Winter 2000

Page 1

Winter2000 PersonerĂ­aJurĂ­dica


IGJ 464


Looking Ahead to International Standards


by Donna Fujimoto Interuieiu with Ann


Snow Can a nonnatiue En-


glish Speaker ... ? A qualified nonnative Speaker ...


Pardoni. ..Did you say irueract or inte-


Systems o/ Genres and tbe EAP Classro-





tion Schedule Keynote Speaker


Concurren! Sessions


Schedule Concurren: Sessions Abstraer

This article first appeared in the February/March 2000 issue o, TESOL Matters


Along with the ever-increasing global demand for English instruction, we are se eing a proliferation of schools and programs of many different stripes. People have raised concems, and many are looking to TESOL to take the lead in setting the standards for our profession. TESOL is making steady progress with the development of standards within the United States, and it has ventured into the international arena with its workplace standards (see Standard Bearer, TM, AugusUSeptember 1999). After a strategic planning session last year, the TESOL Board of Directors asked the International Initiative Ad Hoc Committee to explore the feasibility of international standards for English language institutions. The following is a report on a preliminary survey disseminated to TESOL affiliate leaders in February and March 1999. Of the 47 irtternational affiliate organizations. 36 leaders submitted responses, the majority of which were from Latin America and Western and Eastern Europe, with a few from the Middle East and Asia. Of the respondents 71.4% were aware of the standards projects on which TESOL is currently working. A resounding 82.3% felt there was a need for standards in their respective countries, and 85.2% would be willing to participate in the work of developing standards. Of those ready to participate, 56.7% indicated that standards for teacher certification must be developed or existing ones be adapted, and 43.0% stated that it would be advisable to work with government agencies or departments. When asked what should be included in the standards, 80.6% cited teacher qualifications, 44.4% said employment standards, 22.2% listed copyright issues, 13.9% wrote teacher assessment,

ARTESOL Newsletter, Winter 2000

and 8.3% wanted to look at student performance. Almost all respondents felt that there would be many obstacles to developing standards in their countries. Below I encapsulate the main points raised. Politics would present a particular challenge. (EFL professionals lack political clout; national boards of education are powerful and difficult to work with; much depends on who is in power.) The social situation can make things difficult. (There is very rapid social change; there is a lack of cooperation and participation among teachers; there is a lack of unity; there is a lack of concern.) In many countries, education reform contributes to instability. Most problematic of all is economics. (There is just not enough money.) When asked if a single set of international standards would be feasible, 27.6% stated that it would be possible, while 72.4% felt that the standards would need to be adapted for the specific country or region. Clearly, TESOL needs to examine this area thoroughly before proceeding.

TESOL is in the process of coJ/ecting standards that have been developed in other countries, and it hopes to leam more about what other countries have been doing in tnis area. Readers who have information or suggestions about intemational standards are asked to contact Donna Fujimoto (e-mail

Donna Fujimoto serves on the TESOL Board of . Directors.

President Mabel Chena

M. B. l.

First Vice President Vivian Morghen

Second Vice President Claudina


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Eduardo Fasano

Graciela Cerutti

Treasurer Mercedes Auad


Gabñel lanzara

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Estela Gambelín Gabriela Alemani Andrea Rapetti

M. B. L Editorial Staff Mabel Gallo Vivian Morghen Claudina



Special Acknowledgements Argentina public/y

TESOL wishes thank

publication Argentina published


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Teachers of English lo Speakers of Other Languages, íne.

The Thirty-Fifth Annual Convention and Exposition February 27-March 3, 2001 St. louis, Missouri, USA • Renowned Speakers • Pre- and Postconvention Institutes • Software Fair • Poster Sessions • Employment Clearinghouse• Educational Visits • Swap Shop • Workshops • Coüoquia • Electronic Viliage • Publishers and Software Exposition • Interest Section Events • Affiliate Events • Energy Breaks • Video Showcase • Papers • Discussion Groups • Professional Development For more inlormation please contact: Teachers 01 English to Speakers 01 Other languages, Inc. 700 South Washington Street, Suite 200, Alexandria, Virginia 22314-4287 Telephone: 703-836-0774 Fax: 703-836-7864 E-mail: Web:


Newsletter, Winter 2000




Los ANGELES In a recent 90-minute talk with Mabel Gallo, ARTESOL Past President, Dr. Ann Snow I discussed latest develop- I ments in ÉSLlEFL and I Teacher Education


