MASTER DRAWINGS STEPHEN ONGPIN
STEPHEN ONGPIN FINE ART
6 Mason’s Yard, Duke Street St James’s London SW1Y 6BU Tel. [+44] (20) 7930-8813 Fax [+44] (20) 7839-1504 e-mail: email@example.com
STEPHEN ONGPIN FINE ART
Front cover: Lucien LĂŠvy-Dhurmer (1865-1953) The Head of a Young Woman No.30
Back cover: Salvator Rosa (1615-1673) A Standing Halberdier No.37
James Thomas Linnell (1823-1905) A Surrey Landscape [detail] No.20
STEPHEN ONGPIN FINE ART MASTER DRAWINGS 2012 to be exhibited at Stand No.715 The European Fine Art Fair (TEFAF) MECC Maastricht
16th to 25th March, 2012
Stand No.11 The Salon du Dessin Place de la Bourse Paris
28th March to 2nd April, 2012
A selection of the drawings in this catalogue will also be exhibited in our London gallery at Riverwide House 6 Mason’s Yard Duke Street St. James’s London SW1Y 6BU
27th June to 27th July, 2012
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am very grateful to my wife Laura for her patience and support, and to my son Sebastian for occasionally allowing me to do some work on the catalogue, in between feeds and playtime. I am also most thankful to Lara SmithBosanquet for her invaluable assistance, as well as the following people for their help and advice in the preparation of this catalogue and the drawings included therein: Valentina Bandelloni, Chloe Barter, Deborah Bates, Sophie Camu, Barry Clarke, Glynn Clarkson, Cristina Colomar, Joanne Cooper, Joanna Darmochwal, Edouard Dumont, Gino Franchi, Robert Haas, Dean Hearn, Rosie Henniker-Major, Nick Holmes, Joachim Jacoby, Ellis Kelleher, Daragh Kenny, Liz Klein, Alison Leslie, Christopher Lloyd, John Marciari, Suz Massen, Elizabeth McKeown, Ellen Morris, Mark Murray, Anna Ongpin, Monica Ongpin, Pilar Ordovas, Guy Peppiatt, Sophie Richard, Gill Robinson, Greg Rubinstein, Livia Schaafsma, Mary Newcome Schleier, Larry Sunden, Todd-White Photography, Betsy Thomas, Bart Thurber, Joseph Vandenbroeck, Jorge Virgili, Sarah Vowles, Joanna Watson and Jenny Willings. Stephen Ongpin
Dimensions are given in millimetres and inches, with height before width. Unless otherwise noted, paper is white or whitish. Please note that drawings are sold mounted but not framed. High-resolution digital images of the drawings are available on request.
All enquiries should be addressed to Stephen Ongpin or Lara Smith-Bosanquet at Stephen Ongpin Fine Art 6 Masonâ€™s Yard Duke Street St Jamesâ€™s London SW1Y 6BU Tel. [+44] (20) 7930-8813 or [+44] (7710) 328-627 Fax [+44] (20) 7839-1504 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
MASTER DRAWINGS PRESENTED BY
1 CHERUBINO ALBERTI Borgo San Sepolcro 1553-1615 Rome Recto: Study of Legs and an Arm Verso: Torso of a Man Holding a Sword, and a Study of Legs Black and red chalk. The verso a counterproof in black chalk. 228 x 166 mm. (9 x 6 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: P. & D. Colnaghi, London, in 1995; Pierre de Charmant, Geneva; His sale, Paris, Christie’s, 21 March 2002, lot 29. A painter and engraver, Cherubino Alberti was born into a family of artists in the Tuscan town of Borgo San Sepolcro that included his father Alberto, his brothers Giovanni and Alessandro and his cousin Durante. He was in Rome by 1571, learning the art of engraving in the studio of Cornelis Cort. Alberti produced some 180 prints, mostly reproductive works after Michelangelo, Raphael, Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Zuccari and other artists. Most of his prints date from the 1570’s and early 1580’s, after which he seems to have devoted himself mainly to painting. His earliest documented work as a painter is a fresco decoration on the rear facade of the Vatican Library, painted in 1587. Together with his brother Giovanni, Cherubino Alberti was particularly admired for his skills as a painter of di sotto in su ceiling decorations, a talent he employed in several Roman churches. The two brothers worked together frequently, and were engaged by Pope Clement VIII on the decoration of the Sala Clementina in the Vatican between 1596 and 1604, and again at the sacristy of San Giovanni in Laterano, completed in 1602. Cherubino’s last major papal commission was the decoration of the vault of the Aldobrandini chapel in Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome, completed in 1610. Three years later, in 1613, he was elected principe of the Accademia di San Luca. This interesting sheet of studies would appear to be after a Renaissance sculpture, perhaps representing David standing with the severed head of Goliath. Cherubino Alberti produced several drawn copies after the work of earlier artists, often in a combination of red and black chalk, and a number of stylistically comparable drawings of this type by him are found in an album of drawings by various members of the Alberti family, in the collection of the Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica in Rome1. Similar studies of arms are also found in several pages of a sketchbook of drawings by Cherubino, sold at auction in London in 19762. The verso of the present sheet is a counterproof in black chalk. In preparation for an engraving, Cherubino would often make a counterproof of a figure he had drawn, in order to study the pose as it would appear in the finished print. However, no print related to the verso of this drawing is known.
2 BERNARDO CASTELLO Genoa 1557-1627 Genoa Perseus and Andromeda Pen and brown ink and brown wash, heightened with white, on blue-green paper. Squared in black chalk, and with framing lines in brown ink. 202 x 258 mm. (8 x 10 1/8 in.) [sheet] LITERATURE: William M. Griswold and Linda Wolk-Simon, Sixteenth-Century Italian Drawings in New York Collections, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1994, p.49, no.44; Eric Pagliano, de Venise à Palerme: Dessins italiens du musée des beaux-arts d’Orléans XVe-XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 2003, p.264, under no.157. EXHIBITED: New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Sixteenth-Century Italian Drawings in New York Collections, 1994, no.44. A pupil of Andrea Semino, Bernardo Castello was also influenced by the work of Luca Cambiaso, evident in such early works as a Nativity in the Genoese church of San Gerolamo di Quarto. He executed a number of paintings for local churches and palaces, and his earliest dated work is an altarpiece for a church outside Genoa, painted in 1580. Among his important decorative projects were the frescoes in the Villa Spinola and the Villa Centurione in Sampierdarena and a ceiling in the Palazzo de Franchi e Castello in Genoa. In 1586, Castello designed a frontispiece and twenty illustrations for an edition of Torquato Tasso’s epic poem Gerusalemme Liberata, published in Genoa in 1590. The illustrations established Castello’s reputation, and pleased Tasso so much that he wrote a sonnet in honour of the artist. Three further editions of the poem, again accompanied by Castello’s illustrations, were published in later years, and served to secure the artist’s contemporary fame. Castello also frescoed scenes from the Gerusalemme Liberata in several Genoese palaces. He made a number of trips to Rome, beginning in 1604, when he received a commission for an altarpiece of The Calling of Saint Peter for the basilica of St. Peter’s. He also painted an altarpiece in Santa Maria sopra Minerva for Cardinal Giustiniani, the success of which led to a commission to decorate part of the Palazzo Giustiniani at Bassani di Sutri, outside Rome. During a later trip to Rome, in 1616, Castello painted frescoes for the Palazzo Rospigliosi Pallavicino and the Palazzo del Quirinale. Most of Bernardo Castello’s drawings are executed in pen and brown ink, often on blue paper, and the present sheet is a fine and typical example of his draughtsmanship. Drawings such as these seem to have been popular with collectors and friends of the artist. In September 1591, for example, one of the Castello’s close friends, the poet Gabriele Chiabrera, wrote to him requesting a selection of his drawings on blue paper: ‘queste cose io le voglio in penna sopra carta azzurra e con tutta quella vostra minore fatica di mano e d’ingegno che sia possibile.’1 This spirited drawing has been dated by Mary Newcome Schleier to the decade of the 1590’s. Although squared for transfer, it remains unrelated to any surviving painting or fresco by Bernardo Castello. It may be noted that the theme of Perseus and Andromeda is rare in Genoese art of the late 16th century, and Castello may have been inspired by his teacher Andrea Semino’s fresco of the subject, painted in the mid-1560’s for Palazzo Doria in Genoa2 which, however, is different in composition. Also of a different composition is a fresco of Perseus and Andromeda, the work of Castello or a member of his studio, which is part of the decorations of the Villa (later Palazzo) Centurione in Sampierdarena, Genoa3. Among stylistically comparable drawings by Bernardo Castello is an Abduction of Oreithyia by Boreas in the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Orléans4.
3 POMPEO PEDEMONTE Mantua c.1515-1592 Mantua A Design for a Facade of a Triumphal Arch or Temporary Structure, Decorated with Reliefs of the Labours of Hercules, Statues and Trophies Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed with the artist’s monogram PPAM in a heart with a cross above, in brown ink at the lower centre of the sheet. 325 x 491 mm. (12 3/4 x 19 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Giuseppe Vallardi, Milan (his number V.135 on the verso); Private collection, UK. LITERATURE: Paolo Carpeggiani, ‘“Sgabelli pieni di carte disegnate quasi per la magior parte indarno”’, in Marco Rossi and Alessandro Rovetta, ed., Scritti di Storia dell’arte in onore di Maria Luisa Gatti Perer, Milan, 1999, p.279. The identification of the present sheet as the work of the 16th century Mantuan architect and painter Pompeo Pedemonte is due to T. Barton Thurber, who in 1994 was the first to identify and publish a group of architectural drawings by the artist. Pedemonte worked extensively for the Gonzaga family of Mantua, and was active throughout the city, notably at the Palazzo Ducale and the churches of Sant’Andrea and San Francesco. He also undertook architectural commissions in Solferino, Viadana, Guastalla and Bologna. Around thirty drawings for architectural projects by Pedemonte survive today. This large drawing, which bears the architect’s monogram PPAM (for ‘Pompeo Pedemonte Architectus Mantovanus’?), may be closely compared stylistically with a group of sixteen drawings by Pedemonte - ten of which are signed with the same distinctive monogram – in an album in the collection of the Civico Gabinetto dei Disegni in Milan1. Thurber has further tentatively suggested that the present sheet may be a collaboration between Pedemonte and his fellow architect and painter in Mantua, Giovanni Battista Bertani (c.1516-1576), with the latter responsible for the figural scenes. The present sheet can be related to another drawing by Pedemonte, possibly for the same project, which was sold at auction in 1997 and is today in the collection of the Palazzo Te in Mantua2. That drawing, which shares the same provenance as the present sheet, was identified as a design for a triumphal arch erected near the church of San Silvestro in Mantua, on the occasion of the entry of King Henry III of France and Poland into the city on 2 August 15743. The entire decoration called for a total of eight temporary arches, and had to be erected within a fortnight, as it was not until late July that the citizens of Mantua learned of the planned visit. While the author of the 1574 decorations is unknown, it would be logical to assume that Pedemonte, as one of the leading architects in Mantua, would have been entrusted with this important commission. The decorations earned considerable praise, and within a few years were reproduced in the form of engravings4. While the present sheet may well have been part of the same decorative scheme of 1574, the presence of scenes from the labours of Hercules also suggest the possibility it may be related to an architectural commission linked to Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga. Another large drawing by Pedemonte – a design for the facade of a palace for Orazio Gonzaga, Marchese di Solferino, and bearing the same monogram – appeared at auction in 1990 and 19915. A design for an elaborate triumphal arch, again signed with the same monogram and sharing the same provenance as the present sheet, is in the collection of the Kunsthalle in Hamburg6. Other comparable drawings by Pedemonte include another design for a triumphal arch in the Courtauld Institute Galleries in London7 and a large drawing, in a French private collection, of an elevation and partial plan for part of the complex of the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua8. Further architectural drawings by Pompeo Pedemonte are in the collections of the Kunstbibliothek in Berlin and the Uffizi in Florence.
4 GIOVANNI BATTISTA RICCI, called RICCI DA NOVARA Novara c.1537/45-1627 Rome Study of a Seated Saint or Prophet Black chalk, heightened with touches of white chalk, on blue paper. Squared for transfer in black chalk. 272 x 205 mm. (10 3/4 x 8 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Jonathan Richardson, Junior, London (with a faint trace of his collector’s mark [Lugt 2170] stamped in black at the lower right corner); Two indistinct collector’s marks, one in red (possibly Charles Gasc, Paris [Lugt 543]) and the other in black, stamped at the lower right corner of the sheet; Albert Finot, Troyes (Lugt 3627)1; His posthumous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 6 December 1982, lot 23 (as attributed to Lorenzo Lotto), sold for 12,000 francs; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 10 December 1991, lot 119 (as attributed to Girolamo Muziano); Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s South Kensington, 7 December 1993, lot 12 (as attributed to Girolamo Muziano); Private collection, London. Very little is known of the early career of the Lombard painter and draughtsman Giovanni Battista Ricci before his arrival in Rome at the beginning of the 1580’s. Mainly active as a fresco painter during the pontificates of Popes Sixtus V, Clement VIII and Paul V, Ricci was one of the busiest painters in Rome during this period. He was elected to the Virtuosi al Pantheon in 1583 and, five years later, to the Accademia di San Luca. Ricci was awarded a number of prestigious ecclesiastical commissions in Rome, notably at the Vatican, where he worked on the Scala Santa and the Sistine Library in collaboration with Cesare Nebbia and Giovanni Guerra, as well as at St. Peter’s, where he designed the stucco decoration of the ceiling of the portico, and San Giovanni Laterano. He was also named soprintendente of painting at the Papal palace on the Quirinale between 1591 and 1593, working alongside Guerra and Nebbia. Much of Ricci’s work in Rome survives today, mainly in the form of fresco cycles in the Vatican and in such Roman churches as San Marcello al Corso, Sant’Agostino, Santissima Trinità dei Pellegrini, San Francesco a Ripa and Santa Maria Traspontina. Although the bulk of G. B. Ricci’s extant drawings are executed in pen and ink, a handful of chalk drawings by the artist are known. This drawing, which appears to be a design for figure to be placed in a spandrel or lunette, may be likened to several drawings by the artist drawn in the medium of black chalk on blue paper, some of which, like the present sheet, have previously borne attributions to the Ricci’s contemporary in Rome, Girolamo Muziano (1532-1592). Among comparable drawings by the artist is a chalk study of Saint Matthew and the Angel in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow2, which is a study for one of the pendentives supporting the dome of the Roman church of Santissima Trinità dei Pellegrini, painted by Ricci around 1612-1613. Also stylistically comparable are two preparatory drawings by Ricci, both in the Louvre, for his lunette frescoes in the Cerasi chapel of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome3, as well as a study of a Seated Evangelist, also in the Louvre4. A double-sided drawing on blue paper, formerly in the collection of the late Alfred Moir, would also appear to be by the same hand5. The attribution of the present sheet to Giovanni Battista Ricci is due to John Marciari.
5 JAN HARMENSZ. MULLER Amsterdam 1571-1628 Amsterdam A Seated Female Figure (Venus?) Pen and brown ink, over traces of an underdrawing in black chalk. Framing lines in brown ink. Traces of a fragmentary inscription in brown ink at the lower left. Inscribed Muller in brown ink on the verso. A fragmentary inscription or numbering in brown ink on the verso. 233 x 120 mm. (9 1/8 x 4 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Bob P. Haboldt, New York, in 1989; Private collection. EXHIBITED: New York, Bob P. Haboldt & Co., Netherlandish and Italianate Old Master Drawings, 19891990, no.32. A gifted engraver and draughtsman, Jan Harmensz. Muller was the son of Harmen Jansz. Muller, a printmaker and art dealer who ran a successful print publishing business, called De Vergulde Passer (‘The Golden Compass’). Trained by his father, Muller was also particularly influenced by the work of Hendrick Goltzius, in whose Haarlem studio he is believed to have served an apprenticeship in the second half of the 1580’s. Muller is thought to have lived for some years in Rome and Naples in the latter part of the 1590’s, but this remains conjectural. While he published a number of engravings after his own designs, Muller seems mainly to have worked as a reproductive engraver, producing numerous prints after the works of Goltzius, Cornelis van Haarlem and other Haarlem Mannerists. Muller was related by marriage to the sculptor Adriaen de Vries, who worked at the court of the Emperor Rudolf II in Prague, and he gained useful contacts with artists working there. As such, he also published a number of important engravings after the work of artists active at the Prague court, notably de Vries, Bartholomeus Spranger and Hans von Aachen. Indeed, although Muller seems never to have visited Prague himself, it is largely through his reproductive prints that the artistic style of the leading artists of the Prague court was disseminated and popularized throughout Europe. In the first quarter of the 17th century he also produced engravings after portrait paintings by Rubens, Michiel van Mierevelt and others. Towards the middle of the 1620’s, however, Muller seems to have given up printmaking to take over the successful family publishing business, which he had inherited in 1619. Around a hundred prints by Jan Muller are known, most of which are after the work of other artists; the largest extant group of prints by him is in the collection of the Albertina in Vienna. Although paintings by Muller are recorded in several inventories and in his will, only one painting may be firmly attributed to him today. Emil Reznicek has identified a corpus of around sixty drawings by Jan Harmensz. Muller. As a draughtsman, Muller’s work – drawings in pen and ink, wash, or chalk – can be divided into two distinct groups. The majority of extant drawings by the artist are vigorously drawn studies, free and painterly in effect, which display the particular influence of Bartholomeus Spranger’s drawings in pen and ink wash. The present sheet, however, belongs with a smaller group of drawings by Muller, characterized by a refined technique derived from the example of Hendrick Goltzius. In these drawings, forms are precisely delineated in pen and ink hatching, a technique readily associated with the work of a printmaker. Among the drawings by Muller in this technique are several examples of large and highly finished virtuoso pen drawings on parchment, of the type made popular by Goltzius and known as federkunststücke, which were intended as finished works of art. This elegant, refined drawing, which may perhaps be identified as a figure of the goddess Venus, is a characteristic example of Jan Muller’s pen draughtsmanship. It may be included among a group of drawings by the artist which are either copied after, or inspired by, the work of the Mannerist sculptor
Adriaen de Vries (1556-1626). Muller produced a number of engravings after sculptures by de Vries, and also often took inspiration from the sculptor’s works for his own, independent compositions. The pose and Mannerist form of the female figure in this drawing finds close stylistic parallels, for example, with the seated nymphs at the base of de Vries’s Hercules fountain in Augsburg, completed in 16021, or the figures of the so-called Ceres and Venus on his Neptune fountain, executed between 1615 and 1618 and now in the park of Drottningholm Palace in Sweden2. The pose of the figure in this drawing appears to be loosely based on a small bronze statuette by Adriaen de Vries of a Seated Female Figure, sometimes entitled Prudence (fig.1), of c.1611, formerly on the art market in Germany3. Muller also used this statuette by de Vries as the basis for an engraving4. A similarly posed female figure is also found in Adriaen de Vries’s earliest surviving monumental sculpture, a Mercury and Psyche (fig.2) of 1593 in the Louvre5, of which Muller produced three engravings showing the work from different angles6. Also similar is the standing figure of Psyche in Muller’s large and elaborate pen drawing on parchment of The Sleeping Cupid Spied Upon by Psyche, signed and dated 1607, formerly in the collection of Pierre Crozat and now in a private collection7. Among other stylistically comparable pen drawings by Jan Muller is a nude study of Psyche Asleep which appeared on the art market in New York in 19948, and which is a preparatory study, in reverse, for his engraving of Cupid and Psyche, after a terracotta relief by Bartholomeus Spranger9. Although the graceful, nude figure seen here, possibly intended to represent Venus, is not found in any surviving print by Jan Harmensz. Muller, this superb drawing may have been intended for an engraving that was never executed or completed.
6 NORTHERN SCHOOL First quarter of the 17th century a. The Martyrdom of Saint Peter Gouache on vellum, with framing lines in brown ink, laid down on wood. 76 x 96 mm. (3 x 3 3/4 in.)
b. The Martyrdom of Saint Paul Gouache on vellum, with framing lines in brown ink, laid down on wood. Inscribed Callot / 1592 + 1635 / martyre de St. Pa- / -t Paul in brown ink on the backing board 75 x 96 mm. (3 x 3 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: AndrĂŠ Novak(?), according to a label on the old backing board. LITERATURE: Joachim Jacoby, Die Zeichnungen von Adam Elsheimer: Kritischer Katalog, Frankfurt am Main, 2008, p.343, note 262.
Despite their evident high quality, the authorship of this finely executed pair of gouache drawings on vellum has thus far proved difficult to establish. The traditional attribution to the 17th century French draughtsman and printmaker Jacques Callot is untenable, nor are they copies of any etchings by the artist. A more recent attribution to the Strasburg artist Johann Wilhelm Baur (1607-1642), who developed a particular specialty of small gouache drawings on vellum depicting landscapes, battle scenes and allegorical subjects, is more plausible1, although the present pair would appear to be somewhat earlier in date. The artist responsible for this pair of Biblical scenes must have been inspired by the paintings of Adam Elsheimer (1578-1610), and in particular the small-scale religious scenes on copper painted by the German artist in Rome in the first decade of the 17th century. Elsheimerâ€™s small paintings, often crowded with figures and full of detail, were highly influential on the succeeding generation of Dutch, Flemish and German artists working in Rome. It is likely, therefore, that the author of the present pair of gouaches, each characterized by a dynamic composition and a highly refined technique, may be found among the Northern artists active in Rome in the first quarter of the 17th century2.
a. actual size
b. actual size
7 SALVATOR ROSA Arenella 1615-1673 Rome A Standing Halberdier Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over a black chalk underdrawing. Laid down on an 18th century (Richardson) mount, inscribed Salvator Rosa in brown ink at the bottom and with the shelfmark D. in brown ink on the reverse. Further inscribed From the collection of Jonathan Richardson, the Painter in brown ink in the bottom margin of the mount, and faintly inscribed Lot 120 in brown ink on the reverse of the mount. 147 x 90 mm. (5 3/4 x 3 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: Jonathan Richardson, Senior, London (Lugt 2184), with his shelfmark (cf. Lugt 2983 and 2984) and on his mount; Probably his sale, London, Christopher Cock, 22 January to 8 February 1747; A. Scott Carter (according to a note on the backing sheet)1; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 26 November 1970, lot 42 (bt. F. Challener); John Appleby, Jersey; Thence by descent until 2010. LITERATURE: Michael Mahoney, The Drawings of Salvator Rosa, New York and London, 1977, Vol.I, p.440, no.45.8; Vol.II, fig.45.8; Richard W. Wallace, The Etchings of Salvator Rosa, Princeton, 1979, p.168, no.37a; Paolo Bellini and Richard W. Wallace, ed., The Illustrated Bartsch. Vol.45 - Commentary: Italian Masters of the Seventeenth Century, 1990, p.393 under no. .057 (Bartsch 44). Salvator Rosa was a remarkable draughtsman, and his spirited, exuberant drawings were highly praised by connoisseurs even in his own day. The bulk of the nine hundred or so surviving drawings by the artist are figure studies, usually in his preferred medium of pen and ink. Many of the drawings from the early part of his career are signed, and these may have been sold to collectors or presented as gifts to friends or patrons. However, almost no signed drawings dating from after 1649 exists, and it has been suggested that, after his return to Rome from Florence in 1649, Rosa chose not part with most of his drawings. A gifted and prolific printmaker, Rosa produced over one hundred etchings, almost all of which were published and widely distributed in his lifetime. The present sheet is a preparatory study for an etching2 from Rosa’s celebrated Figurine series; a group of sixty-two prints of soldiers, peasants and other figures, depicted either individually or in groups of two, three or more. These etchings, which were published with a dedication to the artist’s friend and patron, the Roman banker Carlo de’ Rossi, can be dated to Rosa’s years in Rome, around 1656-1657. It has been suggested that, apart from helping to spread Rosa’s fame, these Figurine etchings may also have served to rebut the claims, made by the artist’s critics, that he was merely a landscape painter without the ability to depict figures. As Richard Wallace has noted, ‘Rosa was very touchy about his reputation as a figure painter...With the Figurine he undoubtedly meant to show everyone, including his detractors...that he could master the human figure in an almost infinite variety of poses and expressive states.’3 Often acquired as a complete set of prints and bound into albums, Rosa’s Figurine etchings remained popular with collectors well into the 18th century. Around forty of Salvator Rosa’s preparatory drawings for individual etchings in the Figurine series survive. All are of identical dimensions to the etchings, and in most respects very close to the final print, albeit in reverse. Other preparatory drawings for the Figurine etchings are today in the Teylers Museum in Haarlem, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the Istituto Nazionale per la Grafica in Rome, the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., the British Museum and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, and elsewhere. The earliest known owner of this drawing was the English portrait painter and connoisseur Jonathan Richardson, Senior (1667-1745), who assembled a remarkable collection of nearly five thousand drawings, mostly Italian works of the 16th and 17th centuries, over a period of about fifty years.
8 Attributed to CARL ANDREAS RUTHART Danzig c.1630-after 1703 L’Aquila A Lion, after Rubens Watercolour and gouache. Inscribed (by Arthur Feldmann) Karl Andreas Ruthart / Aufgescheuchte Lowen in pencil on the verso. 127 x 197 mm. (5 x 7 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Dr. Arthur Feldmann, Brno; Looted by the Gestapo on 15 March 1939, during the Nazi occupation of Moravia; Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Collector’), London, Sotheby’s, 16 October 1946, part of lot 55 (bt. Colnaghi for Witt for £14.00); Sir Robert Witt, London (Lugt 2228b), his mark stamped on the verso; Bequeathed by him to the Courtauld Institute of Art, London in 19521; Restituted to the heirs of Arthur Feldmann in 2007. Born in Danzig (modern-day Gdansk in Poland) around 1630, Carl Borromäus Andreas Ruthart was largely self-taught as an artist, and established a reputation as a painter of wild animals and hunting scenes. He was briefly in Rome in 1659 before being admitted to the painter’s guild in Antwerp in 1664, while later that year he is documented in Regensburg. Between 1665 and 1667 Ruthart was in Vienna, working for Prince Karl Eusebius von Liechtenstein. In 1672 he became a monk of the Celestine order at the monastery of Sant’ Eusebio in Rome, later transferring to the monastery of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L’Aquila, in the Abruzzo region, where he seems to have lived and worked for the rest of his life. Known as Pater Andrea, he is still documented there in 1703, and is assumed to have died not long afterwards. Although best known and most successful as a painter of wild animals, Ruthart also painted a handful of religious works for the churches with which he was associated, namely two altarpieces for Sant’ Eusebio in Rome and fourteen scenes from the life of the founder of the Celestine order for the church at L’Aquila. Highly esteemed in his lifetime, Ruthart’s animal paintings found their way into several important European collections, including those of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, Field Marshal von der Schulenberg and Count Bruhl, as well the Liechtenstein, Harrach, Czernin and Esterhazy collections. Paintings by Ruthart were also owned by the Dukes of Devonshire and the Earls of Shrewsbury. The lion depicted in the present sheet is based, in reverse, on part of an etching of two young lions at play (fig.1) by Abraham Blooteling after Peter Paul Rubens2. Blooteling’s print is one of a set of four etchings of lions, each after designs by Rubens, published as Variae Leonum Icones sometime in the second half of the 17th century. The draughtsman may have been derived his composition from Blooteling’s print, or a contemporary, reversed copy of it. The same lion was used by Frans Snyders in a painting of Two Lions Pursuing a Roebuck of c.1620-1625, today in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich3, and for a painting of The Lion and the Mouse of about the same date, at Chequers in Buckinghamshire4. The traditional attribution of the present sheet to Carl Andreas Ruthart, while tentative, would seem to be worth considering in light of the artist’s penchant for leaping animals in his paintings.
9 ITALIAN(?) SCHOOL Circa 1700 A Toad Watercolour and gouache, with grey ink and wash, on vellum. 141 x 197 mm. (5 1/2 x 7 3/4 in.)
This exquisite drawing, finely executed on vellum, depicts a common toad (Bufo bufo); a species found throughout Europe.
10 HERMAN HENSTENBURGH Hoorn 1667-1726 Hoorn A Sun Conure Parrot and a Yellow-Backed Oriole Gouache and watercolour on vellum. Signed H: Henstenburgh. fec in grey ink at the lower left. Inscribed N.132 - Herman Henstenburgh in brown ink on the verso. 301 x 204 mm. (11 7/8 x 8 in.) PROVENANCE: An unidentified collector’s mark, with the letter U in a circle, stamped in red ink on the verso. Herman Henstenburgh was a pupil of the natural history draughtsman Johannes Bronckhorst, whose studio in Hoorn he entered in 1683, and who also trained the young artist in his other vocation as a pastry baker. Indeed, throughout his life Henstenburgh seems to have worked as a baker in Hoorn, a relative artistic backwater, and his watercolours, despite being greatly admired, remained something of a hobby. The influence of Bronckhorst, as well as of Pieter Holsteyn the Younger, was to be important for Henstenburgh, particularly on his choice of subjects. As a draughtsman, he specialized in depictions of birds, insects, flowers and fruit, usually drawn on vellum. The contemporary biographer Johan van Gool noted that Henstenburgh’s earliest works were of birds and insects, and that it was not until around 1689 that he also began to produce finished watercolour drawings of fruit and flowers. Van Gool further commented that the artist was able to achieve a particular richness and intensity of colour in his drawings by experimenting with pigments to perfect a new form of watercolour technique. Through the intervention of Mattheus Terwesten, Henstenburgh was introduced to a number of important local collectors, notably Pieter van den Brande. Another significant patron was the botanical collector Agneta Blok (or Agnes Block), a collector of exotic plants and flowers who also commissioned natural history drawings of animals and birds from Bronckhorst, Holsteyn, Herman Saftleven and Maria Sibylla Merian. Henstenburgh was never able to make a living from his art, however, and as Van Gool relates, ‘There he sat in his native town, with all his works of art about him, as if in oblivion, for rarely did he receive a visit from an art-lover.’1 It was not until several years after his death that Henstenburgh’s drawings became especially popular with collectors, particularly in England. His son Anton inherited his business as a pastry chef and was, like his father, also an amateur draughtsman of bird, insect and flower subjects. Around 120 drawings by Herman Henstenburgh are known today, of which only about five are dated. The artist’s vibrant watercolours of birds reflect the particular influence of his teacher Bronckhorst, and indeed the two artists at times made drawings of the same colourful birds. Henstenburgh’s watercolours may be seen as a development from the more scientific approach seen in the bird drawings of Pieter Holsteyn the Younger, a Dutch draughtsman of the previous generation, although the birds drawn by the younger artist are usually depicted in a much more lifelike and engaging manner than the somewhat stiff creatures of Holsteyn’s watercolours. As Anne Zaal has noted, ‘Henstenburgh’s drawn birds are always shown sitting on almost bare tree branches or shrubs, the ends of the branches marked with a few leaves. The background is not coloured, and retains the ivory tone of the medium, the vellum. When several birds are shown, they are displayed in different positions, and spread across the sheet, and thus a lively effect is achieved.’2 The remarkable freshness of the colours would suggest that this superb drawing on vellum was kept in an album or portfolio for much of its life. Although the paucity of dated works by the artist make any attempt at a chronology of his oeuvre difficult, the elaborate composition of this drawing would imply that this is a mature work by the artist. The Dutch port town of Hoorn, where Henstenburgh lived and worked, was an important home base of the Dutch East India Company, and the artist would have had ample opportunity to study live or stuffed specimens of exotic birds brought back to Holland on the ships of the Hoorn fleet. The present
sheet depicts two rare South American birds, and serves as a fascinating and very early visual record of these particular species in European art. Indeed, this drawing would appear to predate, by several decades or more, the authoritative scientific descriptions of both types of birds depicted in it. The larger of the two birds may be identified as a Sun Conure parrot (Aratinga solstitialis), a species native to areas of the north-eastern part of South America, in particular northern Brazil and Guyana. The parrot, which grows to an average of 30 cm. in length, is described in ornithological literature from the 1730’s onwards, although specimens must have been in circulation in Europe somewhat earlier. Long popular in Europe as captive pet birds, the severe decline of its population has meant that the Sun Conure is today listed as an Endangered species. The smaller bird would appear to be a Yellow-backed Oriole (Icterus chrysater), native to Central America and northern South America. It is interesting to note that Henstenburgh has here depicted the oriole seemingly in the act of catching insects. Since the bird is indeed insectivorous, this would imply that the artist was perhaps working from a live specimen that he had studied closely. The presence of a Yellow-backed Oriole in this drawing is also unusual in that the species was not formally named and described until over a hundred years later, in the 1840’s. It would appear, therefore, that the present sheet serves as an accurate record of two rare and valuable South American birds, perhaps the result of a thriving contemporary market for such exotic creatures. Only four comparable, highly finished watercolour and gouache studies of birds by Henstenburgh have appeared on the art market in the past twenty years. A signed drawing of A Hermit Hummingbird, a Black-headed Caique, a Yellow-bibbed Lory and a Red-legged Honeycreeper was sold at auction in New York in 19903, while a similarly-signed study of A Roller on a Branch appeared at auction four years later4. A gouache drawing on vellum of Three Birds of Paradise, formerly in the collection of Lucien and Françoise Delplace in Brussels, appeared at auction in 19965. Most recently, a signed gouache on vellum drawing of A King Bird of Paradise and a Spiderhunter, formerly in the collection of the 18th century Dutch collector Johann Goll van Franckenstein, was sold at auction in 2011 and is now in the collection of Clement C. Moore, New York6. Other gouache and watercolour drawings of exotic birds by Herman Henstenburgh are today in the collections of the Amsterdams Historisch Museum in Amsterdam7, the Palazzo Pitti in Florence8, and elsewhere. We are grateful to Joanne Cooper of the Natural History Museum in London for her assistance in the cataloguing of this drawing.
