional or figural exercises, as much as to provide models for ceiling decorations. The drawings, each of which depicts a foreshortened figure who stands, reclines or sits on the edge of a cloud, usually represented by a single curved line, are among the artist’s best-known and most appealing drawings. As Jacob Bean has noted of these studies, ‘They must have formed a complete repertory, a kind of pattern book, recording poses for figures seated or standing on clouds; the sketches were probably made with no particular scheme in mind, but might be drawn upon when a ceiling decoration was undertaken by the studio.’3 Although more than 170 drawings of this type are known, however, only a very few have been definitively related to any of Tiepolo’s paintings or frescoes.


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Drawings like the present sheet underscore the artist’s remarkable ability to achieve a sense of luminosity in his pen drawings. As the curator and conservator Marjorie Cohn has noted, ‘No assemblage of drawings by another master would give such an impression of blinding light as Giambattista’s, where the wash, sparingly applied, only enhances the paper’s whiteness...Every drawing by Giambattista sharing the virtues of his genius at its best – an immaculate brilliance, a lively surface, a breadth of touch that makes each irrevocable stroke seem inevitable – draws some of its quality from the positive values of its medium, usually bistre.’4 Tiepolo’s drawings of this type were bound into one or two albums entitled Sole figure per soffiti (‘Single Figures for Ceilings’) that were originally in the possession of the Algarotti-Corniani family in Venice. Probably acquired there by the English collector Edward Cheney (1803-1884), at least one Sole figure per soffiti album was sold at auction in London in 1914. Acquired by the London firm of Parsons and Sons, the album seems to have remained intact until the 1920s, when it was broken up and the individual sheets sold piecemeal by the gallery. Among the many studies for ceiling figures from the Sole figure per soffiti albums are several that depict similar heads looking upwards with radical foreshortening, where only the chin, mouth and nose are visible. These include drawings in the collections of the Museo Civico Sartorio in Trieste5 and the Princeton University Art Museum6, as well as a study of the head of an angel in the Courtauld Gallery in London7. While the figure in this drawing does not appear in any finished work by Tiepolo, similar extremely foreshortened heads are found in numerous paintings by the artist, such as a fresco of Saint Dominic in Glory in the church of the Gesuati in Venice, completed in 17398, and frescoes in the Villa Pisani in Strà, painted in 1760-17619. As Catherine Whistler has recently noted of Giambattista’s foreshortened drawings for ceiling figures, ‘Slight traces of swirling graphite lines pin down their place on the page, and Tiepolo’s few pen-strokes denoting limbs or clouds, with minimal washed shadows, create forms by slight of hand. The tip of a nose, the underside of a foot, or a swinging leg, with some quick dabs of ink to suggest features or deep folds of drapery, convincingly evoke cloud-borne figures...Some turn up in paintings but many must have been inventive variations, made to refresh and test ideas and capabilities.’10 Characteristic of the grace and inventiveness of Giambattista Tiepolo’s spirited draughtsmanship, drawings such as this have appealed to collectors and connoisseurs since the late 18th century. As Bernard Aikema writes of the drawings from the Sole figure per soffiti albums, ‘For many, the name Tiepolo is synonymous with virtuoso pen-and-wash drawings of figures who fly through the air, perch on fantastic architecture, or haunt imaginary landscapes. These drawings, which are among the high points of the artist’s oeuvre, have survived in great numbers. From the mid-1730s onward, hundreds of them issued from the artist’s pen, each more beautiful than the last.’11 The present sheet was once in the collection of Lillian Sapirstein (1915-1982), who bought a number of Old Master drawings between the late 1950s and 1970. After her death in 1982, forty-three drawings from her collection, including this Standing Draped Figure, were placed on long-term loan at the Archer M. Huntington Art Gallery at the University of Texas at Austin, culminating with an exhibition of the entire group at the museum in 1992.


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9 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Study for a Ceiling: A Seated Figure on a Cloud Pen and brown ink and wash. 186 x 134 mm. (7 3/ 8 x 5 1/ 4 in.) PROVENANCE: From an album (or albums) entitled Sole figure per soffiti in the collection of the Conte Algarotti-Corniani, Venice, until c.1852; Edward Cheney, London and Badger Hall, Shropshire; By descent to his brother-in-law, Col. Alfred Capel Cure, Blake Hall, Ongar, Essex; His sale, London, Sotheby’s, 29 April 1885, part of lot 1042 (bt. Parsons); E. Parsons and Sons, London; Anonymous private collection, Ireland; William Fagg, Sydenham; Messrs. B. T. Batsford, London; Their sale, London, Christie’s, 14 July 1914, part of lot 49 (bt. Parsons); E. Parsons and Sons, London, until c.1922-1926; Carlo Broglio, Paris; Adolphe Stein, Paris and Lausanne, in 1975; Mr. and Mrs. George Walker, Banbury. LITERATURE; Mauro Natale, ed., Art Vénitien en Suisse et au Liechtenstein, exhibition catalogue, Pfäffikon and Geneva, 1978, pp.162-163, no.127; Catherine Whistler, Christopher White and Rosemary Baird, Hidden treasures: Works of art from Oxfordshire private collections, exhibition catalogue, Oxford, 1993, no.57, illustrated p.39. EXHIBITED: London, Adolphe Stein at H. Terry-Engell Gallery, Master Drawings, 1975, no.111; Pfäffikon, Seedam-Kulturzentrum and Geneva, Musée d’Art et d’Histoire, Art Vénitien en Suisse et au Liechtenstein, 1978, no.127; Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, Hidden treasures: Works of art from Oxfordshire private collections, 1993, no.57. The 19th century Swiss art historian Jacob Burckhardt aptly noted of Giambattista Tiepolo’s paintings that the artist ‘carries his foreshortening from below further than any, so that the soles of the feet and nostrils are the characteristic parts of his figures.’1 A large number of extremely foreshortened figures – many of whom are seen mainly as pairs of legs – appear, for example, throughout Tiepolo’s vast fresco of Apollo and the Continents, painted between 1752 and 1753 on the vault above the staircase of the Residenz at Würzburg. The same novel approach to viewpoint and perspective is also evident in many of Tiepolo’s spirited drawings for ceiling figures. As has been noted of the drawings from the Sole figure per soffiti albums, ‘These sheets depict individual foreshortened figures – ethereal young women, heroic nudes, and warriors – as well as figures that are so sharply foreshortened that only their knees, parts of their heads, and perhaps one or both of their arms can be seen.’2 The confidence and ingenuity evident in such drawings as the present sheet is an aspect of Tiepolo’s draughtsmanship that has long been esteemed. As Marjorie Cohn has written, ‘No student of Tiepolo drawings remains indifferent to their sheer virtuosity. Giambattista, in his wash drawings above all, achieved a new abstraction of illusionism through physical means that were direct, immaculate, and apparently effortless.’3 Comparable studies of figures seen from below, depicted ‘with sheer virtuosity of foreshortening’4 and characterized by a particular emphasis on the dangling legs of a seated figure, include drawings in the collections of the Albertina in Vienna5, the Museo Civico Sartorio in Trieste6, the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge7, the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Rouen8, the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin9, the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Rotterdam10 and the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart11, as well as several drawings in the Princeton University Art Museum12. As Catherine Whistler has recently noted, ‘Tiepolo’s independent pen and wash drawings [are] vividly realised in a virtuoso style...If these independent drawings celebrate the skill and imagination of the artist, they also anticipate the delight of the viewer in tracing the graphic dynamism that holds artifice and representation in constant tension.’13


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10 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid Landscape with a View over Rooftops Pen and brown ink and brown wash. Inscribed (in a modern hand) D. Tiepolo a Lombardy Town in pencil on the old backing board. 152 x 274 mm. (6 x 10 3/ 4 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Probably from an album of landscape drawings by Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo acquired in Venice by Edward Cheney, London and Badger Hall, Shropshire; Probably by descent to his brother-in-law, Col. Alfred Capel Cure, Blake Hall, Ongar, Essex; Probably his sale, London, Sotheby’s, 29 April 1885, as part of lot 1042 (bt. Parsons); Probably E. Parsons and Sons, London; Alphonse Legros, London; His posthumous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 3-4 July 1918, lot 112 (‘Study of Part of a Town in Lombardy, 6 in. by 10 1/2 in.’); Agnew’s, London; By descent from a daughter of Sir George Agnew, 2nd Bt., Rougham Hall, nr. Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, to a private collection, England. LITERATURE: George Knox, Un quaderno de vedute di Giambattista e Domenico Tiepolo, n.d. [1974], p.28, no.22 (not illustrated). Among the extensive corpus of drawings by Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo, landscape sketches are relatively rare1. The present sheet can be attributed to the elder artist, and is part of a small but distinctive series of drawings in pen and wash, depicting urban, country and rural views, produced by both father and son between the spring of 1757 and the summer of 1759. (This group of drawings, which numbers around seventy-five sheets, includes views of the Villa Valmarana in Vicenza, where both artists worked in 1757, and churches and buildings in Udine, where father and son were also active in 1759.) These landscape drawings – of churches, villas, and farm buildings, as well as some townscapes - are of varying sizes, but may have come from a modest sketchbook, or were later compiled into a small album. Although a handful of sheets display slight stylistic differences that make attributing them to one or the other artist difficult, the vast majority of the drawings in this group have been recognized as characteristic works by Giambattista. As one early 20th century English writer – who was also an avid collector of Tiepolo drawings – has described these landscape drawings by Giambattista, ‘They are accurate sketches from nature of buildings, mostly villas and farms in full sunlight, evidently made for the purpose of acquiring facility in handling strong lights and shadows, in which the master attained such extraordinary skill. All were obviously done with extreme rapidity...Some of the outlines may have been made with the pen, but most are brush work. The surfaces in shadow are given with simple washes, the depth of shade being indicated almost always by the tone of the wash alone without hatching. In this power of precise modulation of tint without either exaggeration or monotony, Tiepolo stands perhaps alone with Rembrandt, of whom this group of drawings in curiously reminiscent. But whereas Rembrandt’s farms are always represented in co-ordinated space as incidents in complete compositions, the Tiepolo sketches are merely detached studies. Though such farm buildings are a familiar feature in Venetian pictures from early times, it does not appear that Tiepolo ever introduced them into his finished works.’2 Devoid of any human presence, Giambattista Tiepolo’s landscape drawings in pen and wash are evocative of the heat and shadows of an Italian summer. In these drawings, as Michael Levey has written, ‘Each shape is firmly reduced to essentials, moulded by the light and baked by the heat, so that from them there seems to exude a smell of dry straw and tile and earth, like the perennial scent of the Italian countryside in summer.’3 The artist does not appear to have ever used these drawings in his painted work, and they seem instead to have been done as a record of the unfamiliar countryside and towns beyond his native Venice. Many of the drawings, including the present sheet, show rooftops and chimneys, and must have been made from upstairs windows.


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A comparable drawing of a city view by Giambattista, formerly part of the Franz Koenigs collection, is today in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow4, while a similar study of A View from Tiepolo’s House in Venice, with the Church of San Felice – the artist’s only known drawing of his native city – is in the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Rotterdam5. A close stylistic comparison may also be made with a drawing of Rooftops in a City in the Albertina in Vienna6 and a View of a Town in the Veneto with a Tower (Monselice) in the Krugier-Poniatowski collection in Geneva7. It seems likely that among the albums of drawings kept in the Tiepolo studio was a book of landscape sketches in pen and ink wash, and that this was one of several albums of Tiepolo drawings acquired, around the middle of the 19th century, by the English collector Edward Cheney (1803-1884). The Cheney albums were in turn acquired, after his death, by the London dealer Parsons and Sons, and their contents dispersed over the next two or three decades. Thirty-five of the landscape drawings, including the present sheet, were bought, probably from Parsons, by the artist Alphonse Legros (1837-1911), and eventually sold at two auctions in 1918. Others were acquired, also probably from Parsons, by the artists and designers Charles Ricketts (1866-1931) and Charles Shannon (1863-1937), and later bequeathed to the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge. A small but significant group of eight landscape drawings by Giambattista Tiepolo is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, while another set of five landscapes is in the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen in Rotterdam. Other landscape drawings by the artist are today in the collections of the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, the Fogg Art Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the British Museum and the Courtauld Gallery in London, the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the Fondation Custodia (Frits Lugt Collection) in Paris, and elsewhere. Domenico Tiepolo often copied and adapted his father’s drawings in his own finished drawings of the 1790s, and the present sheet was used by the younger artist, over thirty years later, for the landscape background of his drawing of A Turkish Lancer and Onlookers Approaching a Town (fig.1) in the the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York8; one of a series of finished drawings known as the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’ of c.1791. As George Knox has noted, ‘This habit of using old material seems strange to us, with our passion for originality, though it would not have seemed strange to Bach or Handel. Domenico, I would suggest, felt that the visual material accumulated by his father and himself over the years was an image bank on which it was appropriate to draw as occasion offered.’9

1.


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THE DRAWINGS OF DOMENICO TIEPOLO ‘Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings provide us with the more private side of him, but they also serve to represent his career at all stages. He drew continually: sometimes very closely in the manner of his father; at the opposite remove, in the late Punchinello drawings for example, his manner and matter could never be mistaken for anyone else’s...The key to Domenico is in drawings: he began as a draughtsman and, one is tempted to say, all his paintings betray the draughtsman.’1 Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo is assumed to have begun his career in the family studio by copying his father’s drawings, although he also created his own drawings as designs for etchings, a practice which occupied much of his time in the 1740s and 1750s. His first independent drawings for paintings are those related to a series of fourteen paintings of the Stations of the Cross for the Venetian church of San Polo, completed when he was just twenty. Between 1750 and 1770, Domenico worked closely with his father as an assistant, notably in Würzburg, at the Villa Valmarana in Vicenza and the Villa Pisani at Strà, and in Madrid. From the late 1740s he also began to be entrusted with his own independent commissions, and the drawings for these display a manner somewhat different from that of Giambattista, with an abiding interest in lighthearted genre motifs that was to remain a characteristic of his work, particularly as a draughtsman, throughout his career. As George Knox has noted, ‘Compared with his father, a brilliant court-painter of European renown, Domenico is obviously a far more modest figure, a local artist, a man of his own time and place, a Venetian Daumier perhaps.’2 Soon after Giambattista Tiepolo’s sudden death in Madrid in 1770, Domenico returned to his native Venice, where he enjoyed much success as a decorative painter. He continued to expound the grand manner of history painting established by his father – the ‘Tiepolo style’, as it were – and by 1780 his reputation was such that he was named president of the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice. Within a few years, however, he seems to have largely abandoned painting. In his sixties and living effectively in retirement at the Tiepolo family villa at Zianigo, on the Venetian mainland3, he produced a large number of pen and wash drawings that are a testament to his inexhaustible gift for compositional invention. As the Marquis de Chennevières, writing at the end of the nineteenth century, fittingly described the artist, Domenico was ‘a chatterbox of drawing, the most seductive and tireless of chatterboxes, one might say.’4 Domenico Tiepolo’s late pen and wash drawings may collectively be regarded as the artist’s finest artistic legacy. For the most part, they were planned and executed as several series of a few dozen or more themed drawings, sometimes numbering well over a hundred examples. While many of his earliest drawings were in pen and ink alone, or in red or black chalk, the mature works as a draughtsman for which he is best known are, for the most part, executed in pen and wash. Many of these drawings were signed by the artist; indeed, more signed drawings by Domenico Tiepolo are known than by any other Italian artist of the 18th century or earlier. Generally of modest dimensions, Domenico’s mature drawings may be divided into both secular and religious subjects, and in turn anticipate two later series of drawings executed on a much larger scale. The secular drawings culminated in the larger ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’ of the early 1790s; a varied group of genre scenes, numbering almost ninety sheets, exploring aspects of popular culture and the daily life of Venice and the countryside of the Veneto. Similarly, the artist’s myriad drawings of religious subjects reach their fullest mode of expression in a richly pictorial group of more than two hundred drawings known as the ‘Large Biblical Series’, probably executed between the mid-1780s and early 1790s5. Following the fall of the Venetian Republic to Napoleon in 1797, Domenico’s final years were devoted entirely to drawing, and his oeuvre as a draughtsman reached its peak in the celebrated series of 104 drawings entitled the Divertimenti per li regazzi. Illustrating scenes from the life of Punchinello, a popular character from the Commedia dell’Arte, the series appears to have occupied the artist from the later 1790s through to the first years of the 19th century.