M.G.: l'rn extremely happy and I honored to have the opportunity I to talk here for a while with Ann I Snow, Professor of Education 1 at California Sta te University, Dr 111111 and coordinator and professor of the Cal State /lCANA Master in TESOL programo Ann is a specialist and researcher and has co-authored seminal books on Content- Based Instruction, and English for Academic Purposes. Ann, on behalf of the ARTESOL members I would like to give you my heartfelt congratulations for the award for Outstanding Professional you have recently been given. This award expresses what all of us who had the privilege of being your students feel about your commitment to the TESOL profession. A.S.: l'rn happy to share some of my ideas today with the readers of the ARTESOL Newsletter. Thank you very much for mentioning my award. Obviously I was pleased because, as teachers at heart, it's fine to be recognized by one's peers and maybe to give a little recognition to the ESLlEFL profession which sometimes tends to operate in the wings and not up fron!. M,G.: As a professor of education in the TESOL Master's Program at California State University, you have been very active in the field of Language Teacher Education almost for the last fifteen years. I was wondering if you could tell us a bit about the curricular changes that have been implemented in the last decade or so as a result of experience and research findings. A.S.: Well, in thinking about this question a little bit, I can share our experience at Cal State LA, but I think it is quite reflected in national and international changes happening in the field. Let me give several exampies: For one, we have found the pendulum has swung back to greater emphasis on the teaching of grammar and the teaching of pronunciation. Probably, this has less to do with the research, but more with dictates of the job marke!. When our graduates go for the job interview, they seem to be asked most frequently questions about how they


Newsletter, Winter 2000

--, would teach grammar in a I given scenario, such as: "you have an intermediate level class, how would you teach the I past perfect proqressive?" for I example. On the spot you have to come up with a communicative lesson plan. Same kind of questions are asked about pronunciation, so I think that in the -' U.S., where there was such a M. SIIO'W heavy emphasis on Krashen's theory and the Natural Approach, there now has been a sort of backlash again. This is not only at the post secondary level, but across the board. So, those are two areas where we see changes. In addition, there are a lot of interesting and exciting developments in the area of discourse analysis. Actually, I think that's one of the most popular classes in our Master's Programo We offer students a chance to look at the kinds of discourse patterns that native speakers use in different settings. For example there's one unit on the language of auctioneers, what happens at an auction, and the kinds of language that is used in that setting: here's the dinner table conversation, another setting in which to analyze discourse. There is also really interesting work on the different kinds of language patterns of females versus those of males, in the business world, and how both females and males have learned to adjust their language. Those are just three short examples of the importance of discourse analysis. Besides, in terms of the field we see more and more researchers entering the field from areas other than linguistics and applied linguistics, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, I think that's good, but it also worries me a little bit because some of the work in this area seems to have lost its ultimate applied purpose, namely, what we can learn from research in discourse analysis to aid us in understanding better how we teach languages. So while I think there are exciting developments in discourse analysis, I also think it's important to remember the practical applications of the outcomes of research in discourse analysis. In terms of methods, I see a movement away from what you might call prepackaged methodology, like Silent Way, Community Language Learning; in fact hardly even teach these any more, I might show a video, but now our emphasis is more on



o/ the

work in discourse analysis seems to have lost its ultirnate applied

purpose, namely, what we can learn from research to aid us in understanding better how we teach languages.




(from pagc J)

what we might call equipping students with a repertoire of techniques and strategies, such as how they can create tasks for the classroom, how they can use role play, how they can use techniques in the writing process, (quickwrites, semantic maps, semantic webs), how they can use drama in the classroom. In this way teachers are equipped with an arsenal of techniques that they can work with on different levels. I think that maybe one exception to the comment I just made is that TPR, Total Physical Response, is still quite popular especially with beginning level students and with younger learners. I think one of the reasons that it is still popular is that it comes so closely aligned with The Natural Approach, which many teachers find to be very suitable and appropriate for younger learners. In terms of methods I also think that we are seeing a stronger attempt to balance the teaching of the four skills, and just being here in Argentina this last week talking to a number of teachers, it seems that that's a growing emphasis in EFL here too. In addition, in the US, and maybe this isn't quite so important in Argentina, there's a big controversy in the area of reading between Whole Language and Phonics. Many states have thrown out Whole Language and replaced books and curricula with Phonics. This really concerns me because I think we learn to read using different methods at different times and at different proficiency levels, and l'rn not quite sure what all the implications are for second language teaching, but it certainly is an educational controversy. My area of interest is English for Academic purposes and one thing 1'11say in terms of the chanqe l've seen in the last 15 years is that whereas EAP used to be relegated to teachers of post secondary students or teachers of college bound students, now we see greater emphasis on the teaching of EAP across all educational levels. Last week I just finished teaching a course in EAP where I had all the way from a kindergarten teacher, up to teachers who were working in English language institutes, others with pre college students, and still others with students who were already matriculated. While the particular lesson plan required by the course might have been quite different, the principies are the same: that is what is academic language, how we can, using the results of our findings about the features of academic language, prepare out students to be able to read, write, listen and speak in subject matter areas to prepare them for subject matter learning. In the elementary and secondary levels this tends to be reflected in thematic teaching in the US both in first language and second language teaching. I know from visiting classes and talking with