11 JEAN-BAPTISTE PILLEMENT Lyon 1728-1808 Lyon A Chinoiserie Design, with a Seated Oriental Musician Black and red chalk, with touches of blue, yellow, red, brown and grey watercolour. Signed and dated Jean: Pillement. 1764 in brown ink at the lower left centre. 348 x 235 mm. (13 3/4 x 9 1/4 in.) Among the most influential decorative and ornamental draughtsmen working in Europe in the second half of the 18th century, Jean-Baptiste Pillement was an equally gifted painter, producing pastoral landscapes, marines and flowerpieces. He spent several years working in London, and it was there that he began to cater to the English vogue for chinoiseries, publishing collections of ornamental prints inspired by Eastern motifs. A New Book of Chinese Ornaments invented and engraved by Pillement appeared in 1755, and, as Maria Gordon-Smith has noted of the second edition, which was published in 1757, ‘From this point on, chinoiseries became Pillement’s very own domain. This collection was the first of many to place him as the heir to the chinoiserie tradition of Watteau and Boucher. However, in his interpretations the exotic motifs were even more independent from any imitations of Far Eastern originals and represented a highly personal imaginative faculty. What was probably intended to be, at first, an incidental and minor commercial occupation, turned out to be an immediate revelation and eventually a source of lasting fame for the artist.’1 Pillement continued to produce new and novel designs for chinoiseries, and in 1767 a collection of his designs was published with the title One hundred and thirty figures and ornaments, and some flowers, in the Chinese style. Pillement’s designs were to prove a significant influence on the decorative arts in Europe for many years. This delightful sheet, signed in full and dated 1764, is likely to have been produced as a collector’s drawing in its own right. However, Pillement used a very similar compositional arrangement, with four Oriental musicians – each depicted seated on platforms beneath a canopy hung with bells and surmounted by a blue cloth – in the painted chinoiserie decoration of a large hall in the palace of Schloss Niederweiden in Austria (fig.1). Commissioned from Pillement by the Empress Maria Theresa around 1764, the decoration of the hall was completed by the spring of the following year2. Such charming and original compositions as this, with their immense visual appeal, were the source of much of the artist’s contemporary fame. As one scholar has written, ‘[Pillement’s] chinoiseries exaggerate wispy, fragile qualities of the style. It is as though the world is a fairyland conjured out of gossamer and stalks of grass, and the humans inhabiting it, fanciful little creatures who dance and tumble around so effervescent and lively they seem more creatures of the air than earth.’3
12 UBALDO GANDOLFI San Matteo della Decima 1728-1781 Ravenna Design for a Monument or Frontispiece, with a Male and Female Figure Flanking a Cartouche, Three Putti Holding a Garland Above Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an extensive underdrawing in red chalk. Inscribed G in brown ink on the verso, laid down. Laid down on an 18th century Italian mount. 300 x 210 mm. (11 3/4 x 8 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Antonio Certani, Bologna, in 1935; Possibly the Baronessa Emma Dantoni Camuccini, Rome; Anonymous sale, Florence, Sothebyâ€™s, 18 October 1969, lot D43 (as Gaetano Gandolfi). EXHIBITED: Bologna, Palazzo Comunale, Mostra del Settecento Bolognese, 1935, Room 17, no.126 (as Filippo Pedrini). Ubaldo Gandolfi entered the Accademia Clementina in Bologna at an early age, and by 1745 had already won a prize for figure drawing. One of his first independent projects was the decoration of several rooms in the Palazzo Malvasia, commissioned around 1758 by the Bolognese nobleman and art historian Cesare Malvasia. Together with his younger brother Gaetano, Ubaldo visited Venice in 1760; a trip that was to have a significant impact on his later work, with its vigorous brushwork and expressive treatment of colour. Although he does not seem to have achieved the level of fame and success enjoyed by Gaetano, Ubaldo was never short of commissions, and throughout his career of some thirty years produced numerous altarpieces for churches in Bologna and the province of Emilia, as well as frescoes and cabinet pictures for private patrons. One of his most important patrons was the Marchese Gregorio Casali, who commissioned several works from the artist, notably two large paintings for the Palazzo Pubblico in Bologna. Apart from an Apotheosis of Hercules in the Palazzo Malvezzi, relatively little of Ubaldoâ€™s large-scale mural decorations survive. His last major commission, the fresco decoration of the cupola of the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, was left unfinished at his sudden death in 1781. To judge by his annotation on a photograph of the present sheet in the Witt Library, James Byam Shaw may have been the first scholar to correctly attribute this drawing to Ubaldo Gandolfi. The drawing may be compared stylistically with a handful of decorative designs by the artist, such as three drawings of fountains; one in the Palazzo Rosso in Genoa and another in a private collection1, as well as a third sold at auction in 19972. Also comparable is a rather fantastical drawing of Figures Watching a Man Spout Water from his Mouth, probably also a design for a fountain, in the Museo del Prado in Madrid3. The putti at the top of the sheet have their counterparts in aa drawing of Three Putti with a Medallion, also in the Prado4. The present sheet was at one time in the collection of the cellist and composer Antonio Certani (1879-1952), who assembled a fine and varied collection of drawings, mainly of the 17th and 18th century Bolognese and Emilian schools5. In 1935 Certani lent almost 150 drawings by 46 artists to the Mostra di Settecento Bolognese, the seminal exhibition of Emilian art held in Bologna, for which this drawing was chosen as the cover of the catalogue (fig.1).
13 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice A Centaur with Two Satyrs and a Woman Pen and brown ink and brown wash, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower left and numbered 144 in brown ink at the upper left. 192 x 243 mm. (7 5/8 x 9 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: Juan Jorge Peoli, New York (Lugt 2020); His posthumous sale, New York, American Art Galleries, 8 May 1894 onwards, lot 597 (‘Nymph and Centurion [sic]. Sepia. Signed.’), sold for $2.00; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 23 March 1972, lot 132 (bt. Cailleux); Galerie Cailleux, Paris; ‘R.V.’ collection, Paris, in 1974; Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Gentleman’), London, Christie’s, 8 July 1980, lot 49; Private collection, Cheshire, until 2011. LITERATURE: Jean Cailleux, ‘L’Art du Dix-huitième Siècle: Centaurs, Fauns, Female Fauns, and Satyrs among the Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo’, The Burlington Magazine, June 1974 [supplement], pp.iiiiv and xv, no.34, fig.30; Jacob Bean and William Griswold, 18th Century Italian Drawings in The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1990, p.253, under no.248. This enchanting drawing belongs with a group of over one hundred and thirty drawings1 by Domenico Tiepolo depicting centaurs, fauns, satyrs and nymphs in landscape settings; a series of composition drawings in pen and ink wash which have been aptly characterized by James Byam Shaw as ‘the most delightful and original of all Domenico’s allegorical and mythological subjects’2. As he further describes the drawings of this series, ‘Satyrs and Satyresses, and their engaging Faun families, share the scene with the Centaurs...sometimes going about their business peacefully enough, collecting wood, building shelters, dancing and somersaulting, or sitting down to a kitchen meal; but sometimes – the Centaurs particularly – more strenuously engaged, hunting, fighting bulls or lions, or carrying off a nymph in the mountain country.’3 Jean Cailleux has identified some of these drawings, including the present sheet, as depicting variations on the theme of Nessus and Deianira, a subject taken from Greek mythology. Deianira, the wife of Hercules, was abducted by the centaur Nessus, who was later killed by Hercules with a poisoned arrow. A handful of Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings of centaurs, fauns and satyrs may be related to his monochrome fresco decoration of two rooms – the Camera dei Satiri and the Camerino dei Centauri – in the Tiepolo family villa at Zianigo; the detached frescoes are now in the Ca’ Rezzonico in Venice. Most of these drawings, however, appear to have been made as autonomous works, as is true of much of the artist’s drawn oeuvre. As Byam Shaw notes, ‘These drawings are not sketches but works of art in their own right, homogenous in style...pictorially composed and finished.’4 He has further suggested that this group of drawings should be dated to between 1771 and 1791, the dates of the decoration of the two rooms in the villa at Zianigo. Examples of centaur and satyr drawings by Domenico Tiepolo include fifteen sheets in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, nine examples in the British Museum, four in the Pierpont Morgan Library, six each in the Uffizi and the Princeton University Art Museum, and others elsewhere. The present sheet bears the collector’s mark of the 19th century Cuban painter Juan Jorge Peoli (1825-1893), whose collection of drawings, prints and paintings was dispersed at auction in New York in 1894. James Byam Shaw has noted of Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings of centaurs, satyrs and fauns that ‘The drawings of this series are perhaps the most charming and original of all Domenico’s drawings – original because less dependent on the inventions of other artists than some of his other series...and catching exactly the charm and gaiety of the pagan mythology.’5 Jean Cailleux further praises ‘the inexhaustible inventiveness,...the freedom and unerringness of touch,...the fluidity of Domenico Tiepolo’s use of wash in this series which never becomes monotonous.’6
14 GIOVANNI DOMENICO TIEPOLO Venice 1727–1804 Venice The Raising of the Cross Pen and brown ink and brown wash, with framing lines in brown ink, over an underdrawing in black chalk. Signed Dom.o Tiepolo f. in brown ink at the lower right. 465 x 362 mm. (18 1/4 x 14 1/4 in.) Watermark: Three crescents. PROVENANCE: Probably Victor Luzarche (or Luzarches), Tours; Possibly Camille Rogier; Paul Suzor, Paris;
Thence by descent to a private collection, France, until 2010. ‘Domenico Tiepolo’s drawings provide us with the more private side of him, but they also serve to represent his career at all stages. He drew continually: sometimes very closely in the manner of his father; at the opposite remove, in the late Punchinello drawings for example, his manner and matter could never be mistaken for anyone else’s...The key to Domenico is in drawings: he began as a draughtsman and, one is tempted to say, all his paintings betray the draughtsman.’1 For much of the last two or three decades of his career, Domenico Tiepolo seems to have painted only occasionally, and instead worked primarily as a draughtsman, producing a large number of pen and wash drawings that may collectively be regarded as perhaps his finest artistic legacy. These drawings were, for the most part, executed as a series of several dozen or more themed compositions, many of which were numbered. Among these are several series of drawings of religious and mythological subjects, as well as a varied group of genre scenes, numbering around a hundred sheets, generally referred to as the ‘Scenes of Contemporary Life’, and a celebrated series of 104 drawings entitled the Divertimenti per li regazzi, illustrating scenes from the life of Punchinello, a popular character from the Commedia dell’Arte. This large and impressive sheet is part of a distinctive group of over three hundred highly finished drawings executed by Domenico Tiepolo over a period of several years following his return from Spain in 1770, and probably through the 1790’s2. Entitled the ‘Large Biblical Series’ by James Byam Shaw, these large drawings in pen and ink wash, each measuring approximately 460 x 350 mm., depict subjects taken mainly from the Old and New Testaments (primarily the Gospels, Parables and the Acts of the Apostles, particularly the lives of Saints Peter and Paul), as well as from fragmentary gospels and the Apocrypha. As one modern scholar has noted of this series, ‘All vertical in format, often with lavish landscape or architectural settings, the drawings are the most exhaustive exploration of biblical subjects by a single eighteenth-century artist. Even in the context of Italy, where the traditions of religious painting remained very much alive despite the impact of the Enlightenment, Domenico’s sustained fascination with biblical subjects in extraordinary, particularly since it is assumed that he drew them primarily to please himself, rather than at the behest of an ecclesiastical patron.’3 While it has been proposed that these drawings may have been intended as book illustrations, the fact that many of the compositions are signed in full would suggest instead that they were always regarded by the artist as independent, finished works. As Byam Shaw notes , ‘They are essentially ‘album drawings’, intended not as studies for painting or etching, but as works of art in their own right; and they belong to a period when drawing, rather than painting, was Domenico’s chief occupation.’4 It is likely that the artist kept the drawings in his studio until his death, as no prints were made of them. Set in elaborate interior or landscape settings and often crowded with figures, the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’ are among Domenico’s masterpieces as a draughtsman, executed with an assurance of
handling and a fluidity of tonal washes that is often quite breathtaking. As George Knox has written, ‘[Domenico Tiepolo’s] most extensive and perhaps his most remarkable work as a draughtsman...The Large Biblical Series is a summation in more ways than one. For the first time, Domenico draws on the full resources of the Tiepolo studio, his own visual memory, his folios of drawings, and the vast accumulation of drawings by his father...Even so, by far the greater part of these compositions are entirely original inventions.’5 Previously unknown to scholars and only recently discovered in a French private collection, this large and powerful drawing of The Raising of the Cross is a new and striking addition to the ‘Large Biblical Series’. The dramatic composition, with its bold diagonals – a feature of several drawings in the series – adds much to the pathos and power of the scene. The rich, golden tone of the washes, another characteristic element of the drawings of the ‘Large Biblical Series’, though not always seen with such freshness as in the present sheet, is contrasted by areas where the artist has left the surface of the paper untouched to create highlights, as on the body of Christ and the figures below him, bathed in bright light. Several scenes from the Passion of Christ or the Stations of the Cross (the Via Crucis) appear more than once in the ‘Large Biblical Series’. The present sheet depicts an episode of the Passion which, however, is found nowhere else in the sequence. The ‘Large Biblical Series’ does include several different variants of the episodes immediately preceding and following this scene of The Raising of the Cross. There are two drawings of Christ Nailed to the Cross, both in the Louvre6 and three variants of The Crucifixion itself; two in the Louvre7 and one formerly in the collection of the Duc de Trévise and known today only from an old photograph8, as well as a separate depiction of Christ Crucified with Angels in the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Besançon9. The series of drawings which make up the ‘Large Biblical Series’ seem to have been divided into two main groups in the first decades of the 19th century, both of which found their way into French collections. A group of 138 drawings were acquired in 1833 from a shop in the Piazza San Marco in Venice by the French collector Jean Fayet Durand (1806-1889) and were bequeathed to the Louvre at his death in 1889, bound in an album now known as the Recueil Fayet. A further large group of drawings from the series, amounting to around 175 sheets, was purchased in Italy, also in the middle of the 19th century, by Victor Luzarche (1803-1869), at one time the mayor of the city of Tours, and these later entered the collection of Camille Rogier (1805-1893). Some time after 1868, eighty-two of the exLuzarche drawings passed to Roger Cormier, also of Tours. These were dispersed at auction in Paris in 1921, many entering the collection of the Duc de Trévise, and are now in various public and private collections10. Drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’ are today in the Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum of Art and the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York, the Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Besançon, the Musée Bonnat in Bayonne, and elsewhere. A superb example of Domenico Tiepolo’s vigorous draughtsmanship, the present sheet was previously unknown to scholars and appears never to have been previously exhibited or published. The drawing once belonged to the Parisian collector Paul Suzor who, together with his brother Léon, owned a large number of drawings by Domenico Tiepolo. (Between them the two Suzor bothers owned thirteen of the Punchinello drawings from the Divertimenti per li regazzi series, for example). While many of the drawings in the Suzor collection were dispersed at auction in the 1960’s, the present sheet remained with Paul Suzor’s descendants until 2010.
15 AMABLE-PAUL COUTAN Paris 1792-1837 Paris A Portrait of Charlotte-Madeleine Taurel as a Baby, in the Gardens of the Villa Medici in Rome Pencil on paper. Signed and dated Coutan / Rome / 1821 in pencil at the lower right. 194 x 279 mm. (7 5/8 x 11 in.) PROVENANCE: The sitter’s parents, André-Benoit Taurel and Henriette Thévenin-Taurel, Rome, Paris and Amsterdam; Probably by descent to the sitter’s brother, Charles-Edouard Taurel. LITERATURE: Charles-Edouard Taurel, L’Album T., Amsterdam and The Hague, 1885, p.49; Hans Naef, ‘Ingres und die Familien Thévenin und Taurel’, Nederlands Kunsthistorisch Jaarboek, 1965, p.137; Rome, Villa Medici, Ingres in Italia, exhibition catalogue, 1968, p.86, under no.60 (incorrectly as by ‘JosephAmable Coutan’); Hans Naef, Die Bildniszeichnungen von J.-A.-D. Ingres, Bern, Vol.II, 1978, p.215. ENGRAVED: By Charles-Edouard Taurel, in 1885. Little is known about Amable-Paul Coutan today, and his brief career and early death has meant that only a handful of works by him survive. A pupil of Baron Gros, he enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1813. Two early paintings of classical subjects – a Philemon and Baucis of 1818 and a Themistocles of 1819 - are today in the museum in Bourges. Coutan won the Prix de Rome in 1820 with a painting of Achilles Awarding Nestor the Prize for Wisdom1, and exhibited at the Salons of 1824, 1827, 1834 and 1836. In 1826 he painted a Christ Carrying the Cross for the church of Saint-Nicolas-des-Champs in Paris, still in situ. He painted two works, including a Visitation, for the Parisian church of Notre-Dame de Lorette in 1833, and completed an allegorical painting for a room in the Palais de Luxembourg. He also produced a number of elegant portraits. Coutan’s final painting, The Oath of Louis-Philippe, intended for the Chambre des Députés, was left incomplete at his death in 1837, and was eventually finished by JosephDésiré Court. Like his paintings, drawings by Coutan are very rare2. The young sitter of this portrait drawing, Charlotte-Madeleine Taurel, was born in Rome in 1820, and was named after her godmother, the wife of the painter Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. She is depicted here in the grounds of the Villa Medici, the French Academy in Rome, accompanied by the family dog Trim3, with the cupola of Saint Peter’s in the distance. Charlotte-Madeleine’s parents were the French engraver André-Benoit Taurel and Henriette Thévenin, the adopted daughter of the director of the Académie de France in Rome, Charles Thévenin. The couple were married in June 1819 and CharlotteMadeleine was born in the Villa Medici in October of the following year. The Taurel family remained in Rome until 1823, when they returned to France; they eventually settled in Amsterdam in 1828. Sadly, Charlotte-Madeleine Taurel suffered from both physical and mental illness, and traces of this are evident in Ingres’s well-known later drawing of her at the age of about five, clinging to a sheep, which is in the Louvre4. In June 1829 Charlotte and her brother Charles-Edouard were taken by their mother to Paris. Charlotte was entrusted to the care of Les Dames du Sacré-Coeur for medical treatment, but died soon afterwards. Her funeral was held in Montparnasse in February 1830. The present sheet was engraved by the sitter’s brother, Charles-Edouard Taurel, for his L’Album T, published in a limited edition of 125 copies in 18855. L’Album T was intended as a souvenir of the wedding album presented to Taurel’s parents at the time of their marriage in Rome in 1819. The original drawings in the wedding album, by Ingres and other artists, had been dispersed in 1859, and the Album T contained engravings after some of the more important drawings from the album. The final engraving in the book, by Charles-Edouard Taurel, reproduces the present drawing by Coutan6, and serves as a moving testament to the engraver’s elder sister, who died at the age of nine.
16 SIR EDWIN HENRY LANDSEER, R.A. London 1803-1873 London A Dead Hare and a Ferret Watercolour, heightened with bodycolour, over an underdrawing in pencil. Signed with initials and dated EL / 1830 in pencil at the lower left. 213 x 288 mm. (8 3/8 x 11 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: The artist’s studio sale, London, Christie’s, 8-14 May 1874, lot 449 (bt. Mansel Lewis); Charles Mansel Lewis, Stradey Castle, Llanelli, South Wales; Thence by descent until 2010; Private collection, Scotland. LITERATURE: J. D. (James Dafforne?), ‘Studies and Sketches by Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A.’, The Art Journal, September 1875, illustrated p.257 (as The Feast Interrupted, incorrectly dated 1838); W. Cosmo Monkhouse, The Works of Sir Edwin Landseer, London, 1879 [reprinted J. Batty, ed., Landseer’s Animal Illustrations, 1990], p.118 and p.125, pl.30 (as The Feast Interrupted); Richard Ormond, Sir Edwin Landseer, exhibition catalogue, Philadelphia and London, 1981, pp.136-137, fig.93. EXHIBITED: Philadelphia, Philadelphia Museum of Art and London, Tate Gallery, Sir Edwin Landseer, 19811982, no.93. Throughout his life, Edwin Landseer made countless studies and sketches of animals, in oil, watercolour, chalk and pencil. His interest in animal subjects was manifest from a very young age, and accounts for many of the artist’s earliest drawings. These are not only of dogs and farmyard animals but also of wild beasts, which Landseer would have seen and sketched at the menageries at Exeter Change and the Tower of London. Rising to become one of the most popular and successful artists of Victorian England, Landseer was widely regarded as the greatest animal painter of his day. A superb example of Landseer’s facility as a draughtsman, the present sheet has been described by Richard Ormond as ‘a masterly water-colour of a ferret and dead hare’1 and of ‘Dürer-like finish and delicacy’2. It was one of several works, mostly selected from private collections, which were used to illustrate a series of articles on Landseer’s preparatory drawings and oil sketches, published in monthly instalments in The Art Journal in 1875. As the first of these articles noted, ‘Landseer was a consummate draughtsman, and in his sketches we see the operation of this faculty in all its fulness.’3 In a subsequent article, the composition of the present sheet, reproduced in the form of an engraving, was described: ‘A hare, as we consider it to be, lies dead in a field of turnips, and a stoat, or weasel – it might be either – has found its way to the body, and is about to make a meal of it, but is startled by hearing a noise of some kind: this is plain enough by the action of the animal. There is both life and death strikingly represented in the brilliant little drawing, chiefly executed in watercolours, from which the engraving is copied.’4 This oil sketch may perhaps be related to a now-lost small painting on panel, entitled Rabbit and Stoat, which was painted for William Wells of Redleaf in Kent, who owned a substantial number of paintings and drawings by Landseer5. The present sheet remained with the artist until his death, and was acquired at the Landseer studio sale in May 1874 by the Welsh landowner Charles William Mansel Lewis (18451931). Mansel Lewis was himself an amateur artist, installing a studio in his home at Stradey Castle in South Wales6, and purchased a large number of works from the six-day Landseer studio sale. As Richard Ormond has noted, ‘The lots that Mansel Lewis bought at the Landseer sale were almost entirely examples of his early work, in the form of oil sketches, chalk and pencil drawings and ecorché studies of flayed animals…They were sketches acquired for private study by a well-to-do connoisseur who was himself a practising artist.’7
17 JOHN MARTIN Haydon Bridge 1789-1854 Douglas The Annunciation to the Shepherds Watercolour, heightened with bodycolour and gum arabic, with scratching out. Signed and dated J. Martin 1833. in brown ink at the lower left. 181 x 130 mm. (7 1/8 x 5 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Anonymous sale (‘The Property of a Lady’), London, Sotheby’s, 13 March 1986, lot 129 (sold for £12,650); Spink & Son, London, in 1987, where acquired by a private collector; Private collection, London, until 2011. LITERATURE: J. Dustin Weeks, “Darkness Visible”: The Prints of John Martin, exhibition catalogue, Williamstown and elsewhere, 1986-1987, pp.62-63, under no.50 (entry by Michael J. Campbell); Michael J. Campbell, John Martin: Visionary Printmaker, exhibition catalogue, York, 1992, p.170, under no. C.W.125. EXHIBITED: London, Spink & Son Ltd., English Watercolour Drawings, 1987, no.51. Born in Northumberland, John Martin was apprenticed to a coach painter in Newcastle until 1806, when he settled in London, finding employment as a glass and china painter. He aspired, however, to be a painter of grand historical and literary subjects, and in 1812 achieved his first measure of success when his painting of Sadak in Search of the Waters of Oblivion was accepted by the Royal Academy for exhibition, and was sold soon afterwards for fifty guineas. Nevertheless, in the early part of his career, Martin’s livelihood was earned with small-scale landscape paintings, watercolours and sepia drawings of a classical inspiration, or topographical views in the Home Counties and elsewhere. It was not until 1821, when his grandiose canvas Belshazzar’s Feast was exhibited to popular acclaim, as well as both critical and financial success, that Martin’s international reputation was firmly established. The dramatic compositions, imaginative effects and apocalyptic themes of Martin’s immense, visionary canvases of the 1820’s and early 1830’s – notably The Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum of 1822, The Seventh Plague of Egypt of 1823 and The Deluge of 1834 – captured the imagination of the viewing public. The artist’s celebrity was enhanced not only by the exhibition of these works, but also by the popularity of the prints that were published after (or inspired by) them, which were to eventually number more than 130. Indeed, in the late 1820’s and early 1830’s, Martin’s activity as a commercial printmaker provided a large portion of his income. For much of the 1830’s Martin forsook large-scale exhibition paintings in favour of watercolours and mezzotint engravings. He continued to produce smaller, more intimate works on occasion, and also undertook several commissions for book illustrations, notably a series of mezzotints for an edition of John Milton’s epic poem, Paradise Lost, published in 1827 with much critical and commercial success. Between 1831 and 1836, in collaboration with the artist Richard Westall, Martin drew a series of over seventy small sepia and watercolour drawings for two publications – entitled Illustrations of the Bible and Illustrations of the New Testament – which appeared in instalments between 1834 and 1836 and were reprinted several times. In 1836 the artist became a member of the New Water Colour Society, founded four years earlier. Martin’s last major paintings were a series of three massive canvases depicting The Last Judgement, begun in 1845 but not completed until 1853. Arranged in the form of an enormous triptych, the paintings were exhibited very widely over the next quarter of a century; not only throughout Britain but in several cities in America and as far afield as Australia. John Martin was, as one modern scholar has described him, ‘the pre-eminent creator of religious imagery during his lifetime, whose biblical illustrations endured long after his death’1. Drawn in 1833, at the height
of the artist’s success and prosperity, this lovely, refined watercolour is one of the earliest versions of a composition of The Annunciation to the Shepherds that Martin was to revisit, mainly in the form of prints, over the next decade. The present watercolour, however, appears to be the only surviving depiction of this Biblical composition in an upright format, as all the other, later versions of the subject by the artist are horizontal in orientation. Signed and dated, this finished watercolour was almost certainly intended as an autonomous work of art, intended for exhibition or sale. The same is true of a larger and more elaborate watercolour of the same subject and date, but different in composition, which appeared at auction in London in 19822. Michael Campbell’s description of a later, horizontal variant of this composition by John Martin – a rare, never-issued lithograph (fig.1) of 18373 – may equally be applied to the present watercolour: ‘This particular image captures the tremendous drama for which Martin had become so famous. The clouds seem almost torn asunder to make way for the appearance of the heavenly host. The angel of the Lord appears to be pointing towards the city in the distance, which we take to be Bethlehem, where the Messiah has just been born.’4 Apart from the large lithograph of 1837, Martin treated the subject of the angel announcing the nativity to the shepherds in several other prints. A variant of the present composition, but horizontal in format, appeared as a wood engraving in Westall and Martin’s Illustrations of the New Testament, first published in London in 1836; this was based on a small monochrome watercolour by Martin. Another version of this composition by Martin, also horizontal, was engraved by W. Richardson as the frontispiece to the New Testament in The Imperial Family Bible, published by Blackie and Son in Glasgow in 1844 (where it is noted that ‘The original drawing is in the possession of the publishers.’). A different treatment of the subject, also horizontal but with the angel at upper left and shepherds at the lower right, was engraved by J. R. Wilmore for The Book of Gems: The Modern Poets and Artists of Great Britain, published in 18385. The only other known vertical treatment of this subject by Martin occurs in a small painting on panel that was last recorded in a private collection in 19476. In superb condition, the present sheet is an outstanding example of John Martin’s skill as a watercolourist, for which he arguably remains underappreciated today. Offering a particular contrast to his large-scale, visionary oil paintings, intimate works such as this reflect a more lyrical side of the artist’s unique vision.
18 WILLIAM ROXBY BEVERLEY Richmond 1811-1889 Hampstead Fishing Boats on a Beach Watercolour over a pencil underdrawing. Signed and dated WBeverley [?] Augt. / 28 1835 in brown ink at the lower right. 258 x 358 mm. (10 1/8 x 14 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Michael Ingram, Driffield Manor, Driffield, Gloucestershire; His posthumous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 6 June 2007, part of lot 248; Private collection, England, until 2010. The son and grandson of actors and theatre managers, William Roxby Beverley began his career as a painter of scenery for the theatre, and continued to work in this field throughout his life. Indeed, his reputation was established by his renown as a scene painter, and in particular his skill in rendering atmospheric effects. (An obituary published in the Daily Telegraph in 1889 described Beverley as the ‘long acknowledged chief and doyen of English scenic artists’, although the author also noted his ‘noble water-colours done in leisure hours.’) Beverley began to produce landscape watercolours under the influence of Clarkson Stanfield, also a former scene painter whom he joined on sketching tours, as well as Richard Parkes Bonington. While Beverley began exhibiting his marine watercolours from 1831 onwards, he continued to make his living as both a scene painter and, occasionally, as an actor. By 1846 he had settled in London, and was engaged as scenic director at several theatres, notably at Covent Garden and Drury Lane. By comparison with many of his fellow artists, however, Beverley produced relatively few watercolours, as he was kept busy by the demands on his time as a theatrical painter and scenographer. Nevertheless, as one early critic had noted, ‘Beverley painted water-colour pictures of rare and delicate beauty, works which alone should suffice to win for him a place in the front rank among our masters of water-colour art.’1 Beverley worked for his entire career in England and Scotland, although he is known to have visited France and Switzerland. He was particularly fond of coastal scenes and depictions of such port towns and fishing communities as Scarborough, Eastbourne, Hastings and Sunderland, and also painted views in London and the Lake District. In many of his watercolours, there is a particular interest in skies and atmospheric effects; a legacy of his training as a scene painter. Beverley regularly exhibited his landscape watercolours, almost always of English coastal scenes, at the Royal Academy between 1865 and 1880. He also showed his work at commercial galleries such as the Dudley Gallery, and is said to have charged up to £400 for some of his finished watercolours. An early work by the artist, the present sheet is a fine example of Beverly’s lively watercolour sketches. In one of the first critical reappraisals of the his work, published in 1921, Frank Emanuel noted of Beverley that ‘there are numbers of charming little compositions and studies of boats and shipping, of which he had the completest practical knowledge, down to the smallest detail. Indeed, his knowledge of shipping was equal to that of any of the specialists in marine work...His drawing of the subtly curving lines of hulls, his delineation of spars and rigging, is absolutely faultless, and put in with a line unrivalled for certainty and purity.’2 The scene depicted here is likely to be found in one of the fishing communities in the North East of England, where the artist made several sketching tours.
19 ALFRED DE DREUX Paris 1810-1860 Paris The Jockey Watercolour. Signed Alfred de Dreux in brown ink at the lower right. 279 x 375 mm. (11 x 14 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: P. & D. Colnaghi, London, in 1975; Robert Noortman Gallery, London, in 1977; J. L. W. Bird Fine Art, London, in 1983; Private collection, Cheshire, until 2011. EXHIBITED: London, P. & D. Colnaghi, French Drawings: Post Neo-Classicism, 1975, no.50; London, Robert Noortman Gallery, Second Exhibition of Nineteenth Century French Watercolours and Drawings, 1977, no.18. As a youth, Alfred De Dreux was taken by his uncle, the painter Pierre-Joseph Dedreux-Dorcy, on frequent visits to the studio of his friend Théodore Géricault. The important and formative influence of Géricault on the young De Dreux can be seen not only in the Romantic nature of his early paintings, such as the Nègre à cheval in the Vaudoyer collection, but also his lifelong fascination with equestrian subjects. After studying with Léon Cogniet, De Dreux exhibited two paintings – a Cheval sautant un fossé and an Intérieur d’écurie – at the Salon of 1831, to much acclaim. In 1833 he was commissioned to paint an equestrian portrait of the Duc d’Orléans, and by the following year was already being described by one critic as, together with Carle Vernet, ‘le meilleur peintre de chevaux de l’époque romantique.’1 In 1840 he began a series of paintings entitled Portraits de chevaux, which included several depictions of horses owned by the Duc d’Orléans. De Dreux reached the height of his fashionable success during the reigns of Louis-Philippe and Napoleon III, and even won a commission from Queen Victoria, whom he painted riding in Windsor Park alongside the French King. (He also met Victoria’s favourite painter, Sir Edwin Landseer, who inspired him to paint dogs.) His fame was further enhanced by the lithographs after his works which were published in France, Germany, England and America. Following the abdication of Louis-Philippe in 1848, De Dreux accompanied him into exile in England. He eventually returned to France, but visited London often in later years. He received several commissions from members of the English aristocracy, for whom his paintings reflected their passion for horses, hounds and hunting. De Dreux continued to paint equestrian portraits, hunting and racing scenes throughout the Second Empire, many of which were exhibited at the Paris Salons, as well as at the Exposition Universelle of 1855. His death in 1859 remains somewhat mysterious, but was apparently the result of a duel fought over a painting. Alfred De Dreux’s depictions of horses were much admired by his contemporaries, who saw him as the natural heir to Géricault. As one critic noted in 1834, a painting of a horse by De Dreux ‘would perhaps support the comparison, in terms of its energy, its verve and its truth, with the horses of Géricault.’2 In later years, Edgar Degas is known to have copied prints of horses by both De Dreux and Géricault in preparation for his own racetrack paintings. The present sheet is a splendid, fresh example of De Dreux’s watercolour technique. Indeed, as has been noted of this drawing, ‘In its crispness and vigour the watercolour is typical of the best of Dedreux’s works.’3 A related study in pen and brown ink of this composition, of similar dimensions, was exhibited alongside the present sheet in 19754, and is turn a study for a lithograph published in 18425.