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In his pioneering book on the drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, published in 1962, James Byam Shaw opined that ‘it is with the pen and brush, in the second half of his career, that Domenico develops his most characteristic style. It is then that his compositions – in the large Biblical series particularly – become much more pictorial than his father’s, for all the freedom and looseness of his pen work; and it is his peculiar use of the wash, brown or grey or both combined, which contributes most to this effect. These were albumdrawings, finished to a margin-line, such as his father seldom produced...Such drawings were intended no doubt for the collector’s portfolio, but many others he kept for his own use.’6 Domenico’s highly finished late drawings, almost all of which were signed, were undoubtedly intended as fully realized, autonomous works of art. While it is certainly possible that they were produced as works of art to be offered for sale to collectors, almost none of the drawings appear to have been dispersed in Domenico’s lifetime. The fact, too, that many of the drawings are numbered, possibly by the artist himself, and that most remained together in groups for many years after his death, would also suggest that they were retained in his studio throughout his life, as indeed he also kept numerous albums of drawings by his father. It is most likely, therefore, that these late drawings by Domenico were done simply for his own pleasure. Nevertheless, they have consistently enjoyed immense popularity since the artist’s death, and continue to entice collectors today. As Catherine Whistler has noted, ‘Domenico’s spirited and inventive independent sheets have long been appreciated, particularly by French and American collectors of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; his quirky sense of humor, acutely observant eye, and zestful approach to his subjects lend his drawings a peculiarly modern appeal.’7 Like his father, Domenico Tiepolo is likely to have grouped some of his drawings into albums by theme, medium or format. Many of his chalk drawings appear to have been pasted, somewhat indiscriminately, alongside those of his father into albums or sketchbooks, of which two survive today; the so-called Quaderno Gatteri in the Museo Correr in Venice and the Beurdeley Album in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg. The majority of the artist’s smaller pen drawings, however, do not have any precise history of having been kept in albums. Only one such album, known as the Beauchamp album and containing more than one hundred and sixty pen and ink drawings of various subjects, is known; this volume must have been sold in the artist’s lifetime, since it once belonged to the antiquarian and politician Horace Walpole (1717-1797), who died while Domenico was still active. The drawings in the Walpole album, which was later in the collection of the 8th Earl Beauchamp, were dispersed at auction in London in 1965. Domenico’s three late series of large folio drawings – the ‘Large Biblical Series’, the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’, and the Punchinello series entitled Divertimenti per li regazzi – were kept by him until he died. Only the last of these, the celebrated series of 104 Punchinello drawings, with a title page, may have been assembled into an album. When the Punchinello drawings appeared at auction in London in 1920, however, they were not bound into an album but were displayed as loose sheets, and were sold off individually. Domenico Tiepolo is today better known for his remarkable and diverse corpus of drawings than for his paintings and frescoes, in which his stylistic independence from his father’s manner is less readily evident. As Michael Levey writes of the artist, ‘Although he mastered the art of painting, he was – even more patently than his father – a draughtsman at heart. It is in his drawings (and in one or two frescoes) that he seems most happily and utterly himself.’8 Byam Shaw readily concurs, noting that, ‘there can be no doubt of it, Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings have special virtues of their own, and it is as a draughtsman that he expresses his personality most effectively.’9


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11 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727-1804 Venice A Group of Winged Cherubs Among Clouds Pen and brown ink and brown wash. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f in brown ink at the lower left centre and numbered 75 in brown ink at the upper left. 197 x 280 mm. (7 3/ 4 x 11 in.) PROVENANCE: Part of album of drawings by Domenico Tiepolo with provenance as follows: Possibly the artist’s uncle, Francesco Guardi, Venice; Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, Middlesex; William Lygon, 8th Earl Beauchamp, Madresfield Court, Worcestershire; His sale (‘Drawings by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, The Property of the Rt. Hon. The Earl Beauchamp, D.L., J.P.’), London, Christie’s, 15 June 1965, lot 93; Private collection, New York. LITERATURE: Wilfried Hansmann, ‘Tiepolo-Zeichnungen aus einer Rheinischen Privatsammlung’, Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, 1974, p.189, illustrated p.187, fig.13. Domenico Tiepolo treated the theme of winged cherubs at play in a large number of delightful pen and wash drawings, in almost all of which the figures are depicted flying among clouds. While some of the drawings of this group depict a blindfolded Cupid attended by other cherubs, the present sheet may be grouped with others that show, as James Byam Shaw notes, ‘simply a swarm of winged putti in the clouds, without a central figure, sometimes evidently intended as part of some mythological or sacred theme...the little figures flock together and apart like birds, or tumble weightlessly in the air as though beyond the reach of gravity.’1 In these charming studies of cupids and cherubs – almost all of which are signed, like many of the artist’s mature drawings – Domenico may have been inspired by some of the frescoes of similar frolicking putti and cherubs in the Villa Valmarana at Vicenza, where he worked with his father in 1757. A similar subject, with a blindfolded Cupid driving a chariot drawn by doves, also appears in an oval ceiling painting by Domenico of the 1760s or early 1770s, now in the Musée Rothschild-Ephrussi in Saint-Jean-Cap-Ferrat2. As Byam Shaw has further commented of Domenico’s drawings of this type, ‘it is sometimes hard to decide whether the flying cherubs are intended for the vision of a martyred saint or some other religious subject, or whether they are simply little creatures of the air cast for some secular or mythological allegory...It is difficult to see what Domenico’s purpose was in making so many drawings of such subjects – drawings that often bear contemporary numbers, like those of his other series...His ability to vary the composition and the individual figures, without ever (so far as I can discover) exactly repeating himself, is astonishing. Perhaps he was simply displaying his virtuosity, like a pianist improvising on his instrument. I cannot find that any of the drawings were directly used for paintings with Cupids and cherubs…Nor can I with confidence suggest any but an approximate date – that is, after Domenico’s return from Spain in 1770, when he turned more and more to drawing for its own sake.’3 Writing of a comparable study of putti from the same series, Felton Gibbons noted of this group of drawings that they ‘all exhibit the same aerated touch with which this rococo artist gave lightness and humor to his designs in this series. Washes are dashed on in translucent thinness, contours waver tremulously to suggest constant childish motion, and unformed pudgy bodies are articulated only by spots or curlicues of ink at nodal points of their anatomies. This airborne cycle was an ideal undertaking for the last artist of the great Venetian tradition.’4


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12 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice A Servant Before a Group of Orientals Pen and grey ink and grey wash. 201 x 252 mm. (7 7/ 8 x 9 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: From an album of miscellaneous drawings assembled in England in the 18th century; Sir Gilbert Frankland Lewis, 3rd Bt., Harpton Court, Kington, Herefordshire; By inheritance to his nephew, Sir Henry Duff Gordon, Bt., Harpton Court, Kington, Herefordshire; His sale (‘The Property of Sir Henry Duff Gordon, Bt.’), London, Sotheby’s, 19 February 1936, lot 69 (as ‘A Capriccio: A Homage Scene’, by G. B. Tiepolo), bt. Swing for £20; Purchased in July 1937 by A. Paul Oppé, London; Thence by descent. LITERATURE: A. P. Oppé, ‘A Fresh Group of Tiepolo Drawings’, Old Master Drawings, September 1930, p.31; James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.80, under no.44. EXHIBITED: London, Royal Academy of Arts, The Paul Oppé Collection, 1958, no.364 (as ‘Homage’, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo); Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, Exhibition of Works from the Paul Oppé Collection: English Water Colours and Old Master Drawings, 1961, no.144 (as ‘Homage’, by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo). The present sheet may tentatively be grouped with a number of early drawings by Domenico Tiepolo – most of which are, however, drawn in pen alone, without wash – that depict crowds of figures in Oriental or antique dress. The subject of these drawings has proved elusive, while their purpose likewise remains a mystery. They seem, however, to be inspired by Giambattista’s series of etchings known as the Scherzi di fantasia, produced in the late 1740s, but not published until after his death in 1770. As James Byam Shaw has noted of a pair of drawings of similar subjects in the Robert Lehman Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, ‘Their purpose is not entirely clear; but it seems certain that the subject is inspired by Giambattista Tiepolo’s series of etchings called Capricci and Scherzi di fantasia...It is evident that once the prints were published they remained in some respects a source of inspiration to Domenico throughout the early years of his career – beginning about 1747, when at the age of twenty he was already painting the Stations of the Cross in San Polo, Venice.’1 These drawings also manifest the younger Tiepolo’s lifelong fascination with ‘Oriental’ characters in his work2. Among stylistically comparable pen and wash drawings by Domenico Tiepolo are two studies of A Priest in Antique Dress Leading a Group of Men and Boys and A Crowd Gathering Towards an Altar; both in the collection of the Beaney House of Art and Knowledge (formerly the Royal Museum and Art Gallery) in Canterbury in Kent3 and a Study of a Crowd formerly in the collection of the Duc de Talleyrand and sold at auction in New York in 20024, as well as a Scene from the Life of Christ in the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart5. A somewhat similar composition occurs in a drawing by Giambattista Tiepolo in the Museo Civico Sartorio in Trieste6. The present sheet was once part of a group of twenty-six Tiepolo drawings that were mounted into an album – together with miscellaneous Old Master drawings by several other artists – assembled in England in the late 18th century, and eventually in the possession of Sir Gilbert Lewis (1808-1883). On his death in 1883 the album, which included several drawings of dense crowds of figures in Oriental costume by Domenico, was inherited by his nephew, Sir Henry Duff Gordon. The Tiepolo drawings in the Duff Gordon collection, mainly drawn in pen and ink or pen and wash, were first noted and described in an article published by Paul Oppé in Old Master Drawings in 1930.


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13 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice Saint Anthony of Padua with the Christ Child in Glory with Angels Pen and brown and grey ink and grey and black wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower left. Numbered 101 in brown ink at the upper left. 244 x 181 mm. (9 5/ 8 x 7 1/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Part of album of drawings by Domenico Tiepolo with provenance as follows: Possibly the artist’s uncle, Francesco Guardi, Venice; in c.1783; Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, Middlesex; William Lygon, 8th Earl Beauchamp, Madresfield Court, Worcestershire; His sale (‘Drawings by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, The Property of the Rt. Hon. The Earl Beauchamp, D.L., J.P.’), London, Christie’s, 15 June 1965, lot 21; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 3 July 1996, lot 95 (unsold); Flavia Ormond, London, in 1997; Private collection. LITERATURE: Wolfgang Schulz, ‘Tiepolo-Probleme: Ein Antonius-Album von Giandomenico Tiepolo’, in Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, 1978, p.72; James Byam Shaw, ‘Some Unpublished Drawings by Giandomenico Tiepolo’ Master Drawings, Autumn 1979, p.240, under no.2; London, Flavia Ormond Fine Arts Ltd., Italian Old Master Drawings 1500-1850, exhibition catalogue, 1997, unpaginated, no.11; Horace Wood Brock, Martin P. Levy and Clifford S. Ackley, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, exhibition catalogue, Boston, 2009, p.155, no.96, illustrated p.101. EXHIBITED: New York, Flavia Ormond Fine Arts at Adelson Galleries, Italian Old Master Drawings 1500-1850, 1997, no.11; Stanford University, Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Classic Taste: Drawings and Decorative Arts from the Collection of Horace Brock, March-May, 2000; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, 2009, no.96. Domenico Tiepolo’s late pen drawings were, for the most part, executed as part of a series of several dozen or more themed compositions. The artist drew several such series of drawings – depicting both religious and secular subjects – that are characterized by numerous variations on a single theme. As James Byam Shaw has noted of such drawings, ‘Sometimes the theme itself derives from some great work of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, sometimes it is apparently Domenico’s own. In either case, he takes an evident pride and pleasure in ringing the changes, devising new pictorial patterns, new relationships of figure to figure, while the essential material remains the same: and all within a limited scope – for, as always in Domenico’s work, whether painting or drawing, there is little attempt at composition in depth; it is on one plane, in two dimensions, whether the scene is on terra ferma or in the clouds.’1 An essential component of the artist’s creative vision, Domenico’s pen and wash drawings may be counted among the most charming examples of Settecento Venetian draughtsmanship. This drawing may be included among a large series of over one hundred drawings by Domenico Tiepolo, all of approximately the same size, depicting the theme of Saint Anthony and the Christ Child, which may, in all likelihood, be dated after his return to Venice from Spain in 1770. Byam Shaw has written that, ‘Perhaps the most charming of Domenico’s religious series is that of St Anthony of Padua holding the infant Christ, sometimes standing at the steps of an altar, but more often floating in clouds, attended by angels or cherubs or winged cherubs’ heads. The scale of the figures varies in these drawings, and the series is less consistent than some of the others, but many of them have the early serial numbers at the top on the left, as high as 102...’2


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The present sheet is one of the most attractive of this group, and Adelheid Gealt’s comments on a similar drawing of the subject are equally pertinent to the present composition: ‘The St. Anthony who carries Christ in the clouds...has now become his protector...As a host of large angels carry the pair through the heavens, Anthony seems completely absorbed in a rapturous conversation with his Divine companion. Here a tender and intimate moment is created and set within the context of celestial splendor.’3 In Domenico Tiepolo’s late drawings, motifs are often derived from the drawings and paintings of his father Giambattista, from his own earlier work as a painter and printmaker, and from the extensive collection of prints by other artists kept in the Tiepolo studio. With the series of drawings depicting variations on the theme of Saint Anthony of Padua with the Christ Child, Domenico may have been inspired in particular by his father’s late altarpiece of the same subject, painted in 1769 for the church of the convent of San Pascual Baylon at Aranjuez and today in the Prado in Madrid4. The altarpiece was part of a cycle of seven oval paintings commissioned from the elder Tiepolo at the very end of his career, and Domenico almost certainly assisted his father with the commission. The popularity of Saint Anthony was not confined to Spain, however, and depictions of the saint were common in Venice from the 16th century onwards. As has been noted, ‘The theme of Anthony in glory, assumed into heaven, had been central to the iconography of the saint since the seventeenth century...The Saint’s popularity in Venice burgeoned in the second half of the seventeenth century: in 1651 one of his relics was translated from Padua to Santa Maria della Salute, and was thenceforth visited every year by the Doge on July 13th. During the period from which Domenico’s drawings date, probably no other saint besides the Virgin was so popular in the Serenissima.’5 The subject also appears in one of the finished drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ by Domenico Tiepolo6, datable to the later 1780s or 1790s. Like A Group of Winged Cherubs Among Clouds (No.11), the present sheet was at one time part of an album containing more than one hundred and sixty drawings by Domenico Tiepolo. The cover of the album bore the title ‘DISEGNI A PENA DA CUADRETTI GIO: DOMENICO FIGLIO DI GIO: BATA’: TIEPOLO CON ALCUNI DISEGNI DEL SUDETTO’, while the inside back cover was inscribed in an 18th century Italian hand (possibly that of the artist Francesco Guardi) ‘Questi Disegni Sono no.160. tutti Originali Costa Cechini 15 da Lire 22 L’uno.’ A very similar inscription is found on two other albums containing drawings by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo – the Quaderno Gatteri in the Museo Correr in Venice and the Beurdeley Album in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg – and it has been suggested that all of these albums may have been in the possession of Domenico’s uncle Francesco Guardi (1712-1793), who was offering them for sale, probably in the 1780s or early 1790s. Certainly, the album from which the present sheet comes can be shown to have been sold during Domenico’s lifetime, since the title page – which is inscribed ‘162 Dessin de Dominique Tiepolo fils de Jean Baptiste Tiepolo Venetien’7 – bore the bookplate of Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (1717-1797), who died when the artist was seventy years old and still active. The Walpole album, which included twenty drawings on the theme of Saint Anthony and the Christ Child, later entered the collections of the Earls Beauchamp, and was broken up at auction in 1965. A group of seven drawings from this series of Saint Anthony and the Christ Child by Domenico is today in the Graphische Sammlung of the Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, while six others are in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York. Other drawings from the series are in the collections of the Musée des BeauxArts et d’Archéologie in Besançon, the Beaney House of Art and Knowledge (formerly the Royal Museum and Art Gallery) in Canterbury, the Kupferstichkabinett in Dresden, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, the Princeton University Art Museum, the Albertina in Vienna, the Martin von Wagner-Museum in Würzburg, and elsewhere.