ARTESOL Newsletter,

Winter 2()OO

teachers that thematic teaching is also becoming popular in Argentina. The reason for this being so is theoretical, that is, we owe a lot to the work of Jim Cummins in Canada, who popularized the notion of BICS, basic interpersonal communication skills, versus CALP, cognitive academic language proficiency. Although he always points out it is important to not think of this as a dichotomy but rather a continuum, I think Cummins' work has helped us see that social language is easier and quicker to acquire. It generally takes place in about two years whereas cognitive academic language proficiency is a long and arduous process, and one we have probably underestimated. So I think at least in the USo This EAP focus started in those earliest levels of schooling is grounded heavily in Cummins' work. A second movement related to the emphasis in EAP that might be of interest to your teachers in terms of knowing what is happening in the United States in particular is that we've had a real backlash against bilingual education. In other words students in many states, even beginning level students,. are being taught English without any instruction in their primary language. This has led to new developments in methodology, and curriculum and materials development in what we call sheltered English, where teachers use especially designed instructional strategies to try to make content material accessible to second language learners M,G,: There seems to be a contradiction between most research findings with the actions taken by government officials or the decision makers. I remember reading so much about the importance of the learner's first language and how much it can enhance the -acquisition of a second language, but the measures that have been taken don't seem to be consistent with these findings.

"I think we learn to read using dijferent methods at dijJerent times and at

proficiency : leuels. Âť


A.S.: You picked up that point very astutely. There's a complete contradiction generally between very compelling findings of research and political decisions that are made quite apart from students' interests, and this is very troubling to me. However, as a teacher educator, I have to try to find a way to equip teachers the best we can with the ski lis for working with students who no longer have the benefit of primary language instruction. M.G: I understand, what we have.

try to make the best of

A.S.: That's why, while I don't support what's happened in reference to primary language instruction, I think that my work in (continucs







"1gather that students'perception of a good English teacher are often


. affected by two ~ factors: (a) the quality , of help students get "# from the teacher and

(b) their relationship with the teacher"


I wonder how many readers would respond lo this queslion by nodding wilh confidence. My own answer lo this queslion was always "Yes, period," until one day an Iranian student in my low inlermediate wriling class al a communily college made me read aloud a senlence he had constructed using however: "Icy is a good teacher: however, she has a Chinese accent." My Iranian sludent's attempl lo embarrass me in class led me lo reflecl seriously on Ihis queslion: Can a nonnalive English speaker (NNS)* be a good English teacher? Since I moved lo Brilish Columbia from Hong Kong and started leaching ESL lo inlernalional students, I have begun lo realize Ihal leaching ESL as a NNS and as a minorI ity leacher is a very challenging task. In Ihe i college where I am teaching, I am Ihe only .As铆an in the ESL department. In my firsl encounler with studenls, I have been asked such questions as: "Are you a volunteer?" "What are your qualifications?" "How long have you been teaching Enqlish?" In the



past, I was never explicitly aware of Ihe inner drive to be a good English leacher, though I definilely wanled lo be one. Now I have become more conscious of this urge lo be good, beca use I know that it requires much more effort to convince students that NNS teachers can be equally good, if not better, English teachers than their native speaker (NS) counterparts can. After all, what makes a good English teacher? From my own experience and observation and from students' feedback, I gather that students' perceptions of a good English teacher are often affected by two factors: (a) the quality of help studenls get from Ihe teacher and (b) their relationship with the teacher. These factors boil down lo (a) the leacher's expertise, which includes knowledge and training as well as teaching techniques, and (b) the teacher's personalily, which directly influences the teacherstudent relationship. Given these two factors, why should a NNS cnntnuu禄

01/ I"I,I.!,(路


A QUALlFIEO NONNATIVE ENGLl5H-SPEAKING TEACHER 15 SECONO TO NONE IN THE FIELO by Alexander Astor The perspective of a Russian tenured (assistant) professor of English in New York since 1993.