20 JAMES THOMAS LINNELL Hampstead 1823-1905 Redhill A Surrey Landscape Watercolour and bodycolour, over an underdrawing in pencil, on blue paper. Small made-up sections at the upper corners. 368 x 533 mm. (14 1/2 x 21 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: By descent in the family of the artist; Somerville and Simpson, London, in 1980; Charles Ryskamp, New York and Princeton. EXHIBITED: New York, The Pierpont Morgan Library, The World Observed: Five Centuries of Drawings from the Collection of Charles Ryskamp, no.92; New Haven, Yale Center for British Art, Varieties of Romantic Experience: British, Danish, Dutch, French and German Drawings from the Collection of Charles Ryskamp, 2010, no.135. The second son of the landscape painter John Linnell, James Thomas Linnell studied at the Royal Academy Schools alongside his two brothers John and William. According to a contemporary biographical dictionary, James Linnell ‘inherited not a little of his father’s talent’1, although his palette was perhaps somewhat brighter. He exhibited almost annually at the Royal Academy between 1850 and 1888, showing at first religious subjects in which the landscape predominated. By the middle of the decade, however, he was exhibiting mainly landscapes with peasants, farm labourers or children, and it is for these pastoral landscapes that he is best known today. Many of James Linnell’s landscapes were painted in and around the Redstone estate at Redhill, near Reigate in Surrey, which his father John had acquired in 1851 and where all the members of the family lived. Writing in 1872, one critic noted that ‘James Thomas Linnell...is entitled to share with his brother William the estimation in which their pictures are held by the amateur and collector, sometimes rivalling even those of his father...It is so rare an occurrence to find a picture by any one of the Linnell family bearing the distinctive title of the place represented, that one would naturally be led to suppose the compositions are merely imaginary; but this, as a rule, is far from the case. Surrey, and the wealds of Sussex, supply the artists with the ground-work of most of their beautiful compositions, and the localities may generally be recognized by those who are well acquainted with them.’2 The present sheet almost certainly depicts a view near the Linnell home in Surrey. Cara Denison has succinctly described the artist’s technique in this watercolour: ‘In this sweeping landscape, James varied the concentration of brilliant colors to suggest a beautiful late summer day in the country. The densest application is reserved for the wheat in the foreground, which he stroked on in a pale but brilliant yellow, using lighter washes of dark green for the foliage and deep blue for the background of farms and receding hills.’3 Another recent scholar has identified a religious undertone in the composition of the present sheet: ‘John Linnell…raised his children to see the fertile fields as expressions of God’s blessing. He trained his son, James, as a painter, and James’s work was geared toward religious subjects and landscapes. A clear testament to divine beneficence is found in his drawing of newly harvested wheat sheaves in Surrey, where the family had moved in 1857. There is a hymnlike harmony between the warm-toned fields in the foreground and the cooler hills beyond, all composed as a celebration of God’s bounty. The overall unity is achieved by the use of a sheet of blue tinted paper, which, while serving the practical purpose of acting as a middle tone, also assumes a metaphoric quality by symbolizing the existence of an omnipresent deity whose hand lies behind everything as the creator of all things. The drawing might almost be an illustration of the words of the sixtyfifth Psalm: “The valleys also are covered over with corn; they shout for joy, they also sing.”’4
21 MARIANO FORTUNY Y MARSAL Reus 1838-1874 Rome The Tapestry Merchant Watercolour. Signed, dated and dedicated al amich Moragas / Fortuny / Roma 1867 in brown ink at the lower right. 301 x 203 mm. (11 7/8 x 8 in.) PROVENANCE: Given by the artist to Tomàs Moragas i Torras, Rome and Naples; Private collection, Spain. LITERATURE: Del Museu: Butlletí del Museu de Reus, June 1989, p.9; Carlos González and Montse Martí, ed., Fortuny 1838-1874, exhibition catalogue, Madrid, 1989, p.202, no.39, illustrated in colour p.150; Carlos González López and Montserrat Martí Ayxelà, Mariano Fortuny Marsal, Barcelona, 1989, Vol.I, illustrated in colour p.265, fig.112, Vol.II, p.42, no.OR-0.05.67; Dolores Duran, Carlos González López and Montserrat Martí Ayxelà, Fortuny, exhibition catalogue, Zaragoza, 1998, pp.114-115, no.25; Mercé Doñate, Cristina Mendoza and Francesc M. Quílez i Corella, ed., Fortuny, exhibition catalogue, Barcelona, 2003, pp.160-161, no.45 and p.226, under no.78, also p.518, no.45 and p.524, under no.78 (entry by Mercé Doñate). EXHIBITED: Barcelona, Centre Cultural de la Fundació Caixa de Pensions, Fortuny 1838-1874, 1989, no.39; Madrid, Sala de Exposiciones de la Fundación Caja de Pensiones, Fortuny 1838-1874, 1989, no.39; Reus, Museu Comarcal Salvador Ulaseca, Exposicio Fortuny, 1989, no.39; A Coruña, Lugo and Santiago da Compostela, M. Fortuny 1838-1874, 1997, no.11; Zaragoza, Centro de Exposiciones y Congresos, Fortuny, 1998, no.25; Barcelona, Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya, Fortuny, 2003-2004, no.45. Although born and trained in Spain, Mariano Fortuny spent most of his relatively brief career in Italy, and indeed is often defined as an Italian artist as much as a Spaniard. Fortuny studied painting in Barcelona before travelling to Rome at the age of twenty, having won a scholarship from the Catalan city. Following visits to Morocco in 1860 and 1862 he began painting Orientalist subjects. Fortuny was fascinated by the Arab world and travelled extensively in southern Spain and the Maghreb, collecting Persian carpets, Hispano-Moresque pottery, Islamic metalwork, arms and armour, fabrics and textiles. Apart from Orientalist works, he painted historical genre subjects and scenes of 18th century courtly life; a style which proved so commercially popular that it became widely known as ‘Fortunismo’. Fortuny lived and worked mainly in Rome, although he spent some time in Paris – where his paintings were sold for huge prices by the art dealer Adolphe Goupil - and also lived for two years in Granada. It was in Rome that Fortuny died suddenly, possibly of malaria, in November 1874, at the age of just thirty-six. The largest collection of works by the artist, amounting to twenty-five paintings, fifty-two watercolours, sixty prints and 1,678 drawings, is in the Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya in Barcelona. Much admired for their rich colour and bravura brushwork, Fortuny’s paintings and watercolours, particularly of Orientalist subjects, were to be highly influential on the later generation of French and Italian painters. As the French painter Henri Regnault said of Fortuny: ‘He is master to us all. If you could only see the two or three pictures he’s completing at the moment and the watercolours that he’s done recently. It makes me feel disgusted with my own…oh Fortuny, you give me sleepless nights!’1 Fortuny’s skill as a watercolourist was noted from early in his career and, as his wife’s uncle Pedro de Madrazo was later to recall, he used the medium of watercolour in a manner that was ‘totally unusual and free, energetic, at odds with all convention and routine.’2 Fortuny’s watercolours were admired by many of his contemporaries, including Regnault and the critic Théophile Gautier, and were avidly acquired by collectors. As the artist himself wrote in 1866 to his friend Tomàs Moragas, the first owner of the present sheet, ‘Goupil, the richest dealer in Paris, has ordered 4,000 dr. [duros] worth of small paintings from me,
he’s buying all he watercolours I can do at 20 dr. [duros] a throw.’3 Fortuny is said to have worked on his watercolours every evening, after painting in his studio during the day, and would often present them as gifts to friends and relatives. The subject of a tapestry merchant was a popular one among Orientalist artists, for it allowed for a range of characters and types, as well as the bright colours of the wares themselves. The present sheet is closely related to a larger, finished watercolour by Fortuny of the same title (fig.1), today in the collection of the Museu de Montserrat in Catalonia4; a work which has been described as ‘his masterpiece in watercolour’5. The two figures in this drawing reappear, with a number of differences of detail, pose and costume, in the centre of the larger watercolour, which is signed and dated 1870. Drawn a few years earlier, the present watercolour ‘portrays a salesman showing his fabrics to a musician who is carrying his instrument on his back. On this occasion Fortuny has dispensed with surroundings, creating a sharp contrast to the dark background by means of black patches of varying gradations and the white robes worn by the two characters.’6 Fortuny also treated the same subject, but with a different composition, in a watercolour of 1868-18697. This drawing bears Fortuny’s dedication to his close friend, the Catalan painter Tomàs Moragas i Torras (1837-1906), whom he met when both were art students in Barcelona. Moragas first visited Rome in 1858, and shared a studio with Fortuny for several years. He returned briefly to Barcelona in 1864 but was back in Rome in 1866, where, under the influence of Fortuny, he developed an interest in Orientalist subjects, which continued after he had settled in Naples. In 1870 he met Fortuny in Granada, and the two painters travelled together to Morocco.
22 JAMES JACQUES-JOSEPH TISSOT Nantes 1836-1902 Buillon A Seated Young Woman Brush and black wash, watercolour and gouache, over an underdrawing in pencil, on blue-grey paper. 145 x 199 mm. (5 3/4 x 7 7/8 in.) Trained in Paris, Jacques-Joseph (known as James) Tissot moved to London in 1871, and there developed a distinctive and commercially successful style of painting that married French elegance with the English taste for genre subjects. The present sheet can be related to a small group of gouache drawings on blue paper, each depicting single figures of women in contemporary dress, which were produced by Tissot as studies for his first London paintings in the early 1870’s. As Michael Wentworth has noted, ‘The novelty and charm of English life inspired a series of pictures with English subjects that achieved the greatest success as they appeared at the Royal Academy exhibitions in the first half of the decade and are still generally considered to be his finest works. The handful of gouache studies he made for some of them have perhaps an even greater sense of excitement. Poised between the immediacy of firsthand experience and total artistic control, the nine gouache studies known today are unique in his oeuvre and are surely to be considered his most important drawings in terms of both technique and artistic quality.’1 Of the other gouache drawings by Tissot in this group, three are in the collection of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford and one is in the Smith College Museum of Art in Northampton, MA. Krystyna Matyjaszkiewicz, who has confirmed the attribution of this drawing to Tissot, has compared it in particular to a gouache study of a seated woman, apparently the same model, in the Ashmolean Museum2, which is a study for the painting of The Captain and the Mate of 18733. Also stylistically comparable is a gouache drawing of the same woman, wearing an identical bonnet and holding a pair of binoculars, which was sold at auction in 19984, while a more finished gouache of the same model, standing and wearing an identical bonnet and cape, appeared at auction in 19895. The model for each of these drawings was Margaret Kennedy Freebody, who posed for a number of Tissot’s Thames-side paintings of the early 1870’s. Margaret was the wife of a sea captain named John Freebody, whom Tissot befriended soon after his arrival in London; the artist appears to have painted on board two or three ships captained by him. Margaret’s brother, Captain Lumley Kennedy, also appears in a number of Tissot’s paintings of this period. The present sheet, like three others from this small group of gouache studies of women by Tissot, cannot be related to a finished painting. As Matyjaszkiewicz has noted of a drawing of a woman seated in a rocking chair, also posed by Margaret Freebody, in the Smith College Museum of Art6, ‘Tissot made a number of gouache studies like this in the early 1870’s, perhaps choosing the medium for its proximity in effect to the surface of his paintings.’7 Michael Wentworth has further suggested that Tissot’s use of gouache in these drawings may have been inspired by his work as a portrait caricaturist for the magazine Vanity Fair in the late 1860’s and early 1870’s, since the technique of gouache on blue-grey paper was common among illustrators. Datable to between 1871 and 1873, the gouache drawings related to Tissot’s earliest London paintings are, as Wentworth has described them, ‘among the most brilliant of his works...His mastery of the medium was as rapid and his use of it as brief as it was absolute. The nine studies that have been located are all single figures of women, drawn from life...They are brushed in with a freedom that does nothing to negate the marvelous attention to the details of costume and the precision of gesture and expression that lie at the heart of his art.’8 As he further notes elsewhere, such drawings by Tissot ‘have a grace of spirit and a painterly distinction which places them directly in the tradition of the eighteenth-century French water-colour painters.’9
23 CHARLES EDME SAINT-MARCEL-CABIN, called EDME SAINT-MARCEL Paris 1819-1890 Fontainebleau A Sleeping Cat and Two Kittens Charcoal, stumped black chalk, pastel and white chalk. Signed with the artist’s monogram and dated 1877 in white chalk at the top left. 354 x 520 mm. (13 7/8 x 20 1/2 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, France. Charles Edmé Saint-Marcel-Cabin, known as Edmé Saint-Marcel, was a pupil of Léon Cogniet, CharlesFrançois-Théodore Aligny and, most significantly, Eugène Delacroix. Saint-Marcel worked closely with Delacroix as an assistant and collaborator on several of the master’s large decorative mural projects. He made his debut at the Salon of 1848, and continued to exhibit both paintings and etchings there regularly. Best known as an animalier, Saint-Marcel was particularly admired for his studies of lions. He was also highly regarded as a painter of landscapes, particularly of the area around the forest of Fontainebleau, where he lived for most of his life. The majority of extant drawings by Edme Saint-Marcel are characterized by a bold and vigorous use of the pen with rich tones of dark brown ink, in a manner strongly influenced by that of Delacroix. (Indeed, Saint-Marcel’s drawings have at times been confused with those of the more famous artist, while Delacroix is apocryphally said to have occasionally copied figures from the younger man’s drawings.) Saint-Marcel had a particular penchant for drawings of wild animals, an interest no doubt stimulated by Delacroix’s own fascination with the theme. A large and varied group of drawings by Saint-Marcel, numbering twenty-two sheets, is today in the Musée Bonnat in Bayonne, while other significant examples are in the collections of the Louvre and the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Pontoise. This unusually large and highly finished drawing by Saint-Marcel, signed with the artist’s distinctive monogram and dated 1877, must have been intended as an autonomous work of art, produced as an exhibition piece or for sale to a collector. Among a handful of stylistically comparable works by SaintMarcel is a watercolour drawing of a lion devouring its prey, in the Louvre1, and a study of a crouching tiger that appeared on the art market in Paris in 20082.
24 EVA GONZALÈS Paris 1847-1883 Paris La Mariée Pastel on canvas. Stamped with the atelier stamp Eva Gonzalès (not in Lugt) in black ink at the lower left. Numbered 15 on a small label pasted onto the frame backing board. 462 x 382 mm. (18 1/4 x 15 in.) PROVENANCE: Among the contents of the artist’s studio at the time of her death in 1883; The artist’s sister, Jeanne Gonzalès (later Jeanne Guérard-Gonzalès), Paris, and listed in the inventory compiled by Henri Guérard on 25 May 1897 (‘La mariée, pastel par Eva Gonzalès’); By descent to the artist’s son JeanRaymond Guérard, Paris, by 1924; Edgardo Acosta Gallery, Beverly Hills, Los Angeles; Private collection, Seattle, Washington, until 2011. LITERATURE: Octave Mirbeau, ‘Notes sur l’art: Eva Gonzalès’, La France, 17 January 1885, p.2; Robert Henard, ‘Les Expositions’, La Renaissance, 4 April 1914, p.25; Louis Hautecoeur, ‘Exposition Eva Gonzalès (Galerie Bernheim jeune)’, La Chronique des Arts et de la Curiosité, 11 April 1914, p.115; Louis Dimier, ‘Chronique des arts’, L’Action Francaise, 12 April 1914, p.4; François Monod, ‘L’Impressionnisme féminin. Deux élèves de Manet: Berthe Morisot (1841-1895), Éva Gonzalès (18491883)’, Art et Décoration, May 1914, p.3; Claude Roger-Marx, Eva Gonzalès, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1950, unpaginated (p.20); Marie-Caroline Sainsaulieu and Jacques de Mons, Eva Gonzalès 1849-1883: Etude critique et catalogue raisonné, Paris, 1990, pp.212-213, no.96 (as location unknown); Belinda Thomson, ‘Eva Gonzalès 1849-1883: Etude critique et catalogue raisonné’ [book review], The Burlington Magazine, September 1992, p.605; Carol Jane Grant, Eva Gonzalès (1849-1883): An examination of the artist’s style and subject matter, unpublished Ph.D thesis, Ohio State University, 1994, p.296, illustrated p.495, pl.CLXVIII (as location unknown); Rachel Holm, The Life and Work of Eva Gonzalès, unpublished MA thesis, Courtauld Institute of Art, 2006-2007, p.24; Brigid Mangano, ‘The Problem of the Woman Artist: How Eva Gonzales was “Seen” in Late Nineteenth-Century France’, Through Gendered Lenses: An Undergraduate Academic Journal of Gender Research & Scholarship, 2011, pp.37-38, fig.7; Christopher Lloyd, Impressionism: Pastels, Watercolors, Drawings, exhibition catalogue, Milwaukee, 2011, illustrated in colour p.106, pl.47. EXHIBITED: Paris, Salons de la Vie Moderne, Eva Gonzalès, 1885, no.80 (‘Une Mariée (pastel)’); Paris, Bernheim-Jeune & Cie., Exposition Éva Gonzalès, 1914, no.18 (‘La mariée’) or no.20 (‘Mariée’); Paris, Galerie Marcel Bernheim, Éva Gonzalès, 1932, no.20 (‘La Mariée (I)’) or no.22 (‘La Mariée (II)’); Milwaukee, Milwaukee Art Museum, Impressionism: Masterworks on Paper, 2011-2012. Born into a cultivated Parisian family, Eva Gonzalès received her early artistic training in the studio of the portrait painter Charles Chaplin, from whom she learned the art of pastel. In 1869, at the age of twentytwo, she was taken on as a pupil by Edouard Manet. She was, in fact, to be his only student, and also posed for a number of paintings and drawings by Manet. Although her early work reveals the distinct influence of Manet, as her independent career progressed she developed a more personal style of painting. Gonzalès achieved her earliest success at the Salon of 1870, where she exhibited two paintings and a pastel. These earned approving notices from the influential critics Philippe Burty, Jules Castagnary, Zacharie Astruc and Edmond Duranty, and one of her paintings was purchased by the State. As one modern scholar has noted, ‘Her talents, especially in pastel technique, attracted the attention of critics right from the start, and like [Berthe] Morisot, she was often compared with Rosalba Carriera.’1 Further critical success accompanied two works, a painting and a pastel, which she exhibited at the Salon of 1872. The following year, however, her submitted painting was rejected by the Salon jury and was instead exhibited at the Salon des Refusés, in the catalogue of which she described herself as a pupil of both Chaplin and Manet.
Eva Gonzalès (fig.1) continued to show her work at the annual Salons in Paris, albeit not very year, throughout her relatively brief career. Like Manet, she never took part in any of the seven Impressionist exhibitions, although she is generally considered to be a member of the movement by virtue of her painting style. In January 1879 she married Henri Guérard, Manet’s printmaker. Gonzalès died of an embolism in May 1883 at the age of thirty-six, less than three weeks after the birth of her son JeanRaymond and six days after the death of Manet. A posthumous exhibition of her work, organized by her father and her widowed husband, was held at the offices of the magazine La Vie Moderne in Paris in 1885. This was, in fact, her first solo exhibition, and included eighty-eight paintings and drawings, among them the present pastel. Pastels make up a substantial portion of Eva Gonzalés’s oeuvre, and indeed accounted for nearly a quarter of the works shown in the posthumous retrospective exhibition of 1885. The artist worked concurrently in oil and pastel throughout her career, and showed her first pastel at the Salon of 1870, eventually exhibiting a total of nine works in this medium at the Paris Salons. As the French critic Octave Mirbeau wrote of Gonzalès’s works in pastel, at the time of an exhibition of her work at the Galerie BernheimJeune in Paris in 1914, ‘It is simplicity, it is sincerity, it is serenity. Absolutely no feminine over-sentimentality, nor a desire to simply make pretty or nice, and yet what an exquisite charm.’2 Eighteen years later, another critic praised Eva’s ‘marvellous pastels, drawn in the manner of the worthy Chardin, with subtle daring, broken, delicate colours, which blend in sweet harmony...with a virile draughstmanship.’3 Previously known only from old photographs and only recently rediscovered, the present pastel is a portrait of Jeanne Gonzalès, the artist’s younger sister and favourite model, and a talented artist in her own right. This pastel portrait may be dated to 1879, shortly after Eva Gonzalès’s wedding. The artist often portrayed her sister in various guises, and she has here chosen to depict her dressed in Eva’s own satin wedding dress. (Jeanne was, in fact, to marry Eva’s widowed husband a few years after her sister’s death, and raised her son.) As Belinda Thomson has noted of the present work, ‘Jeanne went so far as to don the artist’s bridal dress when she posed for a pastel head, La mariée...a strangely prophetic act given that nine years on, she in turn would marry the same Henri Guérard following Eva’s premature death in childbirth.’4 Eva painted a second pastel portrait of Jeanne wearing her wedding dress, looking in profile to the right (fig.2), which is today in a private collection5. The two pastels, both entitled La Mariée (The Bride), were exhibited together several times in later years.
Octave Mirbeau appears to have been one of the first to mention the present work in print. Writing on the occasion of the posthumous retrospective exhibition of Gonzalès’s work, held at the Salons de la Vie Moderne in January 1885, he noted in particular the two La Mariée pastels: ‘I love the two studies of brides, which have a freshness and a tender spirit, delicious to see. I find there, in the softness of the shades, in the play of the light on the white fabric and the transparent cloud of veils, a particular caress.’6 Jeanne Gonzalès seems to have posed for her sister almost daily, and more than twenty works by Eva – around a third of her surviving oeuvre - may be identified either as portraits of Jeanne7, or have her as their model8. As one modern scholar has written, ‘Eva chronicled her sister’s life, creating an intimate biography in paint and pastel.’9 The artist’s preoccupation with using her sister as a model is all the more telling since she herself seems never to have produced a painted or drawn self-portrait. As the 19th century art historian and critic Claude Roger-Marx perceptively noted of the present pastel, ‘This is her dress of white satin, her bridal coiffure, which she will, on two occasions, make Jeanne wear. It is as if she has observed and imagined herself through this duplicate of herself that she loved, bullied, transformed as she pleased, so as to create twenty different sisters...’10 Both La Mariée pastels were again singled out for praise in several reviews of the exhibition of Eva Gonzalès’s work held at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris in 1914. Writing in La Chronique des Arts, the critic Louis Hautecoeur noted of the artist that, ‘She achieves a true mastery of pastel: her Bridesmaids or her Brides prove it: she works with hatched strokes that confine light and shade within the continuity of their lines; she likes the subtle shades, the nuances of pale, but colourful, grays, these scenes of quiet intimacy, and some of these pastels are excellent works.’11 Another review of the exhibition noted in particular the ‘small pastel portraits of women (Woman with a Red Hat, The Bride, The Bridesmaid, The Bunch of Violets)...all charming in their candour, with a very personal focus and, without seeming to be, of astonishing virtuosity in the brevity and the uniform economy of their execution.’12 Executed in 1879, this splendid pastel portrait remained in Eva Gonzalès’s studio until her death. The painting then passed to her sister Jeanne, the model for the present work, and is listed in a family inventory of 1897. It was later recorded in the possession of the artist’s son, Jean-Raymond Guérard, in 1924. Last seen in an exhibition in Paris in 1932, this pastel was long thought to be lost until its recent re-emergence from an American private collection. Its reappearance confirms its status as one of the finest examples of the relatively small corpus of pastels produced during the brief career of Eva Gonzalès, as well as among the most intimate and personal of all her works.
25 EDWIN LORD WEEKS Boston 1849-1903 Paris Study of a Standing Man Oil on canvas. Signed and dedicated To my cousin Sophie / E. L. Weeks in black ink at the lower left. 339 x 234 mm. (13 1/2 x 9 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: A gift from the artist to his cousin Sophie1, according to the artist’s dedication at the lower left; Private collection, Rhode Island; Stephen Ongpin Fine Art, London; Private collection, Connecticut. LITERATURE: To be included in the forthcoming Weeks catalogue raisonné in preparation by Ellen Morris. Little is known of Edwin Lord Weeks’s artistic training before 1874, when he enrolled in the studio of Léon Bonnat in Paris. By this time, however, he had already visited Morocco, Egypt, Palestine and Syria, and had exhibited several paintings inspired by this journey in his native city of Boston in 1874. His exposure to these exotic lands was to stand him in good stead with Bonnat and his friend Jean-Léon Gérôme, who both encouraged Weeks’s interest in Orientalist subjects. Weeks made his home in Paris, where he exhibited with great success at the annual Salons. Weeks spent a considerable amount of time in Morocco between 1878 and 1880, and one of the first Westerners to visit Rabat, Salé and Marrakech. He made his Salon debut in 1878 with a painting of a Moroccan camel driver, and he continued to show Moroccan subjects for several years thereafter. Between 1882 and 1895 Weeks made three long trips to India, and his views of the country and its people were to prove extremely popular with French and American collectors. He died in 1903 at the age of fifty-four, possibly from an illness contracted in India. This oil sketch is a study for the prominent figure in the foreground of Weeks’s large canvas Powder Play: City of Morocco, Outside the Walls (fig.1), painted in Paris around 1880-18822, following the artist’s return from in Morocco. The painting depicts a scene outside the walls of a Moroccan city, possibly the ancient capital of Marrakech, with the snow-capped Atlas mountains in the distance. A contingent of mounted troops parades before the Sultan, sitting on horseback under a red canopy, while in the foreground a smaller group of mounted warriors show off their marksmanship. As Ellen Morris notes of the painting, ‘The result of the composition is a painting of panoramic impact and a rare example of Weeks’ deftness in painting broad landscapes…[The] generally subdued palette of the work is offset by the finely-drafted and brightly-colored foreground figures, and some judiciously-placed color accents in the spectators and the line of mounted troops. The painting exhibits a strong sense of naturalism in both its composition and the superb modelling of the figures.’3 A number of similar oil sketches of individual figures are found in Weeks’s oeuvre. Comparable examples include A Moor at Prayer, formerly on the art market in New York4, and a Study of a Moor in Blue of c.1878 in the Brooklyn Museum of Art5, as well as a Moorish Guard in a private collection in New York6 and a Study of a Man in Armour, sold at auction in 20067. 1.
26 CHARLES MAURIN Le Puy-en-Velay 1856-1914 Grasse A Reclining Female Nude Black chalk, pencil, watercolour and pastel, with touches of white heightening, on paper. Laid down. Signed Maurin in black chalk at the lower right. 316 x 480 mm. (12 1/2 x 18 7/8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Probably the vente d’atelier Charles Maurin, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 22 November 1998, lot 220 (‘Femme nue allongée vue de dos. Pastel, craie, aquarelle, signé en bas à droite. 28 x 45,5 cm.’). Charles Maurin entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1877, studying with Jules Lefèbvre, Gustave Boulanger and Rodolphe Julian. He first exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1882, where he showed a pair of portraits, one of which gained an honourable mention. He continued to exhibit at the Salons until 1890. He participated in the Salon des Indépendants for the first time in 1887, showing a number of paintings, drawings and engravings that were admired by, among others, Edgar Degas. Around 1885 Maurin took up a position as a professor at the Académie Julian, where among his students was Felix Vallotton, who became a close friend and admirer. Another good friend was Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, with whom Maurin shared an exhibition at the Galerie Boussod et Valadon in Paris in 1893. Maurin enjoyed a moderately successful career, with one-man shows with Ambroise Vollard’s gallery in 1895 and at Edmond Sagot in 1899. He also contributed to the Salons de la Rose + Croix in 1892, 1895 and 1897, and sent works to Le Libre Esthetique in Brussels in 1896 and 1897. In 1893 Maurin painted a series of large decorative panels for the foyer of the municipal theatre in his native Le Puy, and two years later produced illustrations for La Revue Blanche. The last years of the artist’s life spent were in Brittany and Provence. A posthumous retrospective exhibition of his work was held at the Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris in 1921. Although a significant collection of Maurin’s work is today in the collection of the Musée Crozatier in the artist’s native town of Le Puy-en-Velay, his work remains little represented in museums outside France. A gifted printmaker, Maurin developed a number of new techniques and processes, particularly with regard to printing in colour. He also invented a method he described as ‘peintures au vaporisateur’, using an atomizer to spray pigment onto the surface of the paper to create atmospheric landscapes of great subtlety and beauty. Some of his prints were published in editions of ten or less, however, and much of his graphic work remains rare today. As a draughtsman, Maurin was equally adept in pastel, chalk and pencil. His drawings were particularly admired by Degas, who compared his draughtsmanship to that of his own great hero, Ingres. This beautiful and refined drawing is a splendid example of Maurin’s lifelong interest in the depiction of the female nude. Nudes appear in several of the artist’s paintings, as well as in many of his prints and drawings. The solitary female nude was, in fact, one of the constant themes of Maurin’s graphic art, and the resulting prints and drawings are among the artist’s most striking and individual works. Like Degas, Maurin was fond of portraying women at intimate moments of their daily routine; ‘The themes of woman at their toilette, dressing, undressing, bathing, drying themselves, brushing their hair, contemplating themselves in front of a mirror are found earlier and less matter of factly in the prints and paintings of Degas and Cassatt.’1 As Colin Eisler has further noted, ‘Maurin modernized the voluptuous nudes of the 60’s and 70’s. It was this aspect of his art that so appealed to Degas, who saw Maurin as heir to Ingres’s mastery of the nude.’2
27 VINCENZO GEMITO Naples 1852-1929 Naples Head of a Bearded Old Man (The Philosopher) Pen and brown ink, with brown and grey wash. Laid down. Signed GEMITO in pencil at the lower right. 592 x 433 mm. (23 3/8 x 17 in.) PROVENANCE: Heim Gallery, London; Purchased from them by Arthur M. Sackler, New York1; Thence by descent until 2010. After Antonio Canova, Vincenzo Gemito was perhaps the foremost Italian sculptor of the 19th century. A precocious talent, he lived in Paris between 1877 and 1880, exhibiting a sculpture of a Neapolitan Fisherboy to critical acclaim at the Salon of 1877. In 1883 Gemito set up his own foundry in Naples, although it was to cease production three years later. Around 1887, after he began to experience bouts of mental illness, Gemito gave up sculpture almost entirely, and spent much of next eighteen years as a recluse. He nevertheless continued to produce a large number of drawings, mostly portraits of friends and colleagues, as well as studies of street urchins, Neapolitan girls and other city folk. It was not until around 1909 that Gemito again took up sculpture full time, and it was in this later period of his career that he produced some of his finest work in bronze, executed with a delicacy and fineness of detail ultimately derived from his drawings. A superb draughtsman, Gemito produced a large number of figure and portrait studies in pen, chalk, pastel and watercolour. His drawings were greatly admired throughout his career, and were avidly collected by his contemporaries2. Yet until relatively recently Gemito’s drawings have remained little known outside Italy, and it may be argued that he deserves to be recognized not only as one of the most significant sculptors of the period, but also one of its most gifted and distinctive draughtsmen. This large drawing is closely related to a bronze sculpted bust known as The Philosopher (Il Filosofo), executed in 18833. Awarded the gold medal for sculpture at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900, the bust (fig.1) was among Gemito’s most popular works, and was frequently reproduced, as well as appearing in several later editions. While the bust is obviously indebted to Gemito’s study of ancient sculpture – notably a Hellenistic bronze of the 2nd or 3rd century BC, known as the Pseudo-Seneca, that the artist would have seen in the collections of the Museo Archeologico in Naples – it is also a portrait of a particular individual. The model for The Philosopher was the artist’s stepfather, Francesco Jadicicco, known as ‘Masto Ciccio’, who appears in many of Gemito’s drawings4 and posed for several sculptures. He also worked for some time in the artist’s foundry, where he helped to produce the bronzes made there between 1883 and 1886, including The Philosopher. As has been noted, therefore, ‘this bust is thus a double homage, paying tribute to both the artistic verisimilitude achieved by ancient sculptors and the timeless vision of this paternal figure. Perhaps because the bust is clearly based on an ancient prototype, Gemito’s personal intervention in the unruly flow of hair and the hyperintense expression is even more noticeable than if this had been a direct portrait in a contemporary style.’5
28 PAUL-CÉSAR HELLEU Vannes 1859-1927 Paris Portrait of the Artist’s Wife, Alice Helleu Black, red and white chalks on buff paper. Signed Helleu in black chalk at the lower right. 648 x 577 mm. (25 1/2 x 22 3/4 in.) [sheet] Admitted into the École des Beaux-Arts in 1876, at the age of sixteen, Paul-César Helleu studied there with Jean-Léon Gerome, whom he accompanied to London in 1885. He developed a strong attachment to England, and was to return to London frequently throughout his career. In Paris, his circle of intimate friends included his fellow artists Giovanni Boldini, Alfred Stevens, James Whistler, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet and, in particular, John Singer Sargent, with whom he briefly shared a studio and who bought a pastel from Helleu. He exhibited a number of large pastel portraits at the Salons of 1885 and 1886, where they were greatly admired, and his career was launched with a large exhibition of pastels at the Galerie Georges Petit in 1888. Although friendly with many of the Impressionist painters and invited by Degas to participate in the eighth and final Impressionist exhibition of 1886, Helleu declined to do so, claiming a profound dislike of the work of Paul Gauguin. The following year he met Comte Robert de Montesquieu, who was to become his leading patron and introduced him into fashionable Parisian society. (Montesquieu also published the first important monograph on the artist, in 1913.) Helleu also enjoyed a long friendship with Marcel Proust, who based the character of the painter Elstir in A la recherche du temps perdu on him. The 1890’s found Paul Helleu and his young wife Alice popular figures in polite society in both France and England, with the artist receiving numerous portrait commissions and enjoying considerable financial success. Encouraged by his friend Sargent, Helleu began travelling to America in 1902, where his reputation had preceded him, and where he achieved much success as a portrait painter (despite apparently only knowing one word of English, namely the word ‘charming’). It was in 1912, on his second visit to New York, that he completed his most public work, the vaulted ceiling of the main hall of Grand Central Station, painted with the signs of the zodiac and the stars of the Milky Way. Helleu’s later reputation, however, has rested primarily on his etched work, executed in the medium of drypoint. First introduced to the etching medium by James Tissot, Helleu produced a large number of portraits of fashionable women in this manner, for which he charged up to 1,200 francs. The popularity of these drypoints has, however, tended to overshadow his less numerous oil paintings and pastels. In 1931, four years after Helleu’s death, a retrospective exhibition of his work was held at the Galerie Charpentier in Paris. A gifted portraitist, Helleu enjoyed considerable success throughout his career with his portraits of the elegant women of the beau monde of Paris, London and New York. His subjects included the Comtesse Greffulhe, Queen Alexandra, the actress Ethel Barrymore and Consuelo Vanderbilt, the Duchess of Marlborough. These works were greatly admired by his contemporaries. As Edmond de Goncourt noted in a letter to the artist, written in February 1895, ‘Your work has for its inspiration that dear model who fills all your compositions with her dainty elegance. It is sort of a monograph on Woman, in all the infinite varied attitudes of her intimate home life. We see her with her head lazily resting on the back of an arm chair;...or seated in a reverie as she holds in her hand the foot crossed upon her knee; or, reading, while one lock of hair strays down her cheek, the “tip-tilted” nose assuming a questioning air, as with lips barely parted she seems to be happily interpreting what she reads; or else sleeping, her head sunk in the pillow, the line of her shoulders vaguely seen, her profile lost except for a glimpse of her pretty little nose, and her eye closed beneath its dark curved lashes.’1
Throughout his career, Paul Helleu made many charming, intimate drawings and sketches – often in a distinctive trois crayons technique - of his wife and their three children, as well as relatives and family friends. The present sheet is a portrait of the artist’s favourite model, his wife Alice Guérin, whom he married in 1886, when she was sixteen years old. A woman of great beauty, Alice was the embodiment of Helleu’s lifelong penchant for depicting elegant women. She was praised as a ‘modele des épouses’ by Robert de Montesquiou, who dedicated his monograph on Helleu to her (‘à “la multiforme Alice dont la rose chevelure illumine de son reflet tant de miroirs de cuivre”.) In his memoirs, the English artist William Rothenstein recalled Alice as ‘a beautiful young girl with delicate features, slight and slim fingered, of whom [Helleu] made some of his best dry points and drawings.’2 Alice Helleu had striking, long auburn hair, whose abundant tresses she would pin up on occasion. An elegant woman of reserved manners, she was always depicted by her husband dressed in stylish clothes, often wearing hats from the finest Parisian milliners. Alice also occasionally posed for other painters, including Giovanni Boldini and John Singer Sargent; the latter painted a double portrait of Paul and Alice Helleu. The present sheet is a particularly fine example of Helleu’s practice of producing large-scale portrait drawings of his wife, executed in red, black and white chalks; a technique particularly suited to depicting her lustrous red hair. (Alice’s striking russet hair was a favourite motif of the artist, who also preferred red-headed models for other works, including a number of his nude studies. As the art critic Félix Fénéon once noted of Helleu, ‘like M. [Albert] Besnard he delights in the prestige of red hair’4.) Many of these intimate drawings depict Alice deep in thought, reading a book or asleep in a chair; she is also occasionally shown with one of her young children. A number of large, stylistically comparable trois crayons drawings of a pensive Alice Helleu are today in private collections3; these all have the appearance of finished works of art, rather than preparatory studies or sketches. As one recent scholar has written, ‘Many of Helleu’s best and most delightful productions are his portraits of his wife...These quick impressions, drawings or dry-points, are extraordinarily effective and have a much subtler appeal than the long series of commissioned portraits of fashionable ladies and celebrated beauties that helped bring him fame and fortune.’5 Indeed, Alice Helleu came to epitomize the beautiful, elegant women painted by the artist; a type that came to be characterized as ‘la femme Helleu’.