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14 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727-1804 Venice Recto: Hercules and Antaeus, with the Hydra Below Verso: Hercules and Antaeus Pen and brown ink and grey wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. The verso in pen and brown ink. Signed Dom. Tiepolo f in brown ink at the lower right. 204 x 160 mm. (8 x 6 1/ 4 in.) Watermark: Fragmentary. PROVENANCE: Probably Henri Bordes, Paris; Probably Galerie Paul Prouté, Paris, until 1936; Probably P. & D. Colnaghi, London, by 1936; Anthony Hobson, Glebe House, Hampshire; Thence by descent. This splendid double-sided sheet may be added to a series of drawings of Hercules and Antaeus by Domenico Tiepolo that have been dated to the latter part of the artist’s career. The subject is taken from the deeds of the mythological Greek hero Hercules, who was challenged to a wrestling match by the invincible Libyan giant Antaeus. Hercules was able to defeat Antaeus, whose strength was drawn from contact with the earth, by lifting him off the ground and crushing him. The theme of Hercules and Antaeus by must have greatly appealed to Domenico, as he created a large number of drawn variations of the subject. The largest single group of these, numbering thirty-eight drawings and likely to have included the present sheet, were once in a small album formerly in the Henri Bordes collection and purchased by Colnaghi’s from Paul Prouté in 1936. The Bordes album was broken up and the drawings dispersed among public and private collections between 1936 and 1945, and examples are today in the Fogg Art Museum in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice, and elsewhere1. Apart from the drawings in the Bordes album, a number of other drawings of this subject are known, most of which are numbered, unlike those in the album. Indeed, a handful of drawings from the Hercules and Antaeus series were known before the appearance of the Bordes group in 1936. One example, numbered 94, entered the collection of the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin in 19022, while another from the Michel-Lévy collection was sold in Paris in 19193, and a third example appeared on the art market in Amsterdam in 19294. Four other studies of the same subject, also not from the Bordes collection, were included in an album of pen drawings by Domenico Tiepolo that was sold in his lifetime and belonged to Horace Walpole and the Earls Beauchamp before being dispersed at auction in London in 19655. This series of drawings of Hercules and Antaeus by Domenico Tiepolo does not relate to any painting or fresco by the artist, and may instead be counted among the many pen and wash drawings – all variations on a theme – that the artist produced in the second half of his career. James Byam Shaw has suggested that this particular series of drawings may have been inspired by a drawing or print after a sculptural group of Hercules and Antaeus, such as a small bronze by the Renaissance sculptor Antico, known in several casts. It may also be noted that, early in his career, Domenico’s father Giambattista Tiepolo had painted a large canvas of Hercules and Antaeus for the salone of the Palazzo Sandi in Venice, executed between 1725 and 1726, and today in a private collection6.


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Byam Shaw has further opined that these Hercules and Antaeus drawings may have been related to the decoration of the Tiepolo family’s country villa at Zianigo, on the Venetian terraferma. Many of the drawings depict the two struggling figures on the same sort of ledge that appears in other drawings by Domenico, mostly of animals, that are also thought to have possibly been intended for the fresco decoraton of the Zianigo villa. As he notes, ‘It seems possible, therefore, that the subject was at least conceived as a suitable one for the decoration of that villa, and that the series was drawn at a relatively late date in Domenico’s career.’7 It may also be relevant, however, that the base on which these figures stand is akin to the pedestals used in contemporary garden statuary. As Linda Wolk-Simon has noted of Domenico’s Hercules and Antaeus drawings, ‘the protagonists are on a base or ledge reminiscent of the pedestals of garden sculptures or of the balustrades of Venetian villas, which were usually adorned with statues of deities, allegorical personifications, and rustic figures...Hercules was a favorite subject for Venetian garden sculpture, occurring frequently in the work of Domenico’s contemporary [Orazio] Marinali and in that of other sculptors of the period...[and] an immediate and relevant model undoubtedly presented itself in these ubiquitous Venetian settecento villa garden sculptures.’8

verso


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15 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice A Centaur Carrying off a Female Faun Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower centre and numbered 104 in brown ink at the upper left. 193 x 274 mm. (7 5/ 8 x 10 3/ 4 in.) PROVENANCE: Galerie Cailleux, Paris, in 1951; Josette Day Solvay (Mme. Maurice Solvay), Paris; Thence by descent until 2003; Sale (‘Anciennes collections Josette Day-Solvay’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Tajan], 24 March 2003, lot 44 (sold for €24,066); Hill-Stone Inc., New York; Private collection. LITERATURE: Jean Cailleux, ‘L’Art du Dix-huitième Siècle: Centaurs, Fauns, Female Fauns, and Satyrs among the Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo’, The Burlington Magazine, June 1974 [supplement], p.xx, no.60 C&F c12 (not illustrated), as location unknown; Horace Wood Brock, Martin P. Levy and Clifford S. Ackley, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, exhibition catalogue, Boston, 2009, p.156, no.97, illustrated p.102. EXHIBITED: Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, 2009, no.97. Domenico Tiepolo’s stylistic independence from his father Giambattista is most evident in his mature drawings. As George Knox has written of the younger artist, ‘Most of his drawings are careful finished works, created not as a by-product of the mind of an endlessly fertile painter, as is the case with the drawings of Giambattista, but as an end in themselves.’1 Like his father, Domenico often drew numerous variations of a single subject, which allowed him to express his powers of invention to the full. As Adriano Mariuz notes, ‘Following his return from Spain and until he was a very old man, he drew with almost feverish intensity, producing hundreds of drawings, more for himself than to please collectors, and signing each sheet as though impelled by a neurotic urge to assert his own identity.’2 This drawing belongs with a group of over one hundred and forty drawings3 by Domenico Tiepolo depicting centaurs, fauns, satyrs and nymphs in landscape settings; a series of composition drawings in pen and ink wash which have been aptly characterized by James Byam Shaw as ‘the most delightful and original of all Domenico’s allegorical and mythological subjects’4. As he further describes the drawings of this series, ‘Satyrs and Satyresses, and their engaging Faun families, share the scene with the Centaurs...sometimes going about their business peacefully enough, collecting wood, building shelters, dancing and somersaulting, or sitting down to a kitchen meal; but sometimes – the Centaurs particularly – more strenuously engaged, hunting, fighting bulls or lions, or carrying off a nymph in the mountain country.’5 Drawings from this cycle of centaur, faun and satyr subjects by Domenico Tiepolo include fifteen sheets in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, nine examples in the British Museum, four in the Pierpont Morgan Library, six each in the Uffizi and the Princeton University Art Museum, and many others elsewhere. Domenico’s interest in the theme of centaurs, satyrs and fauns is manifest in both his paintings and drawings throughout much of his career, from the 1750s through to the 1790s. The theme culminates in the artist’s monochrome fresco decoration of two rooms – the Camera dei Satiri, begun in 1759 but completed in 1771, and the Camerino dei Centauri, painted twenty years later, in 1791 – in the Tiepolo family villa at Zianigo, near Mirano, north of Padua. The detached frescoes from Zianigo are today in the collection of the Museo del Settecento Veneziano at the Ca’ Rezzonico in Venice.


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While a handful of the drawings of centaurs and satyrs in this series can be related to the Zianigo frescoes, most appear to have been made as autonomous works, as is indeed true of much of the artist’s drawn oeuvre. As Byam Shaw notes, ‘These drawings are not sketches but works of art in their own right, homogenous in style...pictorially composed and finished.’6 He has further suggested that Domenico’s centaur and satyr drawings should be dated to between 1771 and 1791, the dates of the decoration of the two rooms in the villa at Zianigo. The largest proportion of Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings of centaurs, fauns and satyrs, numbering around thirty sheets, depict centaurs abducting nymphs or female fauns. In his pioneering study of this series, published in 1974, Jean Cailleux identified several of these drawings as depicting variations on the theme of Nessus and Dejanira, a subject taken from Greek mythology. (The wife of Hercules, Dejanira was abducted by the centaur Nessus, who was later killed by Hercules with a poisoned arrow.) As Adelheid Gealt has noted, ‘Domenico, true to his era, chose to explore the lusty side of the centaur’s nature...He loved the action abductions provided, and, though never repeating himself, he considered abductions over and over again, indulging his fascination with theme and variation in scenes of animal passion, but including enough drama that the viewer can perceive a story embedded in each drawing.’7 Similar depictions of centaurs abducting women appear in Domenico’s monochrome frieze decorations in fresco in the Palazzo Contarini dal Zaffo in Venice, painted in 1784, as well as in his frescoes for the Villa Tiepolo at Zianigo, now at the Ca’ Rezzonico in Venice8. A closely comparable drawing by Domenico Tiepolo of this subject is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York9, while other similar drawings are in the collections of the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne10 and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris11. Another drawing of this subject (fig.1), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art12, is very close in composition to the present sheet, but with the satyress replaced by a nymph, as can also seen in a drawing of The Centaur and the Nymph from the late series of Punchinello drawings by the artist13. The present sheet was one of several 18th century drawings acquired, in the early 1950s, from the Galerie Cailleux in Paris by French stage and film actress Josette Day Solvay (1914-1978). Josette Day began her career at the age of five, and appeared in numerous French films of the 1930s and 1940s. Her most famous performance was the starring role, opposite Jean Marais, in Jean Cocteau’s La Belle et la Bête (Beauty and the Beast), released in 1946. She ended her successful career in 1950, however, at the age of thirty-six, when she married the wealthy Belgian businessman Maurice Solvay.

1.


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16 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice A Reclining Centaur and a Satyress in a Landscape Pen and grey and brown ink and grey wash, with touches of brown wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower right and numbered 9 in brown ink at the upper left. Inscribed Gli amori de’ centauri colle ninfe boschereccie - disegno originale / di Domenico Tiepolo col nome autografo – fr. 5. in brown ink on the verso. Numbered 294 in brown ink on the verso. 194 x 269 mm. (7 5/ 8 x 10 5/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Galerie Paul Prouté, Paris, in 1967; William H. Schab Gallery, New York, in c.1970; Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 12 January 1994, lot 15 (sold for $25,300); Private collection. LITERATURE: Paris, Galerie Paul Prouté et ses fils, Catalogue ‘Desrais’: Dessins Estampes, 1967, no.75; New York, William H. Schab Gallery, Catalogue Fifty: Fine and Rare Drawings, Engravings, Etchings and Woodcuts of the 15th to the 20th Centuries from Distinguished Collections, n.d. [1970?], pp.84-86, no.78; New York, William H. Schab Gallery, Catalogue Fifty-Four: Master Prints & Drawings from the Fifteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, n.d. [1974?], pp.34-35, no.16; Jean Cailleux, ‘L’Art du Dix-huitième Siècle: Centaurs, Fauns, Female Fauns, and Satyrs among the Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo’, The Burlington Magazine, June 1974 [supplement], pp.xvii, no.42 C&F b3, fig.40; Marcia Vetrocq and Adelheid Gealt, Domenico Tiepolo’s Punchinello Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington and Stanford, 1979-1980, p.114, under no.39; Adelheid Gealt, Domenico Tiepolo: The Punchinello Drawings, London, 1986, p.136, under no.56. Not all of Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings of centaurs, satyrs and fauns are violent in nature. In many of the later drawings in the series, such as the present sheet, the relationship between centaur and his female companion is more tender, and even amorous. (An 18th century Italian inscription on the verso of this drawing identifies the subject as the love of centaurs for woodland nymphs.) As the Tiepolo scholar Adelheid Gealt has written, ‘This romantic side of his centaurs’ nature is one of Domenico’s inventions that he developed over time...Domenico’s drawings of the relations between centaurs and fauns, comprising seductions, romances, pure joyous play...have virtually no visual precedent and are among Domenico’s richest inventions.’1 Among other drawings of a languid centaur with an acquiescent nymph or satyress are examples in the British Museum2 and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York3, as well as several in private collections4, while the subject is also found in a large drawing of The Lady and the Centaur in the Cleveland Museum of Art5, one of the artist’s late Punchinello cycle of finished drawings. A similar arrangement of an amorous centaur and satyress also appears, albeit in reverse, in one of the frescoes painted by Domenico for the Tiepolo villa at Zianigo, now in the Ca’ Rezzonico in Venice6. In his seminal article on this fascinating group of drawings, Jean Cailleux praised ‘the inexhaustible inventiveness,...the freedom and unerringness of touch,...the fluidity of Domenico Tiepolo’s use of wash in this series which never becomes monotonous.’7 Unlike most of the artist’s other series of independent pen and wash drawings, such as the ‘Large Biblical Series’ or the Punchinello drawings, there is no obvious narrative thread that ties these scenes together, though they are nevertheless linked by being of similar size and technique, and containing the same cast of mythological characters; centaurs, satyrs, nymphs and fauns. As James Byam Shaw has noted, ‘The drawings of this series are perhaps the most charming and original of all Domenico’s drawings – original because less dependent on the inventions of other artists than some of his other series...and catching exactly the charm and gaiety of the pagan mythology.’8


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17 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice A Standing Lion Pen and grey ink and grey wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk, with framing lines in grey ink. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in grey ink at the lower right. 217 x 152 mm. (8 1/ 2 x 6 in.) PROVENANCE: Gustav Nebehay, Vienna, in 1927; Anonymous sale, Stuttgart, Stuttgarter Kunstkabinett, 24 November 1953, lot 924 (bt. Colnaghi for £23); P. & D. Colnaghi, London; Sold to Tomás Harris, London, on 24 September 1954 for £35; Sir Valentine Abdy, Paris, in 1961; Clifford Duits, London, in 1963; Francis A. Drey, London, in c.1971; Private collection. LITERATURE: Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, ed., Giandomenico Tiepolo: Scene di vita quotidiana a Venezia e nella terraferma, Venice, 2005, p.126, under no.33. EXHIBITED: Vienna, Kunsthandlung Gustav Nebehay, Die Zeichnung I: Italienische Handzeichnungen des XVIII. Jahrhunderts, Vienna, n.d. [1927?], unnumbered (priced at £18); London, P. & D. Colnaghi, Exhibition of Old Master Drawings, 1954, no.20 (priced at £40). This and the following drawing are part of a group of studies of various animals and birds that have been dated to the latter part of Domenico Tiepolo’s career, following his return from Spain in 1770, and perhaps as late as the 1790s. James Byam Shaw has associated these drawings with the fresco decoration of the Tiepolo family villa at Zianigo, northeast of Padua; most of the frescoes in the rooms of this small country house were detached in 1907 and are now in Museo del Settecento Veneziano at the Ca’ Rezzonico in Venice. Remnants of several frescoes depicting various animals in landscape settings remain in situ in the villa, however, and some of Domenico’s animal drawings correspond exactly to these. Many drawings of animals by the artist incorporate a ledge or dado at the bottom, and Byam Shaw suggested that they may have been intended for a frieze running around the upper walls of one or more of the rooms in the villa at Zianigo. Unlike dogs or horses, lions are relatively rare in Domenico Tiepolo’s paintings and drawings. The most significant example is a monochrome fresco depicting a pride of lions in a landscape, which was part of the decoration of the Villa Tiepolo at Zianigo3. This soppraporta, or overdoor, fresco survives at the villa, albeit in a very ruined state. The lion in this drawing, however, is unrelated to any of those in the Zianigo frescoes. This fine study of a standing lion was adapted by Domenico for drawings from each of his three important late series of large and highly finished drawings, all executed towards the end of his career. An almost identical standing lion appears in The Holy Family with the Bending Palm (fig.1) from the so-called ‘Large Biblical Series’, sold at auction in Paris in 2007 and now in the Eskenazi Museum of Art in Bloomington, Indiana4. The same lion is found in a drawing of Spectators Before a Lion Cage in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa5; one of the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’ of the early 1790s. This lion appears once again, albeit in reverse, in a large drawing of The Lion’s Cage in a private collection6, which is part of the late series of 104 Punchinello drawings entitled Divertimenti per li regazzi. Two studies of reclining lions from the same series of animal drawings, one of which is specifically related to one of the lions in the overdoor fresco at Zianigo, were formerly in the collection of Paul Wallraf in London7. A handful of other drawings of this type and size, each showing a single lion on a pedestal, are


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known. These include a study of a Standing Lion, Facing Right in the Uffizi in Florence8, a Standing Lion, Looking to the Left, formerly in the collection of Benno Geiger in Venice9, and a drawing of A Seated Lion that appeared at auction in 198710, as well as a sheet of studies of a seated lion and the heads of camels and lions in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin11. Most recently, another drawing of a Seated Lion was sold at auction in Paris12. Other depictions of lions by Domenico Tiepolo include a finished drawing of Men Watching a Pride of Lions in the Courtauld Gallery in London13, a study of a Lion, Lioness and Cubs in the Art Institute of Chicago14, and a drawing of a Lion Lying Down in the Princeton University Art Museum15; all three drawings include the same resting lion, who also appears in one of the overdoor paintings at Zianigo. Among the handful of other drawings with lions by the artist is a sheet of studies of various animals in the MusÊe de Grenoble16 and a Hercules and the Nemean Lion formerly in the Italico Brass collection17. Lions also appear behind the struggling figures in a handful of examples from Domenico’s series of Hercules and Antaeus drawings, including sheets in the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin18 and the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford19, as well as a drawing recently with Stephen Ongpin Fine Art and today in a private collection20.

