EXAMPLE OF CALORIES FOR

CRAFTED BY HAND & CHARRED TO PERFECTION Our

family

A SWEETENED/FLAVORED VODKA ABV @ 20 °C = 35.0% ABWt @ 20 °C = 27.6% {see Eq. 1} 11.6°P = real extract °P = degrees Plato, g/100g or % by weight

0.05 = protein % by weight 0.00 = ash % by weight 1.00105 = SG of the spirit 44.36 = 1.5 US fl. oz. in mL

Calories per 100 grams of spirit = 6.9 * (27.6) + 4 * (11.6 - 0.05 – ^0.00) = 236.6 Calories per 1.5 fl. oz. (44.36 mL spirit) = 236.6 * (44.36 * 1.00105/100) = 105.1 [105.0 Calories or kcal.]

The more sugars in spirits the greater the calories — quite significantly more for some modern-day spirits with 20-35 Plato sugar content (25-30 grams sugar per 100 grams of spirit!) Certain honey-flavored whiskey brands and very often cream-based liqueurs

CAUTIONARY END NOTES www.barrel53cooperage.com

660.456.7610

As noted above – the author points out that solids determination methods for wine and spirits as presented by the TTB are not, according to theory, correct or the most acceptable means to an end. The methods rely on computations involving sample and alcohol specific gravities to determine the real extract gravity (and subsequently the solids content or extract value in mass terms). Such an approach only works within certain limits, as addressed elsewhere (Spedding, 2016) or as might be discussed upon consultation with the author. In addition, sugars, when present in high concentration, lead us to some erroneous alcohol readings; this is based on other chemical properties of the sugars in an ethanol-water solvent system. This issue was addressed, and resolved, by a graduate student from

Chen, F. (2017). Partial Molar Volume: Its Application in the Brewery and Distillery for Volume Contraction Calculations and Alcohol Concentration Determination. Artisan Spirit, Issue 18, Spring 2017; 80-84. Heist, P. (2015). Sugar Utilization and Importance Relative to Fermentation and Distillery Ethanol Yields. Artisan Spirit, Issue 12, Fall 2015; 87-91. Hold, S., Bachler, C. and Groseclose, N.

88

Liebmann, A.J. and Rosenblatt, M. (1943). Changes in Whisky While Maturing. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 35 (9); 994-1002. Liebmann, A.J. and Scherl, B. (1949). Changes in Whisky While Maturing. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 41 (3); 534-543. Olšovská, J., Šterba, K., Pavlovic, M. and Cejka, P. (2015). Determination of the Energy Value of Beer. J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 73(2); 165-169. ê

American Society of Brewing Chemists (2017). Methods of Analysis -14th Edition. American Society of Brewing Chemists. Beer 6: Calculated Values, Beer 11: Protein and Beer 33: Caloric Content (Calculated). http://methods.asbcnet. org/default.aspx [Access restricted to ASBC members. Last accessed, July 2017.]

Hughes, P. (2017). Malicious Methanol. Artisan Spirit, Issue 19, Summer 2017; 84-85.

ê

Abernathy, D.G., Spedding, G. and Starcher, B. (2009). Analysis of Protein and Total Usable Nitrogen in Beer and Wine Using a Microwell Ninhydrin Assay. J. Inst. Brew. 115(2): 122-127.

(2014). Because Accuracy Matters: Determining Ethanol Concentration. Artisan Spirit, Issue 7, Summer 2014; 66-67.

ê

REFERENCES

Spedding, G. (2015a). Measuring and Calculating Alcohol in Distilled Spirits and Liqueurs: Emphasis on WWW.ARTISANSPIRITMAG.COM

Artisan Spirit: Fall 2017

The magazine for craft distillers and their fans.