Alice Helleu photographed on board Paul Helleu’s yacht L’Etoile, c.1900.
29 ALEXANDRE NOZAL Neuilly-sur-Seine 1852-1929 Paris The Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Médard in Soissons, in the Moonlight Watercolour and gouache, on paper laid down on board. Signed and inscribed (St. Médard) A. Nozal. in grey ink at the lower right. Numbered 363 N in black chalk on the reverse of the backing board and inscribed up(?) paille no.63 in pencil on the reverse of the backing board. Stamped with the Salon stamp SOCIETE DES ARTISTES FRANCAIS – Salon de peinture 1895 on the reverse of the backing board. 715 x 518 mm. (28 1/8 x 20 3/8 in.) EXHIBITED: Paris, Salon de la Société des Artistes Français, 1895 (according to a stamp on the backing board). A pupil of Evariste-Vital Luminais (and, albeit informally, of Henri-Joseph Harpignies), the landscape painter Alexandre Nozal made his debut at the Salon in 1876. He continued to exhibit there regularly throughout his career, winning medals in 1882 and 1883 and at the Expositions Universelles of 1889 and 1900. Although Nozal travelled extensively around France – in Normandy, Brittany, Provence, the Pyrenees, Corsica and elsewhere – and also visited Switzerland and Algeria, much of his work was devoted to the landscape along the banks of the river Seine. Inspired by the example of English watercolour painters, notably J. M. W. Turner, Nozal was a painter of river, lakes and coasts, often depicted at twilight or in the morning mist. As a draughtsman, he worked extensively in pastel and watercolour, and his luminous drawings, mostly executed en plein-air, find him coming close to the work of the artists of the Barbizon school and the Impressionists. In 1974 an exhibition of some sixty paintings, drawings, pastels and watercolours by Nozal was held at the Musée départemental de l’Oise in Beauvais, which houses a large group of works by the artist, donated by his heirs. In the checklist of the Beauvais exhibition, Nozal is aptly described as ‘this subtle artist, this nuanced pastellist, this brilliant draughtsman for whom nature was the great source of inspiration...for its powerful effect, its wealth of colour, a very sensitive manner of drawing seen in the beautiful studies of trees on dark paper, Nozal here joins a certain number of realist landscape painters on the fringes of Impressionism.’1 Other works by Alexandre Nozal are in the collections of the Musée d’Orsay and the Musée du Petit Palais in Paris, as well as the museums of Bourges, Dieppe, Gray, Lille, Limoux, Montpellier, Pontoise and Rouen. In May 1978 an auction of around 150 paintings and works on paper by the artist was held at the Hôtel Drouot in Paris. According to the Salon stamp on the backing board, this large watercolour was exhibited at the Salon de la Société des Artistes Français in Paris in 1895, the same year that the artist was admitted to the Légion d’Honneur. The drawing does not, however, appear in the Salon catalogue of that year2, and may have been exhibited hors-catalogue. Once one of the greatest Benedictine monasteries in France, the abbey of Saint Médard at Soissons, in the Picardie region, was founded in 557. It enjoyed a status as among the wealthiest abbeys in the country until the 16th century, when its resources were drained by the Wars of Religion. Restored in 1637, the abbey never regained its former status or riches, however, and was dissolved during the French Revolution. Much of the building had fallen into ruin by the beginning of the 20th century, and only the 9th century crypt remains today.
30 LUCIEN LÉVY-DHURMER Algiers 1865-1953 Le Vésinet The Head of a Young Woman Pastel on blue paper, laid down on board. Signed and dedicated à Madame / L. J. Bloch / très cordialement / Lévy Dhurmer in red chalk at the lower left. 612 x 482 mm. (24 1/8 x 19 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Given by the artist to Mme. L. J. Bloch1, according to the dedication at the lower left; Acquired by a private collector in the early 20th century; By family descent to a private collection, France. Lucien Lévy began his artistic career as a lithographer and decorator, and was the head of a decorative stoneware factory in Golfe-Juan, near Cannes. Trained at the Ecole Superieure de Dessin et Sculpture in Paris, he exhibited his pottery and ceramics infrequently at the Paris Salons. It was not until 1895, following a visit to Italy, that he began to take up painting seriously. His first exhibition, at the Galerie Georges Petit in Paris in 1896, was comprised mainly of pastels and a handful of paintings, and revealed the artist as a Symbolist painter of mythical scenes and portraits in a dreamlike vein. A contemporary critic, in one of the first accounts of the artist’s work to appear in an English publication, described his paintings as ‘the manifestation of one of the most remarkable figures in the art world of to-day. For here we have something more than promise. This is the work of an artist in full possession of style and method, master of himself and of his art.’2 It was also at the time of the 1896 exhibition that the artist adopted the name Lévy-Dhurmer, adding part of his mother’s surname to his own. An exhibition of Lévy-Dhurmer’s work in 1899 added to his reputation, and the following year he won a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle. The artist’s Symbolist depictions of women were popular with the public, and he was soon established as a successful portrait painter. He also painted landscapes and decorative mural schemes; one such set of wall paintings, executed between 1910 and 1914 for the dining room of a Parisian home, is today installed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. In later years, the artist moved away from an overt Symbolism, in works inspired by the music of composers such as Claude Debussy, Ludwig van Beethoven and Gabriel Fauré. He exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français, the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts and the Salon d’Automne. A retrospective exhibition of Lévy-Dhurmer’s work was held at the Musée des Arts Décoratifs in Paris in 1952, the year before his death. Lévy-Dhurmer had a particular penchant for the medium of pastel, with which he was able to achieve striking chromatic effects. Indeed, he had a distinct preference for the medium, using it for portraits, allegorical scenes and Mediterranean landscapes, all of which he exhibited regularly at the Salon des Pastellistes Français between 1897 and 1913. Lévy-Dhurmer’s paintings and pastels of solitary female figures reflect the influence of, on the one hand, the sfumato technique of Leonardo da Vinci’s paintings, and on the other, the sensibilities of the English Pre-Raphaelites. As early as 1906, one scholar wrote in praise of Lévy-Dhurmer’s ‘astonishing power of draughstmanship, taste of a rare order...a genuine love of all that is exquisite and subtle, without any trace of affectation, a fine sense of order and harmony of line and colour – these are the qualities by which the work of this versatile genius is distinguished.’3 Lévy-Dhurmer’s pastel technique was admired by such fellow artists as Henri Fantin-Latour and Fernand Khnopff, and this appreciation has continued to the present day. As one modern scholar has noted, ‘Here indeed, is unquestionably the Symbolist painter who shows the most brilliant mastery of pastel…his pastels strike us with the perfection of their execution and the originality of his inspiration.’4 Another writer adds that the artist was ‘a virtuoso with pastels, able to draw the best from the velvety textures and singular tones of that medium.’5
31 ALPHONSE MUCHA Ivancice 1860-1939 Prague Portrait of Marie-Louise Gagneur Pencil, pen and black and grey ink and grey wash, with touches of white heightening. Signed and dated Mucha / 98 in black ink at the lower right. 330 x 198 mm. (13 x 7 3/4 in.) [image] 388 x 264 mm. (15 1/4 x 10 3/8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: Emil Synek, Prague and Paris1; By descent to his daughter, Yvetta Synek Graff (Mrs. F. Malcolm Graff, Jr.), New York and Montecito, California, until 2011. Born in 1860 in a small town in southern Moravia, Alfons (Alphonse) Maria Mucha led the typical itinerant life of a young artist from Central Europe, studying in Vienna, Munich and finally Paris. His earliest works were decorative mural paintings, graphic designs for posters and calendars, and illustrations for books, magazines and newspapers. It was Mucha’s brilliant design for a poster depicting the celebrated actress Sarah Bernhardt in the title role of Victorien Sardou’s Gismonda, executed at the end of 1894, which was to secure his reputation. The success of the poster – a landmark of Art Nouveau design - led to a collaboration with the actress which was to last several years, with Mucha designing posters for all of Bernhardt’s plays. He also received frequent commissions for advertising posters and other commercial projects, each characterized by the artist’s iconic, graceful female form. Many of Mucha’s posters were widely reproduced as prints and postcards, contributing to the artist’s increasing renown. For the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1900, which launched le style Mucha to an international audience and popularized the Art Nouveau aesthetic with which he was so closely associated, Mucha was commissioned to decorate the Bosnia-Herzegovina pavilion. Now a prosperous and successful artist, Mucha spent several years in America, earning significant prices for his portraits. In 1910 he began working on an ambitious project for a series of twenty monumental paintings illustrating scenes from Czech and Slavic history. Known as The Slav Epic, this sequence of enormous canvases occupied the artist for eighteen years, and were donated by him to the city of Prague in 1928. Drawn at the height of Mucha’s success as an Art Nouveau designer, this drawing is a portrait of the writer and novelist Marie-Louise Gagneur (1832-1902). One of the leading feminist authors of the day, Gagneur earned a considerable amount of popular acclaim for her novels, which were usually of a socialist and at times anticlerical bent. Among her best-known novels are Les réprouvées (1867), Les crimes de l’amour (1874) and Le crime de l’abbé Maufrac (1882). Gagneur’s published works often highlighted the inferior position of women in contemporary society, and also campaigned for the reform of the divorce laws. Gagneur’s daughter Marguerite, known as Syamour, was a talented sculptor and a friend of Mucha who posed for several of his works. (The artist is also known to have photographed the younger Gagneur, and in some of his written reminiscences refers to her and her mother as the ‘Siamours’.) Between 1898 and 1902 mother and daughter lived in an apartment across the street from Mucha’s studio on the rue du Val-de-Grâce in Paris, where the artist had moved in the summer of 1896, and where he entertained many of the notable literary and artistic personalities of the day. A related portrait drawing of Gagneur by Mucha, also dated 1898, is illustrated in a book published in 1971, where it is tentatively but incorrectly identified as a portrait of Sarah Bernhardt2. In stylistic terms, the present sheet may also be compared with a large pen and ink wash drawing by Mucha of a woman seated in an armchair3, and a similar study of a standing woman4; both datable to the late 1890’s.
32 FERNAND KHNOPFF Grembergen-lez-Termonde 1858-1921 Brussels Étude Anglaise (Portrait of a Young Woman, Probably Elsie Maquet) Red chalk with touches of blue chalk, on paper laid down on board. Signed FERNAND / KHNOPFF in red chalk at the lower right. Signed, inscribed and titled Fernand Khnopff / 1 rue St. Bernard / BRUXELLES / étude anglaise. in brown ink on a label pasted onto the old backing board. Further inscribed (in a different hand) Donné à cher Françoise / en souvenir de son grand / père. / Avec toute ma tendresse / Grand’ Mère / 12 Nov/82 in black ink on the old backing board. 191 x 133 mm. (7 1/2 x 5 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection; Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 28 November 1990, lot 43; Tokyo Gallery, Tokyo, Japan; Mr. and Mrs. Nicolas Fayt, Berchem, Belgium; Private collection, Belgium, in 2004; Private collection, London. LITERATURE: Frederik Leen, Dominique Marechal and Sophie Van Vliet, ed., Fernand Khnopff (18581921), exhibition catalogue, Brussels, Salzburg and Boston, 2004, p.141, fig.70; To be included as No.357 bis in the forthcoming supplement to Fernand Khnopff: Catalogue de l’oeuvre, in preparation by Giselle Ollinger-Zinque. EXHIBITED: Brussels, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Salzburg, Rupertinum and Chestnut Hill, McMullen Museum of Art, Fernand Khnopff (1858-1921), 2004, no.70. The foremost Belgian Symbolist painter, and arguably the only one to achieve an international reputation, Fernand-Edmond Khnopff enrolled as a law student at the University of Brussels in 1875. Inspired by art lessons in the studio of the painter Xavier Mellery, he abandoned his university career and entered the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, where his fellow students included James Ensor and Jean Delville. At the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1878 he came across the work of Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom were to be particular influences on his own style. Like Moreau, Khnopff was drawn to Symbolism in his work as a painter and draughtsman. He first exhibited with the L’Essor circle of artists in Brussels in 1881, and two years later was a founder member of Les XX, a group of avant-garde artists, writers and musicians. Khnopff soon achieved considerable success as an artist, producing commissioned portraits, decorative panels and book illustrations, as well as finished watercolours, pastels and ink drawings, often imbued with a deeper literary or metaphysical meaning. His favourite model was his younger sister Marguerite, whose features appear in countless paintings and drawings. Championed by the poet and critic Emile Verhaeren, Khnopff earned a measure of success in France, exhibiting for the first time at the Paris Salon in 1884 and at the first Salon de la Rose + Croix in 1892. The 1890’s saw the artist at the height of his success, in Belgium and elsewhere in Europe. He continued to exhibit regularly in Brussels, both with Les XX and with its successor La Libre Esthétique, formed in 1893. Khnopff also showed his work at the Munich Secession from 1894 onwards, and enjoyed a popular and successful exhibition at the Vienna Secession in 1898. From 1900 onwards he devoted his energies to the construction of a large house and studio in Brussels, where he worked in increasing isolation. He continued to write essays and reviews, and also began designing costumes and sets for the Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie in Brussels. Khnopff was admitted to the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in 1907, but his output declined significantly after the First World War. Like many of his fellow artists, Khnopff was something of an Anglophile. He spoke English fluently, and made annual visits to England, beginning in 1891. Long interested in English art and culture, he was an avowed admirer of the Pre-Raphaelites, particularly the work of Burne-Jones and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
He often visited Burne-Jones’s studio when he was in London, and owned one of his drawings. Khnopff occasionally gave English titles to his exhibited paintings, while several other works – paintings, drawings and sculptures – were given such titles as Un profil anglais, Une jeune fille anglaise, Un masque de jeune femme anglais and Une tête de femme anglaise. Khnopff also exhibited frequently in London, notably at the Society of British Pastellists, and regularly contributed essays and reviews to the English journal The Studio between 1894 and 1914. It was through his familiarity with the British community in Brussels that Khnopff met the Maquet family, who were of Scottish origins and lived in the quartier Léopold of the city. The pale skin, long hair and striking eyes of the three Maquet daughters – Elsie, Lily and Nancy – epitomized the artist’s ideal of feminine beauty. From 1891 onwards, following the marriage of his sister Marguerite the previous year and her subsequent move to Liège, Khnopff often used the three Maquet sisters as models. The present sheet is likely to be a portrait of Elsie, the eldest Maquet daughter, who was born in Glasgow in 18681. With her long red hair, Elsie Maquet posed for several significant paintings and drawings by Khnopff. These include two works inspired by a poem by the English poet Christina Rossetti; the painting I Lock the Door Upon Myself, in the Neue Pinakothek in Munich2, and the finished pastel drawing Who Shall Deliver Me? in a private collection3; both works were completed in 1891. Elsie Maquet also served as the model for the painting A Blue Wing of 1894, today in a private Belgian collection4. A recent addition to the corpus of drawings by Khnopff, this striking study may be dated to between 1898 and 1900. (The artist lived with his parents on the rue St. Bernard in Brussels – the address inscribed on the old backing board of this drawing – between 1888 and 1901.) It can be associated with a group of portrait drawings in red chalk made by Khnopff around the turn of the century, in which the medium is handled with a particular delicacy and sensitivity. The faces of the women depicted in these drawings exhibit a trancelike aspect, and in several instances the artist has added touches of blue chalk to emphasize the subject’s eyes. As has been noted of the red chalk drawings of this period, typified by the present sheet, ‘The portraits finished in this technique enchant with their fineness and the musicality of the lines. The facial features of the women appear like gossamer on the paper. The fragility of these faces has something seductive about it.’5 It was also at about this time that Khnopff developed a characteristic composition for many of his paintings and drawings of women, in which the model’s head is cut off at the top and sides by the edges of the paper or canvas, or by a framing device, and placed close to the picture plane, so as to focus the viewer’s attention on the face. This emphasis on a woman’s face also suggested a mask – a central motif of Symbolist art – behind which was hidden the true nature of the subject. Geneviève Monnier’s remarks on Khnopff’s use of pastel and coloured chalks, either separately or in combination, may be seen as particularly apposite in the example of this remarkable drawing. As she writes, ‘Coloured crayons offered a more precise, more delicate medium, the paler colours calling for a more meticulous treatment, while pastel offered greater intensity in terms of line, colour and grain. In fact, one of the characteristics of Khnopff’s work is this special grainy texture in the colouring medium, obtained without making use of the grain of the paper surface as Seurat did in his drawings. His method resembled pointillism, the pastel strokes just touching the paper. Khnopff’s colour schemes often play on melancholy harmonies of white, grey and mauve. His faces are very pale, almost bloodless; they belong to creatures with reddish hair and strange-coloured eyes (like icy water or crystalline rock), wandering in another world, a world beyond the mirror.’6 The Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren, a close friend of the artist, has left an interesting description of Khnopff’s manner of drawing: ‘Meticulously, with small strokes and with a slowness that can scarcely be worried, his point scratches the paper...The hand makes no movement that was not determined or controlled by thought...No freedom of drawing, no strong and characteristic facture, but slender strokes, inquisitive, fine, searching, dry, decisive, almost writing.’7
33 MAXIME MAUFRA Nantes 1861-1918 Poncé-sur-Loire Coastal Landscape in Brittany Gouache, watercolour, black chalk and pencil, on buff paper. Signed and dated Maufra. 1903. in pencil at the lower right. 220 x 284 mm. (8 5/8 x 11 1/8 in.) A native of Brittany, Maxime Maufra was not formally trained as an artist and at first worked in commerce, painting only in his spare time. Although he submitted two paintings to the Salon of 1886, which were singled out for praise in a review by Octave Mirbeau, he did not take up painting as full-time profession until 1890. In that year he made his first visit to Pont-Aven, where he met Paul Gauguin and Paul Serusier. Two years later he settled in Montmartre in Paris, with a studio at the Bateau-Lavoir. He continued to spend a considerable amount of time in Brittany throughout the early 1890’s, meeting several of the other painters working at Pont-Aven and Le Pouldu. Like Gauguin, Serusier and Charles Filiger, he contributed to the decoration of the inn of Marie Henry at Le Pouldu. Unlike many of these artists, however, Maufra preferred to depict quiet, almost Symbolist landscapes devoid of figures. In an exhibition of his work at the Le Barc de Boutteville gallery in 1894, he divided his landscapes into three different types, which he titled ‘Les effets’, ‘Les phénomenes’ and ‘Synthèses de la Bretagne’. Though the exhibition was well received by some critics, it did not result in many sales. In 1896, however, Maufra’s fortunes rose when he was given his first exhibition at the Galerie DurandRuel, who soon had the artist under contract. His friendship with Gauguin remained close until the latter’s departure for Tahiti, and the elder artist continued to encourage him in his work. (On a visit to his studio, Gauguin is said to have told Maufra, “I know you defend my art, and I am grateful. Our ways are totally different; yours is good, and you must go with it.”) Maufra spent his summers working in Brittany, although he soon found Pont-Aven too crowded with artists and chose instead to live and work in more isolated communities, among fishermen and peasants. As Caroline Boyle-Turner has noted, ‘throughout his life, he retained his love of Breton subjects, exploring them again and again.’1 He was particularly fond of the landscape around Quiberon on the southern coast of Brittany, and bought a house there in 1903. Like several artists of the Pont-Aven circle, Maufra was also active as a printmaker, working in etching and lithography. He died in 1918, at the age of fifty-seven. In his monograph on the artist, published in 1926, Arsène Alexandre aptly described Maxime Maufra as ‘a poet of the sea’. Working en plein-air and intent on depicting the stormy seas and pounding waves of the Breton coast, he often painted during the most violent weather, with his easel supported against the wind by the artist’s long-suffering wife. As Maufra once wrote of his approach to painting landscapes and marine subjects: ‘I work relentlessly, I try to express the strong sensations, the strange aspects of nature, the cosmic effects, in a gale, under moonlight, the tempests, shipwrecks, tormented landscapes, floods, waterfalls; in other words, everything which can be rendered not in a fleeting impression of an effect but on the contrary in condensing all that this effect carries in itself, this with a preoccupation of the picture and its subject.’2
34 LIONEL PERCY SMYTHE, R.A., R.W.S. London 1839-1918 Wimereaux ‘The Mother will not turn, who think she hears / Her nursling’s speech first grow articulate; / But breathless with averted eyes elate / She stands with open lips and open ears / That it may call her twice.’ Pencil and watercolour, with touches of bodycolour and scratching out, on paper laid down on board. Signed and dated L.P. Smythe / Sept. 1903 in blue ink at the lower right. Inscribed with the full title on a plaque attached to the lower part of the frame. 522 x 363 mm. (20 1/2 x 14 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: H. Beaumont, Esq., in 1903; J. S. Maas & Co. Ltd., London; Private collection, until 2011. LITERATURE: A. L. Baldry, ‘Lionel P. Smythe, A.R.A., R.W.S.: An Appreciation of His Work and Methods’, The Studio, April 1910, illustrated p.174 (as Mother and Child); Rosa M. Whitlaw and W. L. Wyllie, Lionel P. Smythe, R.A., R.W.S.: His Life and Work, London, 1923, pp.129-130. EXHIBITED: London, Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours, Winter Exhibition, 1903, no.10; London, Shepherd’s Bush, Fine Art Palace, Coronation Exhibition, 1911, no.2125 (as Mother and Child, lent by Mr. Beaumont). The son of the 6th Viscount Stratford, Lionel Smythe spent his early years in France before his family returned to settle in London in 1843. He was trained at the Heatherley School of Fine Art in London and began exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1863, showing landscapes and maritime scenes. In 1879 Smythe and his wife settled permanently in Normandy, first at Wimereux (where the artist had spent his summer holidays as a child) and, from 1882 onwards, at the Château d’Honvault, between Wimereux and Boulogne, where he was to live and work for the rest of his life. From 1881 onwards Smythe sent works to be exhibited at the Royal Institute of Painters in Watercolours in London, and from 1892 showed at the Royal Watercolour Society. He also regularly exhibited in Paris, winning a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle of 1889 and a silver medal the following year. He was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1898 (on which occasion one newspaper described the new A.R.A. as ‘an impressionist painter of open-air scenes...a delicate colourist and a very diligent student of Nature’), rising to Academician in 1911. Smythe’s paintings and drawings of the woods and fields of the countryside of Normandy and the Pas de Calais, as well as maritime subjects and pastoral scenes depicting the daily lives of the rural folk of the region, found a small but appreciative audience among collectors in England. His work came to be associated with that of a group of Victorian artists and illustrators known as The Idyllists – including Frederick Walker, John William North and Hubert von Herkomer – who painted rural subjects tinged with a strain of social realism. Although the fact that he lived in France meant that his work remained less well known in England than that of many of his contemporaries, the paintings and watercolours he sent for exhibition in London continued to garner critical praise. Writing in 1910, one scholar noted of the artist that ‘Mr. Smythe proves plainly that a man may be as realist and still retain his poetic sense; that he may record the life about him faithfully and convincingly and yet miss none of its poetry, none of its imaginative suggestion, and none, certainly, of the beauty it may happen to possess.’1 Characterized by a lightness of touch and subtlety of tone, watercolours by Lionel Smythe are today in the collections of the Tate, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and elsewhere. This large, finished watercolour was one of two works sent by Smythe to the Winter exhibition of the Royal Water Colour Society in London in 1903. As the artist’s biographer records, ‘To the Winter Show he sent “A Boulogne Matelotte” and ‘The Mother will not Turn” – the latter a picture of a woman collecting
dandelion roots for salad, which is a regular form of business in the early spring, in a field powdered over with daisies. In the foreground is a crawling baby. The mother has just paused in her work to listen to her child’s first attempt at speech.’2 A preparatory pencil study for the child in this watercolour, from one of Smythe’s sketchbooks, is illustrated in an early biography of the artist, published in 19233. Lionel Smythe often took inspiration for his subjects from literary sources. The full title of this watercolour, which is also inscribed on a plaque on the work’s original frame, is taken from a sonnet entitled Broken Music by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, written in October 1852 and first published in 1869: ‘The Mother will not turn, who think she hears Her nursling’s speech first grow articulate; But breathless with averted eyes elate She stands with open lips and open ears That it may call her twice.’ The first owner of this watercolour was a Mr. Beaumont, who came to own a significant number of works by Smythe. Beaumont and Smythe remained good friends and frequent correspondents for several years, and the artist would stay with Beaumont whenever he was in England. In a letter to Beaumont, written on the 18th of September 1903, Smythe is almost certainly referring to the present work: ‘Just a line to say that the water-colour drawing is all but completed, and I hope to send it over on Monday. The weather has caused me considerable delay. We have had a most unusually bad summer, and it always seemed to happen that the particular effect I required for the picture, rather late in the afternoon, brought on cloudy or worse, rainy weather.’4 As the artist’s biographer has written, ‘Over in France, in the quiet of the old walled garden, in the sunlit fields and on the shore, Lionel Smythe caught the living colours of vibrating light and the very spirit of the peasant and fisher-folk. He was a poet who sang in light and colour...He loved everything beautiful – the open sky and the sea – the play of light on the harvest fields – the germination of young life in the spring. But more than all else, he loved the toilers of the soil and shore, the women, with their ever-present burden of little ones – not the dismal workers of Millet to whom he has been compared, but buoyant, laughing human beings. Young maternity full of life and vigour, kicking babies and young girls in all the pride of their strength and freedom of movement in the open air, with wind-tossed hair and the clear sun-browned flesh he gloried in...His women are often dreamy and lost in thought as they pause in their toil, but they are never sad.’5
35 HIPPOLYTE PETITJEAN Mâcon 1854-1929 Paris Coastal Landscape with Sailboats Watercolour on buff paper, laid down on card. Signed hipp. Petitjean in blue ink at the lower right. A French customs export stamp on the backing card. 378 x 542 mm. (14 7/8 x 21 3/8 in.) Four years after making his Salon debut in 1880, Hippolyte Petitjean met Georges Seurat and joined the group of artists known collectively as the Neo-Impressionists, led by Seurat and Paul Signac. He enjoyed a close friendship with Seurat, whose influence is particularly noticeable in the younger artist’s dark conté crayon drawings of this period. In Petitjean’s mature work, he continued to remain true to the pointillist techniques of Seurat, although his compositions were also influenced by the work of the Symbolist painters, particularly Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. Petitjean exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Indépendants in Paris from 1891 onwards, and took part in a number of gallery exhibitions devoted to the NeoImpressionist artists. Unlike many of his colleagues, however, he struggled financially for much of his career, and for many years lived in relative poverty, earning a modest salary as an art teacher. It was not until the sale of some of his paintings at a group exhibition of Neo-Impressionist artists at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1899 that he achieved a small measure of financial stability, but later years again found sales few and far between, with paintings and drawings often sold to creditors in exchange for services, or to pay bills. Petitjean continued to exhibit at the Indépendants, although after 1917 his production slowed considerably. Petitjean was never very prolific as a painter. His oeuvre of around 350 paintings includes landscapes, urban scenes, mythological subjects and, occasionally, portraits. Although often preceded by several preparatory studies, made en plein-air, the paintings themselves were almost always executed in his Parisian studio, built with the proceeds from the sale of two paintings by his friend Seurat. Petitjean maintained an adherence to Neo-Impressionist principles throughout his career, even after the decline in the movement’s critical fortunes following Seurat’s death in 1891. Not long after this some members of the group, notably Camille Pissarro and his son Lucien, started to become disillusioned with the rigid demands of the pointillist technique. Yet despite Pissarro’s comments in a letter to Lucien, written in January 1894 (‘I will give you the details of what passed between Petitjean and Signac; this is only the beginning of disagreeable discussions among the Neos, for Petitjean completely agrees with our view that there is no future in a method as constricted as that of the dot exclusively!’1), Petitjean seems never to have abandoned pointillism as a method of artistic expression. Arguably Hippolyte Petitjean’s most distinctive and original works are his vibrant pointillist watercolours. More often than not, these were made as independent works of art, to be sold to French and foreign collectors. This large sheet, which is fully signed, is likely to have been such a work, intended for exhibition and sale; the artist produced some two hundred finished watercolours of this type. In his survey of the Société des Artistes Indépendants, published in 1920, the scholar and critic Gustave Cocquiot noted that ‘In the phalanx of neo-impressionists, M. Petitjean ranks very high. He is best known for his Bathers, of pure classical style, and for his vividly coloured landscapes.’2 From around 1912 onwards, Petitjean’s watercolours are characterized by more widely spaced dots of pure colour, in which the surface of the paper shows through. The range and variety of Petitjean’s pointillist watercolours were only rediscovered several years after his death, at a centenary exhibition of the artist’s work held at the Galerie de l’Institut in Paris in 1955. A closely comparable watercolour of sailboats in a bay, of similar dimensions to the present sheet and signed in the same way, is in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa3.