1.


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18 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice Two Monkeys on a Rock Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower right. 284 x 201 mm. (11 1/ 8 x 7 7/ 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Trinity Fine Art, London and Milan; Flavia Ormond, London; Private collection. LITERATURE: Clifford S. Ackley, ‘Master drawings from the collection of Horace Wood Brock’, The Magazine Antiques, February 2009, p.55, illustrated p.55, fig.7; Horace Wood Brock, Martin P. Levy and Clifford S. Ackley, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, exhibition catalogue, Boston, 2009, p.156, no.108, illustrated p.110. EXHIBITED: Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, 2009, no.108. James Byam Shaw has noted of the younger Tiepolo’s drawings of animals that, ‘if most of these drawings belong to the latter part of Domenico Tiepolo’s career, it is also evident that his interest in drawing animals goes back a good deal further in date...twenty, thirty, even forty years earlier perhaps; and that he collected from one source or another, at that time, certain animal patterns that he kept by him, as he kept other models, for the rest of his life. From one source or another: for the truth is that relatively few of these animals, certainly not the more exotic ones, were observed from life.’1 Indeed, a number of studies of animals by Domenico seem to have been based on prints by other artists, notably Johann Elias Ridinger and Stefano della Bella, as well as paintings and frescoes by his father Giambattista. As Byam Shaw has written, ‘Many of the individual drawings of animals, from whatever source...must have remained in Domenico’s portfolios, to be used again and again to the end of his career...It is perhaps a little disappointing, or at least disconcerting to our present ideas of artistic proprieties, to find that so few of the animals were drawn from life...But experience of Domenico’s methods does not encourage illusions in this respect; and generally it was not his way to trouble himself with a living model if a pictorial one, his own or someone else’s, was at hand.’2 The sitting monkey in this drawing, who seems to be catching a flea, appears in a number of other works by Domenico Tiepolo. It can be found at the extreme left of a drawing of eight monkeys in a landscape, in the Robert Lehman Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York3, as well as a drawing of Dancing Bears and Monkeys on a Country Road, at one time in the Beurdeley and Lehman collections4, and a related drawing of a similar subject formerly in the collection of Alfred Strolin in Paris5. A similar, though not identical, monkey is found, in reverse, in A Procession with a Camel and Monkeys, which, like the ex-Beurdeley and Lehman sheet, was part of the group of genre drawings known as the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’, which are datable to c.17916. The same monkey also appears, in reverse, in Giambattista Tiepolo’s etching of A Young Shepherdess and Old Man with a Monkey7, one of the series of prints known as the Scherzi di fantasia. Monkeys are found in a handful of other drawings by Domenico, notably a sheet of studies of animals in the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Lyon8 and a drawing of a Monkey Swinging on a Parapet, and Two Monkey Skeletons, in the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York9, as well as two drawings from the late Punchinello series; in the British Museum in London10 and the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa11. A drawing of a seated camel and a monkey holding a dead bird was formerly in the collections of Thomas Fine Howard and William S. Paley in New York12, while a drawing of Four Bears and a Monkey in a Landscape is today in a private collection13.


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19 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727-1804 Venice A Riderless Horse Galloping Before the Walls of a City Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk, with framing lines in brown ink. Signed Domo Tiepolo f. at the lower left. 285 x 408 mm. (11 1/ 4 x 16 in.) PROVENANCE: Probably Karl Ewald Hasse, Göttingen and Hannover, and by descent to his son-inlaw Ernst Ehlers, Göttingen; His posthumous sale, Leipzig, C. G. Boerner, 9-10 May 1930, lot 492 (‘Vor einem befestigten Stadttor rechts ein durchgehendes Pferd ohne Reiter, das ein Junge zu fangen sucht. Dahinter ein aufgeregter Alter. Im Hintergrunde liegt ein toter Harlekin.’); William H. Crocker, Hillsborough, California; By descent to his son, Charles Crocker, San Francisco; Thence by decent until 2008; Sale (‘Drawings by Giovanni Battista & Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo from the Collection of William H. Crocker’), New York, Christie’s, 24 January 2008, lot 49. LITERATURE: ‘Appendix A: Checklist of the Scenes of Contemporary Life’ in Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 1996-1997, p.240, no.21 (as location unknown); Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, ed., Giandomenico Tiepolo: Scene di vita quotidiana a Venezia e nella terraferma, Venice, 2005, pp.110-111, no.21 (as location unknown); Adelheid M. Gealt, ‘Motivi e narrazione nelle <<scene di vita quotidiana>> di Giandomenico Tiepolo’, in Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, p.35; Piermario Vescovo, ‘Millesettecentonovantuno (e dintorni)’, in Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, p.64; Stefano Carboni, ed., Venice and the Islamic World 828-1797, exhibition catalogue, Paris and New York, 20062007, p.315, no.55, note 6 (entry by Carmen Bambach). This drawing belongs with a group of nearly ninety independent, finished genre drawings – mainly devoted to aspects of popular culture and the quotidian in Venice and the countryside of the Veneto – produced by Domenico Tiepolo in the early 1790s. James Byam Shaw, who entitled this series the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’, points out that the drawings, all of approximately the same size, can be divided into three basic categories; depictions of everyday life in Venice, scenes of fashionable and aristocratic Venetian society, and studies of peasant or gypsy life on the terraferma. He adds that these drawings are ‘rendered with such skill and charm, that of all Domenico’s drawings they are now the most popular and the most delightful.’1 However, unlike the other two great late drawing cycles produced by the artist at the end of his career – the ‘Large Biblical Series’ and the Punchinello series – there is no narrative thread that unites the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’, and most of the drawings are unrelated in subject or composition to others in the same series. Several of the drawings from the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’ series are dated 1791, when Domenico was sixty-four years old, and while some may be slightly earlier or later in date, it would certainly seem that the entire group was produced within a relatively short span of time at the very beginning of the 1790s. Drawn in Tiepolo’s favourite medium of pen and wash, usually with framing lines, and invariably signed by the artist, this series of drawings must have been produced as finished works of art, perhaps intended to be sold to collectors. They are today regarded as among Domenico Tiepolo’s finest and most original achievements as a draughtsman. The present sheet may be grouped with a small but distinct subset of the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’ depicting horses and their riders or grooms, who are usually portrayed as Ottoman or Turkish figures with turbans. Comparable subjects include three drawings in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York; A Turkish Lancer and Onlookers Approaching a Town2, An Oriental Chieftain Resting3, and A Landscape with a Horse Held by a Page4. Other drawings of this type include A White Horse


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Presented to a Group of Orientals in a private collection in Paris5 and Oriental Figures and a Horse in a Landscape in the Musée de Grenoble6, as well as drawings in the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archéologie in Besançon7, the Uffizi in Florence8, and two sold at auction in New York in 19959. Similar horses with Oriental attendants also appear in several of the drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’ of the 1780s and 1790s, and it has been suggested that these types of compositions may reflect the contemporary Venetian taste for exotic Eastern themes. In this drawing, the horse appears to have escaped the stablehand, who has been commanded by the turbanned Oriental to recapture him. In the background, a second horse grazes quietly, having presumably thrown the Punchinello who is lying flat on his back on the ground next to him. The walled town with a prominent gate and tower in the background of the composition may have been inspired by walls of the town of Noale in the Veneto, just a few kilometres north of the Tiepolo family villa at Zianigo. It may be assumed that the artist would have kept horses at Zianigo, as many Venetian families did. Indeed, in his drawings Domenico seems to have emphasized that a particular interest in horses and stallions was a shared trait of Turks, Arabs and the Venetian gentry. The horse in this drawing was repeated, in reverse, in a signed drawing by Domenico of a horse in a landscape (fig.1), which was sold at auction in New York in 197010. As James Byam Shaw has written of the artist in general, and of his late genre drawings in particular, ‘by any other standards except those of his father – by the standards of Ricci, Piazetta [sic], Pittoni – Domenico Tiepolo was a great artist, in the very front rank of Venetian artists of the eighteenth century...For such subjects, particularly the genre subjects, became Domenico’s special contribution to the art of his time...In drawings of such subjects, made long after his father’s death, he laid claim to a special place in the history of Venetian art.’11 The first recorded owner of the present sheet was Ernst Ehlers (1835-1925), a notable German collector of drawings and prints. Ehlers inherited much of his collection from his father-in-law, Karl Ewald Hasse (1810-1902), a distinguished professor of medicine at the University of Göttingen. While many of the drawings in the Ehlers collection were eventually acquired in 1939 by the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, the present sheet was sold at auction with part of the Hasse and Ehlers collections in Leipzig in 1930. The drawing later entered the collection of the collection of the American banker and philanthropist William H. Crocker (1861-1937), who owned a number of drawings by both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo.

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20 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice Christ Warns Peter in the Upper Room Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with framing lines in brown ink, over an extensive underdrawing in black chalk. 484 x 375 mm. (19 x 14 3/4 in.) [sheet] Watermark: Three crescents. PROVENANCE: Among the contents of the artist’s studio in Venice at the time of his death, and by descent to his wife, Margherita Moscheni, Venice; Sold on the Venetian art market in the first half of the 19th century; Victor Luzarche, Tours, until 1868; Camille Rogier, Paris; Roger Cormier, Tours; His sale (‘Collection de M. Cormier de Tours. Dessins par Giovanni-Domenico Tiepolo’), Paris, Galerie Georges Petit [Lair-Dubreuil], 30 April 1921, lot 62 (‘Le Christ apparaît aux apôtres. Plume et lavis de bistre. Haut,. 46 cent.; larg., 36 cent.’); Private collection, until 1973; Private collection, Paris; Wildenstein & Co., New York. LITERATURE: Henri Guerlain, Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo: au temps du Christ, Tours, 1921, no.85; Christofer Conrad, Die grossformatigen religiösen Zeichnungen Giovanni Domenico Tiepolos, unpublished Ph,D dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, 1996, no.188; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, 2006, pp.444-445, no.182. EXHIBITED: New York, The Frick Collection, Domenico Tiepolo (1727–1804): A New Testament, 20062007. This large and impressive sheet is part of a distinctive group of over three hundred and twenty highly finished drawings1 executed by Domenico Tiepolo over a period of several years; from the mid-1780s and probably through the early 1790s, and perhaps even until his death in 1804. Entitled the ‘Large Biblical Series’ by James Byam Shaw, these large drawings in pen and ink wash depict a vast range of Biblical subjects, primarily taken from the Gospels, Parables and Acts of the Apostles. The sequence begins with scenes from the life of Christ’s ancestors, his grandparents Saints Joachim and Anna, and proceeds through the lives of Mary and Joseph, the birth of Jesus, His childhood and the Flight into Egypt. These are followed by scenes from the lives of both Christ and Saint John the Baptist, Christ’s ministry and the events of the Passion. Following scenes from the Resurrection and Ascension, the series culminates with episodes taken from the lives and deeds of the two leading saints of early Christianity, the apostles Peter and Paul. The drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ (also known as the New Testament series) are among Domenico’s most ambitious and inventive works as a draughtsman. As the Tiepolo scholar Adelheid Gealt has noted of this group, ‘All vertical in format, often with lavish landscape or architectural settings, the drawings are the most exhaustive exploration of biblical subjects by a single eighteenth-century artist. Even in the context of Italy, where the traditions of religious painting remained very much alive despite the impact of the Enlightenment, Domenico’s sustained fascination with biblical subjects is extraordinary, particularly since it is assumed that he drew them primarily to please himself, rather than at the behest of an ecclesiastical patron.’2 There seems to be no one single literary source for the complex narrative sequence of the ‘Large Biblical Series’, which make up by far the artist’s most numerous cycle of drawings. It has been suggested that Domenico consulted a popular recent translation into Italian of the New Testament, published in


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1769 with extensive commentaries. It is also likely that the artist, probably with the aid of his priest brother Giuseppe Maria, read and referred to a number of other religious texts when developing his sequence of compositions, which include more obscure episodes recorded in fragmentary gospels, the Apocrypha, and the 13th century Golden Legend compiled by Jacopo da Voragine. The subject of this drawing is taken from the Gospels, and depicts Christ and his disciples in the upper room, or Cenacle, in Jerusalem, where the Last Supper was held. Before Jesus led the disciples to the Mount of Olives, he told the apostle Peter that he would soon come to deny him: ‘And the Lord said, Simon, Simon, behold, Satan hath desired to have you, that he may sift you as wheat: But I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and when thou art converted, strengthen thy brethren. And he said unto him, Lord, I am ready to go with thee, both into prison, and to death. And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, before that thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me.’ (Luke 22: 31-34) The bold composition of this drawing, with much of the upper part of the sheet left empty apart from a hanging oil lamp, is a characteristic of many of the works from the ‘Large Biblical Series’. As evidenced by the visible underdrawing in black chalk, the lamp was originally placed slightly higher and more to the left, and by bringing it closer to the gathered apostles the artist was able to create a more dramatic effect, casting a powerful light on Christ and the two apostles kneeling before Him. The rich, golden tone of the washes – a characteristic feature of the ‘Large Biblical Series’, though not always seen with such freshness as in the present sheet – is contrasted by areas where the surface of the paper has been left untouched to create brilliant highlights, as on the draperies of Christ and the two kneeling figures. It remains a mystery why Domenico Tiepolo embarked on this sequence of well over three hundred large and finished drawings, which do not appear to have been commissioned by any particular patron and, like the Divertimenti per li regazzi series of Punchinello subjects, seem to have been conceived as a complete and unified narrative ensemble. While the vertical format of the drawings has led to the suggestion that they may have been intended as book illustrations, the fact that most of the compositions are signed would seem to indicate that they were regarded by the artist as independent, finished works. As Byam Shaw describes them, ‘They are essentially ‘album drawings’, intended not as studies for painting or etching, but as works of art in their own right; and they belong to a period when drawing, rather than painting, was Domenico’s chief occupation.’3 In the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’, the artist ‘pondered the visual and literary history of his own faith, producing his largest and most ambitious serial – some 320 drawings that took a new and very different approach to this venerable theme. Culling both visual and textual sources, Domenico undertook what amounts to his own documentation of [the] Catholic faith.’4 Furthermore, as Gealt has pointed out, ‘The son and pupil of one of Europe’s most sophisticated painters and the brother of a priest, Domenico...was uniquely qualified for his New Testament, which aligned itself so beautifully with his predilection for pictorial serial narrative and sacred stories. It is not difficult to imagine Domenico working at a fairly large table, with an abundance of large, uncut sheets of thick paper to hand, inks, chalks, and pen at the ready, and a vast amount of visual and textual knowledge in his head.’5 Like the other two late series of drawings that the artist produced at the end of his career, namely the ‘Scenes from Contemporary Life’ and the Punchinello series, the artist seems to have kept the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ in his studio until his death. Almost certainly done for his own pleasure, without any underlying commercial purpose, they are perhaps best regarded as a labour of love on the part of this deeply devout artist; ‘a work of personal piety,...[and] truly a summation of his forty years of distinguished work as a painter of religious subjects.’6


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21 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice The Resurrection of Christ Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with framing lines in brown ink, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower left centre. 473 x 368 mm. (18 5/ 8 x 14 1/ 2 in.) PROVENANCE: Among the contents of the artist’s studio in Venice at the time of his death, and by descent to his wife, Margherita Moscheni, Venice; Sold on the Venetian art market in the first half of the 19th century; Presumably Victor Luzarche, Tours; Presumably Camille Rogier, Paris; Presumably Roger Cormier, Tours; Presumably his sale (‘Collection de M. Cormier de Tours. Dessins par Giovanni-Domenico Tiepolo’), Paris, Galerie Georges Petit [Lair-Dubreuil], 30 April 1921; Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Paul Renaud], 13 March 1995, lot 223; Thomas Williams, London, and W. M. Brady & Co., New York, in 1995; Private collection. LITERATURE: New York, W. M. Brady & Co., and London, Thomas Williams (Fine Art) Ltd., Old Master Drawings, 1995, pp.86-87, no.38; Christofer Conrad, Die grossformatigen religiösen Zeichnungen Giovanni Domenico Tiepolos, unpublished Ph,D dissertation, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität, Heidelberg, 1996, no.184; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, 2006, pp.494-495 and pp.496-497, no.205, pl.205; Clifford S. Ackley, ‘Master drawings from the collection of Horace Wood Brock’, The Magazine Antiques, February 2009, pp.52 and 55, illustrated p.54, fig.5; Clifford S. Ackley, ‘The Intuitive Eye: Drawings and Paintings from the Collection of Horace Wood Brock’, in Horace Wood Brock, Martin P. Levy and Clifford S. Ackley, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, exhibition catalogue, Boston, 2009, pp.86-87 and p.155, no.95, illustrated pp.86 and 100. EXHIBITED: New York, W. M. Brady & Co. Inc., and London, Thomas Williams (Fine Art) Ltd. at Daniel Katz Ltd., Old Master Drawings, Autumn 1995, no.38; Stanford University, Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Classic Taste: Drawings and Decorative Arts from the Collection of Horace Brock, March-May, 2000; New York, The Frick Collection, Domenico Tiepolo (1727–1804): A New Testament, 2006-2007; Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Splendor and Elegance: European Decorative Arts and Drawings from the Horace Wood Brock Collection, 2009, no.95. ‘A salient aspect of Domenico involves his love of large, finished drawings. In fact, his reputation as a master in his own right rests largely on the hundreds of sheets of full-sized, handmade paper that he transformed into brilliant drawings, most of which still survive...serial narratives were Domenico’s peculiar specialty, one in which his accomplishments are peerless.’1 Executed with an assurance of handling and a fluidity of tonal washes that is often quite breathtaking, the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ are among Domenico Tiepolo’s masterpieces as a draughtsman. Set in elaborate interiors or landscapes, and often crowded with figures, these highly pictorial compositions were almost certainly intended as independent works of art. Using large sheets of handmade paper of the same size (approximately 460 x 350 mm.) as he used for his contemporaneous Punchinello series of drawings, but oriented vertically, the artist began each of the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ with a rough outline drawing in black chalk. He followed this with pen outlines, with the most important figures in the foreground executed first, and those in the background last. The washes were usually applied in several overlapping and complex layers, from light tones to dark, with areas of the bright white paper left in reserve, as highlights.