" ... The teaching of English requires more than intuitive knowledge of English grammar and syntax."



In Can a Nonnative English Speaker Be a Good English Teacher? (TM, February/March 2000, p. 19), Icy Lee touches on essential issues that have affected our profession for so me time. As a nonnative-speaking (NNS) teacher of English and ESL in New York since 1993, I would like to share my views on and experiences with some of those issues. Because there is no such thing as an average teacher of English or any other discipline, there can be no professional differentiation among native-speaking (NS) and NNS teachers of English. The only real difference among teachers of English or ESL lies in their qualifications, not in their nativity. The professionalism of a teacher of English is predicated upon, but is not limited to, the teacher's absolute (as far as human ability can be stretched) mastery of English. A qualified teacher of English should be a professional in at least three

Newsletter, Winter 2000

fields of knowledge: pedagogy, methodology, and psycho- and applied linguistics. The qualifications of teachers of English, irrespective of their nativity, should be limited only in accordance with the limitations in their knowledge of the above-mentioned fields, which form the foundation of the leaching of English as a discipline. For a teacher to be competent only in one aspect -the command of English- is not sufficient because the teaching of English requires more than intuitive knowledge of English grammar and syntax. A good teacher of English -or any other language, for that matter- should have a cognitive knowledge of the grammar and syntax of the target language: in other words, the teacher should be a linguist, or be linguistically educated. However, a teacher of English should be a specialist in pedagogy, psychology, and methodology as well. I have observed many NS teachers of English fail abysmally in explaining the difference between such basic structures as The book is 路on the table and There is a book on the table to college-Ievel ESL students who were (continucs ()// pagl' /(1)


From pag芦 4

content-based instruction helps give teachers a kind of informed theory and practice to try find ways to make subject matter instruction accessible and understandable to second language students in English. M.G.: Ann, you coordinated the Cal State, LA / ICANA Masters in TESOL program, which was implemented here in Argentina from 1995 to 1997, I think it would be interesting to hear how this program offered here, overseas, differed from the regular program offered at Cal State LA. I mean maybe some adjustments were made to suit the needs of the Argentine cohort. How did you go about all that? A.S.: We wanted to essentially export our programo We think we have a good, well-rounded MA Program with a nice balance of theory and practice, but obviously we wanted to tailor the program to the needs of EFL teachers here in Argentina. Thinking about this question, I would say there were perhaps three areas where we made some adjustments. One is the area of grammar teaching. We knew that Argentine teachers would be very sophisticated in terms of , grammatical knowledge of English, in fact far more sophisticated than our American audience, which is rather typical in foreign language teaching. So while we did offer a pedagogical grammar course, the focus was more theoretical so as to introduce the teachers here to new developments in theoretical linguistics, like interest in government binding syntax, some work in language universals, that is concepts not typically discussed in foreign language courses. Whereas on campus, in Los Angeles. we tend to have a more practical and pedagogical focus. That's one area that differed slightly. The second area, I know from talking with teachers ahead of time and conducting a sort of needs analysis in advance for our program, that most teachers did not have a background in research design and language

ARTESOL Newsletter, Winter 2000

testing. Now, those are courses our students are required to take in the United States as well; however' I think we emphasized them a little bit differently. We felt it was very important for the Argentine teachers to have a quantitative background and understand some of the key issues in research design and statistics so that they could become even better consumers of the literature in our field. In other words so that they could pick up a TESOL Ouarterly that talks for instance about a study that might compare reading approaches and be able to critique it, that is to look carefully at the research method, to look at the research questions, analyze the results, and make a conclusion as to whether it was a good, solid study, something you could rely on. M.G.: That's so true, ... to tell you the truth until to read the TESOL Ouarterly and skip all the ... ures in them. Then, when I could read those make sense of all the data, I felt much more in could even question some of the outcomes. tremely rewarding.