36 PABLO PICASSO Malaga 1881-1973 Mougins Femme nue se coiffant Brush and red ink and red wash on light brown paper, backed. Signed Picasso in pencil at the lower right. Further signed Picasso in pencil on the verso and numbered 3, backed. 406 x 265 mm. (16 x 10 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Rudolf Staechelin, Basel and Schloss Ebenrein, Sissach, by 1920; The Fondation Rodolphe Staechelin, Basel, until c.1970; Private collection; Galería Theo, Madrid, in 1992; Private collection; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 19 June 2007, lot 137; Private collection, Europe. LITERATURE: Pierre Daix and Georges Boudaille, Picasso: The Blue and Rose Periods. A Catalogue Raisonné of the Paintings, 1900-1906, Neuchâtel, 1966, p.281, no.D.XIII.3; Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso, Vol. XXII (Supplément aux années 1903-1906), Paris, 1970, p.150, pl.427; Victor I. Carlson, Picasso: Drawings and Watercolors, 1899-1907 in the Collection of The Baltimore Museum of Art, 1976, p.50, under no.26; Alberto Moravia and Paolo Lecaldano, L’opera completa di Picasso blu e rosa, Milan, 1979, p.103, no.204; Núria Rivero et al, Picasso 1905-1906: From the Rose Period to the Ochres of Gósol, exhibition catalogue, Barcelona and Berne, 1992, pp.316-317, no.148; Marc Fehlmann and Nicole Schweitzer, ‘<<Alles frägt hier nach Picasso...>>. Zur Rezeption von Pablo Picasso in der Schweiz’, in Marc Fehlmann and Toni Stooss, ed., Picasso und die Schweiz, exhibition catalogue, Bern, 2001, p.25, note 34; Jèssica Jaques Pi, Picasso en Gósol, 1906: un verano para la modernidad, Boadilla del Monte, 2007, p.139. EXHIBITED: Bern, Kunsthalle Bern, Ausstellung französischer Malerei, 1920, no.52 or 53; Basel, Kunstmuseum, Sammlung Rudolf Staechelin. Gedächtnis-Ausstellung zum 10. Todesjahr des Sammlers, 1956, no.54; Paris, Musée National d’Art Moderne, Fondation Rodolphe Staechelin: de Corot à Picasso, 1964, no.50; Barcelona, Museu Picasso and Bern, Kunstmuseum, Picasso 1905-1906: From the Rose Period to the Ochres of Gósol, 1992, no.148; Humlebaek, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Picasso and the Mediterranean, 1996-1997, no.58; Rotterdam, Kunsthal Rotterdam, Picasso: Artist of the Century, 1999, no.4. In the spring and summer of 1906, the young Pablo Picasso and his mistress Fernande Olivier spent several weeks in the remote mountain village of Gósol, in the mountains of the Spanish Pyrenees. As Fernande noted in her journal, ‘Gósol is magical...The village is up in the mountains above the clouds, where the air is incredibly pure, and the villagers – almost all of whom are smugglers – are friendly, hospitable and unselfish. We have found true happiness here.’1 During his stay in this small village of some nine hundred inhabitants, Picasso produced a substantial and varied body of work, including a number of very large canvases. Aged just twenty-four, he was more prolific during this period in the Pyrenees than at any previous time in his budding career. As John Richardson has noted, ‘During the ten weeks or so he spent in Gósol, he achieved as much as he had in the previous six months, if not more: at least seven large paintings...a dozen or so medium-sized ones, plus countless drawings, watercolors, gouaches and carvings. He also filled two sketchbooks.’2 Dating from the final phase of the Rose Period of Picasso’s career, the present sheet is likely to have been drawn during the artist’s stay in Gósol in the summer of 1906, although it has also been dated by some scholars to the previous year3. Of the works of this period, Gary Tinterow has written that, ‘In the remote Catalan village of Gosol, in the Pyrenees, Picasso achieved an almost schematic rendering of form by stripping his images of both narrative content and ornament. As always he concentrated on the human figure, but in Gosol the majority of paintings and drawings were of nudes – adolescent boys, young children, and his lover Fernande – unselfconscious in their nudity and closely related to their elemental settings.’4 The
actual pose of the woman in the present sheet is, however, already found in an earlier drawing of 1904; a pen and watercolour study of a seated nude man and a standing nude woman in the Peter Ludwig collection in Aachen5, which dates from the time of the artist’s transition from the Blue to the Rose period. The theme of a woman combing or arranging her hair was one that Picasso began to consider in 1905, and which he developed in several paintings and drawings over the next year. His lover Fernande Olivier had long auburn hair and Picasso became engrossed in watching her daily ritual of arranging her coiffure; an allure that soon found its way into his art. As Josep Palau i Fabre has written, ‘Then there is another theme, which had been in Picasso’s mind for over a year, and which he had already been developing in Paris before going to Gósol: that of women’s hair, dressed or being dressed. The sensual quality of a woman’s hair, falling loosely or held up by a hand, continued to fascinate him.’6 The raised arms of the model in this drawing is another motif common to several works of this date. As another scholar has observed, ‘The hand raised to the hair is a convention that Picasso explored repeatedly in 1906...It is a gesture common to the toilette or coiffure motif and to classical subjects like the Venus Anadyomene, where an idealized nude wrings her hair as she emerges from the sea.’7 Fernande’s voluptuous figure, facial features and red hair may be perceived in this striking drawing, which employs the reddish tonality that is such a characteristic feature of Picasso’s works of the late Rose period. In several of his drawings and paintings of these years, Picasso may also be seen to have derived inspiration from Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres’s celebrated painting Le Bain Turc (fig.1), painted in 1862 and now in the Louvre8. Ingres’s painting had been recently been shown in a retrospective exhibition of the master’s work, held at the Salon d’Automne in Paris in the autumn of 1905. Both Picasso and Matisse visited the exhibition, and each artist was enthralled with Ingres’s linear drawings and with the nude women of Le Bain Turc. Picasso may well have had Ingres’s painting, with its languid nudes shown both seated and standing, in mind when making his own studies of female nudes in 1905 and 1906. Indeed, the work of Ingres was to be a lifelong touchstone for the artist. This drawing may be loosely associated with a number of the large canvases Picasso produced at Gósol, notably the painting La Toilette (fig.2), now in the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, NY9. One of the
masterpieces of the Rose Period, La Toilette was prepared by a number of drawings of a nude young woman arranging her long hair. A similar motif of a woman brushing her hair is also found in other paintings of this Gósol period, such as The Harem in the Cleveland Museum of Art10 – a painting certainly indebted to Ingres’s Le Bain Turc – and the Woman with a Child and Goat in the Barnes Foundation in Philadelphia11, as well as a slightly later painting of a Woman Combing her Hair, completed in Paris in the autumn of 1906 and today in a private collection12. Picasso’s use of a reddish ink and delicate red washes, applied with the brush, in this drawing is found in several other figure studies of this period. The simple, coarse buff paper employed for the present sheet is perhaps an indication of the artist’s limited supplies of paper during his stay in Gósol. In July of 1906, Picasso wrote to his friend, the Catalan sculptor Enric Casanovas, ‘I want you to buy or send me by mail a roll of twenty sheets of papier Ingres and as quickly as you can because I have finished the small stock of paper I bought in Barcelona...’13 This drawing may be associated with two closely related studies, showing the model in the same pose but seated, which are today in the collection of the Baltimore Museum of Art14. Jean Sutherland Boggs’s comments about one of one of these drawings, executed in an identical technique of brush and red ink, may equally be applied to the present sheet: ‘Picasso made the contours of the fleshy body so energetic, the sanguine of the ink so warm, the expression of her face so gentle and her gesture so natural that the drawing has a human and visual richness to which the adjective ‘opulent’ might legitimately apply.’15 Like the two drawings in Baltimore, the present sheet may further be associated with a gouache drawing of a Seated Nude with Her Hair Pulled Back, formerly in the collection of Gertrude Stein16. A related drawing of a woman arranging her hair, drawn in the same technique and almost certainly at the same time as the present sheet, shows what appears to be the same model seen from behind17. That drawing, which shares the same provenance from the Staechelin collection, was exhibited alongside the present sheet in Switzerland in 1920. Likewise drawn in the same technique of brush and red ink is another stylistically comparable drawing of a standing female nude, in the Baltimore Museum of Art18. A fine example of Picasso’s confident draughtsmanship at the height of his Rose Period, this large drawing evinces the artist’s new interest in a more sculptural conception of the female form – inspired by the curvaceous body of his lover and model Fernande Olivier – after the more lean, angular figures of his earlier Blue Period; this would be a trend that would be developed more fully in the coming months. In the words of one recent scholar, writing of this period, ‘The many drawings and paintings that [Picasso] did of Fernande reveal that having her so close and focusing on her as a model helped him develop his approach to the representation of the body. In Gósol the pink and reddish tones of the palette he used to paint Fernande, principally nude, began to infiltrate every aspect of the space and objects surrounding the figure.’19 And, as Fernande Olivier herself wrote of Picasso during the couple’s brief stay in Gósol in the summer of 1906, ‘The atmosphere of his own country seems to inspire him, and there is much stronger emotion and sensitivity in these drawings than anything he has done in Paris.’20 The first known owner of this drawing was the eminent Swiss collector Rudolf Staechelin (1881-1946), in whose possession it is recorded by 1920. One of the pioneering collectors of modern art in Europe, Staechelin purchased the bulk of his Impressionist and modern works between 1917 and 1918 and also in the 1920’s. Staechelin lent two paintings and four drawings by Picasso, including the present sheet, to the Ausstellung französischer Malerei, an exhibition of French painting held at the Kunsthalle in Bern in November 1920.
â€˜I do not know if I am a great painter, but I am a great draughtsman.â€™ Picasso to Max Jacob
37 LOUIS BUISSERET Binche 1888-1956 Brussels Study of a Young Woman Pencil on buff paper, backed. Signed and dated L. Buisseret / août 1912 in pencil at the lower left. 603 x 437 mm. (23 3/4 x 17 1/4 in.) Born in the Belgian province of Hainault, Louis Buisseret studied at the Académie in Mons with Emile Motte and Louis Joseph Greuse, before completing his artistic training at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels in the studio of the Belgian Symbolist painter Jean Delville. He was awarded the second prize in the Belgian Prix de Rome painting competition of 1910, and the following year won the first prize in the category of printmaking. Buisseret’s time in Rome was of particular importance to his development, and the influence of Italian Renaissance painting, particularly the frescoes the artist saw in Florence and Rome, was to be reflected in his art for much of his later career. During the years of the First World War Buisseret painted mainly portraits. In 1928 he was one of the founding members of the Nervia group of artists, and the following year was appointed director of the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Mons, an institution that he continued to lead until 1949. Active mainly as a painter of portraits, nudes and still life subjects, Buisseret received several honours and prizes during his long career before his death in 1956, at the age of sixty-eight. Works by him are in numerous museums in Belgium, as well as in Barcelona, Madrid, Riga and Indianapolis; the last of these houses a group portrait of the artist’s family. Louis Buisseret was greatly admired as a draughtsman. As his biographer wrote, ‘Much could be written about the perfection of the draughtsmanship of this master who never ceases to remember the lessons of the great Italians and those who, in our time, succeeded them.’1 Similarly, the contemporary Belgian painter Jean Ransy noted of Buisseret that, ‘Drawing was for the painter from Hainault always the principal act, a generator of style and the touchstone of his intellectual probity...All of his paintings are thought out at length, with the love of a métier that he knew better than most of his contemporaries.’2 Dated August 1912, the present sheet is an early work by the artist, executed the year after he won the Belgian Prix de Rome in the field of engraving.
38 JEAN METZINGER Nantes 1883-1956 Paris The Yellow Feather (La Plume Jaune) Pencil on paper. Signed and dated Metzinger 12 in pencil at the lower left. 315 x 231 mm. (12 3/8 x 9 1/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Galerie Hopkins-Thomas, Paris; Private collection, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, until 2011. LITERATURE: Jean-Paul Monery, Les chemins de cubisme, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Tropez, 1999, illustrated pp.134-135; Anisabelle Berès and Michel Arveiller, Au temps des Cubistes, 1910-1920, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2006, pp.428-429, no.180. EXHIBITED: Saint-Tropez, Musee de l’Annonciade, Les chemins de cubisme, 1999; Paris, Galerie Berès, Au temps des Cubistes 1910-1920, 2006, no.180. Trained in the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Nantes, Jean Metzinger sent three paintings to the Salon des Indépendants in 1903 and, having sold them, soon thereafter settled in Paris. His early work was in a Neo-Impressionist style, and in 1904 he exhibited in a group show at the Galerie Berthe Weill and also at the Salon d’Automne. Friendly with the painter Robert Delaunay, he also met the poets Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire and, through them, Pablo Picasso. Around 1909 Metzinger encountered the painter Albert Gleizes, and the following year he published an article on ‘Cubist’ artists in the German magazine Pan, linking the work of the painters Picasso, Delaunay, Georges Braque and Henri Le Fauconnier. At the Salon des Indépendants of 1911 the work of Metzinger, Gleizes, Delaunay, Le Fauconnier and Fernand Leger was exhibited in a separate room, in what was one of the first public manifestations of the nascent movement that would come to be known as Cubism. In one review of the exhibition, by the critic André Salmon, Metzinger sardonically described as ‘le jeune prince du Cubisme’. Metzinger’s Cubist style continued to develop independently in the years leading up to the outbreak of the First World War, and in 1912 he published, together with Gleizes, the treatise Du Cubisme, the earliest significant critical account of the movement. In the same year he also took part in the Salon de La Section d’Or, the first large exhibition of Cubist work. By the following year Metzinger was being described by Apollinaire, in his book Les peintres cubistes, as the third most significant Cubist artist, after Picasso and Braque. During the war Metzinger served in the ambulance corps, and on his discharge in 1916 began working under contract for the dealer Léonce Rosenberg, producing paintings characterized by a sombre palette of browns, blacks, greens and blues. He also befriended a number of other artists associated with the Cubist movement, including Juan Gris and Jacques Lipchitz. Metzinger continued to exhibit at Rosenberg’s Parisian gallery L’Effort Moderne throughout the 1920’s, alongside other Cubist artists, and by the second half of the decade was working with brighter colours and less fragmented forms. After the Second World War, however, the paintings he produced were largely pastiches of his earlier, seminal Cubist style of the second and third decades of the century. The present sheet is closely related to Jean Metzinger’s large painting The Yellow Feather, a seminal Cubist canvas of 1912, which is today in an American private collection1. The painting was one of twelve works by Jean Metzinger included in the Cubist exhibition at the Salon de La Section d’Or in 1912. One of the few paintings of this period to be dated by the artist, The Yellow Feather is regarded by scholars as a touchstone of Metzinger’s early Cubist period. (The artist repeated the basic composition in a second, somewhat less refined variant of The Yellow Feather; a painting now in another private collection2.) Drawn with a precise yet sensitive handling of fine graphite on paper, the present sheet
repeats the multifaceted, fragmented planes of the face in the painting, along with the single staring eye, drawn as a simple curlicue. The Yellow Feather (fig.1) was one of several Cubist paintings depicting women in fashionable clothes, and with ostrich feathers in their hats, which were painted by Jean Metzinger in 1912 and 1913. These include the Dancer in a Café, in the collection of the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, NY3 and two different versions of a painting of a Woman with a Fan; one in the Art Institute of Chicago4 and the other in the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York5. (A painting entitled The Smoker, in a Swiss private collection, may also be added to this group, though it is likely to be slightly later in date, around 1913-19146.) These paintings took as their subject aspects of modern Parisian life. As Joann Moser has noted, ‘The series of women with fashionable accessories, such as a fan, a feather, a striking piece of jewelry, a lace decoration, a cigarette, suggests his continuing involvement with the fashionable life of Paris while he was exploring the highly intellectual, pseudo-scientific principles of composition and abstraction based on the Golden Section.’7 David Cottington writes that these paintings by Metzinger ‘revealed his delight in the make-up and fancy dress, the preening and display, that characterized fashionable city living.’8 He adds that ‘both components of the contest that Metzinger staged, in the Dancer, The Yellow Feather and the Woman with a Fan, between the conceptualism of cubist painting and the sensory pleasures of fashion function together to signify a modernity that is perhaps his primary subject.’9 A stylistically comparable graphite drawing by Metzinger of A Woman in a Hat, somewhat larger in scale but less finished than the present sheet, is in the collection of Dorothy Braude Edinburg10. Dated 1913, it is related to the painting of a Woman with a Fan of the same year in the Art Institute of Chicago11. The present sheet is accompanied by a certificate issued by Bozena Nikiel and Philippe Cezanne, dated February 1993. This drawing will be included in Bozena Nikiel’s forthcoming Catalogue raisonné des oeuvres de Jean Metzinger, currently in preparation.
39 HERBERT JAMES DRAPER London 1864-1920 London Study of a Young Woman: Study for Halcyone Black and white chalk on blue-grey paper, the edges of the large sheet folded over on two sides. Squared for transfer in black chalk. A sketch of a man’s trousers (probably by another hand) in black chalk on the verso. Inscribed by the artist Ruth / lying in big armchair / lots of cushions / self standing quite close in black chalk at the upper left. Inscribed and dated Ruth T 1914 in white chalk on the verso. 322 x 503 mm. (12 3/4 x 19 3/4 in.) [image] 482 x 635 mm. (19 x 25 in.) [sheet, including overlap] PROVENANCE: Among the contents of Draper’s studio at the time of his death, with the studio stamp H.J.D. (not in Lugt) on the overlap; By descent in the family of the artist; Julian Hartnoll, London, in 2001; Private collection, Spain. LITERATURE: Simon Toll, Herbert Draper 1863-1920: A Life Study, Woodbridge, 2003, p.159 and p.197, No. HJD171.iv. Among the last of the Victorian painters, Herbert Draper was active well into the 20th century. Although he was never an associate or member of the Royal Academy, despite being proposed several times, he exhibited there regularly, showing large narrative paintings of Classical or romantic themes. He also was responsible for the monumental ceiling decoration of the Drapers’ Hall in the City of London, a commission received in 1901. In later years Draper produced more portraits, for which he became quite well known. He died, somewhat in obscurity, at the age of fifty-seven. As a draughtsman, Draper worked in a manner akin to that of most Victorian artists, producing preparatory studies in chalk for each of the figures in his paintings. Drawn in 1914, the present sheet is a study for the sea nymph at the lower right of Halcyone (fig.1), one of the largest and most ambitious of Draper’s late paintings1. Completed in 1915, the painting was exhibited at the Royal Academy that year, accompanied by some lines written by the artist: ‘How Halcyone in her bereavement was transformed by water nymphs, and rejoined her mate in eternal summer in the form of the bird that bears her name.’2 The painting, which measures over two metres in length, was acquired from the Royal Academy exhibition by the collector John Hall, one of Draper’s loyal patrons, for his home in Eccleshall in Staffordshire. It remained almost completely unknown to scholars until its reappearance at auction in London in 2000, and is today in a private collection3. The model for this drawing was a young girl named Ruth Torr, an artist’s model from Clerkenwell who, with her elder sister May, posed several times for Draper4.
40 EDMUND DULAC Toulouse 1882-1953 London Portrait of a Woman in a Garden Watercolour and gouache, with gold and touches of silver, within the artist’s original drawn mount. Signed and dated Edmund / Dulac / 17 in brown ink at the lower left. 373 x 254 mm. (14 5/8 x 10 in.) PROVENANCE: Maas Gallery, London, in 1964; Gooden & Fox, London, in 1968; Private collection, USA. EXHIBITED: London, Maas Gallery, Pre-Raphaelites / Art Nouveau: Exhibition of drawings and water-colours, 1964, no.56. Born and raised in Toulouse, Edmond Dulac was from his youth something of an Anglophile, adopting English dress and manners to such an extent that he was known as ‘l’anglais’ at school. Abandoning his law studies to enrol at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse, he later studied briefly at the Académie Julian in Paris. Changing his name from Edmond to Edmund, he eventually arrived in London in 1904, and soon found work as an illustrator, with a commission for sixty watercolours to illustrate a new edition of the Brontë novels. Further commissions soon followed, including illustrations and caricatures for Pall Mall Magazine, and Dulac soon came into contact with the work of other illustrators such as Arthur Rackham, William Heath Robinson and Edmund Sullivan. The commission that firmly established Dulac’s reputation came in 1907, when he provided fifty illustrations for a new edition of Stories from the Arabian Nights. The exotic nature of the stories sparked in Dulac a lifelong interest in Oriental imagery, filtered in his drawings through the particular influences of both Japanese prints and Indian and Persian miniatures, which can also be seen in his illustrations for The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, published in 1909. Dulac became a naturalised British citizen in 1912, and the following year made his first trip outside England or France. The landscapes he saw on a Mediterranean cruise to the islands of Sicily and Greece, in the fall of 1913, inspired him to brighten his palette. After the First World War he began producing stage and costume designs, tapestry cartoons and portrait caricatures, as well providing cover paintings for the magazine American Weekly from 1923 onwards. These illustrations were to be the artist’s main source of income during the 1930’s, when the market for richly illustrated books declined as British publishers began to use cheaper black and white illustrations. In these years Dulac also worked on more ephemeral items as a designer of postage stamps, for which he would become particularly highly regarded, as well as medals, playing cards, interiors, stage sets and bank notes. He died at the age of seventy, suffering a heart attack following a vigorous bout of flamenco dancing. The critic R. H. Wilenski, writing shortly after the artist’s death, noted that ‘Edmund Dulac is a collector’s artist. His illustrated books, the water-colour and gouache drawings made for them and the outline studies of details on transparent paper are all collector’s pieces...I knew him well for many years and often watched him work...he used Japanese brushes, kept his colours in small, lidded ivory pots and always put his tint on boldly using blotting paper to reduce it when required. If a flaw occurred he always scrapped the drawing though he had worked on it for days. For he aimed, within his limits, at perfection; and within those limits, he habitually attained it.’1 Significant groups of drawings by Dulac are today in the British Museum and Victoria and Albert Museum in London, while other examples are in the Wallace Collection in London, the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, the New York Public Library, the University of Texas at Austin, and elsewhere. The present sheet is likely to be a commissioned portrait, rather than a book illustration.
41 GEORGES DE FEURE Paris 1868-1943 Paris Winter Landscape with Fishermen Gouache on board. Signed de Feure in gouache at the lower right. 377 x 448 mm. (14 7/8 x 17 5/8 in.) Of Belgian and Dutch origins, Georges de Feure was largely self-taught as an artist. He was born Georges Joseph van Sluijters in Paris, where his father worked as an architect. Returning with his family to the Netherlands with the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, De Feure did not come back to Paris until 1889. Settling in Montmartre, he may have trained with Jules Chéret and soon began working as an artist and illustrator. De Feure quickly allied himself with the Symbolist movement, taking part in the Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes at the Galerie Le Barc de Boutteville, alongside Gauguin and the Nabis artists He also showed his work at the Salons de la Rose + Croix of 1893 and 1894, where his watercolours garnered some critical praise. De Feure exhibited at the Societé Nationale in 1894, and the same year an exhibition of his watercolours was held at the Galerie des Artistes Modernes in Paris, leading one critic to describe him as ‘an artist whose work is never banal, but whose symbolism is not always accessible.’1 By this time De Feure was also designing posters, many seemingly influenced by Japanese prints, as well as producing colour lithographs. Like such contemporaries as Alphonse Mucha and Eugène Grasset, Georges de Feure was equally skilled in the field of applied or decorative arts. Aptly described by one modern scholar as ‘the most art nouveau of all the Symbolists’2, De Feure embarked on an association with the Art Nouveau pioneer Siegfried Bing that was to establish his reputation. He decorated the facade and designed two suites of furniture for Bing’s Pavillon de l’Art Nouveau at the great Exposition Universelle of 1900, a project that earned extravagant praise from critics. Thereafter he worked closely with Bing as an artiste-décorateur, providing numerous designs for furniture, stained glass, wallpaper, ceramics and lamps. In 1903 a large exhibition of de Feure’s decorative work for Bing’s Galerie de l’Art Nouveau was held in Paris, later travelling to The Hague and Hamburg. De Feure also established his own atelier, which handled commissions from other sources, such as Julius Meier-Graefe’s gallery La Maison Moderne. He continued to work as a designer and interior decorator after Bing’s death in 1905, and also undertook a number of commissions for scenery and costume designs for the stage. Among his significant later projects was the decoration of the Parisian studio of the couturier Madeleine Vionnet in 1922, and interiors and pavilions for various expositions. Late in his career de Feure was appointed Professor of Decorative Art at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. This evocative winter landscape is likely to date from the early 1920’s, when de Feure produced a number of paintings and gouaches of small towns and villages, often inspired by the landscape of the artist’s native Holland. (In June 1922 one of these, A Village in Holland, was acquired from the artist by the French state for the sum of 2,000 francs.) A stylistically comparable Dutch winter scene is in a private collection in Munich3, while another similar snow scene in gouache, though probably somewhat earlier in date, is in another private collection4.
42 GEORGES DE FEURE Paris 1868-1943 Paris Winter Landscape with Boats Gouache on board. Signed de Feure in gouache at the lower left. 375 x 447 mm. (14 3/4 x 17 5/8 in.) The major exhibition of Georges de Feure’s work held in 1903 at Siegfried Bing’s Galerie de l’Art Nouveau in Paris, and later that year in The Hague, included 155 paintings, watercolours and prints, most of which had been produced during the previous three or four years. Among the revelations of this exhibition, for critics and collectors alike, were a group of over fifty landscape paintings and drawings, a previously little-known aspect of the artist’s oeuvre. These works dominated the exhibition, and drew the attention of several writers. As one critic noted at the time of the 1903 exhibition, de Feure ‘has applied the marvellous technique of the Japanese to European landscape, and has created a new style. The tones are worked in watercolors. Whatman and Bristol paper become the palette of the artist, and on them he mixes, dilutes, shades off, and works his colors, here leaving a spot clear white, there laying on thickly with gouache. In brief, he paints water-colors with the methods of oil.’1 From this time onwards the artist chose to exhibit landscapes almost exclusively, including a number of forest and woodland scenes inspired by the countryside around Bois-le-Roi, near Fontainebleau, where the artist had a summer home. Gouache landscapes such as the present sheet find their origins in such earlier works by de Feure as the gouache The Gust of Wind, Holland of c.1900-1903, in a French private collection3, in which the landscape elements play a more significant role in what is still essentially an Art Nouveau composition. Ian Millman has suggested that such works as this and the previous gouache may, as a group, have been intended by the artist to represent a sort of panorama of landscapes in different seasons. As he further notes, ‘De Feure developed a highly personal, original approach to the [landscape] genre that may best be described as Art Nouveau landscape painting. It distanced itself from Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism on one hand and the reactions against these movements by Gauguin and the Pont-Aven Group and the Nabis on the other, yet the common factor underlying all these disparate currents was the impact of Japanese art.’3
43 PIERRE BONNARD Fontenay-aux-Roses 1867-1947 Le Cannet Recto: Bather Verso: Mediterranean Landscape Pencil, with framing lines in pencil. Stamped with the Bonnard estate stamp (Lugt 3888) at the lower right. Inscribed by the artist Marthe 1925 / nu de profil sortant du bain in pencil on the verso. 279 x 220 mm. (11 x 8 5/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Galerie Claude Bernard, Paris, in 1972; Galerie de France et du Benelux, Brussels, in 1975; Dr. Jacques Schotte, Ghent; Private collection, London. EXHIBITED: Paris, Galerie Claude Bernard, Bonnard: dessins, 1972, no.116; Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Fondation Maeght, Bonnard dans sa lumière, 1975, no.123; Laren, Singer Museum, Pierre Bonnard 1867-1947, 1977. A compulsive draughtsman, Pierre Bonnard relied on his studies and sketches extensively in the preparation of his pictures. Most of his drawings seem to have been made in the process of developing the composition of a painting, and indeed he seems to have preferred to work from drawings rather than relying on direct observation. He almost always used a hard or soft pencil and only very rarely applied colour to his drawings, relying on the strength and shading of the pencil strokes to suggest tone. In a conversation with his nephew Charles Terrasse, Bonnard noted that ‘I am drawing incessantly - after drawing comes the composition which must have a perfect equilibrium, a well constructed picture is the battle half won, the art of composition is so powerful that with only black and white - a pencil, a pen or a lithographic pencil, one arrives at results as complete and of a quality nearly as beautiful as with a whole arsenal of colours.’1 Bonnard rarely parted with his drawings, which were never intended to be exhibited. Nevertheless, the artist’s work as a draughtsman is crucial to an understanding of his approach to painting. As Jack Flam has written, ‘Bonnard’s drawings are often very small, and as a result they are frequently overlooked in discussions of modern drawing. But their formal variety and sensitivity of touch are remarkable, as is the often fluctuant nature of their imagery. Although many of Bonnard’s drawings seem like shorthand notations of visual information recorded for later use in paintings, they are nonetheless effective as independent entities precisely because of the intensity of perception they incorporate. They also demonstrate an extraordinary sensitivity to the nature of the medium itself, unadorned by elaborate technical procedures.’2 Between 1923 and 1925 Bonnard painted several canvases devoted to the subject of a nude bather in a bathtub or bathroom, a theme also found in several lithographs of the same period. The model for many of these works, as for this pencil drawing, was the artist’s wife Marthe, as noted by the artist in his inscription on the verso of the sheet. This drawing displays a close relationship to two of Bonnard’s paintings, both today in private collections. The pose of Marthe here is very similar to that of the bather drying herself in the large canvas Le grand nu bleu of 19243, as well as the smaller painting Nu à la toilette of the same year4. The landscape sketch on the verso of the sheet may be a view of the town of Le Cannet, north of Cannes, where Bonnard settled in 1926.
44 GIUSEPPE CASCIARO Ortelle 1863-1941 Naples Landscape in Capri, with a Woman Painting Above a Bay Pastel, over an underdrawing in pencil. Signed and dated GCasciaro / Capri 5 set 25 in black chalk at the lower right. Stamped with a studio stamp GIUSEPPE / CASCIARO / NAPOLI. (not in Lugt) in blue ink on the verso. 496 x 702 mm. (19 1/2 x 27 5/8 in.) Born in the province of Lecce, Giuseppe Casciaro (fig.1) enjoyed a long and successful career of some sixty years. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Naples, and developed a particular forte for landscape drawings in pastel. He may have first been inspired to take up the medium in 1885, when a series of pastel drawings by the artist Francesco Paolo Michetti was shown in Naples. Two years later, in 1887, Casciaro exhibited a series of eleven pastel landscapes of his own, and he remained devoted to the medium throughout his career. Indeed, he may be regarded as one of the finest practitioners of the art of the pastel landscape working in Italy during this period. Casciaro settled on the hillside quarter of Naples known as the Vomero, and his preferred subject matter were views in and around the port city and the islands of Capri and Ischia. Between 1892 and 1896 he travelled regularly to Paris, where he had a oneman exhibition and received commissions from the dealer Adolphe Goupil. Appointed a professor at the Accademia in Naples in 1902, by 1906 he was also engaged as a tutor in pastel drawing to the Queen of Italy, Elena di Savoia. Casciaro exhibited frequently in Naples and at the Biennale in Venice, and won a bronze medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900. His work was also exhibited throughout Europe; in Munich, Prague, Barcelona, Athens and St. Petersburg. Casciaro’s pastels were greatly admired by collectors and connoisseurs. The author of an early monograph on the artist noted that his pastels achieved ‘an extraordinarily perceptive refinement and a solidity of touch’1, and likened his accomplishments in the medium to that of such predecessors and contemporaries as Michetti, Giuseppe de Nittis, Degas and Manet. The Neapolitan poet Salvatore Di Giacomo, a close friend of the artist, chose to describe the pastel landscapes of Casciaro in lyrical terms: ‘A pastel by Casciaro resembles both Bach and Mozart; it is sometimes both tragic and profound, a moving Beethoven-like passage. This elegance is delightful: this spirit, this taste are rare: this pleasant and assured strength, it does not oppress you but it pulls you: and the voice of this lovely artist has all the accents: it has the ardour and the sigh, the impetus and the tenderness, a cry and a murmur.’2 This very large and impressive sheet, dated the 5th of September 1925, is a particularly fine and fresh example of Casciaro’s mastery of the pastel medium. Of considerable scale and finish, it is likely to have been intended as an exhibition piece. Another large and comparable pastel view of the sea from the cliffs of Capri, also dated 1925, is in a private collection3.