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A superb example of Domenico’s vigorous draughtsmanship, this large sheet, in the words of one recent scholar, ‘is one of the most spectacular drawings from this enormous “New Testament” project...Christ’s body, liberated from the sepulchre, soars heavenward, emanating rays of mystic light. He clutches a triumphal banner adorned with the Cross, while cherubs and angels witness and celebrate his victory. The astonished soldiers, guardians of the tomb, are thrown back felled by the overpowering burst of light...The drawings of both Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo are celebrated for their highly expressive use of transparent ink washes laid down on brilliantly white paper...In the Resurrection, the transparency of the washes allows the black chalk underdrawing, particularly the aureole around the levitating Christ, to read as an essential part of the final image. Reserves of untouched blank paper reflect light, portraying the dazzling intensity of the illumination and powerfully modeling the figures.’2 This drawing of The Resurrection of Christ was also singled out by the late George Knox, in his survey of the entire ‘Large Biblical Series’, as ‘notable for the extremely brilliant use of the white paper in the handling of light’3. Here, the body of Christ and several of the figures below him are all bathed in a bright, radiant light; an effect created purely by the artist leaving parts of the surface of the white paper untouched by ink or wash. As Knox goes on to describe the scene, ‘Using his shield to block Christ’s blinding supernatural light, a soldier runs from the stunning apparition of Jesus soaring out of his tomb. His companions have fallen to the ground. One angel spreads incense and another rejoices as Jesus, accompanied by seraphim, glides upwards...Alluding to immortality, a majestic evergreen stands at the left.’4 The Tiepolo scholar Adelheid Gealt, who has aptly described the present sheet as ‘a masterpiece of light and movement’5, has further pointed out that its composition is highly original. As she notes of this drawing, Domenico has chosen to depart from the traditional visual treatments of this subject by portraying Christ looking upwards rather than down, so that the emphasis is on Christ’s new status – corporal but more spiritual – as He ascends into Heaven. The compositions of the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ reflect the artist’s wide-ranging study of a variety of visual sources. Inspiration was derived from, among other sources, the Byzantine mosaics in the Basilica of San Marco in Venice and the extensive collection of 16th and 17th century prints kept in the Tiepolo studio, while Domenico also adapted motifs from the paintings and drawings of his father, and occasionally recycled images from his own work. Indeed, some aspects of the composition of the present sheet are found in an earlier drawing by Domenico of The Resurrection of Christ (fig.1), of much smaller dimensions, which is today in a Swiss private collection6. As Knox has noted of the artist, ‘his most extensive and perhaps his most remarkable work as a draughtsman...The Large Biblical Series is a summation in more ways than one. For the first time, Domenico draws on the full resources of the Tiepolo studio, his own visual memory, his folios of drawings, and the vast accumulation of drawings by his father...Even so, by far the greater part of these compositions are entirely original inventions.’7 The series of drawings by Domenico Tiepolo which make up the ‘Large Biblical Series’ seem to have been divided into two main groups in the first decades of the 19th century, both of which found their way into French collections. A group of 138 drawings were acquired in 1833 from a shop in the Piazza San Marco in Venice by the French collector Jean Fayet Durand (1806-1889) and were bequeathed to the Louvre at his death in 1889, bound in an album now known as the Recueil Fayet. A further large group of drawings from the series, amounting to around 175 sheets, was purchased in Italy, also in the middle of the 19th century, by Victor Luzarche (1803-1869), at one time the mayor of the city of Tours, and these later entered the collection of the painter and illustrator Camille Rogier (1810-1896), who had lived in Venice for several years and was a friend of both Fayet and Luzarche. Eighty-two of the exLuzarche drawings passed to Roger Cormier (dates unknown), also of Tours. These were dispersed at auction in Paris in 1921, for a total of 57,850 francs, with the drawings acquired by various private collectors, notably the Duc de Trévise. According to a contemporary account of the Cormier sale, the individual drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ were sold for sums of between 350 and 1,800 francs, with one drawing of The Crowning with Thorns reaching 1,950 francs. It was also noted that all of the drawings were bought by collectors, with none purchased by dealers8.


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Apart from the large number of drawings from the Recueil Fayet in the Louvre, other drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’ are today in the collections of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Musée BonnatHelleu in Bayonne, the Staatliche Museen in Berlin, the Musée des Beaux-Arts et d’Archéologie in Besançon, the Sidney and Lois Eskenazi Museum of Art in Bloomington, Indiana, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the Musée Condé in Chantilly, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Cleveland Museum of Art, the British Museum and the Courtauld Gallery in London, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, the Fondation Custodia (Frits Lugt Collection) in Paris, the National Gallery in Prague, the Bibliothèque Municipale in Rouen, the Saint Louis Art Museum, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, Massachusetts, and elsewhere, as well as in several private collections. Like the previous drawing of Christ Warns Peter in the Upper Room, the present sheet was one of fiftynine drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’ selected for a remarkable exhibition devoted to the series, held at the Frick Collection in New York in 2006-2007; an event which provided a rare opportunity to see, displayed together, some of the finest drawings in the sequence. As Gealt has written, ‘While each drawing is a masterpiece of composition and draftsmanship, its real value, as part of an unfolding narrative with rich visual connections to other drawings in the series, can only be appreciated when viewed in its original context.’9 The sheer scale of the ‘Large Biblical Series’, and the virtuosity and creativity evident in each of the over three hundred and twenty drawings, led one scholar, in a review of the Frick exhibition, to describe the project as ‘an exceptional resumé of all [Domenico Tiepolo’s] artistic powers of invention.’10

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22 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice Saint Peter Healing the Paralytic of Lydda Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with framing lines in brown ink, over an extensive underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower left and inscribed nella citta di Lida visano il Paralitico / S. Piero in brown ink at the lower right. Further inscribed Guerison par Pierre du paralytique Enée a Lyda in pencil on the verso. 485 x 381 mm. (19 1/ 8 x 15 in.) [sheet] Watermark: An arm holding a sword above the letter W. PROVENANCE: Among the contents of the artist’s studio in Venice at the time of his death, and by descent to his wife, Margherita Moscheni, Venice; Dispersed on the Venetian art market in the first half of the 19th century; Victor Luzarche, Tours, until 1868; Camille Rogier, Paris; Roger Cormier, Tours; His sale (‘Collection de M. Cormier de Tours. Dessins par Giovanni-Domenico Tiepolo’), Paris, Galerie Georges Petit [Lair-Dubreuil], 30 April 1921, lot 10 (‘La Guérison du paralytique de Lida par saint Pierre. Plume et lavis de sépia. Signé au centre. Haut,. 46 cent.; larg., 36 cent.’) or lot 61 (‘Saint Pierre opérant une guérison miraculeuse. Plume et lavis de bistre. Signé à gauche, en bas. Haut,. 46 cent.; larg., 36 cent.’); LITERATURE: Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, 2006, p.574, no.243 (not illustrated). Previously unknown to scholars and only recently discovered in a French private collection, this large and powerful drawing of Saint Peter Healing the Paralytic of Lydda is a new and striking addition to Domenico Tiepolo’s ‘Large Biblical Series’. The subject is taken from the Acts of the Apostles, and depicts Saint Peter healing Aeneas, who had been paralyzed for eight years, in the town of Lydda (now known as Lod) in Palestine: ‘And it came to pass, as Peter passed throughout all quarters, he came down also to the saints which dwelt at Lydda. And there he found a certain man named Aeneas, which had kept his bed eight years, and was sick of the palsy. And Peter said unto him, Aeneas, Jesus Christ maketh thee whole: arise, and make thy bed. And he arose immediately. And all that dwelt at Lydda and Saron saw him, and turned to the Lord.’ (9: 32-35) Saint Peter plays a crucial role in many of the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’. Just over ten percent of the series - around thirty-five drawings, including the present sheet - are devoted to episodes from the life and ministry of Peter, the first vicar of the new church of Christianity. As Adelheid Gealt notes, ‘As founder of the Church, first Pope, and lead disciple, Peter has generally received special attention from artists. Domenico, however, went far beyond tradition with his interest in this saint, using his characteristics to offer new insights into the Gospel accounts. His development of Peter’s story is one of Domenico’s most original contributions to this epic...Peter’s own ministry is interpreted far beyond the scope of a single text or picture cycle. Selecting stories from various commentaries beyond those found in The Golden Legend, Domenico has presented a visual exegesis on Peter’s official role in the development of the early Church and as the first Pope.’1 While most of the three hundred and twenty extant drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’ are signed by the artist, they are not numbered and are untitled. A few drawings, however, have long inscriptions, notably those which depict the Acts of Saint Peter. These inscriptions are always in Italian, and it has been suggested that, throughout the development of the ‘Large Biblical Series’, Domenico referred to a recent translation of the New Testament into vernacular Italian, probably that published in Turin in 1769 by Antonio Martini.


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As he did with a handful of other Biblical stories that inspired him, Domenico created another version of the subject of the present sheet as part of the ‘Large Biblical Series’; a drawing (fig.1) today in a private collection in New York2. In both drawings Saint Peter stands, surrounded by astonished onlookers, before the paralytic Aeneas, in the centre of a room with brick walls. In the New York sheet, however, the saint stands at the right, gesturing to the cripple rising from his bed at the left. With visibly withered legs, the man struggles to stand upright, while a prominent sign on the wall in the centre of the composition describes the scene depicted in bold letters, noting that Aeneas had been bedridden for eight years: ‘NELLA CITTA DI / LIDA / RISANO S PIETRO UN / PARALTICO, CHE ERA OTTO / ANNI CHE NON SI ERA / LEVATO DI LETTO.’ The present sheet appears to depict a slightly later point in the story of the same miracle, with the cripple now kneeling before the saint in prayer. As Gealt has described the composition of this drawing, ‘In this version, which takes place in a similar room, Domenico has changed the vantage point. Peter stands at the left...The room is much taller and now features a chimney as well as an oval window, suggesting the door seen in [the New York drawing] is now behind us. Domenico still took care to inscribe the drawing with its subject (something he rarely did in his series) but the inscription is far less dramatic, and notes only that Peter met a paralytic in Lydda. This version which arguably makes up a sequel to [the New York drawing], places a different emphasis [on] the process of healing. Here Peter points heavenward, reminding us that Peter had invoked his cure in the name of Jesus Christ. Aeneas, the palsied man, has already left his bed which looks neatly made (as per Peter’s instructions), and, his legs fully restored, kneels before Peter in prayerful gratitude. The room is crowded with people suggesting that ‘all of Lydda and Saron’ who converted to Christianity as a result of this miracle, were present in the room to see it. Indeed, converts evident at the far right have adopted various attitudes of prayer. The presence of onlookers, including the man with the dark coat and hat seen from the back, places further emphasis on the phenomenon of witnessing.’3 The subject of Saint Peter healing Aeneas at Lydda is quite rare in Italian art, and it is characteristic of Domenico’s creativity as a draughtsman that he saw fit to treat it twice, and in very different and inventive ways. Indeed, the repetition of a particular episode, with differing compositions, occurs in several of the drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’, notably in scenes from the Passion of Christ or the Stations of the Cross. As George Knox has written of Domenico, ‘Above all things he was a religious artist, perhaps the most deeply religious painter of the eighteenth century, with a passionate concern...to create a new and vital contemporary religious idiom.’4

1.


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A SELECTION OF TIEPOLO DRAWINGS RECENTLY SOLD BY STEPHEN ONGPIN FINE ART


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23 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Reclining Satyr and Satyress Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. 182 x 266 mm. (7 1/ 8 x 10 1/ 2 in.) Acquired by a private collector, England.


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24 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid The Head of a Youth, Looking Up to the Left Red chalk, heightened with touches of white chalk, on blue paper. Inscribed G.B.T. f.l.c. m. and numbered No.2849 in brown ink on the verso. Numbered 1054 in pencil on the verso. 284 x 204 mm. (11 1/ 8 x 8 in.) Acquired by a private collector, Illinois.


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25 GIOVANNI BATTISTA TIEPOLO Venice 1696-1770 Madrid A Caricature of a Man seen from Behind, with a Sword, a Cape and a Tricorne Hat Pen and brown ink and brown wash. The corners of the sheet cut. 177 x 112 mm. (7 x 4 3/ 8 in.) Acquired by a private collector, New York.

actual size


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26 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727-1804 Venice God the Father in Glory Pen and brown ink and brown wash. Signed Domo. Tiepolo in brown ink at the lower right. Extensively inscribed in German Am 7.II.1931 bei Hollstein und Puppel, Berlin, (No. 690 ??? / auf Rat von Dr. Rosenberg vom Berliner Kupferstichkabinett / 8.11.31 / Dr.[?] in pencil on the verso. 287 x 200 mm. (11 3/ 8 x 7 7/ 8 in.) Acquired by a private collector, London.


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27 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727-1804 Venice A Blindfolded Cupid in a Landscape with Three Putti and a Dog Pen and brown ink and brown wash. Signed Dom. Tiepolo f in brown ink at the lower centre and indistinctly numbered 29 in brown ink at the upper left. 184 x 253 mm. (7 1/ 4 x 10 in.) Acquired by a private collector, Rome.


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28 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727-1804 Venice Hercules and Antaeus Pen and brown ink and brown and grey wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom. Tiepolo f in brown ink at the lower right and numbered 77 in brown ink at the upper left. 203 x 162 mm. (8 x 6 3/ 8 in.) Acquired by a private collector, Monaco.


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29 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1804 Venice A Centaur with Two Satyrs and a Woman Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower left and numbered 144 in brown ink at the upper left. 192 x 243 mm. (7 5/ 8 x 9 1/ 2 in.) Acquired by a private collector, Paris.


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30 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1804 Venice The Raising of the Cross Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with framing lines in brown ink, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower right. 465 x 362 mm. (18 1/ 4 x 14 1/4 in.) Acquired by a private collector, Paris.


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31 LORENZO BALDISSERA TIEPOLO Venice 1736-1776 Somosaguas (Madrid) The Head of a Bearded Man Wearing a Hat Red chalk, heightened with white chalk, on blue laid paper. Inscribed J. B. Tiepolo / Provient de la collection de / Mr. de St. Saphorin (de Mestral) / à Vuillerens / acheté au Vieux père Lalanne par / Mr. le Dr. Edouard de Cérenville / Lalanne l’avait acheté à / notre cousine Madame de Mestral / Née de Goumoëns in black ink on a label pasted onto the old backing board. 324 x 274 mm. (12 3/ 4 x 10 3/4 in.) Acquired by a private collector, Italy.


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NOTES TO THE CATALOGUE Introduction and Acknowledgements 1.

James Byam Shaw, ‘Introduction’, in Felice Stampfle and Cara D. Denison, Drawings from the Collection of Lore and Rudolf Heinemann, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1973, p.10.

The Drawings of Giambattista Tiepolo 1.

Andrew Robison, La Poesia della Luce: Disegni Veneziani dalla National Gallery of Art di Washington / The Poetry of Light: Venetian Drawings from the National Gallery of Art, Washington, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 2014-2015, p.180, under no.63.

2.

Adriano Mariuz, ‘The Drawings of Giambattista Tiepolo’, in Giandomenico Romanelli et al, Masterpieces of Eighteenth-Century Venetian Drawing, London and New York, 1983, p.22.

3.

Adriano Mariuz, ‘Giambattista Tiepolo’, in Jane Martineau and Andrew Robison, ed., The Glory of Venice: Art in the Eighteenth Century, exhibition catalogue, London and New York, 1994-1995, pp.180-182.

4.

James Byam Shaw, The Italian Drawings of the Frits Lugt Collection, Paris, 1983, Vol.I, p.283.

No.1 Giambattista Tiepolo Saint Anthony of Padua and the Miracle of the Miser’s Heart 1.

‘Egli è fecondissimo d’ingegno; perciò intagliatori e copiatori cercano d’intagliarne le opere, di averne le invenzioni e le bizzarrie di pensieri; e già i di lui disegni sono in tanta estimazione, che ne spedi de’ libri a’ più lontani paesi.’; Vincenzo da Canal, Vita di Gregorio Lazzarini, Venice, 1809; quoted in translation in Aikema, op.cit., 1996-1997, p.13.

2.

Aikema, op.cit., 1996-1997, p.38, under no.7.

3.

Aikema, op.cit., 2004, p.365.

4.

Inv. Riva 10.268.540; Adriano Mariuz and Giuseppe Pavanello, ‘Per la giovinezza di Giambattista Tiepolo: un affresco e un disegno’, Arte Veneta, 1995, p.58, fig.9; Ericani and Millozzi, ed., op.cit., pp.212-214, no.70; Pavanello and Gransinigh, op.cit., pp.126-128, no.7; Bergamini, Craievich and Pedrocco, ed., op.cit., pp.254-255, no.54, illustrated in colour p.155; Giorgio Marini, Massimo Favilla and Ruggero Rugolo, Tiepolo: I colori del disegno, exhibition catalogue, Rome, 2014-2015, p.73, no.6. This very large sheet measures 600 x 382 mm.

5.

Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 6 July 1992, lot 164 (sold for £37,400); Julien Stock, Guardi, Tiepolo and Canaletto, from The Royal Museum, Canterbury and elsewhere, exhibition catalogue, Canterbury, 1985, p.19, no.16, illustrated p.71 (where dated 1715-1716); Mariuz and Pavanello, ibid., p.60, fig.11. The drawing measures 430 x 297 mm.

6.

Aikema, op.cit., 1996-1997, p.19, fig.12.

7.

Inv. III, 247; J. Pierpont Morgan Collection of Drawings by the Old Masters formed by C. Fairfax Murray, London, 1912, Vol.III, unpaginated, pl.247; Aikema, op.cit., 1996-1997, pp.258-259, no.93 (as Mattia Bortoloni). The drawing measures 410 x 371 mm.

8.

Alessandro Bettagno, Le dessin vénitien au XVIIIe siècle, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 1971-1972, p.57, no.97, pl.97 (as The Emancipation of a Slave, and dated 1725-1730); George Knox, A Panorama of Tiepolo Drawing, Belgium, 2008, pp.34-35, no.11 (where dated c.1730), as location unknown. The drawing, which appeared at auction in Italy in 1999 (Anonymous sale, Milan, Finarte, 22 March 1999, lot 46), measures 515 x 375 mm.

9.

Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 12 January 1995, lot 54 (sold for $27,600); Aikema, op.cit., 1996-1997, pp.260-261, no.94 (as Mattia Bortoloni). The drawing measures 484 x 350 mm.

10. Aikema, op.cit., 2004, pp.362-363, figs.1-2. The dimensions of this double-sided sheet, at 392 x 258 mm., are slightly smaller than the other early drawings by Tiepolo here noted. The verso of the drawing contains various figures studies, including what appears to be a depiction of a miracle performed by Saint Anthony of Padua. 11. Inv. 1932.343; Agnes Mongan and Paul J. Sachs, Drawings in the Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, 1946, Vol.I, p.178, no.360 (as Imitator of G. B. Tiepolo), not illustrated; George Knox, Tiepolo: A Bicentenary Exhibition 1770-1970, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), 1970, unpaginated, no.1 (where dated c.1718-1720); Aldo Rizzi, Mostra del Tiepolo: disegni e acqueforti, exhibition catalogue, Udine, 1971, p.13, no.1; Aikema, op.cit., 1996-1997, pp.38-39, no.7 (where dated c.1722). 12. Inv. 1989.7.1; Andrew Robison, La Poesia della Luce: Disegni Veneziani dalla National Gallery of Art di Washington / The Poetry of Light: Venetian Drawings from the National Gallery of Art, Washington, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 2014-2015, pp.184-186, no.64 (where dated 1724-1729). 13. Michael Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo: His Life and Art, New Haven and London, 1986, p.14.


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No.2 Giambattista Tiepolo Sheet of Studies of Three Heads of Satyrs and the Head of Bacchus 1.

Michael Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo: His Life and Art, New Haven and London, 1986, p.6.

2.

For example, the Scherzi etching of A Woman Kneeling in Front of Magicians and Other Figures (Preparations for a Sacrifice); Aldo Rizzi, The Etchings of the Tiepolos, London, 1971, pp.48-49, no.11.

3.

Inv. MA 169 and 170; Paris, Musée du Petit Palais, Giambattista Tiepolo 1696-1770, exhibition catalogue, 1998-1999, p.266, nos.105 and 106; Adriano Mariuz and Giuseppe Pavanello, ed., Tiepolo: Ironia e comico, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 2004, pp.123-125, nos.37-38. One of these is also illustrated in Keith Christiansen, ‘Paris: Giambattista Tiepolo’ [exhibition review], The Burlington Magazine, April 1999, p.245, fig.60, and in Massimo Favilla et al, Le dessin en Italie dans les collections publiques françaises. Venise – l’art de la Serenissima: Dessins des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, exhibition catalogue, Montpellier, Musée Fabre, 2006-2007, p.156, under no.68 (entry by Rachel George).

4.

Christiansen, ibid., p.245.

5.

A photograph of this drawing is in the Witt Library at the Courtauld Institute of Art in London. The dimensions of the sheet are given variously as 216 x 178 mm. or 250 x 210 mm.

6.

Inv. 1939.87; Agnes Mongan and Paul J. Sachs, Drawings in the Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, 1946, Vol.I, pp.174-175, no.352, Vol.II, fig.176.

7.

Inv. 1916; Giorgio Vigni, Disegni del Tiepolo, Padua, 1942, p.40, no.54, fig.54; Giuseppe Bergamini, Alberto Craievich and Filippo Pedrocco, Giambattista Tiepolo “il miglior pittore di Venezia”, exhibition catalogue, Passariano, 2012, p.277, no.102, illustrated in colour p.194.

8.

Inv. 1997.45; Felice Stampfle and Cara D. Denison, Drawings from the Collection of Lore and Rudolf Heinemann, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1973, p.41, no.54; Massimo Favilla and Ruggero Rugolo, ‘Il colore è luce’, in Giorgio Marini, Massimo Favilla and Ruggero Rugolo, Tiepolo: I colori del disegno, exhibition catalogue, Rome, 2014-2015, p.59, fig.27.

9.

Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 2 July 1996, lot 165 (bt. Kate de Rothschild).

10. New York and London, Jean-Luc Baroni Ltd., Master Drawings and Oil Sketches, 2005, no.25. 11. Inv. 1998; Vigni, op.cit., p.54, no.139, fig.139; Aldo Rizzi, Giambattista Tiepolo: Disegni dai Civici Musei di Storia e Arte di Trieste, exhibition catalogue, Trieste and elsewhere, 1989-1990, pp.180-181, no.71. 12. Inv. MB 1929/T1; Bernard Aikema and Marguerite Tuijn, Tiepolo in Holland: Works by Giambattista Tiepolo and His Circle in Dutch Collections, exhibition catalogue, Rotterdam, 1996, pp.76-77, no.30. 13. Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 25-26 March 1963, lot 329, illustrated pl.XXV. 14. Rizzi, op.cit., 1971, pp.338-339, no.156; Mariuz and Pavanello, op.cit., pp.123-124, no.39. 15. See, for example, Rizzi, op.cit., 1971, pp.444-445, no.252, and Mariuz and Pavanello, op.cit., pp.101-103, nos.14 and 15.

No.3 Giambattista Tiepolo The Head of a Bearded Man, Looking Down 1.

Bernard Aikema, Tiepolo and His Circle: Drawings in American Collections, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge and New York, 1996-1997, p.270, under no.98.

2.

Catherine Whistler, Drawing in Venice: Titian to Canaletto, exhibition catalogue, Oxford, 2015, p.187, under no.97.

3.

Inv. 1961.38; George Knox, Tiepolo: A Bicentenary Exhibition 1770-1970, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), 1970, unpaginated, no.92 (as Giambattista Tiepolo); Aldo Rizzi, The Etchings of the Tiepolos, London, 1971, p.366, fig.LIII (as Giambattista Tiepolo); George Knox, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: A Study and Catalogue Raisonné of the Chalk Drawings, Oxford, 1980, Vol.I, p.193, no.K.4 (as Giambattista Tiepolo); Robert Flynn Johnson and Joseph R. Goldyne, Master Drawings from the Achenbach Foundation for Graphic Arts, The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, exhibition catalogue, San Francisco, n.d. (1985?), pp.52-53, no.19 (as Domenico Tiepolo).

4.

Inv. WA1934.267; K. T. Parker, Catalogue of the Collection of Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum; Volume II: Italian Schools, Oxford, 1956 [1972 ed.], Vol.I, pp.536-537, no.1081, Vol.II, pl.CCXXX; Knox, ibid., 1980, Vol.I, p.281, no.M.608 (illustrated in colour on the cover), Vol.II, pl.204. The drawing is a study for an onlooker in Giambattista’s large altarpiece of The Miracle of Saint Anthony of Padua of c.1760 in the parish church at Mirano.

5.

Inv. 8339: Knox, op.cit., 1980, Vol.I, p.231, no.M.171 (not illustrated); Manuela B. Mena Marqués, Dibujos Italianos de los siglos XVII y XVIII en la Biblioteca Nacional, exhibition catalogue, Madrid, 1984, p.206, no.109.

6.

Sale (‘The Property of Lady Berlin’), London, Sotheby’s, 21 May 1963, lot 132 (bt. Eisemann for £1,452); Knox, op.cit., 1980, Vol.I, p.214, no.M.43 (not illustrated).

7.

Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 23 January 2002, lot 47 (sold for $37,600); Antonio Morassi, Dessins Vénitiens du Dix-huitième Siècle de la Collection du Duc de Talleyrand, Milan, 1958, p.18, no.27, pl.27; Knox, op.cit., 1980, Vol.I, p.267, no.M.448 (not illustrated).


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8.

Sale (‘Collection Rouit-Berger’), Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Baudoin], 28 November 1934, lot 138, illustrated pl.1; Knox, op.cit., 1980, Vol.I, p.193, no.K.5 (not illustrated).

9.

Sale (‘Property from the Estate of Andrew Gordon’), New York, Sotheby’s, 22 October 2014, lot 141; Knox, op.cit., 1980, Vol.I, p.285, no.M.637, Vol.II, pl.201.

10. Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 11 December 1974, lot 19 (sold for £2,200); Knox, op.cit., 1980, Vol.I, p.214, p.289, no.M.684 (not illustrated).

No.4 Giambattista Tiepolo Allegorical Figures of Valour and Fame: The Apotheosis of a Warrior 1.

Adriano Mariuz, ‘The Drawings of Giambattista Tiepolo’, in Giandomenico Romanelli et al, Masterpieces of Eighteenth-Century Venetian Drawing, London and New York, 1983, p.21.

2.

Inv. IV, 104 and IV, 105 (The Apotheosis of an Aged Warrior or The Apotheosis of Merit); J. Pierpont Morgan Collection of Drawings by the Old Masters formed by C. Fairfax Murray, London, 1912, Vol.IV, unpaginated, pls.104-105; Jacob Bean and Felice Stampfle, Drawings from New York Collections III: The Eighteenth Century in Italy, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1971, p.62, nos.140-141, pls.140-141; Bernard Aikema, Tiepolo and His Circle: Drawings in American Collections, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge and New York, 1996-1997, pp.172-173, no.64.

3.

Inv. 37.165.26 (The Apotheosis of a Warrior); Bean and Stampfle, ibid., p.62, no.139, pl.139; Jacob Bean and William Griswold, 18th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, p.235, no.228.

4.

Inv. 1941.295 (The Apotheosis of Merit); Egbert Haverkamp-Begemann and Anne-Marie S. Logan, European Drawings and Watercolors in the Yale University Art Gallery 1500-1900, New Haven and London, 1970, Vol.I, p.173, no.321, Vol.II, pl.173; George Knox, Tiepolo: A Bicentenary Exhibition 1770-1970, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), 1970, unpaginated, no.77 (where dated c.1758); Aikema, op.cit., pp.174-175, no.65.

5.

Inv. 181-1928; Hein-Th. Schulze Altcappenberg, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) und sein Atelier: Zeichnungen & Radierungen im Berliner Kupferstichkabinett, exhibition catalogue, Berlin, 1996-1997, pp.30-31, no.7, illustrated p.17, pl.III (where dated 1748-1750).

6.

Inv. D.1978.PG.157; Count Antoine Seilern, Italian Paintings and Drawings at 56 Princes Gate London SW7, London, 1959, Vol.I, pp.131-132, no.157, Vol.II, pl.CXVII.

7.

Inv. NM 24/1914; Per Bjurström, Drawings in Swedish Public Collections 3. Italian Drawings: Venice, Brescia, Parma, Milan, Genoa, Stockholm, 1979, unpaginated, no.224, illustrated in colour p.xv.

8.

Keith Christiansen, ed., Giambattista Tiepolo 1696-1996, exhibition catalogue, Venice and New York, 1996-1997, pp.181-185, no.25b.

9.

James Byam Shaw, ‘Introduction’, London, Arts Council, Drawings and Etching by Giovanni Battista and Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, exhibition catalogue, 1955, p.6.

10. Knox, op.cit., unpaginated, under no.77. 11. Beverly Louise Brown, Giambattista Tiepolo: Master of the Oil Sketch, exhibition catalogue, Fort Worth, 1993, p.244, under no.33. 12. Christiansen, ed., ibid., pp.157-168, no.21a. 13. Guido Piovene and Anna Pallucchini, L’opera completa di Giambattista Tiepolo, Milan, 1968, pp.128-129, no.270, fig.270. A line reproduction of this painting is illustrated in Seilern, op.cit., Vol.I, unpaginated, fig.53. 14. Antonio Morassi, A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings of G. B. Tiepolo, London, 1962, no.48, fig.331. 15. Byam Shaw, op.cit., pp.6-7.

No.5 Giambattista Tiepolo A Caricature of a Man seen from Behind, with a Cane and Holding a Tricorne Hat 1.

Michael Levey, ‘Two Footnotes to any Tiepolo Monograph’, The Burlington Magazine, March 1962, p.119. This description, however, could also apply to Punchinello drawings as well as caricatures. The 1854 catalogue of the Corniani collection also notes that some of these caricature drawings by Tiepolo were kept loosely in folios (‘in cartelle’) and not in the two albums.

2.

Writing in 1960, the scholar and collector Janos Scholz recalled seeing ‘almost the entire set of drawings’ of the Valmarana group several years previously, and further noted that these numbered ‘about 140 sheets, which – the saying goes – once belonged to the Valmarana family. The variety of material was quite astounding...’; Janos Scholz, ‘Notes on Old and Modern Drawings. Sei- and Settecento Drawings in Venice: Notes on Two Exhibitions and a Publication’, The Art Quarterly, Spring 1960, p.64. Although Scholz did not identify the owner or location of this collection of Tiepolo caricatures, George Knox has suggested that it may have been the collection of the Conte Sacchetto (or Sacchetti) in Padua.

3.

Twelve of these caricatures (not including the present sheet) were exhibited at the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice in 1959 (Antonio Morassi, Disegni Veneti del Settecento nella collezione Paul Wallraf, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 1959, pp.56-59, nos.76-87, figs.76-87). Fifteen caricature drawings from the Wallraf collection are today in the Robert Lehman Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, pp.126-134, nos.97-111).


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4.

Osbert Lancaster in London, Arcade Gallery, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Twenty-Five Caricatures, exhibition catalogue, 1943, pp.10-11.

5.

Max Kozloff, ‘The Caricatures of Giambattista Tiepolo’, Marysas, Vol.X, 1961, p.33.

No.6 Giambattista Tiepolo A Caricature of a Short Man seen from Behind, Wearing a Large Hat 1.