45 GEORGES LEPAPE Paris 1887-1971 Bonneval Design for the Cover of Vogue Magazine (May 1928) Gouache, watercolour and pencil, over an underdrawing in pencil. Signed G lepape in pencil at the lower right. 380 x 278 mm. (15 x 10 7/8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: The estate of the artist; Alain Lesieutre1, Paris, in 1973. LITERATURE: Alain Lesieutre, The Spirit and Splendour of Art Deco, New York and London, 1974, pp.188189, fig.171; William Packer, The Art of Vogue Covers, London, 1980, pp.188 and 190-191; Robin Derrick and Robin Muir, ed., Vogue Covers: On Fashion’s Front Page, London, 2007, p.54. In 1911 the French couturier Paul Poiret selected Georges Lepape, a young graduate of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, to illustrate an album of his fashion designs, entitled Les Choses de Paul Poiret. Lepape’s stylish images soon came to the attention of the publishers of high-end fashion magazines, who began to employ the artist. In 1913 he began working for the French publication La Gazette du Bon Ton, and a few years later was hired by the American publisher Condé Nast to provide fashion illustrations for Vogue. The magazine had established a reputation for its stylish cover drawings, the work of some of the leading graphic artists and illustrators of the day, and Nast felt that Lepape’s work belonged in Vogue. Lepape produced a total of 114 covers for Vogue, the first appearing in October 1916 and the last in May 1939. Some of his cover illustrations were used for two or sometimes three different copies of the magazine, which was published in American, English and French editions. As William Packer has noted of Lepape, ‘From the first his covers for Vogue were models of refinement, simplicity and visual wit...Seen as a whole this body of work stands as a splendid and remarkable achievement, a sustained demonstration of graphic resource, invention and technique of a very high order indeed.’2 As the artist’s son later recalled, ‘the covers Lepape prepared for Vogue were more than a series of ravishing images. They were a succession of surprises, each new one as delightful as the last...He used to ring the changes with different letter-forms and type-faces, and each time seemed to enjoy the private joke that he was launching a brand new magazine! Readers looked forward to their next issue of Vogue with all the more pleasure since they knew it would look different every time.’3 The decade of the 1920’s saw Lepape at the peak of his success at Vogue, completing over seventy cover designs for the magazine. The present drawing was used for the covers of both the New York and London editions of Vogue of May 1st and 2nd, 19284. As the authors of an illustrated survey of Vogue magazine covers have noted of the present design, ‘The motif of the Manhattan skyline observed through the tall window of a towering apartment block was a theme that recurred in Vogue’s covers, twice in 1928 alone. Pierre Mourgue’s – from exactly the same vantage point – predated this more elegant Lepape cover by just over a fortnight. Lepape’s exaggeratedly elongated model wears the dropped-waist silhouette popularised first by Chéruit and then by Chanel. That she is adroit is irrefutable (few finessed make-up with gloved hands); that she is also audacious is borne out by the plunging v-line of her décolleté, unthinkable in Vogue even a few years earlier.’5 Referring to such stylish drawings as the present sheet, William Packer has written that, ‘Never seeking to do more than decorate the surface he was given, and appropriately and charmingly indulge his wit, Lepape produced nevertheless, time after time, memorable and striking images that may now be seen to be rather more than mere period pieces, ripe for fashionable revival.’6
46 FIRMIN BAES Sint-Joost-ten-Node 1874-1943 Brussels Still Life with Mushrooms and a Pitcher (Les Champignons) Pastel on canvas. Signed Firmin Baes in brown ink at the lower left. Further signed and entitled Les Champignons. / Firmin Baes in grey ink and numbered No.4 in blue chalk on the backing board. 590 x 790 mm. (23 1/4 x 31 1/8 in.) [sight] A portraitist and a painter of still life subjects, nudes, landscapes and interiors, Firmin Baes studied under Léon Frédéric at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels, and the elder artist’s influence is evident in many of his early paintings. He was an excellent draughtsman, adept at charcoal, chalk and pastel, and often worked on a large scale. In 1900 his painting The Archers won a bronze medal at Exposition Universelle in Paris, which brought the young artist to wider notice. (The English periodical The Artist noted that ‘M. Firmin Baes is a very young painter, admirably gifted, who neglects no labour to realise his very personal ideal. ...his skill borders on mastery.’) Baes exhibited annually at galleries in Brussels and elsewhere in Belgium. While at first he showed oil paintings and large charcoal drawings, as his career progressed he began to work mainly in pastel, producing highly finished works and achieving considerable success for his portraits and still lifes in particular. In 1910 Baes built a large house and studio in Brussels which he filled with his collection of paintings and objets d’art, and where he would receive visitors and patrons. He worked to a strict schedule, with mornings spent on portrait sittings and paintings from posed nude models, while the afternoons were devoted to the painting of still life subjects, interiors and landscapes. A member of the Belgian artist’s association ‘Pour l’Art’ from 1898 onwards, Baes exhibited with the group almost every year for the rest of his career. He also became a member of the Société Royale des Beaux-Arts in 1919, and between 1920 and 1921 painted a memorial to the Belgian army for Hôtel des Invalides in Paris. Baes’s account book lists a total of 1,340 paintings sold to collectors, of which 264 were still life subjects. The artist also produced a number of posters and decorative wall panels, as well as numerous drawings and smaller pastels. From around 1900 onwards Firmin Baes worked almost exclusively in pastel, employing a confident, virtuoso technique reminiscent of such 18th century masters of the medium as Jean-Baptiste Chardin. Baes’s exhibition pastels were usually drawn on canvas, rather than paper or board, and he seems to have developed a particular (and secret) technique of fixing the friable pastel medium to the canvas support. The resulting works, usually executed on a fairly large scale, are characterized by a refined technique and luminous colour. Datable to the 1930’s and almost certainly intended as an exhibition piece, this splendid, large still life is a fine example of Baes’s meticulous pastel technique. A comparable pastel still life with a plate of mushrooms, dating from 1936 and of similar dimensions, is illustrated in a recent monograph on the artist1, while another, much smaller example was recently sold at auction in Belgium2. It is of works such as this that the author of a review of an exhibition of the artist’s work in 1934 noted, ‘Behold a still life by Firmin Baes, extraordinarily true in its tonalities, in the very matter of its objects. The eye is truly touched by the glistening round form of the translucent porcelain, the coarseness of the orange, the softness of the velvet cloth.’3 Writing at the time of a one-man show of Firmin Baes’s work in a Brussels gallery in 1932, another critic praised the artist’s pastel technique, and noted in particular another, similar still life of mushrooms: ‘The Studio Gallery presents a series of new works by this pastellist who, by subtly squeezing with his thumb chalk in selected tones on the paper or the canvas, achieves a delicacy, softness or an intensity which is not often attained with such great effect with oil painting, and only rarely with the same successful use of the medium...I am referring...above all of the Mushrooms where the virtues of the pastel medium are excelled in reproducing the blue background and the jug made of black stoneware...’4
47 LÉON SPILLIAERT Ostend 1881-1946 Brussels Trunks of Beech Trees Watercolour, pen and Indian ink on paper. Signed and dated L. Spilliaert / 1945 in black ink at the lower right. 373 x 272 mm. (14 5/8 x 10 3/4 in.) LITERATURE: Anne Adriaens-Pannier, Spilliaert: le regard de l’âme, Brussels, 2006, p.210, fig.307. Having shown a talent for drawing from an early age, Léon Spilliaert was for the most part largely selftaught as an artist, his only formal training being a few months at the Academy in Bruges. At the age of twenty-one he was employed by the publisher and collector Edmond Deman as an assistant, and settled in Brussels. Deman was to become the young Spilliaert’s mentor and champion, nurturing his talent and introducing him to the flourishing artistic scene in Brussels. At the end of January 1904 Spilliaert travelled to Paris, bearing a letter of introduction from Deman to the Belgian poet Emile Verhaeren, who bought some of Spilliaert’s works and further encouraged him. After a few months he returned to Ostend, although he would spend some time in Paris each winter for several years. Only a handful of collectors were aware of Spilliaert’s work, and it was not until 1908 and 1909 that he first exhibited his drawings in public. By the end of 1909 one art critic had described him, in an Ostend newspaper, as ‘still almost unknown, shrouded in proud modesty and disdainful of advertising, the young Oostende aquarellist Léon Spilliaert is a great, a very great artist.’1 Spilliaert continued to take part in local exhibitions, and became a member of several artists groups, alongside such painters as James Ensor and Constant Permeke. By 1912 he had come to be better known, and was invited to take part in a number of avant-garde exhibitions. In 1920, along with Ensor, Permeke and Gustave de Smet, he became a founder member of the group Sélection in Brussels, exhibiting regularly with them and contributing covers and illustrations to its magazine. Léon Spilliaert remains best known today as a virtuoso draughtsman, and indeed drawings were his chief mode of expression throughout his career. Executed in pastel, gouache, Indian ink and wash or watercolour, his drawings are remarkable examples of an original and inventive visual imagery. The subject matter of his drawings included urban views – almost always depicted at night, and usually devoid of people – landscapes and seascapes, interiors, still-lives and, not least, a series of intensely introspective self portraits. In 1935 Spilliaert moved with his family from Ostend to Brussels, and it was here, far from the sea that had been the principal subject of his work until then, that he discovered a new motif. His work began to depict trees, usually seen in isolation or in a grouping, although sometimes expanded to include entire forests. Based on the trees which the artist studied in parks and in forests throughout Belgium, notably in the Ardennes region, the theme of trees and woods came to dominate Spilliaert’s late output as a draughtsman. The present sheet may be grouped with a series of drawings of trees and woods dating from the war years of the 1940’s, which are characterized by a painstaking technique of hundreds of very fine pen lines, hatched and crosshatched, drawn over a watercolour background. Among stylistically comparable drawings of tree trunks, each dated or datable to 1945, are examples in the collections of the Musée des Beaux-Arts in Ixelles2, the Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts in Brussels3 and the Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp4. In terms of both mood and technique, the present sheet can also be likened to a drawing entitled The Open Door, dated 1945, which is in a private collection5.
48 RENÉ GRUAU Covignano 1909-2004 Rome The Yellow Ribbon Gouache, brush and black ink. Signed *Gruau in black ink at the lower right. 394 x 313 mm. (15 1/2 x 12 3/8 in.) PROVENANCE: Fleur Cowles, New York, London and Sussex. Born to an Italian nobleman and a French mother in Covignano, near Rimini, Renato Zavagli Ricciardelli, Conte delle Camminate, enjoyed a life of luxury as a child, living between Rimini, Milan, Paris and Monte Carlo. He displayed an innate talent as a draughtsman from an early age and, adopting his mother’s maiden name of Gruau, embarked on a career as an illustrator while still in his late teens. Settling in Paris in the early 1930’s, he soon found employment providing drawings of the latest fashions for the newspaper Le Figaro and the fashion magazine Femina. He also recorded the collections of Parisian designers such as Pierre Balmain, Jacques Fath, Jeanne Lanvin, Jean Patou, Elsa Schiaparelli, Cristobal Balenciaga and, in particular, Christian Dior, who was a close friend. Gruau worked closely with the couturier, designing numerous advertisements and posters for the Dior atelier. Indeed, Gruau may be said to have helped to shape the public image of the house of Dior, particularly during the period of the fashion designer’s brief independent career, between 1947 and his death ten years later. By the end of the Second World War Gruau’s reputation was firmly established, and had spread beyond France. He lived for several years in America, working for Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue in New York in the late 1940’s and in California for the short-lived magazine Flair. He produced numerous designs for the covers of fashion magazines, notably the publications Vogue, International Textiles and L’Officiel de la Couture et de la Mode de Paris, as well as the men’s magazine Club, for which he drew several covers in the late 1940’s and 1950’s. Although he had designed costumes and scenery for ballet companies in Paris, he declined offers to design costumes for Hollywood films. Following the death of Dior in 1957, Gruau largely abandoned the field of fashion illustration, and began providing designs for advertisements for such products as Martini, Lindt chocolates and Perrier, as well as theatre posters. In the 1980’s he returned to fashion illustration, working in Paris for Vogue France, Elle and Madame Figaro. A retrospective of Gruau’s work was held at the Musée du Costume in Paris in 1989, and at the city’s new Musée de la Publicité in 1999, while the following year a permanent exhibition of his work was inaugurated at the Museo della Città in the artist’s birthplace of Rimini. The present sheet was formerly in the collection of the artist, writer and fashion editor Fleur Cowles (1908-2009), who founded the magazine Flair in 1950. Lavishly designed and produced, the magazine was short-lived, however, and only twelve issues were published between February 1950 and January 1951. The magazine was known for its bold design, lavish production, keyhole covers and expensive stock. It was never a financially successful publication; each issue sold for fifty cents but cost $1.26 to produce. Among the contributors to the first issue of the magazine were Lucian Freud, W. H. Auden, Jean Cocteau and Tennessee Williams. Fleur Cowles engaged Gruau on an exclusive contract to produce illustrations for Flair, and was largely responsible for establishing the artist’s reputation in America. Several years after the present sheet was drawn, Gruau reused the pose of the model for an advertisement for Jantzen swimwear, published in the magazine Club in 19701.
49 RENÉ GRUAU Covignano 1909-2004 Rome Elégante Brush and black ink and black wash, with touches of pink and red gouache. Signed * Gruau in black ink at the lower right. 467 x 314 mm. (18 3/8 x 12 3/8 in.) In an obituary for René Gruau, published in The Times, it was noted that, ‘Before photography reigned supreme in fashion, its new collections and attendant luxuries – perfumes, stockings, make-up – were recorded and publicised in magazines by specialist artists, of whom the most successful in the heyday of haute couture was René Gruau. His uncluttered draughtsmanship is instantly recognisable, consisting of sinuous lines rapidly executed with a limited but dramatic palette, often just white, black and red. “La femme Gruau” is charming, haughty and feline, inhabiting (with her impeccably dressed consort) a world of timeless elegance that owed much to the artist’s upbringing on Europe’s rivieras in the 1910’s.’1 The present sheet may be related to a number of drawings of a similar motif by Gruau which were used as designs for advertisements for Le Rouge Baiser lipstick. Beginning in 1949, Gruau’s spare yet bold drawings of a woman’s face and lips became the iconic images of this famous brand of bright red lipstick, which was celebrated for being indelible or ‘kiss-proof’. Among thematically and stylistically analogous drawings by Gruau in black and red ink are two examples recently sold at auction in New York2. A very similar image (fig.1) by René Gruau was published as a colour lithographic poster in 19503.
50 RENÉ GRUAU Covignano 1909-2004 Rome The Hunting Jacket Red gouache, brush and black ink, over traces of an underdrawing in pencil. Signed with the artist’s initial *G in black ink at the lower centre. The figures numbered 7, 8 and 9 in pencil on the verso. 460 x 362 mm. (18 1/8 x 14 1/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Commissioned from the artist by Fleur Cowles, New York, London and Sussex. Even within the seemingly free-spirited world of fashion illustration, René Gruau was known as an exacting draughtsman: ‘The idea for a drawing comes very gradually. You have to do a lot of sketches. It’s like a sneeze – it either happens or it doesn’t. Sometimes you just have to leave it alone and come back to it a few days later. The hardest thing is to do a very plain drawing. The perfect line, drawn in a single movement – but you have to work very hard before you’re ready. It may seem simple but it’s not. It takes an enormous amount of work that no one sees…Sometimes it doesn’t happen. I try. I put the drawing aside, I rip it up, I wait. It’s no good unless I’m completely satisfied. I make a preliminary drawing in charcoal or pencil. Then when I’m ready, I use gouache or acrylics or Indian ink.’1 He added that, ‘When I do a drawing, I need a live model that I can have move around as much as I need to. I can’t work from a photo. I need to feel the presence of a person. If there’s no human raw material, the drawing has less personality.’2 This drawing was commissioned from Gruau by the influential fashion editor Fleur Cowles (1908-2009). Cowles employed Gruau to produce a large number of drawings for the magazine Flair, which she created in 1950. As she later recalled of Flair’s approach to the world of fashion, ‘The French and American couture had fascinating treatment, especially by France’s René Gruau, who I brought to America, a painter considered by many to be a modern Toulouse-Lautrec. His women are real, superbly but recognizably so (as women hope to see themselves).’3 The inaugural issue of Flair, published in February 1950, included a small booklet introducing Gruau’s work as a fashion illustrator to its American audience. In this sixteen-page insert, it was noted that, ‘The great fashion artist, like Gruau, becomes a force that extends far beyond his own field of illustration...FLAIR believes that Gruau has come of age in a time ideally suited to his talents. His continued growth as a serious painter has given him a sureness of technic [sic], a wideness of range, a subtlety of perception, that is now unrivalled. His innate sense of elegance is Parisian, but the Gruau woman is drawn by a man who has lived in many countries, who has watched her stand out with unstudied effectiveness against any background. Obviously, the artist likes and admires her. She is vibrantly contemporary, with a mind of her own, a hundred varied interests, and a magnificent adaptability to whatever world she moves in. She finds it a complete joy to be a woman. She never pretends to be above fashion, indeed revels in it as her birthright, but her inner security prevails: fashion is never imposed on her, she never submits to the stupidly commonplace or extravagant. FLAIR enormously admires this Gruau woman, confident that she will assume an importance far beyond her place in fashion. An ideal of beauty in our time, she will become part of an invaluable record for the future critic and historian.’4
51 ELIOT HODGKIN London 1905-1987 London A Bamboo Grove Tempera on board. Signed Eliot Hodgkin in brown ink at the lower left and dated 1952 in brown ink at the lower right. Further inscribed “Bamboo Grove” 1951 / painted in egg Tempera / by Eliot Hodgkin in black ink on a label pasted onto the reverse of the old frame. 446 x 146 mm. (17 1/2 x 5 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Possibly Ernest Brown & Phillips Ltd. (The Leicester Galleries), London, in 1956. EXHIBITED: Possibly London, The Leicester Galleries, Eliot Hodgkin: Recent tempera paintings, February 1956, no.49 (‘The bamboo grove’); Rye, Rye Art Gallery, in 1972. Eliot Hodgkin studied at the Byam Shaw School of Art and, for a very brief period, at the Royal Academy Schools, where he learned to paint not only in oils but also in tempera, influenced in this medium by the work of Joseph Southall and Maxwell Armfield. He began his career as a mural painter and fashion illustrator, publishing a book on the subject in 1932, but by the middle of the 1930’s was established as a painter of still lives and landscapes, exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy. Within a year or two of his first one-man exhibition, held in a London gallery in 1936, Hodgkin had begun working in egg tempera, and many of his finest works were painted in this demanding medium. As he wrote in an essay published in 1967, ‘tempera has no attraction for me simply because it was used by the Italian primitives, most of whose work does not greatly appeal to me. I use it because it is the only way in which I can express the character of the objects that fascinate me. With oil paint I could not get the detail without getting also a disagreeable surface: moreover I should have to wait while the paint dried before continuing.’1 During and after the Second World War, Hodgkin painted a number of views of plants growing amid the bombed wreckage of London, exhibiting some of these works at the Royal Academy. He also regularly exhibited his work at The Leicester Galleries, the Reid Gallery and Agnew’s in London, as well as Durlacher Brothers in New York. Although he turned down the opportunity of becoming an Academician in 1959, Hodgkin continued to show at the Royal Academy throughout his career, exhibiting a total of 113 paintings at the Summer exhibitions between 1934 and 1981. His subject matter remained largely confined to still life compositions and landscapes, generally on a small and rather intimate scale. Owing to worsening eyesight, Hodgkin gave up painting in 1979, and a sale of the contents of his studio was held in London in 1983, four years before his death. The present work is a study for a larger painting entitled The Bamboo Grove on an Island near Ascona on Lake Maggiore, painted between 1952 and 1956 and today in the Government Art Collection in London1. The painting depicts a view near Ascona in Switzerland, close to the border with Italy. The artist had originally depicted his wife and son standing in the foreground of the larger composition, but later painted them out.
52 ALBERTO GIACOMETTI Borgonovo 1901-1966 Chur Portrait of James Lord Pencil on paper, with framing lines in pencil. Signed and dated Alberto Giacometti ‘54 in pencil at the lower right. 451 x 323 mm. (17 3/4 x 12 3/4 in.) PROVENANCE: Private collection, Paris. LITERATURE: James Lord, Plausible Portraits of James Lord, with commentary by the model, New York, 2003, p.95, illustrated p.93. Alberto Giacometti regarded drawing as the foundation of all of his artistic activity. As his friend and biographer James Lord - the sitter of this portrait drawing - recalled, ‘“What I believe,” Alberto once said, “is that whether it be a question of sculpture or of painting, it is in fact only drawing that counts. One must cling solely, exclusively to drawing. If one could master drawing, all the rest would be possible.”’1 Similarly, the art historian Michael Peppiatt has noted that ‘Throughout his career, drawing remained the most spontaneous and revealing of Giacometti’s very varied forms of expression, a constant diary he kept of the people in his life and the objects which fascinated him...Drawing served him as the most direct way of grasping reality (however evasive), of rehearsing a new concept, or attempting to solve problems which had surfaced in painting or sculpture. Drawing was the universal language, and Giacometti would refer to it as the essential source of his art, the matrix in which all forms originated.’2 The artist Francis Bacon was a particular admirer of the drawings of his friend Giacometti, of whom he wrote in 1975, ‘For me Giacometti is not only the greatest draughtsman of our time but among the greatest of all time.’3 In the 1950’s Giacometti, who had previously only made portraits of family members, began to produce portraits of a handful of other individuals with whom he had developed a close relationship, including several writers and critics. Jean Genet, Peter Watson, David Sylvester, James Lord and Isaku Yanaihara, as well as the photographer Ernst Scheidegger and the art dealer Marguerite Maeght, all sat for painted portraits by the artist. Many more friends and colleagues - Henri and Pierre Matisse, Aimé Maeght, Jacques Dupin, Igor Stravinsky, Donald Cooper and several others - appear in Giacometti’s pencil drawings of the 1950’s and 1960’s. As has been noted of these portrait drawings, ‘Many of these sheets can be counted among the most intense works Giacometti produced.’4 Drawn in 1954, the present sheet is a portrait of the American writer James Lord (1922-2009). Lord first met Giacometti at the Café des Deux Magots in Paris in February 1952, and was, as he recalled, ‘instantly mesmerised’ by the artist. He became friendly with the artist and his brother Diego, as well as their circle of friends and associates, and was a frequent visitor to Giacometti’s studio on the rue Hippolyte-Maindron in the 14th arrondissement. Lord kept a journal that was to become the basis of a definitive biography of the artist, on which he worked for fifteen years; it was eventually published in 1985. He also published one of the first scholarly studies devoted to Giacometti as a draughtsman, in an essay for a catalogue accompanying an exhibition of the artist’s drawings at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York in 1964. Lord also wrote the text for the first monograph in English dedicated to Giacometti’s drawings, which appeared in 1971. Giacometti drew a number of pencil portraits of James Lord. One of these is today in the collections of the Musée Picasso in Paris5 and another is in the Fondation Pierre Gianadda in Martigny6. Another portrait drawing of Lord, formerly in the collection of Ernst Beyeler in Basel, was recently sold at auction in London7, while a further example is in a private collection in Munich8. As Lord recalled of Giacometti’s
drawings of him, ‘While he was working, Alberto peered at me constantly. The action of the artist’s pencil and the concentration of his gaze could be construed virtually as a unified creative process. It was obvious that his drawing depended absolutely upon my willing submission to its priority, and on the evidence of what he did Alberto clearly saw more in his ingenuous model than I could have perceived in myself.’9 Giacometti also produced a painted portrait of Lord, executed over a period of eighteen days in 1964; the painting is today in a private collection10. James Lord has written extensively about the present sheet in his book Plausible Portraits of James Lord, published in 2003: ‘The fourth and last portrait drawing I have chosen to reproduce is an illustration of Alberto’s absolute visual veracity via the form that most preoccupied him all his life: the human head. Here we see my solitary head, isolated in space, set autonomously alone in the center of the empty sheet, which can be construed as a semblance of the cosmos. It defies definition. After several years of semiabstract work in the early 1930s, Alberto had resumed purely representational work, especially the study of the head, and for this reason was drummed out of the silly surrealist sect by André Breton, who said, “Everybody knows what a head is,” when in fact a head is what is most puzzling and enigmatic about us all as soon as one peers beyond a commonplace configuration to contemplate its expressive mystery, its look that looks at the act of looking and its power to control the use of vision. For Alberto life was sight; seeing and being were equivalent. In this head study the model’s gaze again establishes his vitality. The essential structure of life is centered upon the eyes. This conviction was the metaphysical absolutism of Giacometti’s creative courage. It was not for nothing, he said, that the first benevolence offered to the dead is the closing of the eyes.’11 In September 1964, at the time that Giacometti was painting his portrait, Lord recalled a conversation he had with the artist: ‘He looked at me for a minute before beginning to paint, then said, “You have the head of a brute.” Surprised and amused, I replied, “Do you really think so?” “And how!” he exclaimed. ‘You look like a real thug. If I could paint you as I see you and a policeman saw the picture he’d arrest you immediately!” I laughed, but he said, “Don’t laugh. I’m not supposed to make my models laugh.”’12 Giacometti’s portrait drawings are among his most compelling works as a draughtsman, and the present sheet is a particularly fine and expressive example of his confident handling of the pencil. The use of framing lines and the fact that much of the paper is left untouched, as well as the absence of any other part of the sitter’s body, serves to focus the viewer’s attention solely on Lord’s head and face. Drawn with myriad, fluent strokes of a sharpened pencil, the sitter’s head – always the crux of any portrait by Giacometti – seems almost to project from the surface of the paper. The swirling graphite lines, surrounded by empty space, give a sense of the artist’s intense focus on the head of Lord, seated in the middle of the studio, to the exclusion of everything else. As James Lord himself has noted, ‘As for the drawings themselves, their plastic and technical daring and individuality is obvious. They exist with an authority that rhetoric cannot presume to enhance. The skill and the audacity with which the blank page is made to play a part as important as the drawing itself is unerring. The vibrant and coursing vitality of the line, which never at the same time is allowed to exist merely for its own sake, remains always immediate. It is enough, after all, to say that a drawing by Giacometti could not possibly be by anyone else.’13 The present sheet is accompanied by a certificate from the Comité Giacometti, dated July 2010. James Lord and Alberto Giacometti
53 JULIENNE PAULINE ISIDORINE WALTER, called ZOUM WALTER Ixelles 1902-1974 Paris Dunes Pastel on dark blue-grey paper. Signed with initials and dated Z.W. / 70. in pencil at the lower right. Stamped with the vente stamp on the verso. 321 x 289 mm. (12 5/8 x 11 3/8 in.) [sheet] PROVENANCE: The vente Zoum Walter, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Millon & Associés], 16 October 2006, lot
234. A gifted painter and pastellist, Julienne (known as ‘Zoum’) Walter was the daughter of the Belgian artist Jean van den Eeckhoudt, and began to paint at a very young age. Her early work was made up primarily of landscapes of the South of France, executed in both oils and pastel, the latter a medium she was to become particularly adept. Following her marriage to François Walter in 1928, Zoum took French citizenship and settled in Paris, where she began painting studies of nudes. Her first solo exhibitions were held in Paris and Brussels in 1929, and in the succeeding years she took part in the Salon d’Automne, the Salon des Tuileries and the Salon des Indépendants. A series of religious compositions painted in the years after the Second World War were followed by a group of small-scale paintings and pastel landscapes. Later works were more abstract, but a burst of creativity in the late 1960’s and the early 1970’s found Walter returning to landscape motifs. These included views of the Alpilles of Provence, the forests of the Vosges, the coast of Normandy around Houlgate, the Alpes Maritimes around Nice, Menton and Roquebrune, the North Sea town of Koksijde, and elsewhere. She had a special interest in studies of skies, depicting vast, atmospheric landscapes devoid of details and with no traces of a human presence. Walter exhibited at Salons in both France and Belgium, and also exhibited at galleries in Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Oslo and elsewhere. After her death in 1974, exhibitions of her paintings and pastels were held in Paris in 1991 and 1992, while retrospective exhibitions were presented by the Musée de Pontoise and the Musée Ingres in Montauban in 1992. Works by Zoum Walter are today in the collection of the Musée Nationale d’Art Moderne and the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, as well as in the museums of Épinal, La Rochelle, Uzés and Ixelles. Zoum Walter had a particular affinity for the medium of pastel, which accounts for much of her finest work. She seems to have begun experimenting with the pastels she found in her father’s studio as a young child, with her first works in the technique dating from around 1916, and her love of the medium never left her. As she later recalled, in an interview of 1965, ‘There was, I think, an immediate harmony between pastel and myself. Its matte substance, its colours both powerful and straightforward, soft in their sharpness, its consistency and, knowing it so well after countless exercises, the speed and surety of its application, all contribute, I hope, to the freedom and unity that I love.’1
54 JENNY SAVILLE, R.A. Born 1970 Mother and Children (after the Leonardo Cartoon) Charcoal, with stumping and touches of rose chalk, on white paper. Signed and dated Saville ‘08 in pencil at the lower right. 1518 x 1215 mm. (59 3/4 x 47 7/8 in.) PROVENANCE: New York, Sotheby’s, 18th Annual ‘Take Home a Nude’ benefit auction for the New York Academy of Art, 7 October 2009, where acquired by a private collector; Private collection. Born in Cambridge in 1970, Jenny Saville studied at the Glasgow School of Art, graduating in 1992 with a final show in which every painting was sold. While still at art school, she took part in the British Portrait Competition at the National Portrait Gallery in London in 1990 and in the Van Gogh Self Portrait Competition at the Burrell Collection in Glasgow. Shortly after her graduation, the artist’s work came to the attention of the collector Charles Saatchi, who purchased several of her paintings. Between 1992 and 1993, Saatchi commissioned Saville to produce a number of paintings that were later included in the exhibition Young British Artists III at the Saatchi Gallery in London in 1994, where the work of the twenty-three year old artist first received a significant amount of critical attention. Working on a very large scale, Saville created paintings characterized both by an abiding interest in the naked female body and the sheer physicality of oil paint. A desire to learn more about anatomy led to an opportunity, during a stay in America in 1994, to make a careful study of cosmetic surgical procedures. In 1995 and 1996 she collaborated with the photographer Glen Luchford on a series of paintings of a female model pressed against a sheet of glass; these works were exhibited at the Pace McGill Gallery in New York in 1996. Saville’s paintings were included in the controversial exhibition Sensation: Young British Artists from the Saatchi Collection at the Royal Academy in London in 1997, alongside the work of Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Tracey Emin and others, and this brought her work to the notice of the public at large. In 1998 a solo exhibition, entitled Territories, was mounted at the Gagosian Gallery in New York, followed in 2003 by another exhibition entitled Migrants. In 2000 Saville was appointed a lecturer of figure painting at the Slade School of Fine Art in London, where she taught until 2006. A solo museum exhibition of her work was mounted at the Museo d’Arte Contemporanea in Rome in 2005, and the following year she completed a commission from the Italian collector Carlo Bilotti for three paintings to decorate the chapel of the Museo Carlo Bilotti in Rome. These were installed in 2006 alongside other site-specific works commissioned for the chapel from Damien Hirst and David Salle. In 2007 she was elected to the Royal Academy. Once described by the art historian Linda Nochlin as ‘the most interesting and exciting painter of our times’1, Saville’s abiding interest in the human body, as well as her visceral painting style, have often seen her work regarded in the context of such 20th century masters of figurative painting as Francis Bacon and, in particular, Lucian Freud. Throughout her career, however, she has also looked to the art of the Old Masters – artists such as Leonardo, Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Vermeer and Velásquez – for inspiration. After working for several years between studios in London and Palermo in Sicily, Saville today lives and works in Oxford. A retrospective exhibition of her paintings and drawings is at the Norton Museum of Art in West Palm Beach, Florida, and the Modern Art Museum in Oxford in 2011-2012. This monumental charcoal drawing is a study for Jenny Saville’s painting The Mothers (fig.1), completed in 2011 and today in a private collection2. Depicting the pregnant artist holding two squirming babies, the canvas is part of a recent group of large-scale paintings and drawings that reflect a new interest in the intimate portrayal of pregnancy and motherhood. In 2007 Saville gave birth to her first child, a son, followed a year later by a daughter, and the experience of motherhood soon found expression in her
work. The artist a number of made paintings and drawings of herself throughout her pregnancies, and also asked several expectant mothers to model for her while working on this series of compositions. In a recent interview, Saville described the genesis of these works: ‘I had thought about doing motherand-child images because I have never done anything with children before. I’ve tried to stay away a little bit, about the issues surrounding biology being determinate and that women are here to have babies. But, it’s so powerful and I thought, well, I quite like tackling grand, old subjects. It’s a challenge to make a painting with a child that isn’t sentimental. It’s a real challenge to actually make the sort of physicality of a baby’s body, and not be cutesy and Baroque and bubbly; to find a dynamic within the body. Children are quite animalistic and that is difficult to create.’3 Simon Schama has aptly characterized this new series of mothers and children, of which the present sheet is part, in a review of a recent gallery exhibition: ‘...take a look at what Saville has done with her astounding paintings and drawings of her naked self with her baby boys exploding every which way from arm and lap...Not since Leonardo (whose own studies were a departure point for Saville) and Rembrandt has an artist got the peculiar body language of very small children exactly right. One of the baby boys arches his back in precisely that pre-tantrum power-moment no parent is likely to forget; others have the juicy-lipped, groggy fullness of the milkily sated...To convey the whirl of them in motion, the storm of fidget, Saville has done something so simple, so brilliant and yet so unprecedented that once you’ve seen it you can’t believe no one arrived at the idea before. She has retained all the drawn pentimenti of possible positions for the infants into the eventual painting or drawing, so that the same image contains within it a baby boy asleep, another in a tensed tantrum, another hanging loose, another in arms, another tumbling away...Saville has created movie animation for modern art and the effect is liberating, exhilarating, dumbfounding in the best possible way.’4 Like other works from this series, this powerful drawing is further inspired by Renaissance images of the Virgin and Child, and in particular Leonardo da Vinci’s large cartoon of The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist (fig.2), also known as the Burlington House Cartoon, in the National Gallery in London5. Drawn in black and white chalk on eight joined sheets of paper, Leonardo’s monumental drawing is thought to be a cartoon for a now-lost painting, and has been dated to c.1499-1500.