Adelheid M. Gealt, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: Master Drawings from the Anthony J. Moravec Collection, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington, Indiana, 2016-2017, p.23.

2.

Constance C. McPhee and Nadine M. Orenstein, Infinite Jest: Caricature and Satire from Leonardo to Levine, exhibition catalogue, New York, 20112012, p.43, under nos.20-23 (entry by Nadine Orenstein).

3.

Inv. MNS/Rys.589; Adriano Mariuz, Giandomenico Tiepolo, Venice, 1971, p.101, fig.22; Adriano Mariuz, ‘Giandomenico Tiepolo e la civiltà veneta di villa’, in Elettra Quargnal, ed., Atti del Congresso internazionale di studi sul Tiepolo, Milan, 1972; reprinted in Adriano Mariuz (ed. Giuseppe Pavanello), Tiepolo, Verona, 2008, illustrated p.119, fig.113; Justyna Guze, Tiepolo i tiepoleschi w zbiorach polskich, exhibition catalogue, Warsaw, 1997, pp.118-119, no.58; Adriano Mariuz and Giuseppe Pavanello, ed., Tiepolo: Ironia e comico, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 2004, p.164, no.107, illustrated p.166 and pp.150-151; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, ed., Giandomenico Tiepolo: Scene di vita quotidiana a Venezia e nella terraferma, Venice, 2005, p.90, no.5, illustrated pp.82-83 and p.88.

No.7 Giambattista Tiepolo Study of a Draped Figure 1.

Michael Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo: His Life and Art, New Haven and London, 1986, p.99.

2.

Inv. 341; Keith Christiansen, ed., Giambattista Tiepolo 1696-1996, exhibition catalogue, Venice and New York, 1996-1997, pp.205-208, no.30b; Jon L. Seydl, Giambattista Tiepolo: Fifteen Oil Sketches, exhibition catalogue, Los Angeles, 2005, pp.27-29, no.2.

3.

Guido Piovene and Anna Pallucchini, L’opera completa di Giambattista Tiepolo, Milan, 1968, pp.134-135, no.299, figs.299B and 299b, illustrated in colour pl.LXIV; Christiansen, ed., ibid., pp.242-247, nos.42a and 42b.

4.

Inv. 35187; George Knox, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: A Study and Catalogue Raisonné of the Chalk Drawings, Oxford, 1980, Vol.I, p.100, no.A.83 verso, Vol.II, pl.157.

5.

Inv. 1489; George Knox and Christel Thiem, Tiepolo: Drawings by Giambattista, Domenico and Lorenzo Tiepolo from the Graphische Sammlung Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, from Private Collections in Wuerttemberg and from the Martin von Wagner Museum of the University of Wuerzburg, exhibition catalogue, Stuttgart and elsewhere, 1970-1971, pp.80-81, no.79 (where dated c.1751-1753); Knox, ibid., 1980, Vol.I, p.100, no.M.352 verso (not illustrated).

6.

The sketchbook is published in facsimile in Giulio Lorenzetti, Il Quaderno Gatteri dei Tiepolo al Museo Correr di Venezia, Venice, 1946. The present sheet finds stylistic comparisons with studies on pp.12v, 14v, 32, 35 and 54 of the sketchbook.

No.8 Giambattista Tiepolo A Study for a Ceiling: A Standing Draped Figure, Looking Up 1.

Marcho Boschini and Anton Maria Zanetti, Descrizione di tutte le pubbliche pitture della città di Venezia e isole circonvicine, Venice, 1733; quoted in translation in Adriano Mariuz, ‘The Drawings of Giambattista Tiepolo’, in Giandomenico Romanelli et al, Masterpieces of Eighteenth-Century Venetian Drawing, London and New York, 1983, p.23.

2.

Catherine Whistler, in Laura Giles, Lia Markey and Claire van Cleave, Italian Master Drawings from the Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, 2014, p.189, under nos.79-80.

3.

Jacob Bean, Italian Drawings in the Art Museum, Princeton University: 106 Selected Examples, exhibition catalogue, n.d. [1966-1968], p.54, under no.89.

4.

Marjorie B. Cohn, ‘A Note on Media and Methods’, in George Knox, Tiepolo: A Bicentenary Exhibition 1770-1970, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), 1970, pp.212 and p.216.

5.

Giorgio Vigni, Disegni del Tiepolo, Padua, 1942, p.48, no.100, fig.100.

6.

Inv. 48-839; Felton Gibbons, Catalogue of Italian Drawings in the Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, 1977, Vol.I, p.191, no.601, Vol.II, fig.601.

7.

Inv. D.1978.PG.152; Count Antoine Seilern, Italian Paintings and Drawings at 56 Princes Gate London SW7, London, 1959, Vol.I, p.126, no.152, Vol.II, pl.CXII.

8.

Antonio Morassi, A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings of G. B. Tiepolo, London, 1962, fig.93.

9.

Adriano Mariuz, ‘Gli affreschi di Giambattista e Giandomenico Tiepolo nelle ville venete’, in Francesca d’Arcais et al, Gli affreschi nelle ville venete dal Seicento all’Ottocento, Venice, 1978; reprinted in Adriano Mariuz (ed. Giuseppe Pavanello), Tiepolo, Verona, 2008, p.157, fig.171, pp.162163, figs.180-181.


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10. Catherine Whistler, Venice & Drawing 1500-1800: Theory, Practice and Collecting, New Haven and London, 2016, p.132. 11. Bernard Aikema, Tiepolo and His Circle: Drawings in American Collections, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge and New York, 1996-1997, p.103.

No.9 Giambattista Tiepolo A Study for a Ceiling: A Seated Figure on a Cloud 1.

‘Die Untensicht vielleicht am weitesten treibt, so dass Fusssholen und Nasenlöcher die charakeristischen Teile seiner Gestalten sind.’; Jacob Burckhardt, Der Cicerone: Eine Anleitung zum Genuss der Kunstwerke Italiens, Basel, 1855; trans. Blanche Smith Clough, The Cicerone. An Art Guide to Painting in Italy, London, 1908, p.249.

2.

Bernard Aikema, Tiepolo and His Circle: Drawings in American Collections, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge and New York, 1996-1997, p.199.

3.

Marjorie B. Cohn, ‘A Note on Media and Methods’, in George Knox, Tiepolo: A Bicentenary Exhibition 1770-1970, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge (MA), 1970, p.211.

4.

David Scrase, Italian Drawings at The Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, Cambridge, 2011, p.614, under no.652.

5.

Inv. 24525; Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die Italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina: Generalverzeichnis, Vol.IV, Vienna, 1997, p.2397, Inv.24535.

6.

Giorgio Vigni, Disegni del Tiepolo, Padua, 1942, p.47, no.93, fig.93.

7.

Inv. 2238 and 2243; David Scrase, Da Pisanello a Tiepolo: Disegni veneti dal Fitzwilliam Museum di Cambridge, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 1992, pp.180-181, no.81 and pp.184-185, no.83, respectively; Scrase, op.cit., 2011, p.611, no.648 and pp.613-614, no.652, respectively.

8.

Inv. 975.4.1885; Paris, Musée du Petit Palais, Giambattista Tiepolo 1696-1770, exhibition catalogue, 1998-1999, p.267, no.107.

9.

Inv. KdZ 12120; Hein-Th. Schulze Altcappenberg, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) und sein Atelier: Zeichnungen & Radierungen im Berliner Kupferstichkabinett, exhibition catalogue, Berlin, 1996-1997, pp.40-41, no.19.

10. Inv. I 450; Bernard Aikema and Marguerite Tuijn, Tiepolo in Holland: Works by Giambattista Tiepolo and His Circle in Dutch Collections, exhibition catalogue, Rotterdam, 1996, pp.78-79, no.31. 11. Inv. 1433; George Knox and Christel Thiem, Tiepolo: Drawings by Giambattista, Domenico and Lorenzo Tiepolo from the Graphische Sammlung Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, from Private Collections in Wuerttemberg and from the Martin von Wagner Museum of the University of Wuerzburg, exhibition catalogue, Stuttgart and elsewhere, 1970-1971, p.26, no.13, illustrated p.30. 12. Inv. 48-833, 48-838, 48-845, 48-847, 48-848, 48-849 and 48-850; Felton Gibbons, Catalogue of Italian Drawings in the Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, 1977, Vol.I, pp.189-192, nos.595, 600, 605 and 607-610, Vol.II, figs.595, 600, 605 and 607-610, respectively. 13. Catherine Whistler, Venice & Drawing 1500-1800: Theory, Practice and Collecting, New Haven and London, 2016, p.xxiii.

No.10 Giambattista Tiepolo Landscape with a View over Rooftops 1.

A group of eleven studies of trees and wooded landscapes in pen and wash by Giambattista Tiepolo, generally dated to the late 1730s, is in the collection of the Museo Civico Sartorio in Trieste (Giorgio Vigni, Disegni del Tiepolo, Padua, 1942, pp.61-63, nos.175-185, figs.175-185; Aldo Rizzi, Giambattista Tiepolo: Disegni dai Civici Musei di Storia e Arte di Trieste, exhibition catalogue, Trieste and elsewhere, 1989-1990, pp.70-81, nos.16-20).

2.

W[illiam]. B[ateson]., The Vasari Society for the Reproduction of Drawings by Old Masters: The Oppenheimer Collection, Oxford, 1921, p.19, no.10.

3.

Michael Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo: His Life and Art, New Haven and London, 1986, p.245.

4.

Koenigs Inv. I.160; Moscow, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, Five Centuries of European Drawings: The Former Collection of Franz Koenigs, exhibition catalogue, 1995-1996, p.212, no.175, illustrated in colour p.64.

5.

Inv. I 217; Knox, op.cit., pp.54-55, no.43; Giandomenico Romanelli et al, Masterpieces of Eighteenth-Century Venetian Drawing, London and New York, 1983, p.57, no.30; Ger Luijten and A. W. F. M. Meij, From Pisanello to Cezanne: Master Drawings from the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, exhibition catalogue, New York and elsewhere, 1990-1991, pp.201-203, no.73; Bernard Aikema and Marguerite Tuijn, Tiepolo in Holland: Works by Giambattista Tiepolo and His Circle in Dutch Collections, exhibition catalogue, Rotterdam, 1996, pp.104-107, no.46.

6.

Inv. 24077; Knox, op.cit., pp.44-45, no.38; Veronika Birke and Janine Kertész, Die Italienischen Zeichnungen der Albertina: Generalverzeichnis, Vol.IV, Vienna, 1997, p.2341, Inv.24077.

7.

Inv. JK 3908; Philip Rylands, ed., The Timeless Eye: Master Drawings from the Jan and Marie-Anne Krugier-Poniatowski Collection, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 1999, pp.142-143, no.64.


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8.

Inv. 37.165.67; Jacob Bean and Felice Stampfle, Drawings from New York Collections III: The Eighteenth Century in Italy, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1971, p.100, no.244, pl.244; Jacob Bean and William Griswold, 18th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, pp.262-263, no.261; Linda Wolk-Simon, Domenico Tiepolo: Drawings, Prints, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1997, p.53, fig.80; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, ed., Giandomenico Tiepolo: Scene di vita quotidiana a Venezia e nella terraferma, Venice, 2005, pp.110-111, no.20; Stefano Carboni, ed., Venice and the Islamic World 828-1797, exhibition catalogue, Paris and New York, 2006-2007, p.315, no.55, illustrated p.137 (entry by Carmen Bambach).

9.

George Knox, ‘The Private Art of the Tiepolos’, in James Christen Steward, ed., The Mask of Venice: Masking, Theater, & Identity in the Art of Tiepolo & His Time, exhibition catalogue, Berkeley, 1996-1997, p.40.

The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo 1.

Michael Levey, ‘Domenico Tiepolo: his Earliest Activity and a Monograph’, The Burlington Magazine, March 1963, pp.128-129.

2.

George Knox, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: A Study and Catalogue Raisonné of the Chalk Drawings, Oxford, 1980, Vol.I, p.82.

3.

In a letter written to the sculptor Antonio Canova in the mid-1790s, the artist Ferdinando Toniolo described Domenico Tiepolo as very private and solitary, while records of the Accademia Veneziana note that Domenico was often absent from meetings, since he was at his villa in the countryside.

4.

‘Domenico peut...passer pour un bavard de dessin, le plus séduisant et le plus intarissable des bavards, si l’on peut dire.’; Henry de Chennevières, Les Tiepolo, Paris, 1898, p.149.

5.

It may be noted, however, that Domenico often added elements of genre to his religious subjects; this is especially true of the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’. As Linda Wolk-Simon has pointed out, in much of Domenico’s oeuvre as a draughtsman and painter, ‘the artist’s fascination with the quotidian and anecdotal and his affinity for the poignant and touching aspects of the human condition were never entirely absent.’ (Linda WolkSimon, Domenico Tiepolo: Drawings, Prints, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1997, p.5).

6.

James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.61.

7.

Catherine Whistler, ‘Giandomenico Tiepolo. Maestria e Gioco. Disegni dal mondo’ [book review], Master Drawings, Autumn 1998, p.310.

8.

Michael Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo: His Life and Art, New Haven and London, 1986, p134.

9.

Byam Shaw, op.cit., p.17.

No.11 Domenico Tiepolo A Group of Winged Cherubs Among Clouds 1.

James Byam Shaw, ‘Some Unpublished Drawings by Domenico Tiepolo’, Master Drawings, Autumn 1979, p.240, under no.5.

2.

George Knox, ‘A Footnote to the Exhibition of Tiepolo Drawings from the Heinemann Collection’, Master Drawings, Winter 1973, p.387, fig.1; Byam Shaw, op.cit., 1979, p.241, fig.1; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, ed., Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 1996-1997, p.137, under no.50.

3.

James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, p.152, under no.125.

4.

Felton Gibbons, Catalogue of Italian Drawings in the Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, 1977, Vol.I, p.208, under no.682.

No.12 Domenico Tiepolo A Servant Before a Group of Orientals 1.

James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, p.194, under no.159.

2.

Other examples of this group of ‘Oriental’ crowd scenes by Domenico Tiepolo are in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, the Kupferstichkabinett in Berlin, the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and the Museo Civico in Trieste.

3.

Julien Stock, Guardi, Tiepolo and Canaletto, from The Royal Museum, Canterbury and elsewhere, exhibition catalogue, Canterbury, 1985, p.26, nos.32-33, illustrated p.60 (where dated before 1762).

4.

Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 23 January 2002, lot 657 (sold for $37,600); Antonio Morassi, Dessins Vénitiens du Dix-huitième Siècle de la Collection du Duc de Talleyrand, Milan, 1958, p.20, no.38, pl.38.

5.

George Knox and Christel Thiem, Tiepolo: Drawings by Giambattista, Domenico and Lorenzo Tiepolo from the Graphische Sammlung Staatsgalerie Stuttgart, from Private Collections in Wuerttemberg and from the Martin von Wagner Museum of the University of Wuerzburg, exhibition catalogue, Stuttgart and elsewhere, 1970-1971, p.53, no.39, illustrated p.55 (where dated c.1760).

6.

Inv. 1864 a-b; Giorgio Vigni, Disegni del Tiepolo, Padua, 1942, pp.49-50, no.110, fig.110; Aldo Rizzi, Giambattista Tiepolo: Disegni dai Civici Musei di Storia e Arte di Trieste, exhibition catalogue, Trieste and elsewhere, 1989-1990, pp.112-113, no.37.


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No.13 Domenico Tiepolo Saint Anthony of Padua with the Christ Child in Glory with Angels 1.

James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, pp.31-32.

2.

Ibid., p.34. Since Byam Shaw’s book was published, further drawings from this group, bearing numbers up to 125, have been identified.

3.

Adelheid Gealt, ‘The Telling Line: Domenico Tiepolo as a Draftsman/Narrator’, in Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 1996-1997, p.76.

4.

Inv. P03007; Michael Levey, Giambattista Tiepolo: His Life and Art, New Haven and London, 1986, p.281, pl.236.

5.

Bernard Aikema and Marguerite Tuijn, Tiepolo in Holland: Works by Giambattista Tiepolo and His Circle in Dutch Collections, exhibition catalogue, Rotterdam, 1996, pp.130-132, under no.56 (entry by Wim Kranendonk).

6.

Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, 2006, pp.700-701, no.305 (location unknown).

7.

Given the French inscription on the title page of the album, it has been tentatively suggested by James Byam Shaw that the album may have been given to Horace Walpole, not long before his death, by his close friend, Marie Anne de Vichy-Chamrond, Marquise du Deffand (1697-1780).

No.14 Domenico Tiepolo Hercules and Antaeus, with the Hydra Below 1.