As Saville has recalled, ‘I have quite a personal relationship with Leonardo da Vinci, because my parents had a very small reproduction, about 20 cm by 25 cm, of the Burlington House Cartoon. I moved house quite a lot as a child and that used to reappear quickly, so that was my permanence – the drawings I made that I carried around, and this image. I used to go and see it when I went to school, so it became a powerful icon in my life.’6 This exceptional drawing highlights Jenny Saville’s brilliant, self-assured draughtsmanship. As one recent scholar has noted, the artist ‘delights in drawing and has been able to achieve the desired, visual layering of realities more easily in this medium, which informs her paintings. In her drawings related to Leonardo’s work, she suggests a changing sense of perspective by her varied marks that rise up in passages to define the figures in changing proportions. At the same time, these abundant marks obscure the figures as they radiate out across the paper or canvas support.’7 As Saville herself has said of these recent graphite and charcoal drawings, some of which were exhibited in her show Continuum at the Gagosian Gallery in New York in 2011, ‘in this series, I’ve embraced drawing in a new way. I’m a bit more confident.’8 The present large sheet may be grouped with a handful of equally large drawings by Saville of pregnant women with baby boys, mostly executed between 2009 and 2010, which find their inspiration in Leonardo’s Burlington House Cartoon. While some of these are drawn on fairly sizeable sheets of vellum9, others are, like the present sheet, drawn in pencil or charcoal on much larger sheets of paper. Dated 2008, this drawing is one of the earliest of this group. The pose of the mother in the present sheet is closely related in particular to that in a slightly later drawing of 2009-2010, entitled Reproduction Drawing I (after the Leonardo Cartoon), which was with Gagosian Gallery in London in 201010. Two other charcoal drawings of the same title and date, depicting a single child, were also exhibited at Gagosian in 2010 and are now in private collections11. A fourth large drawing from this series, dated 2010 and today in an American private collection12, makes the connection with the Leonardo cartoon explicit. In Reproduction Drawing IV (after the Leonardo Cartoon), Saville has first drawn a free copy of the Burlington House Cartoon in charcoal, and over this has added two wriggling boys, with Leonardo’s Virgin and Saint Anne in place of the mother seen in the earlier drawings. In a recently published article, Jenny Saville has stated that ‘Leonardo’s sketch for the Burlington House Cartoon – I call it the Black Mass drawing – is, I think, the greatest drawing ever made in the history of art. It really pre-empts everything that happens in art all the way up to abstraction. I never tire of looking at it. I have it around me all the time. You see it in Giacometti, you see it Auerbach now, this sort of energetic mass of forms. It shows you – to the most extreme level – what Leonardo could do, which was internal structure mixed with movement. I think that the intelligence of the artist is shown in the drawing. His lifelong curiosity has always been something I really loved: his desire to see something through drawing, to understand something himself rather than just relying on other sources.’13 And, as she also points out, ‘There’s no one better to look at when you’re learning how to draw than Leonardo.’14
No.36 Pabl o Pi casso Fig.2 Pablo Picasso La Toilette, 1906 Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY. Oil on canvas. 151 x 99 cm. (59 1/2 x 39 in.) © 2012 Albright-Knox Art Gallery
No.54 Jenny Sav ille Fig.1 Jenny Saville The Mothers, 2011 Oil on canvas 270 x 220 cm. (106 5/16 x 86 5/8 in.) Private collection. © 2012 Jenny Saville Courtesy of Gagosian Gallery Fig.2 Leonardo da Vinci The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist (The Burlington House Cartoon), c.1499-1500 Black chalk and white chalk in paper mounted on canvas. 1415 x 1046 mm. (56 x 41 in.) The National Gallery, London.
NOTES TO THE CATALOGUE No.1 Cherubino Alberti 1. Kristina Hermann-Fiore, Disegni degli Alberti: Il volume 2503 del Gabinetto Nazionale delle Stampe, Rome, 1983, pp.5254, no.11. 2. Anonymous sale, London, Sotheby’s, 7 December 1976, lot 31 (bt. Yvonne Tan Bunzl). The drawings in the sketchbook have since been dispersed.
No.2 Bernardo Castello 1. Venanzio Belloni, Pittura genovese del seicento dal manierismo al barocco, Genoa, 1969, p.61. 2. Regina Erbentraut, ‘Die >>Spinola-Fresken<< des Palazzo Pessagno Pallavicino und die Schlacht von Mühlberg’, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, 1990, No.4, p.555, fig.19. The subject of Perseus and Andromeda also appears twice in the fresco decoration of the Villa Doria at Pegli (Loredana Pessa Montagni, ‘Gli affreschi della villa Doria di Pegli: Un unicum del Cinquecento genovese’, Paragone, July 1986, pls.16 [as attributed to Nicolosio Granello and Luca Cambiaso] and 22 [as by a follower of Giovanni Battista Castello, Il Bergamasco]). 3. Fiorella Caraceni, Guide di Genova, No.80. Sampierdarena: Palazzo Centurione del Monastero, Genoa, 1979, p.6, fig.9. 4. Pagliano, op.cit., pp.263-264, no.157; Piero Boccardo et al, Le dessin en Italie dans les collections publiques françaises. Gênes triomphante et la Lombardie des Borromée, exhibition catalogue, Ajaccio, Musée Fesch, 2006-2007, pp.24-25, no.3.
No.3 Pompeo Pedemonte 1. T. Barton Thurber, ‘I disegni di Pompeo Pedemonte nel Civico Gabinetto dei disegni di Milano’, Il Disegno di Architettura, April 1994, pp.48-54. 2. Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 1 July 1997, lot 21 (as Attributed to Giovanni Battista Bertani). The drawing, which measures 310 x 218 mm., was acquired at the auction by the ‘Associazione Amici di Palazzo Te e dei Musei Mantovani’ and donated by them to the Palazzo Te. 3. The drawing is extensively inscribed with its intended location (‘Arco di Sa Silvestro / in Mantua’) and a dedication (‘Magno henrico gallorum et sarmatiae Regi-’), among other inscriptions. 4. Notably in Bernard de Vigenère’s La sompteuse et magnifique entrée du tres-chrestien Roy de France & de Pologne, grand Duc de Lithuanie, &c. En la cité de Mantoue, avec les portraits des choses les plus exquises, published in Paris in 1576. Three of these engravings are illustrated in Ercolano Marani and Chiara Perina, Mantova: Le arti. Vol.III: Dalla metà del secolo XVI ai nostri giorni, Mantua, 1965, pp.30-31 and pls.19-21. 5. Anonymous sales, London, Christie’s, 9 April 1990, lot 17 (as Veronese School, c.1560) and London, Christie’s 16 April 1991, lot 121 (as Mantuan School, c.1560). The drawing measures 234 x 404 mm. 6. Inv. 52275; David Klemm, Die Sammlungen der Hamburger Kunsthalle Kupferstichkabinett: Italienische Zeichnungen 14501800, Cologne, Weimar and Vienna, 2009, Vol.I, p.266, no.378, Vol.II, p.165, fig.378. The drawing measures 284 x 202 mm. and, like the present sheet, was once owned by the 19th century Milanese art dealer Giuseppe Vallardi. 7. Inv. 1984.AB.22. This architectural drawing, executed in pen, ink and wash and measuring 362 x 254 mm., is illustrated at http://www.artandarchitecture.org.uk/images/gallery/a480c1af.html. 8. Catherine Monbeig Goguel, Patrick Ramade and Nicolas Schwed, ed., L’Oeil et la Passion: Dessins italiens de la Renaissance dans les collections privées françaises, exhibition catalogue, Caen, 2011, pp.102-105, no.25 (entry by Paolo Carpeggiani). The drawing measures 388 x 712 mm.
No.4 Giovanni Battista Ricci 1. The French physician Albert Léon Victor Finot (1853-1941) assembled an interesting and varied collection of Old Master drawings, predominantly by Italian and French artists. 2. Rhoda Eitel-Porter, ‘Giovanni Battista Ricci da Novara’, in Philippe Costamagna, Florian Härb and Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò, ed., Disegno, giudizio e bella maniera: Studi sul disegno italiano in onore di Catherine Monbeig Goguel, Cinisello Balsamo, 2005, p.108, no.57. 3. Inv. RF 36012 and RF 36013; Almamaria Mignosi Tantillo, ‘La Cappella Cerasi: vicende di una decorazione’, in Maria Grazia Bernardini et al, Caravaggio, Carracci, Maderno: La Cappella Cerasi in Santa Maria del Popolo a Roma, Cinisello Balsamo, 2001, pp.52-53, figs.5 and 7. The frescoes are illustrated as figs. 4 and 6. 4. Inv. RF 10242; Jacqueline Labbé and Lise Bicart-Sée, La collection de dessins d’Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville, Paris, 1996, p.136, no.618 (as Muziano). 5. Richard J. Campbell and Jane Immler Satkowski, ed., Master Drawings from the collection of Alfred Moir, exhibition catalogue, Minneapolis and elsewhere, 2000-2002, pp.60-61, no.32 (as Muziano).
No.5 Jan Harmensz. Muller 1. Lars Olof Larsson, Adrian de Vries, Vienna and Munich, 1967, p.118, no.3, figs.40-44. 2. Ibid., p.119, nos.14b and 14c, figs.128-129. 3. Larsson, op.cit., p.125, no.53, fig.25. 4. Jan Piet Filedt Kok, ed., The New Hollstein. Dutch & Flemish Etchings, Engravings and Woodcuts, 1450-1700: The Muller Dynasty, Part II, Rotterdam, 1999, pp.232-233, no.85; Larsson, op.cit., fig.24; Frits Scholten et al, Adriaen de Vries 15561626, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam and elsewhere, 1998-2000, p.274, no.59, illustrated p.281. 5. Larsson, op.cit., p.122, no.31, figs.10-11; Scholten et al, op.cit., pp.109-111, no.3. 6. Scholten et al, op.cit., p.274, nos. 58a-c, illustrated pp.278-280. 7. E. K. J. Reznicek, ‘Jan Harmensz. Muller as Draughtsman: Addenda’, Master Drawings, Summer 1980, pp.124-125 and p.132, no.18, pl.8. 8. Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 11 January 1994, lot 378a. 9. Filedt Kok, op.cit., 1999, pp.189-191, no.70.
No.6 Northern School 1. Although an approximate stylistic comparison may be made with a gouache drawing of The Raising of the Cross by Baur sold at auction in New York in 1990 (Régine Bonnefoit, Johann Wilhelm Baur (1607-1642): Ein Wegbereiter des barocken Kunst in Deutschland, Berlin, 1997, p.179, no. M130, fig.246), the figures in the pair of gouaches exhibited here are arguably not as refined as those found in most of Baur’s work. 2. A tentative attribution to the German painter Pieter Schoubroeck (c.1570-1607) has been suggested. Of Flemish origins, Schoubroeck worked in Nuremberg and Frankenthal, and is best known for small and crowded scenes of Old and New Testament subjects, landscapes and battle scenes, often painted on copper.
No.7 Salvator Rosa 1. Possibly Alexander Scott Carter (1881-1968), an English-born heraldry artist who settled in Toronto, Canada. 2. Bartsch 44; Wallace, op.cit., 1979, p.168, no.37. Only one state of this etching is known. Wallace illustrates a further, unfinished but identical variant of the etching, to which the present sheet is also related, as no.38 in his catalogue. 3. Richard W. Wallace, ‘Salvator Rosa’s Figurine in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston’, Print Quarterly, March 1989, p.48.
No.8 Attributed to Carl Andreas Ruthart 1. Inv. D.1952.RW.3852. 2. Hollstein 105 (Blooteling); Schneevoogt p.230, no.42. Two impressions of this etching are in the collection of the British Museum (Inv. 1981,U.383 and R,4.104). 3. Hella Robels, Frans Snyders: Stilleben- und Tiermaler, Munich, 1989, pp.351-362, no.259; Susan Koslow, Frans Snyders: Stilleven- en Dierenschilder, Antwerp, 1995, p.228, fig.302. 4. Robels, ibid., pp.316-317, no.210. The painting, whose subject is taken from the fable by Aesop, is known in several versions, each with varying degrees of studio participation. One such example was sold recently at auction (New York, Sotheby’s, 26 January 2012, lot 24).
No.10 Herman Henstenburgh 1. Johan van Gool, De Nieuwe Schouburg der Nederlansche Kunstschilders en Schilderessen, The Hague, 1750-1751, Vol.I, pp.248-256; quoted in translation in Ger Luijten and A.W.F.M Meij, From Pisanello to Cezanne: Master Drawings from the Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, exhibition catalogue, New York and elsewhere, 1990-1991, p.121, under no.42. 2. ‘Henstenburgh beelden zijn vogels altijd zittend op vrijwel kale struiken of boomtakken af, waarbij de uiteinden van de takken enkele bladeren dragen. De achtergrond die niet is ingekleurd, behoudt de ivoorkleur van de drager, het perkament. Wanneer meerdere vogels zijn afgebeeld, worden deze in verschillende houdingen weergegeven, en verspreid over het blad, waardoor een levendig effect wordt bereikt.’; Anne M. Zaal, Herman Henstenburgh 1667-1726, unpublished Ph.D dissertation, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1991, Vol.I, p.47. 3. Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 10 January 1990, lot 103 (sold for $6,600); Zaal, ibid., 1991, Vol.II, no.A 048. The drawing, which measures 356 x 282 mm., was with Elsbeth van Tets Antiques in Amsterdam in 1990. 4. Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 22 January 2004, lot 202 (sold for $17,295). The dimensions of the drawing are 384 x 244 mm. 5. Delplace sale, London, Sotheby’s, 3 July 1996, lot 221 (sold for £9,775). The drawing, signed with the monogram H.HB. fec., measured 291 x 347 mm. 6. Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 26 January 2011, lot 626 (sold for $74,500); Anne M. Zaal, Herman Henstenburgh (1667-1726): Hoorns schilder en pasteibakker, exhibition catalogue, Hoorn, 1991, p.8, fig.7; Zaal, op.cit. [dissertation], 1991, Vol.II, no.A 036; Jane Shoaf Turner, Rembrandt’s World: Dutch Drawings from the Clement C. Moore Collection, exhibition catalogue, New York, Morgan Library and Museum, 2012, pp.200-201, no.85. The drawing measures 300 x 241 mm. 7. Zaal, op.cit.,1991 [dissertation], Vol.II, no.A 016. 8. Marilena Mosco and Silvia Meloni Trkulja, ed., Natura viva in Casa Medici: Dipinti di animali dai depositi di Palazzo Pitti con esemplari del Museo Zoologico ‘La Specola’, exhibition catalogue, Florence, 1985-1986, pp.134-135, no.41; Zaal, op.cit., 1991 [dissertation], Vol.II, no.A 050.
No.11 Jean-Baptiste Pillement 1. Maria Gordon–Smith, Pillement, Cracow, 2006, p.36. 2. Maria Gordon-Smith, ‘Jean Pillement at the Imperial Court of Maria Theresa and Francis I in Vienna (1763 to 1765)’, Artibus et Historiae, No.50, 2004, p.203, fig.22; Gordon-Smith, ibid., 2006, illustrated p.120, figs.107a-d, and p.100. As Gordon-Smith has described the room, ‘Between the windows, surrounded with flower-covered trelliswork, four large chinoiserie figures appear on each side of the room seated on ornate platforms within a frame of draperies adorned with bells and surmounted by canopies surrounded by a profusion of climbing flowers.’ (op.cit., 2006, p.118). 3. Dawn Jacobson, Chinoiserie, London, 1993, p.75.
No.12 Ubaldo Gandolfi 1. Prisco Bagni, I Gandolfi: Affreschi dipinti bozzetti disegni, Cittadella, 1992, pp.602-603, nos.573-574, respectively. 2. Anonymous sale, New York, Sotheby’s, 29 January 1997, lot 19. 3. Inv. F.D. 1.309; Manuela B. Mena Marqués, Museo del Prado. Catálogo de Dibujos VII: Dibujos Italianos del Siglo XVIII y del Siglo XIX, Madrid, 1990, p.75, no.F.D. 1.309, p.291, fig.128. 4. Inv. F.D. 294; Ibid,, p.76, no.F.D. 294, p.293, fig.131. 5. The bulk of the Certani collection of drawings, numbering around five thousand sheets, was eventually acquired by Count Vittorio Cini in 1963, and is now in the Fondazione Giorgio Cini in Venice.
No.13 Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo 1. In 1974, Jean Cailleux (op.cit.) listed one hundred drawings of centaurs and satyrs by Domenico Tiepolo, and a further thirty or so have been identified since then. The present sheet is numbered 144 at the upper left, which is one of the highest numbers of this particular group that is known. It is therefore possible that this series of centaur and satyr drawings by Domenico may have numbered as many as 144 examples. 2. James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.41. 3. Ibid., p.41. 4. James Byam Shaw and George Knox, The Robert Lehman Collection, Vol.VI: Italian Eighteenth-Century Drawings, New York, 1987, p.171, under no.140. 5. Ibid., p.171-172, under no.140. 6. Cailleux, op.cit., p.v.
No.14 Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo 1. Michael Levey, ‘Domenico Tiepolo: his Earliest Activity and a Monograph’, The Burlington Magazine, March 1963, pp.128129. 2. A total of 313 drawings making up the ‘Large Biblical Series’ were catalogued by Adelheid Gealt and George Knox in their recent magisterial survey of the entire series. However, a handful of previously unrecorded drawings from the series – including the present sheet - have been discovered since the catalogue was published. 3. Adelheid Gealt, ‘The Telling Line: Domenico Tiepolo as a Draftman/Narrator’, in Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: Master Draftsman, exhibition catalogue, Udine and Bloomington, 1996-1997, p.77. 4. James Byam Shaw, The Drawings of Domenico Tiepolo, London, 1962, p.37.
5. George Knox, ‘Domenico Tiepolo: The Drawings’, in Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 1996-1997, pp.51-53. 6. Adelheid M. Gealt and George Knox, Domenico Tiepolo: A New Testament, Bloomington, 2006, pp.482-483, no.199 and pp.536-537, no.224. 7. Ibid., pp.484-485, no.200 and pp.538-539, no.225. 8. Sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 8 December 1947, lot 53; Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, pp.486-487, no.201. 9. Gealt and Knox, op.cit., 2006, pp.686-687, no.298. 10. The present sheet is unlikely to have belonged to Cormier, as it does not appear in the catalogue of the sale of his collection of 82 drawings from the ‘Large Biblical Series’, held in Paris in April 1921.
No.15 Amable-Paul Coutan 1. Philippe Grunchec, The Grand Prix de Rome: Paintings from the École des Beaux-Arts, 1797-1863, exhibition catalogue, New York and elsewhere, 1984-1985, p.70, no.57. 2. Two watercolour drawings of Italian peasant genre scenes, drawn in Rome and dated 1821 and 1822, are in the collection of the Musée Vivenel in Compiègne. 3. The same dog is depicted in Ingres’s drawn portrait of the child’s mother, Henriette Thévenin, executed five years earlier, in 1816; the drawing is today in the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague (Naef, op.cit., Vol.IV, 1977, pp.354-355, no.191; Gary Tinterow and Philip Conisbee, ed., Portraits by Ingres: Image of an Epoch, exhibition catalogue, London, Washington and New York, 1999-2000, pp.213-214, no.73). 4. Inv. RF 4624; Naef, op.cit., Vol.V, 1980, pp.84-85, no.294; Tinterow and Conisbee, ibid., p.308, no.102; Louis-Antoine Prat, Drawing Gallery: Ingres, Paris, 2004, p.84, no.24, pl.24. 5. A copy of L’Album T accompanies the present sheet. 6. Taurel, op.cit., pp.49-51. The print is accompanied by a descriptive caption which reads, in part, ‘Au premier plan la petite CHARLOTTE dans son panier-charette et le fidèle Triem son grand chien, au second plan la Villa Médicis entourée de terrasses d’ou l’on aperçoit la ville de Rome et la coupole de l’Eglise de St. Pierre; tel est le sujet du dessin à la mine de plomb fait en 1821 par AIMABLE COUTAN et qui a servi de modèle pour la dernière gravure de notre Album. COUTAN n’a pas laissé de grands ouvrages et son nom n’est pas généralement connu; il mourot jeune en 1837, après avoir collaboré pour une importante partie aux peintures décoratives de l’Eglise de Notre-Dame de Lorette. Il était élève de GROS et fut pensionnaire de l’Académie.’
No.16 Sir Edwin Landseer 1. Richard Ormond, ‘The Mansel Lewis Collection of Drawings by Sir Edwin Landseer’, in London, Sotheby’s, Old Master & British Drawings, 6 July 2010, p.100. 2. Ormond, op.cit., 1981, p.136. 3. J. D. (James Dafforne?), ‘Studies and Sketches by Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A.’, The Art Journal, January 1875, p.4. 4. J. D. (James Dafforne?), op.cit., September 1875, p.257. 5. The painting was exhibited at the British Institution in 1838 and, as Hare and Weasel, at the Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition of 1857 and again at the Landseer exhibition at Burlington House in London in 1874. It was sold for 610 guineas at the sale of Wells’s collection at Christie’s in London in 1890. The dimensions of the painting are given as 21 x 27 inches, so are very close to the present work. 6. A thorough account of Mansel Lewis’s life, work and patronage is found in Stephanie Jones, Charles William Mansel Lewis: Painter, Patron and Promoter of Art in Wales, Aberystwyth, 1998. 7. Ormond, op.cit., 2010, p.100.
No.17 John Martin 1. Martin Myrone, ‘John Martin: art, taste and the spectacle of culture’, in Martin Myrone, ed., John Martin: Apocalypse, exhibition catalogue, London, 2011, p.18. 2. The Vision of the Shepherds, signed and dated 1833. Pencil and watercolour heightened with gum arabic, 152 x 254 mm; Anonymous sale, London, Phillips, 21 June 1982, lot 109 (sold for £7,000). A colour photograph of the watercolour, apparently from an advertisement in the June 1982 issue of Connoisseur magazine, is in the Witt Library of the Courtauld Institute in London. 3. Campbell, op.cit., p.170, no. C.W.125; Myrone, ed., op.cit., illustrated p.143, no.74. Only two impressions of this lithograph, which measures 271 x 375 mm., are known. 4. Campbell, op.cit., p.170, under no. C.W.125. 5. S. C. Hall, ed., The Book of Gems: The Modern Poets and Artists of Great Britain, published London, 1838, illustrated p.61. 6. London, Arts Council of Great Britain, English Romantic Art, exhibition catalogue, 1947, p.18, no.61, illustrated pl.III (lent by Mrs. Pilcher); Thomas Balston, John Martin 1789-1854: His Life and Works, London, 1947, p.198 (‘An exquisite little oil-painting The Angel and the Shepherds (11 1/2 x 8 in.), unsigned and undated, in the possession of Mrs. Olive Pilcher, may belong to this period [ie. 1837-1838], as it has many similarities with Martin’s design of the same title which J. R. Wilmore engraved for The Book of Gems of Modern Poets (1838).’).
No.18 William Roxby Beverley 1. Frank L. Emanuel, ‘William Roxby Beverley: Artist, Scene-Painter, Actor, Actor-Manager and Theatre-Proprietor’, Walker’s Quarterly, January 1921, p.5. 2. Ibid., p.18.
No.19 Alfred De Dreux 1. Les Muses, 1834; quoted in Marie-Christine Renauld, Alfred De Dreux: Le cheval, passion d’un dandy parisien, Paris, 1997, p.150. 2. ‘...soutiendrait peut-être la comparaison, pour la verve, l’énergie et la vérité, avec les chevaux de Géricault’; L’Artiste, no.7, 1834, p.63. 3. London, P. & D. Colnaghi, op.cit., under no.50. 4. Ibid., no.51. The drawing measures 278 x 392 mm. 5. Marie-Christine Renauld, L‘univers d’Alfred De Dreux, Arles, 2008, illustrated p.98.
No.20 James Thomas Linnell 1. Clara Erskine Clement and Laurence Hutton, Artists of the Nineteenth Century and Their Works: A Handbook, London, 1879, Vol.II, p.70. 2. James Dafforne, ‘British Artists: Their Style and Character. No. CVII: James Thomas Linnell’, The Art Journal, October 1872, pp.250-251. 3. Cara Denison in William M. Griswold et al., The World Observed: Five Centuries of Drawings from the Collection of Charles Ryskamp, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2001, p.102, under no.92. 4. Matthew Hargraves, Varieties of Romantic Experience: British, Danish, Dutch, French and German Drawings from the Collection of Charles Ryskamp, exhibition catalogue, New Haven, 2010, p.169, no.135, illustrated p.169.
No.21 Mariano Fortuny 1. Quoted by Baron Charles de Davillier in his introduction to the catalogue of the Vente Fortuny, Paris, Hôtel Drouot, 2630 April 1875; Quoted in translation in Guillermo de Osma, Mariano Fortuny: His Life and Work, London, 1980, p.16. 2. Pedro de Madrazo y Kuntz, ‘Fortuny’, La Ilustración Artística, 2 January 1888, p.5; Quoted in translation in Mercé Doñate, ‘Fortuny and Genre Painting’, in Doñate, Mendoza and Quílez, op.cit., p.504. 3. Quoted in translation in Mercé Doñate, ‘Fortuny and Genre Painting’, in Doñate, Mendoza and Quílez, op.cit., p.505, note 4. 4. Paris, Goupil et Cie., Oeuvres choisies de Fortuny reproduites en photographie, Paris, 1875, pl.XXVIII; Doñate, Mendoza and Quílez, op.cit., pp.226-229, no.78. The watercolour measures 590 x 850 mm. 5. Mercé Doñate, ‘Fortuny and Genre Painting’, in Doñate, Mendoza and Quílez, op.cit., p.504. 6. Doñate, Mendoza and Quílez, op.cit., p.518, no.45. 7. González and Martí, op.cit., 1989, p.202, no.38, illustrated in colour p.148; Doñate, Mendoza and Quílez, op.cit., p.228, under no.78.
No.22 James Tissot 1. Michael Wentworth, in New York, Christie’s, 19th Century European Paintings, Drawings, Watercolors and Sculpture, 24 May 1989, p.234, under lot 340. 2. Inv. 1942.108; Krystyna Matyjaszkiewicz, ed., James Tissot, exhibition catalogue, London and elsewhere, 1984-1985, p.110, no.62; Jon Whiteley, Catalogue of the Collection of Drawings in the Ashmolean Museum, Volume VII: French School, Oxford, 2000, Vol.I, pp.418-419, no.1449, Vol.II, pl.1449; Jon Whiteley, Poussin to Cézanne: French drawings and watercolours in the Ashmolean Museum, exhibition catalogue, London, 2002, pp.106-107, no.50. 3. Matyjaszkiewicz, ibid., p.110, no.61, illustrated in colour p.42, pl.13; Michael Wentworth, James Tissot, Oxford, 1984, illustrated in colour pl.III. The painting is today in the collection of Lord Lloyd-Webber. 4. Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 19 November 1998, lot 138 (sold for $79,500). The drawing is a study for Tissot’s painting The Captain’s Daughter of 1873, today in the Southampton City Art Gallery. 5. Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 24 May 1989, lot 340 (sold for $198,000). The drawing is a study for Tissot’s painting The Return from the Boating Trip of 1873. 6. Inv. 1967:2; Matyjaszkiewicz, op.cit., p.109, no.56, illustrated p.73, fig.29; Wentworth, 1984, op.cit., pl.85; Ann H. Sievers, Linda Muehlig and Nancy Rich, Master Drawings from the Smith College Museum of Art, New York, pp.150-152, no.36. The drawing is a study for the painting The Last Evening of 1873, in the Guildhall Art Gallery in London (Matyjaszkiewicz, op.cit., p.109, no.55, illustrated in colour p.43, pl.14; Wentworth, 1984, op.cit., pl.84). 7. Matyjaszkiewicz, op.cit., p.109, under no.56. 8. Wentworth in New York, Christie’s, op.cit., 1989, p.234, under lot 340. 9. Wentworth, 1984, op.cit., p.105.
No.23 Edmé Saint-Marcel 1. Inv. RF 1955. The drawing measures 240 x 360 mm. 2. Anonymous sale, Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Millon & Associés], 22 December 2008, lot 98. The drawing measures 145 x 211 mm.
No.24 Eva Gonzalès 1. Ingrid Pfeiffer, ‘Impressionism Is Feminine: On the Reception of Morisot, Cassatt, Gonzales, and Bracquemond’, in Ingrid Pfeiffer and Max Hollein, ed., Women Impressionists. Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Eva Gonzalès, Marie Bracquemond, exhibition catalogue, Frankfurt and San Francisco, 2008, p.21. 2. ‘C’est la simplicité; c’est la sincérité; c’est la sérénité; Aucune mièvrerie de femme, aucun désir de faire jolie et sympathetique, et portant quel charme exquis.’; Octave Mirbeau in Paris, Bernheim-Jeune & Cie., op.cit., pp.5-7; quoted in translation in Holm, op.cit., p.33. 3. ‘Merveilleux pastels, écrasés à la manière du bonhomme Chardin, avec de subtiles hardiesses, les tons rompus, délicats, se fondent en douces harmonies...et le dessin viril.’; Paul Bayle, ‘Eva Gonzalès’, La Renaissance, 6 June 1932, p.115; quoted in translation in Holm, op.cit., p.36. 4. Thomson, op.cit., p.605. 5. Sainsaulieu, op.cit., pp.216-217, no.98. 6. ‘J’aime beaucoup les deux études de mariées, qui sont d’une fraîcheur et d’un esprit tendre, délicieux à regarder. Je retrouvelà, dans la douceur des tons, dans le jeu de la lumière sur l’étoffe blanche et le nuage transparent des voiles, une caresse particulière.’; Mirbeau, op.cit., 1885, p.2. 7. A pastel portrait of Jeanne Gonzalès, formerly in the collection of Adolphe Stein, was recently sold at auction in Paris and is today in the collection of Diane Wilsey in San Francisco (Anonymous sale (‘Une Collection Privée des Dessins 1500-1900’), Paris, Christie’s, 22 March 2007, lot 346 [sold for €528,000]; Sainsaulieu, op.cit., pp.218-219, no.99). 8. Jeanne posed as a milliner, for example, for the pastel Une Modiste in the Art Institute of Chicago (Sainsaulieu, op.cit., pp.264-265, no.123). 9. Grant, op.cit., p.209. 10. ‘C’est sa robe de satin blanc, les ornements de sa coiffure de mariée, qu’elle chargera par deux fois Jeanne de porter. On dirait qu’elle s’est observée et rêvée à travers ce double d’elle-même qu’elle aimait, rudoyait, transformait à sa guise, de manière à en faire vingt soeurs différents d’elle...’; Roger-Marx, op.cit., unpaginated (p.20). 11. ‘Elle atteint à une véritable maîtrise du pastel: ses Demoiselles d’honneur ou ses Mariées le prouvent; elle procède par touches parallèles qui enferment les ombres et les lumières dans la continuité de leurs stries; elle aime les tonalités claires, les nuances aux gris atténues, mais colorés, les scènes de tranquille intimité, et certains de ces pastels sont d’excellentes oeuvres.’; Hautecoeur, op.cit., p.115. 12. ‘...des petits portraits de femmes au pastel (La femme au chapeau rouge, Mariée, Demoiselle d’honneur, Le Bouquet de Violettes)...tous charmants de candeur, d’un accent très personnel et, sans qu’il y paraisse, d’étonnante virtuosité dans le brusquerie et l’économie uniforme de leur exécution.’; Monod, op.cit., p.3.
No.25 Edwin Lord Weeks 1. Possibly Sophie A. Price Weeks of Tabusintac, New Brunswick, born in 1900. 2. Sale (‘Property of the Chicago Athletic Association’), New York, Christie’s, 1 November 2001, lot 96. The painting, which measures 91 x 152.5 cm., was lot 261 in the posthumous Weeks estate sale in March 1905, selling for $550. 3. Ellen K. Morris, in ibid., under lot 96. 4. Gerald M. Ackerman, American Orientalists, Paris, 1994, illustrated in colour p.246; Anonymous sale (‘A Private Collection of Ottoman and Orientalist Paintings’), London, Christie’s, 15 June 2005, lot 18. 5. Inv. 71.200.5; New York, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn Museum: American Paintings, 1979, p.121; Teresa A. Carbone, ed., American Paintings in the Brooklyn Museum: Artists Born by 1876, New York, 2006, Vol.II, p.1058. The sketch, which measures 495 x 322 mm., is also illustrated at http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/research/luce/object.php?id=96943. 6. Ulrich W. Hiesinger, Edwin Lord Weeks: Visions of India, exhibition catalogue, Vance Jordan Fine Art, New York, 2002, p.59, pl.2. 7. Anonymous sale, New York, Christie’s, 19 April 2006, lot 16.
No.26 Charles Maurin 1. Phillip Denis Cate, ‘Charles Maurin: An Essay’, in New York, Lucien Goldschmidt, Inc., Charles Maurin 1856-1914: A Collection of Prints in Rare or Unique Impressions, Drawings, Pastels and an Oil Painting, exhibition catalogue, 1978, p.8. 2. Colin Eisler, ‘Inspiration and exhalation: Maurin’s peintures au vaporisateur’, in New York, Lucien Goldschmidt, Inc., The Vaporizer Watercolors of Charles Maurin, exhibition catalogue, 1986, unpaginated.
No.27 Vincenzo Gemito 1. The eminent collector and philanthropist Dr. Arthur M. Sackler (1913-1987), assembled a number of wide-ranging collections included a fine group of European terracottas and Renaissance and later bronzes. 2. Already in his lifetime, Gemito’s drawings had been likened to those of the sculptors Auguste Rodin and Constantin Meunier by one Italian scholar, in an article published in 1916. 3. Denise Maria Pagano, ed., Gemito, exhibition catalogue, Naples, 2009, p.252, no.7 (illustration of a cast in the collection of the Museo Diego Aragona Pignatelli Cortes in Naples). The bust of The Philosopher was recast by the artist in 1919; an example of this later cast is illustrated in Katherina McArthur and Kate Ganz, Vincenzo Gemito: Drawings & Sculpture in Naples & Rome, exhibition catalogue, New York, 2000, pp.28-29, no.11. 4. For illustrations of five drawings of Masto Ciccio by Gemito, dated between 1910 and 1917, see Pagano, ibid, pp.150-152, nos.41-43 (all in private collections), and p.258, no.13 and p.264, no.19 (in the Museo Diego Aragona Pignatelli Cortes in Naples). 5. Ian Wardropper and Fred Licht, Chiseled with a Brush: Italian Sculpture 1860-1925 from the Gilgore Collections, exhibition catalogue, Chicago and Denver, 1994-1995, p.90, under no.20. The comments made about the bust of The Philosopher, in the same catalogue, may equally applied to the present drawing related to it; the sculpture is therein described as a work of ‘intensely eloquent realism...Unlike its classical antecedents, Gemito’s bust has the imprint not only of a carefully rendered physiognomy but of a psychological penetration that lays open the sitter’s whole biography.’ (Fred Licht, ‘Origins of Modern Sculpture: The Italian Connection’, in ibid., p.19).
No.28 Paul-César Helleu 1. Quoted in New York, Knoedler Gallery, Paul-Cesar Helleu. Glimpses of the Grace of Women: an exhibition of drypoints, exhibition catalogue, 1974, unpaginated. 2. William Rothenstein, Men and Memories: Recollections of William Rothenstein, 1872-1900, London, 1931, p.107. 3. Several are illustrated, for example, in Anne-Marie Bergeret-Gourbin and Marie-Lucie Imhoff, Paul Helleu 1859-1927, exhibition catalogue, Honfleur, Musée Eugène Boudin, 1993; notably p.63, no.56 (measuring 635 x 540 mm.), p.84, no.57 (800 x 600 mm.) and p.87, no.67 (600 x 740 mm.). Another is illustrated in Jane Abdy, ‘Helleu, Paul-César (François)’, in Jane Turner, ed., The Dictionary of Art, London, 1996, Vol.14, p.363. 4. Félix Fénéon, ‘Pastels. Societé des pastellistes français. 3e exposition du 3 au 20 avril 1887’, L’Émancipation Sociale, 17 April 1887; quoted in translation in Stéphane Guégan, ‘The Return to Favour’, in Paris, Musée d’Orsay, Mystery and Glitter: Pastels in the Musée d’Orsay, exhibition catalogue, 2008-2009, p.26. 5. J. M. Quennell, ‘Paul Helleu: A Revaluation’, Apollo, March 1983, p.116.
No.29 Alexandre Nozal 1. ‘...cet artiste subtil, ce pastelliste nuancé, ce dessinateur brillant dont la nature fut le grand motif d’inspiration...par sa violence d’effet, sa richesse chromatique, sa forme de dessin très sensible dans le beaux graphismes aigus d’arbres sur fond de papier sombre, Nozal rejoint ici une certain nombre de paysagistes réalistes en marge de l’Impressionisme.’ 2. The Salon catalogue of 1895 does, however, lists two other works by Alexandre Nozal; ‘La lande d’or; près de Pont-del’Arche’ (no.1447) and ‘Dans le marais d’Aigues-Mortes, en novembre; fin de la journée.’ (no.1448).
No.30 Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer 1. Possibly the French sculptor Élisa (Mme. Léon) Bloch (1848-1905). 2. Gabriel Mourey, ‘A Dream Painter: M. L. Lévy-Dhurmer’, The Studio, February 1897, p.11. 3. Frances Keyzer, ‘Modern French Pastellists: L. Lévy-Dhurmer’, The Studio, March 1906, pp.149-150. 4. Jean-David Jumeau-Lafond, ‘Symbolisms’, in Paris, Musée d’Orsay, Mystery and Glitter: Pastels in the Musée d’Orsay, exhibition catalogue, 2008-2009, p.130. 5. Pierre-Louis Mathieu, The Symbolist Generation 1870-1910, Geneva, 1990, pp.118-119.
No.31 Alphonse Mucha 1. The Czech author and playwright Emil Synek (1903-1993) assembled a collection of drawings, mainly by Eastern European artists, which remained in the possession of his descendants until recently. 2. Jiri Mucha, Marina Henderson and Aaron Scharf, Alphonse Mucha: Posters and Photographs, London, 1971, p.14, fig.4 (as ‘Portrait of a Woman, probably Sarah Bernhardt.’). 3. Sarah Mucha, Alphonse Mucha, London, 2005, p.129 (where dated c.1900). The drawing measures 605 x 435 mm. 4. Drawings of Mucha, New York, 1978, p.9. The drawing measures 470 x 305 mm.
No.32 Fernand Khnopff 1. Contemporary photographs of Elsie Maquet are illustrated in Robert L. Delevoy, Catherine De Croës and Giselle OllingerZinque, Fernand Khnopff: Catalogue de l’oeuvre, 2nd ed., Brussels, 1987, p.501. 2. Ibid., pp.263-264, no.174, illustrated in colour pp.66-67 and p.70; Leen, Marechal and Van Vliet, op.cit., pp.186-187, no.120. 3. Delevoy, De Croës and Ollinger-Zinque, op.cit., pp.269-270, no.191, illustrated in colour p.146; Leen, Marechal and Van Vliet, op.cit., pp.188-189, no.122. 4. Delevoy, De Croës and Ollinger-Zinque, op.cit., p.285, no.239, illustrated in colour p.32; Leen, Marechal and Van Vliet, op.cit., p.164, no.98. The painting is in the collection of Anne-Marie Gillion Crowet in Brussels. 5. Inga Rossi-Schrimpf, in Leen, Marechal and Van Vliet, op.cit., p.138, under nos.65-67. 6. Geneviève Monnier, ‘Pastel: Its Genesis and Evolution to the Twentieth Century’, in Diana Dethloff, ed., Drawing: Masters and Methods. Raphael to Redon. Papers presented to the Ian Woodner Master Drawings Symposium at The Royal Academy of Arts, London, London, 1992, p.172. 7. Quoted in translation in Leen, Marechal and Van Vliet, op.cit., p.138, under nos.65-67.
No.33 Maxime Maufra 1. Caroline Boyle-Turner, Gauguin and the School of Pont-Aven: Prints and Paintings, exhibition catalogue, London and Edinburgh, 1989-1990, p.162. 2. Quoted in translation in the introduction to London, Gimpel Fils, Maxime Maufra (1861-1918): A Marine & Landscape Painter, exhibition catalogue, 1951, unpaginated.
No.34 Lionel Percy Smythe 1. Baldry, op.cit., p.171. 2. Whitlaw and Wyllie, op.cit., pp.129-130. 3. Ibid., illustrated opposite p.72. 4. Quoted in Whitlaw and Wyllie, op.cit., p.130. 5. Whitlaw and Wyllie, op.cit., pp.xiii-xiv.
No.35 Hippolyte Petitjean 1. John Rewald, ed., Camille Pissarro: Letters to his Son Lucien, New York, 1943 (1995 ed.), p.228. 2. ‘Dans la phalange néo-impressioniste, M. Petitjean est un des meilleurs combattants. Rappelons-nous ses Baigneuses d’un haut style classique, et ses paysages ardemment colorés.’; Gustave Cocquiot, Les Indépendants 1884-1920, Paris, 1920; quoted in translation in Jean Sutter, ed., The Neo-Impressionists, London, 1970, p.146. 3. Inv. 9288; A. E. Popham and K. M. Fenwick, European Drawings (and two Asian drawings) in the Collection of the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1965, p.190, no.279.
No.36 Pablo Picasso 1. Fernande Olivier, Loving Picasso: The Private Journal of Fernande Olivier, New York, 2001, pp.182-183. 2. John Richardson, A Life of Picasso, Vol.I, New York, 1991, p.441. 3. Christian Zervos dates this drawing to the Gósol period in 1906, as do Núria Rivero and Teresa Llorens. Pierre Daix prefers to date the sheet to Paris in 1905. Jèssica Jaques Pi (op.cit., p.139) believes that this drawing, on stylistic grounds, is not from the Gósol period. 4. Gary Tinterow, Master Drawings by Picasso, exhibition catalogue, Cambridge and elsewhere, 1981, p.68, under no.19. 5. Rivero et al, op.cit., pp.131-133, no.16; Evelyn Weiss and Maria Teresa Ocaña, ed., Picasso: The Ludwig Collection, exhibition catalogue, Barcelona and elsewhere, 1992-1993, unpaginated, no.6. The drawing, known as The Couple or Saltimbanques, is signed and dated 1904. 6. Josep Palau i Fabre, Picasso: Life and Work of the Early Years, 1881-1907, Oxford, 1981, p.472. 7. Margaret Werth, ‘Representing the Body in 1906’, in Marilyn McCully, ed., Picasso: The Early Years, 1892-1906, exhibition catalogue, Washington and Boston, 1997-1998, pp.279-280. 8. Vincent Pomarède at al, Ingres 1780-1867, exhibition catalogue, Paris, 2006, pp.378-379, no.178. 9. Christian Zervos, Pablo Picasso, Vol. I (Oeuvres de 1893 a 1906), Paris, 1932, pl.150, no.325; Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.301, no.XV.34, illustrated in colour p.91; William Rubin, ed., Pablo Picasso: A Retrospective, exhibition catalogue, New York, 1980, illustrated in colour p.70; Palau i Fabre, ibid., p.449, fig.1248; Carsten-Peter Warncke and Ingo F. Walther, Pablo Picasso 1881-1973, Cologne, 2007, illustrated in colour p.140.
10. Zervos, ibid., pl.147, no.321; Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.303, no.XV.40; Rubin, ed., ibid., illustrated p.71; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.453, fig.1266; Rivero et al, op.cit., p.320-321, no.152; Warncke and Walther, ibid., illustrated in colour p.139. 11. Zervos, op.cit., Vol.I, no.249 (where dated 1906); Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.301, no.XV.35; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.452, fig.1260. 12. Zervos, op,cit., Vol.I, pl.158, no.336; Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.320, no.XVI.7; Rubin, ed., op.cit., illustrated in colour p.75; Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.473, fig.1363; Warncke and Walther, op.cit., illustrated in colour p.150. 13. Quoted in translation in Richardson, op.cit., p.444. 14. Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.281, nos.D.XIII.1 and D.XIII.2 (where both dated 1905); Carlson, op.cit., pp.50-53, nos.2627 (where both dated 1906). 15. Jean Sutherland Boggs, Picasso and Man, exhibition catalogue, Toronto and Montreal, 1964, p.46, no.30. 16. Zervos, op.cit., Vol.I, pl.113, no.259 (where dated 1906); Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.275, no.XIII.5 (where dated 1905); Palau i Fabre, op.cit., p.420, fig.1141 (where dated 1905); Robert McD. Parker, ‘Catalogue of the Stein Collections’, in Janet Bishop, Cécile Debray and Rebecca Rabinow, ed., The Steins Collect: Matisse, Picasso, and the Parisian AvantGarde, exhibition catalogue, San Francisco, Paris and New York, 2011-2012, p.440, no.323 (not illustrated). 17. Daix and Boudaille, op.cit., p.312, no.D.XV.13; Zervos, op.cit., Vol. XXII, 1970, p.150, pl.428; Rivero et al, op.cit., p.318, no.149; Anonymous sale, London, Christie’s, 19 June 2007, lot 138. The drawing measures 407 x 267 mm. 18. Carlson, op.cit., pp.54-55, no.28 (where dated 1906). 19. Marilyn McCully, Picasso in Paris 1900-1907: Eating Fire, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam and Barcelona, 2011, p.198. 20. Olivier, op.cit., p.184.
No.37 Louis Buisseret 1. ‘Il y aurait beaucoup à écrire sur la perfection du dessin de ce maître qui ne cesse de se souvenir des leçons des grands Italiens et de ceux qui, de notre temps, leur ont succédé.’; Richard Dupierreux, Buisseret, Brussels, 1966, p.18. 2. ‘Dessiner sera toujours pour le peintre hennuyer l’acte capital générateur de style et la pierre de touche de sa probité intellectuelle...Tous ses tableaux sont longuement pensées et faits avec l’amour d’un métier qu’il connaissant mieux que la plupart de ses contemporains.’; Jean Ransy, ‘Notice sur Louis Buisseret, membre de l’Académie’, Annuaire de l’Académie Royale de Belgique, 1978, pp.139-140.
No.38 Jean Metzinger 1. Chicago, International Galleries, Metzinger: Pre-Cubist and Cubist Works 1900-1930, exhibition catalogue, 1964, pp.2829, illustrated in colour p.11, fig.5; Douglas Cooper and Gary Tinterow, The Essential Cubism: Braque, Picasso & their friends, 1907-1920, exhibition catalogue, London, Tate Gallery, 1983, pp.438-439, no.230; Joann Moser, Jean Metzinger in Retrospect, exhibition catalogue, Iowa City and elsewhere, 1985-1986, pp.52-53, no.36, illustrated in colour on the cover; R. Stanley Johnson, Cubism & La Section d’Or: Reflections on the Development of the Cubist Epoch: 1907-1922, Chicago and Dusseldorf, 1991, illustrated in colour p.14, fig.3; David Cottington, Cubism and its Histories, Manchester and New York, 2004, p.108, fig.4.1; Mark Antliff and Patricia Leighten, Cubism and Culture, London, 2001, p.140, fig.118. The painting, in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. R. Stanley Johnson in Chicago, measures 73 x 54 cm. 2. Moser, ibid., pp.52-53, no.35. The painting is also illustrated at http://www.flickr.com/photos/32357038@N08/3587468529/lightbox/.
3. Moser, op.cit.., pp.58-59, no.53, illustrated in colour on the back cover; Cottington, ibid., illustrated in colour pl.XVI. 4. Moser, op.cit., p.53, no.38; Suzanne Folds McCullagh, ed., Drawings in Dialogue: Old Master through Modern. The Harry B. and Bessie K. Braude Memorial Collection, exhibition catalogue, Chicago, 2006, illustrated in colour p.18, fig.7. 5. Moser, op.cit., pp.52-53, no.37; Antliff and Leighten, op.cit., illustrated in colour p.138, fig.116. 6. Moser, op.cit., p.54, no.40, illustrated in colour p.27 (where dated 1913-1914). The painting was in the collection of Margit and Rolf Weinberg in Switzerland in 1986. 7. Moser, op.cit., p.43. 8. Cottington, op.cit., p.107. 9. Cottington, op.cit., p.111. 10. McCullagh, op.cit., p.162, no.115. The drawing, which measures 633 x 497 mm., is a promised gift to the Art Institute of Chicago. 11. See note 4.
No.39 Herbert James Draper 1. Anonymous sale (‘The property of a gentleman’), London, Knightsbridge, Bonhams and Brooks, 6 December 2000, lot 96; Toll, op.cit., pp.157-159, illustrated in colour p.47, pl.49. 2. The subject of the painting is taken from the legend of Ceyx and Halcyone. One of the daughters of Aeolus, the god of the winds, Halcyone (or Alcyone) was distraught over the loss of her husband, King Ceyx of Thessaly, who had drowned while on a sea voyage. Draper’s painting shows Halcyone preparing to throw herself into the sea to join her husband in death. However, the water nymphs took pity on her and transformed her and Ceyx into kingfishers, the birds seen in the painting above the head of Halcyone. Kingfishers (known as halcyones, or halykon, in Greek) were said to have the power to calm the wind and waves while they nested on the sea during the winter solstice. 3. Three further studies of female nudes by Herbert Draper, preparatory for other figures in Halcyone, appeared on the art market in London in 2003 (London, Julian Hartnoll, A Third and final Catalogue of Drawings by Herbert Draper (18641920), 2003, nos.36-38. One of these is also illustrated in Toll, op.cit., p.157, fig.111). Another study for a nymph in the painting was once with Christopher Wood and is today in a private collection (black and white chalk on grey paper, measuring 10 1/2 x 20 in.). 4. The drawing on the verso of the present sheet, depicting the upper half of a man’s trousers and what appears to be an artist’s palette, is inscribed Ruth T and may depict Draper himself. The artist is known to have given drawing lessons to some of his models, and it may be supposed that the sketch on the verso is by Ruth Torr, who was about fourteen years old when this drawing was made.
No.40 Edmund Dulac 1. R. H. Wilenski, foreword to London, Ernest Brown & Phillips Ltd. (The Leicester Galleries), Catalogue of a Memorial Exhibition of Water Colours and Drawings by Edmund Dulac, December 1953, pp.2-4.
No.41 Georges de Feure 1. ‘Aquarelles de M. Lefeure’, L’Art Français, 31 March 1894; quoted in translation in Ian MIllman, ‘From Baudelaire to Bing: Aesthetic Orientations in the Symbolism and Art Nouveau of Georges de Feure’, in Ian Millman, Georges de Feure 18681943, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam, Van Gogh Museum, 1993-1994, p.11 2. Philippe Julian, The Symbolists, London, 1973, p.231, under no.40. 3. Ian Millman, Georges de Feure: Maître du Symbolisme et de l’Art Nouveau, Courbevoie, 1992, illustrated p.269. Executed in oil on board, the sheet measures 585 x 730 mm. 4. Ibid., illustrated p.265.
No.42 Georges de Feure 1. René Puaux, ‘An Appreciation of the Art of Georges de Feure’, Brush and Pencil, May 1903, p.104. 2. Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Musée Départemental Maurice Denis and Gingins, Fondation Neumann, Georges de Feure: Du symbolisme à l’art nouveau, exhibition catalogue, 1995, p.52, no.38. Measuring 375 x 505 mm., the gouache was in the collection of Alain Lesieutre in 1995. 3. Ian Millman, Georges de Feure 1868-1943, exhibition catalogue, Amsterdam, Van Gogh Museum, 1993-1994, p.27.
No.43 Pierre Bonnard 1. Quoted in translation in Antoine Terrasse, ‘Bonnard the Draughtsman’, in Arts Council of Great Britain, Drawings by Bonnard, exhibition catalogue, Nottingham and elsewhere, 1984-1985, p.6. 2. Emily Braun et al, New York Collects: Drawings and Watercolors 1900-1950, exhibition catalogue, New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, 1999, p.36, under no.3. 3. Jean and Henry Dauberville, Bonnard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, 1920-1939, Vol.III, Paris, 1973, pp.225-227, no.1272; Sasha M. Newman, ed., Bonnard: The Late Paintings, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Washington and Dallas, 1984, pp.160-161, no.27; Michel Terrasse, Bonnard: du dessin au tableau, Paris, 1996, illustrated in colour p.205. The painting measures 101 x 73 cm. 4. Jean and Henry Dauberville, Bonnard: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, 1940-1947 et Supplément 1887-1939, Vol.IV, Paris, 1974, p.417, no.02165. The painting measures 74 x 75 cm.
No.44 Giuseppe Casciaro 1. ‘una straordinaria finezza percettiva e ad una solidita di tocco’; Alfredo Schettini, Giuseppe Casciaro, Naples, 1952, p.22. 2. ‘Un pastello di Casciaro ha del Bach e del Mozart; e talvolta è tragico e profondo, anche, come una commossa voce beethoveniana. Questa eleganza è deliziosa: questo spirito, questo gusto son rari: questa forza piacevole e sicura, non vi opprime ma vi trascina: e la voce di questo adorabile artista ha tutti gli accenti: ha la foga ed il sospiro, l’impeto e la tenerezza, un grido e un sussurro.’ 3. Kate de Rothschild, Kate de Rothschild - Master Drawings: A Celebration, 35 Years in the Art World 1972-2007, 2008, unpaginated, no.59.
No.45 Georges Lepape 1. The present sheet was once in the impressive collection of Art Deco furniture, sculpture, paintings and decorative arts assembled by the Parisian art dealer Alain Lesieutre (1931-2001). Lesieutre owned several drawings and watercolours by Lepape, including several other designs for Vogue covers. Four other designs for Vogue covers by Lepape from Lesieutre’s collection, dating from 1924, 1925 and 1929, were sold at auction in Paris in 1989 (Collection Alain Lesieutre, Paris, Hôtel George V [Ader Picard Tajan], 13 December 1989, lots 34-37); the sale included a total of nine watercolours by Georges Lepape. 2. William Packer, The Art of Vogue Covers, London, 1980, pp.19 and p.22. 3. Claude Lepape and Thierry Defert, From the Ballets Russes to Vogue: The Art of Georges Lepape, London, 1984, p.133. 4. The American edition of the magazine was dated May 1, 1928 and subtitled ‘New York Fashions’ (Lepape and Defert, op.cit., illustrated p.150; Packer, op.cit., illustrated p.190; Norberto Angeletti and Alberto Oliva, In Vogue: The Illustrated History of the World’s Most Famous Fashion Magazine, New York, 2006, illustrated p.98). The English edition of Vogue (the ‘London Season Number’) was dated May 2, 1928 (Derrick and Muir, op.cit., illustrated p.54). 5. Derrick and Muir, op.cit., p.54. 6. Packer, op.cit., p.22.
No.46 Firmin Baes 1. Georgette Naegels-Delfosse, Firmin Baes, Brussels, 1987, p.138. The pastel measures 800 x 600 mm. 2. Anonymous sale, Brussels, Hôtel de Ventes Horta, 8 November 2010, lot 30. 3. ‘Contemplez une nature morte de Firmin Baes, extraordinairement vraie dans ses tonalités, dans la matière même de ses objets. On touche véritablement des yeux la rondeur luisante de la porcelaine translucide, le rugueux de l’orange, le moelleux du tapis de velours.’ 4. ‘La galerie du Studio présente une série d’oeuvres nouvelles de ce pastelliste qui, en écrasant d’un pouce subtil sur le papier ou sur la toile des craies aux tons choisies, arrive à des finesses, à des douceurs ou à des intensités auxquelles la peinture à l’huile n’atteint pas toujours avec le même bonheur et rarement avec la même réussite de matières...Je veux parler...surtout de ses Champignons où les vertus du pastel ont excellé à reproduire sur le fond bleu et près du broc de grès noir...’; Richard Dupierreux, Le Soir, 8 February 1932; quoted in Naegels-Delfosse, op.cit., p.214.
No.47 Léon Spilliaert 1. François Jollivet-Castelot, ‘Léon Spilliaert’, Le Carillon, 4-5 December 1909, p.1; Quoted in translation in Norbert Hostyn, Léon Spilliaert: Leven en werk, Oostkamp, 2006, p.19. 2. Anne Adriaens-Pannier, Léon Spilliaert: of de schoonheid van een wijs hart / ou la beauté de l’intelligence de coeur, exhibition catalogue, Antwerp, 1998-1999, p.267, pl.158. 3. Francine-Claire Legrand, Léon Spilliaert et son époque, Antwerp, 1981, p.225, no.266, illustrated in colour pl.134. 4. Ibid., p.255, no.265. 5. Brussels, Royal Museum of Fine Arts of Belgium, Léon Spilliaert: A Free Spirit, exhibition catalogue, 2006-2007, p.181, no.207.
No.48 René Gruau 1. Sylvie Nissen and Vincent Leret, Le premier siècle de René Gruau, Paris, 2009, p.89.
No.49 René Gruau 1. ‘Obituaries: René Gruau’, The Times, 13 April 2004. 2. Anonymous sales, New York, Christie’s, 5 June 2007, lot 91 (sold for $78,000) and New York, Christie’s, 16 December 2008, lot 281 (sold for $30,000). 3. One example was sold Paris, Hôtel Drouot [Camard & Associés], 29 November 2010, lot 37.
No.50 René Gruau 1. In a 1999 interview; quoted in translation in Réjane Bargiel and Sylvie Nissen, René Gruau, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Musée de la Publicité, 1999-2000, pp.38 and 42. 2. Ibid., p.38. 3. Fleur Cowles, ed., The Best of Flair, London, 1999, p.199. 4. Flair, February 1950; Reproduced in Cowles, ed., ibid., pp.226-231.
No.51 Eliot Hodgkin 1. Inv. 16074; Anonymous sale, London, Phillips, 28 June 1982, lot 76; Government Art Collection of the United Kingdom: The Twentieth Century, 1997, illustrated p.69; Oil Paintings in Public Ownership in the Government Art Collection, London, 2007, illustrated p.140. The painting, executed in tempera on board, measures 57.5 x 37 cm., and signed ‘Eliot Hodgkin 52-56’. The painting is illustrated at http://www.gac.culture.gov.uk/work.aspx?obj=16246.
No.52 Alberto Giacometti 1. James Lord, ‘Alberto Giacometti and his drawings’, in New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Alberto Giacometti: Drawings, 1964, unpaginated. 2. Michael Peppiatt, In Giacometti’s studio, New Haven and London, 2010, p.136. 3. ‘Pour moi Giacometti n’est pas seulement le plus grand dessinateur de notre époque mais parmi les plus grands de toutes de époques.’; Paris, Galerie Claude Bernard, Alberto Giacometti: Dessins, exhibition catalogue, 1975, unpaginated. 4. Christian Klemm, Alberto Giacometti, exhibition catalogue, Zurich and New York, 2001-2002, p.206. 5. Klemm, ibid., p.216, pl.153. The drawing is signed and dated 1954, and measures 498 x 325 mm. 6. Casimiro Di Crescenzo, ed., Alberto Giacometti: Sculture Dipinti Disegni, exhibition catalogue, Milan, 1995, p.202, no.56. The drawing, which is unsigned and undated, measures 500 x 320 mm. 7. Beyeler sale, London, Christie’s, 21 June 2011, lot 7 (sold for £217,250). The drawing is signed and dated 1954 and measures 493 x 317 mm. 8. In the Helmut Klewan collection in Munich; Frankfurt, Schirn Kunsthalle, Alberto Giacometti: Werke und Schriften, exhibition catalogue, 1998-1999, p.103, no.77; Marilena Pasquali, ed., Alberto Giacometti: Disegni, sculture e opere grafiche, exhibition catalogue, Bologna, 1999, p.102, no.28; Agnés de la Beaumelle, ed., Alberto Giacometti: Le dessin à l’oeuvre, exhibition catalogue, Paris, Centre Pompidou, 2001, p.236, no.117, illustrated p.160. The drawing, which measures 502 x 324 mm., is signed and dated 1954. 9. Lord, op.cit., 2003, p.84. 10. Yves Bonnefoy, Alberto Giacometti: Biographie d’une oeuvre, Paris, 1991, illustrated in colour p.379, fig.353; Toni Stooss and Patrick Elliott, ed., Alberto Giacometti 1901-1966, exhibition catalogue, Edinburgh and London, 1996-1997, p.190, no.234, illustrated in colour pl.77; London, Thomas Gibson Fine Art Ltd. and Lefevre Fine Art Ltd., Alberto Giacometti: Paintings and Drawings from Private Collections, exhibition catalogue, 2004, pp.26-27; Peppiatt, op.cit., illustrated in colour p.146. 11. Lord, op.cit., 2003, p.95. 12. James Lord, A Giacometti Portrait, New York, 1965, (1980 ed.), pp.6-7. 13. Lord, op.cit., 1964, unpaginated.
No.53 Zoum Walter 1. ‘Il y a eu immédiatement concordance entre le pastel et moi. Sa matière mate, ses coloris puissants et francs dans la force, doux dans la finesse, son homogénéité et, le connaissant bien après tant d’exercises, la rapidité et la sûreté dans son application, concourent, je l’espère, à l’unité et à la franchise que j’aime.’; Interview, 4 March 1965; quoted in Georges Vigne et al, Zoum Walter 1902-1974, 1991, p.21.
No.54 Jenny Saville 1. Linda Nochlin, in New York, Gagosian Gallery, Jenny Saville: Migrants, 2003, reprinted in Simon Schama et al., Jenny Saville, New York, 2005, p.11. 2. The painting was exhibited in Jenny Saville: Continuum, New York, Gagosian Gallery, 15 September to 22 October 2011, and is illustrated in Kelly Crow, ‘Pregnancy Expands a Vision’, The Wall Street Journal, 10 September 2011 and in Simon Schama, ‘Small and mighty’, Financial Times, 24-25 September 2011, p.12. 3. In an interview of June 2011, quoted in Cheryl Brutvan, ‘A Woman who Paints’, in Cheryl Brutvan, ed., Jenny Saville, exhibition catalogue, West Palm Beach, 2011, p.20. 4. Schama, op.cit., p.12. 5. Luke Syson and Larry Keith, Leonardo da Vinci: Painter at the Court of Milan, exhibition catalogue, London, 2011-2012, pp.288-291, no.86. 6. Jenny Saville, ‘There’s no one better when you’re learning’, The Times, 8 November 2011, p.10. 7. Cheryl Brutvan, ‘A Woman who Paints’, in Brutvan, op.cit., p.20. 8. ‘Continuum: Painter Jenny Saville magnifies infancy and motherhood on Gagosian’s walls’, Columbia Spectator, 16 September 2011. 9. Two of these pencil drawings on vellum, dating from 2009 and each measuring 960 x 630 mm., are illustrated in Brutvan, op.cit., pp.72-73. 10. Reproduction Drawing I (after the Leonardo Cartoon), 2009-2010. Pencil on paper, framed dimensions 2263 x 1765 mm. (89 1/8 x 69 1/2 in.) 11. Reproduction Drawing II (after the Leonardo Cartoon), 2009-2010. Pencil on paper, framed dimensions 2655 x 1765 mm. (104 1/2 x 69 1/2 in.), illustrated in Brutvan, op.cit., pp.74-75, and Reproduction Drawing III (after Leonardo Cartoon), 20092010. Pencil on paper, framed dimensions 2263 x 1765 mm. (89 1/8 x 69 1/2 in.), illustrated in Brutvan, op.cit., pp.7677. The latter drawing is today in the collection of Lisa and Steven Tananbaum, Westchester, NY and Palm Beach, FL. 12. Reproduction Drawing IV (after the Leonardo Cartoon), 2010. Charcoal on paper, 2268 x 1768 mm. (89 1/4 x 69 5/8 in.), illustrated in Brutvan, op.cit., pp.78-79. The drawing is in the collection of Stuart and Gina Peterson in California. 13. Jenny Saville, ‘There’s no one better when you’re learning’, The Times, 8 November 2011, p.10. 14. Jenny Saville, ‘There’s no one better when you’re learning’, The Times, 8 November 2011, p.10.
INDEX OF ARTISTS
ALBERTI, Cherubino; no.1 BAES, Firmin; no.46 BEVERLEY, William Roxby; no.18 BONNARD, Pierre; no.43 BUISSERET, Louis; no.37 CASCIARO, Giuseppe; no.44 CASTELLO, Bernardo; no.2 COUTAN, Amable-Paul; no.15 DE DREUX, Alfred; no.19 DE FEURE, Georges; nos.41-42 DRAPER, Herbert James; no.39 DULAC, Edmund; no.40 FORTUNY, Mariano; no.21 GANDOLFI, Ubaldo; no.12 GEMITO, Vincenzo; no.27 GIACOMETTI, Alberto; no.52 GONZALÈS, Eva; no.24 GRUAU, René; nos.48-50 HELLEU, Paul-César; no.28 HENSTENBURGH, Herman; no.10 HODGKIN, Eliot; No.51 ITALIAN(?) SCHOOL; no.9 KHNOPFF, Fernand; no.32
LANDSEER, Sir Edwin Henry; no.16 LEPAPE, Georges; no.45 LÉVY-DHURMER, Lucien; no.30 LINNELL, James Thomas; no.20 MARTIN, John; no.17 MAUFRA, Maxime; no.33 MAURIN, Charles; no.26 METZINGER, Jean; no.38 MUCHA, Alphonse; no.31 MULLER, Jan Harmensz.; no.5 NORTHERN SCHOOL; no.6 NOZAL, Alexandre; no.29 PEDEMONTE, Pompeo; no.3 PETITJEAN, Hippolyte; no.35 PICASSO, Pablo; no.36 PILLEMENT, Jean-Baptiste; no.11 RICCI, Giovanni Battista; no.4 ROSA, Salvator; no.7 RUTHART, Carl Andreas [attr.]; no.8 SAINT-MARCEL, Edme; no.23 SAVILLE, Jenny; no.54 SMYTHE, Lionel Percy; no.34 SPILLIAERT, Léon; no.47 TIEPOLO, Giovanni Domenico; nos.13-14 TISSOT, James; no.22 WALTER, Zoum; no.53 WEEKS, Edwin Lord; no.25
Giuseppe Casciaro (1863-1941) Landscape in Capri, with a Woman Painting Above a Bay [detail] No.44
Front cover: Lucien LĂŠvy-Dhurmer (1865-1953) The Head of a Young Woman No.30
Back cover: Salvator Rosa (1615-1673) A Standing Halberdier No.37
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