For illustrations of ten drawings from the Bordes album now in the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice, see Alessandro Bettagno, Le dessin vénitien au XVIIIe siècle, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Galerie Heim, 1971-1972, pp.66-67, nos.124-333, pls.124-133.

2.

Eduard Sack, Giambattista und Domenico Tiepolo: Ihr Leben und ihre Werk, Hamburg, 1910, p.319, no.24 (not illustrated); Hein-Th. SchulzeAltcappenberg, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) und sein Atelier. Zeichnungen und Radierungen im Berliner Kupferstichkabinett, Berlin, 1996, pp.74-76, no.55.

3.

Vente H. Michel-Lévy, Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, 12-13 May 1919, lot 115.

4.

Amsterdam, R. W. P. de Vries, Dessins de maîtres anciens et modernes, 1929, no.272 (priced at 300 florins).

5.

Beauchamp sale (‘Drawings by Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, The Property of the Rt. Hon. The Earl Beauchamp, D.L., J.P.’), London, Christie’s, 15 June 1965, lots 149-152. The first of these is numbered 36 at the upper left.

6.

Adriano Mariuz, ‘Tiepolo a Vicenza’, in Fernando Rigon et al, I Tiepolo e il Settecento vicentino, Milan, 1990; reprinted in Adriano Mariuz (ed. Giuseppe Pavanello), Tiepolo, Verona, 2008, illustrated p.247, fig.310; Keith Christiansen, ed., Giambattista Tiepolo 1696-1996, exhibition catalogue, Venice and New York, 1996-1997, pp.76-81, no.9a; Giuseppe Maria Pilo, La giovinezza di Giovan Battista Tiepolo e gli sviluppi della sua prima maturità, Gorizia, 1997, p.103, fig.113. The vertical painting, which measures 270 x 125 cm., is today in the Terruzzi collection.

7.

Byam Shaw, op.cit., p.38.

8.

Linda Wolk-Simon, Domenico Tiepolo: Drawings, Prints, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1997, p.49.

No.15 Domenico Tiepolo A Centaur Carrying off a Female Faun 1.

George Knox, ‘Domenico Tiepolo: The Drawings’, in Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 1996-1997, p.58.

2.

Adriano Mariuz, ‘The Drawings of Giandomenico Tiepolo’, in Giandomenico Romanelli et al, Masterpieces of Eighteenth-Century Venetian Drawing, London and New York, 1983, p.72.

3.

In 1974, Jean Cailleux (op.cit.) listed one hundred drawings of centaurs and satyrs by Domenico Tiepolo, and a further forty or so have been identified since then. One of the drawings is numbered 144, which is among of the highest numbers of this particular group that is known, and it is therefore plausible that this series of centaur and satyr drawings by Domenico numbered at least 144 examples. In a recent publication, the Tiepolo scholar Adelheid Gealt notes a total of 141 drawings from this series (Adelheid M. Gealt, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: Master Drawings from the Anthony J. Moravec Collection, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington, 2016-2017, p.36 and p.106, note 23).

4.

James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.41.

5.

Ibid., p.41.

6.

James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, p.171, under no.140.

7.

Gealt, op.cit., p.37.


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8.

Filippo Pedrocco, Satiri, centauri e pulcinelli: Gli affreschi restaurati di Giandomenico Tiepolo conservati a Ca’ Rezzonico, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 2000-2001, pp.79-83, figs.15 and 18-24, p.89, fig.31.

9.

Inv. 37.165.62; Cailleux, op.cit., pp.xviii-xix, no.51 C&F c3, fig.44; Jacob Bean and William Griswold, 18th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, p.255, no.250.

10. Inv. 672-5; Cailleux, op.cit., p.xix, no.52 C&F c4, fig.47. 11. Inv. 395; Cailleux, op.cit., p.xxi, no.65 C&F c17, fig.56; Emmanuelle Brugerolles, ed., Les dessins vénitiens des collections de l’École des BeauxArts, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 1990, pp.122-123, no.63. 12. Inv. 37.165.57; Cailleux, op.cit., pp.xi-xii, no.13 N&D a3, fig.16; Bean and Griswold, op.cit., p.254, no.249; Linda Wolk-Simon, Domenico Tiepolo: Drawings, Prints, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1997, p.51, fig.77. 13. Adelheid Gealt, Domenico Tiepolo: The Punchinello Drawings, London, 1986, p.186, no.90 (as location unknown).

No.16 Domenico Tiepolo A Reclining Centaur and a Satyress in a Landscape 1.

Adelheid M. Gealt, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: Master Drawings from the Anthony J. Moravec Collection, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington, 2016-2017, p.38.

2.

Inv. 1885,0509.8 and 1885,0509.01; Cailleux, op.cit., p.xvii, no.40 C&F b1, fig.37, and no.46 C&F b7, fig.46.

3.

Inv. 1975.1.498 (Robert Lehman Collection); Cailleux, op.cit., p.xi, no.11 N&D a1, fig.15; James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, p.173, no.142, and Inv. 37.165.38; Cailleux, op.cit., pp.xvi-xvii, no.41 C&F b2, fig.36; Jacob Bean and William Griswold, 18th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, p.257, no.253.

4.

For example, a drawing formerly with Kate Ganz and sold at auction in 2013; Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 31 January 2013, lot 78 (sold for $68,500).

5.

Inv. 47.12; Adelheid Gealt, Domenico Tiepolo: The Punchinello Drawings, London, 1986, pp.136-137, no.56.

6.

Adriano Mariuz, Giandomenico Tiepolo, Venice, 1971, pl.355.

7.

Cailleux, op.cit., p.v.

8.

Byam Shaw and Knox, op.cit., pp.171-172, under no.140.

No.17 Domenico Tiepolo A Standing Lion 1.

James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.43.

2.

Ibid., p.45.

3.

James Byam Shaw, ‘The remaining Frescoes in the Villa Tiepolo at Zianigo’, The Burlington Magazine, November 1959, fig.34; Adriano Mariuz, Giandomenico Tiepolo, Venice, 1971, p.153, illustrated fig.346.

4.

Inv. 2010.114; Anonymous sale (‘Trois dessins inédits de Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo’), Paris, Sotheby’s, 19 June 2007, lot 37 (sold for €240,000); Henri Guerlain, ‘Giovanni-Domenico Tiepolo: une collection de ses dessins’, Revue de l’Art Ancien et Moderne, April 1921, illustrated p.229; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, 2006, pp.184-185, no.56; Adelheid M. Gealt, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: Master Drawings from the Anthony J. Moravec Collection, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington, Indiana, 20162017, pp.72-73.

5.

Inv. 17580; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 19961997, p.204, no.143; Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, pp.126-127, no.33. In this drawing, the hindquarters of the lion are cut off by the left edge of the composition, and are not visible.

6.

Adelheid Gealt, Domenico Tiepolo: The Punchinello Drawings, London, 1986, p.183, no.84. The composition of this drawing is closely related to that of the Ottawa drawing noted above, but in this instance it is the head of the lion that is not seen, since it is obscured by a standing spectator.

7.

Antonio Morassi, Disegni Veneti del Settecento nella collezione Paul Wallraf, exhibition catalogue, Venice, 1959, nos.99-100. The first of these, which is a preparatory study for the Zianigo fresco, later appeared at auction in London in 1980 (Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 3 July 1980, lot 74). The second is today in the Robert Lehman Collection at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, p.190, no.155).

8.

Inv. Santarelli 7816; Gernsheim photograph no.7705.

9.

Benno Geiger, Handzeichnungen alter Meister, Vienna, 1948, p.150, no.100.


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10. Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 14 January 1987, lot 196. 11. Inv. KdZ 9966; Hein-Th. Schulze Altcappenberg, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696-1770) und sein Atelier: Zeichnungen & Radierungen im Berliner Kupferstichkabinett, exhibition catalogue, Berlin, 1996-1997, p.74, no.54. 12. Anonymous sale, Paris, Christie’s, 23 June 2010, lot 101 (sold for €23,750). 13. Inv. Witt 2676; Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 1996-1997, p.201, no.140; Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, p.105, no.18, illustrated p.106. 14. Inv. 1922.5416; Birmingham (AL), Birmingham Museum of Art and Springfield (MA), Museum of Fine Arts, The Tiepolos: Painters to Princes and Prelates, exhibition catalogue, 1978, p.113, no.112; Harold Joachim and Suzanne Folds McCullagh, Italian Drawings in the Art Institute of Chicago, 1979, pp.87-88, no.141, pl.150. 15. Inv. 48-889; Felton Gibbons, Catalogue of Italian Drawings in the Art Museum, Princeton University, Princeton, 1977, Vol.I, pp.203-204, no.661, Vol.II, fig.661. 16. Inv. MG D.351; Massimo Favilla et al, Le dessin en Italie dans les collections publiques françaises. Venise – l’art de la Serenissima: Dessins des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, exhibition catalogue, Montpellier, Musée Fabre, 2006-2007, pp.232-233, no.105 (entry by Rachel George). 17. Dario Succi, ‘Disegni di Giandomenico Tiepolo nella collezione Italico Brass’, in Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, illustrated p.75. 18. Inv. KdZ 5005; Schulze Altcappenberg, op.cit., pp.74-76, no.55. 19. Inv. WA1936.194; K. T. Parker, Catalogue of the Collection of Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum; Volume II: Italian Schools, Oxford, 1956 [1972 ed.], Vol.I, p.543, no.1099 (not illustrated); Gernsheim photograph no.48229. 20. New York and London, Stephen Ongpin Fine Art, Master Drawings, 2008, no.19. See also No.28 in this catalogue.

No.18 Domenico Tiepolo Two Monkeys on a Rock 1.

James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.43.

2.

Ibid., p.45.

3.

Inv. 1975.1.528; Ibid., p.82, no.48, pl.48; James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, pp.190-191, no.156; Linda Wolk-Simon, Domenico Tiepolo: Drawings, Prints, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1997, p.54, fig.83. Three of the monkeys in this drawing are derived, in reverse, from an etching by Stefano della Bella.

4.

Byam Shaw, op.cit., 1962, p.86, no.64, pl.64; Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, ed., Giandomenico Tiepolo: Scene di vita quotidiana a Venezia e nella terraferma, Venice, 2005, pp.99-100, no.13 (as location unknown).

5.

George Knox, A Panorama of Tiepolo Drawing, Belgium, 2008, pp.208-209, no.99 (as location unknown). This drawing was reproduced as a handcoloured etching by Teodoro Viero (Gealt and Knox, ed., ibid., pp.187 and 192, no.86A, illustrated p.190 [incorrectly as no.86]).

6.

Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., pp.96-97, pp.99-102, no.15 (as location unknown).

7.

Aldo Rizzi, The Etchings of the Tiepolos, London, 1971, pp.68-69, no.21. While the dating of the twenty-three Scherzi etchings has remained problematic, with opinions ranging from the mid-1730s to the late 1750s, they appear to have been produced over a period of at least a decade.

8.

Inv. 512/1; Lyon, Musée Historique des Tissus, Dessins du XVIe au XIXe siècle de la collection du Musée des Arts Décoratifs de Lyon, exhibition catalogue, 1984-1985, p.52, no.40.

9.

Inv. 1996.133; Byam Shaw, op.cit., 1962, pp.81-82, no.47, pl.47; Felice Stampfle and Cara D. Denison, Drawings from the Collection of Lore and Rudolf Heinemann, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1973, p.63, no.115, pl.115; Giorgio Marini, ‘Caratteri e dinamiche del disegno tiepolesco’, in Giorgio Marini, Massimo Favilla and Ruggero Rugolo, Tiepolo: I colori del disegno, exhibition catalogue, Rome, 2014-2015, p.37, fig.15.

10. Inv. 1925,0406.2 (The Monkey and Fowl Riding a Donkey); Adelheid Gealt, Domenico Tiepolo: The Punchinello Drawings, London, 1986, pp.8889, no.32. 11. Inv. 17585 (The Leopard’s Cage); Gealt, ibid., pp.84-85, no.30. 12. Sale (‘Property from the Estate of William S. Paley’), New York, Sotheby’s, 14 January 1992, lot 107 (unsold); Dario Succi, ‘Disegni di Giandomenico Tiepolo nella collezione Italico Brass’, in Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., pp.74-75. The monkey in this drawing was derived from an etching by Johann Elias Ridinger. 13. Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 11 March 1964, lot 169.


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No.19 Domenico Tiepolo A Riderless Horse Galloping Before the Walls of a City 1.

James Byam Shaw, ‘Some Venetian Draughtsmen of the Eighteenth Century’, Old Master Drawings, March 1933; reprinted in London, Colnaghi, J. B. S.: Selected Writings, 1968, p.78.

2.

Inv. 37.165.67; Jacob Bean and William Griswold, 18th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, pp.262263, no.261; Linda Wolk-Simon, Domenico Tiepolo: Drawings, Prints, and Paintings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1997, p.53, fig.80; Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, pp.110-111, no.20; Carboni, ed., op.cit., p.315, no.55, illustrated p.137. See also No.10, fig.1 in the present catalogue.

3.

Inv. 35.42.1; James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.80, no.42, pl.42; Bean and Griswold, ibid., p.261, no.259; Wolk-Simon, ibid., p.53, fig.79. The drawing, which measures 199 x 268 mm., is smaller than most of the other drawings this type in the series of ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’.

4.

Inv. 1975.1.515 (Robert Lehman Collection); Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, pp.110-111, no.22.

5.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 1996-1997, p.202, no.141; Gealt and Knox, ed., op.cit., 2005, p.117, no.24, illustrated p.114 (as in the collection of the Comte de Ganay, Paris).

6.

Inv. MG D.928; Massimo Favilla et al., Le dessin en Italie dans les collections publiques françaises. Venise – l’art de la Serenissima: Dessins des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles, exhibition catalogue, Montpellier, Musée Fabre, 2006-2007, pp.236-237, no.108 (entry by Rachel George).

7.

Inv. 3017; Gernsheim photograph no.11239.

8.

Inv. Santarelli 1819, 7805 and 7810; Gernsheim photograph nos.7692, 7697 and 7699.

9.

Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Gentleman’), New York, Christie’s, 12 January 1995, lots 56 (‘A Moor on a Rearing Horse with Attendants’), sold for $79,400, and 57 (‘Two Oriental Horsemen Fighting’), sold for $19,550. The first of these is illustrated in Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 19961997, p.188, no.121.

10. Sale (‘Property of Mrs. Marianne Van Berg, New York’), New York, Parke-Bernet, 22 October 1970, lot 25 (sold for $2,400). The drawing measures 196 x 254 mm. 11. James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.68.

No.20 Domenico Tiepolo Christ Warns Peter in the Upper Room 1.

A total of 313 drawings making up the ‘Large Biblical Series’ or ‘New Testament’ series were catalogued by Adelheid Gealt and George Knox in their magisterial survey of the entire series, published in 2006. However, a number of previously unrecorded drawings from the series have been discovered since then.

2.

Adelheid Gealt, ‘The Telling Line: Domenico Tiepolo as a Draftsman/Narrator’, in Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 1996-1997, p.77.

3.

James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.37.

4.

Adelheid M. Gealt, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: Master Drawings from the Anthony J. Moravec Collection, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington, Indiana, 2016-2017, p.32.

5.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, p.35.

6.

George Knox, ‘Domenico Tiepolo: The Drawings’, in Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 1996-1997, p.52.

No.21 Domenico Tiepolo The Resurrection of Christ 1.

Adelheid Gealt and George Knox, ‘An Introductory Note on Domenico Tiepolo (1727-1804)’, in Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, p.xv.

2.

Ackley, ‘The Intuitive Eye’, op.cit., 2009, p.87.

3.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, p.496, under no.205.

4.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, p.496, under no.205.

5.

E-mail correspondence, 23 May 2017.

6.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, p.790, fig.226. The drawing measures 252 x 180 mm.

7.

George Knox, ‘Domenico Tiepolo: The Drawings’, in Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 1996-1997, pp.51-53.


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8.

Le bulletin de l’art ancien et moderne, 10 May 1921, pp.71-72.

9.

Adelheid M. Gealt, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: Master Drawings from the Anthony J. Moravec Collection, exhibition catalogue, Bloomington, Indiana, 2016-2017, p.5.

10. Stéphane Loire, ‘Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament’ [book and exhibition review], Master Drawings, Autumn 2009, p.385.

No.22 Domenico Tiepolo Saint Peter Healing the Paralytic of Lydda 1.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, pp.41-42.

2.

Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, pp.570-571, no.240, pl.240.

3.

E-mail correspondence, 14 November 2016.

4.

George Knox, Giambattista and Domenico Tiepolo: A Study and Catalogue Raisonné of the Chalk Drawings, Oxford, 1980, Vol.I, p.82.


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