1995 I used let's say figtables and control, and It was ex-

A.S.: It is very empowering as a TE SOL professional to know that now you have the background to read and critique work in your area. That's the second area we tried to emphasize more. The third area is that we, in the U.S., tend to focus more on the context of English for Academic Purposes, EAP, than in English for Specific Purposes, ESP. That's not surprising giving that ESP tends to be more practiced in language teaching that takes place in a forerqn language setting. So, in my own course, I tended to focus more on issues in ESP, such as needs assessment techniques used to work in specific purpose language teachmq. Those are the three major changes that we made in our programo M. G.: Do you foresee that any important changes will have to be made for the 2001 Masters Program in TESOL that is (路oIlIiIlIH'.\


!wgt' 7,


From pagc 6)

going to start in May next year?


education worldwide there's a huqe pu sh toward

accou ntabilitv [or students and [or

teachers. "


A.S.: Yes, as a matter of fact we conducted a thorough evaluation at the conclusion of the program in 1997, and the results were wholeheartedly positive from both the point of view of the Argentine studenUteachers and the faculty. But I think it is important to remember that by the time we start our program in April or May 2001, there will be new developments in the field. Therefore, we would naturally want our new program, the second cohort, to reflect more recent thinking in the field. I think there are two areas that we will want to emphasize. One of those two is the area of assessment. I already mentioned that we emphasized assessment the first time, but even since then I think there have been great developments in the area of authentic assessment, portfolio assessment. Let me give an example, I like the work of Ann Johns who talks about classroom genre versus authentic genre. We will try to do more in our program to give teachers a chance to work on classroom genres which will be typically activities students have to do in class, like writing an essay or doing a reading response. But we will also emphasize authentic genre by giving teachers assiqnrnents that they can use in their professional life. One example of that will be writing a review of a textbook. So, I would assign my class to take a text that they use, write up a review, get feedback from me. and then actually publish it, for exampie, in the ARTESOL Newsletter. That's an example 01 authentic genre assessment. Another example is portfolio. Now, we did do a little in our first program on portfolio development, but that's an area that's becoming more important. Interestingly enough in our campus program, we are, (no! immediately, but we are), moving towards having a culminating portfolio for students so that for all our twelve courses in the program they would have a piece 01 work that represents .. their work for a particular class. The portfolio will reflect work done throughout the program, so that the s!udent will be able to look back on the first course and say "Ohl that's what I did there, look how much my writing and my thinking have improved over the twelve courses." So this whole area of po rtf olio development is very important. Going back towards the idea of authentic genre, more and more employers want to see portfolios. In the past only artists and musicians had portfolios, and now we are starting to see employers ask to see our portfolios. For instance, you would come in and say: "this is an example of a lesson plan I developed, this is an example of a textbook I adapted, this is an example of my students' work." In other words, instead of just a face to face interview, in a sense, they would see a kind of glimpse of this person's academic and pedagogical work. So we're kind of tinkering with this Idea of using a portfolio. Therefore, authentic performance based assessment is one area that we would try to reflect in our language testing course. The second area that I'd like to talk about

Newsletter, Winter 2000

briefly, is the standards movement. Those of you who have been reading the TESOL Matters might know that there is a huge movement in the United States towards standards. What we mea n by standards is both standards for students, what students know, and should be able to do by the time they finish a particular course, as well as for teachers, the kinds of expectations we have for teachers' skills and practices. This movement started in the U S in the late 80s and early 90s as part of a general reform in education. Interestingly enough, it started with the math profession, in first language teaching, and now it has moved squarely into ESL student teaching and teacher education. I recently edited a book that tries to help teacher education students for usinq standards in their classes. Now, what does this have to do with teaching EFL in Argentina? Well, I think the standards movement is so broad-based that its tentacles have spread around the world. In the U.S. already there's this work, I mentioned, on Kindergarten to grade 12 standards for ESL students. But we now have projects that TESOL sponsors in adult education, in community college teaching, in intensive English language programs, and more recently in teacher education. I believe that some of the work done for our intensive English programs or for teacher education could be applicable to your context, here at ICANA, for example, or anywhere el se in Argentina. Actually I know there's some interest in tryin9 to take the idea of standards and see how they apply to the international context. If you're interested in that, I will refer you to the February and March 2000 TESOL Matters, where there's a short article giving the results of a survey from international affiliates and thinking about how standards might be applied to teaching in Japan, in Argentina, or in the Middle East. lt's a little bit tricky because the contexts are so different, but I think it's something worth considering, and I always tell my students that the standards movement is inevitable. Now, maybe, in thirty years the pendulum will swinq again, but, for now, in the United States, I think in education worldwide there's a huge push toward accountability for students and for teachers. In fact in the United States, teachers' salaries are being discussed as being tied to student achievement. lt's not happening yet, but the discussions are taking place. So reform in education, accountability movements are all reflected in this big push towards standards, and I think it's an area that we as teachers need to be informed about. Now, getting back to our program in 2001, one way or another we will find a way to weave in so me of the work in standards, so that the teachers will be familiar, for instance, with the differences between content standards, and performance standards. They will also be informed on writing performance standards, and will be able to analyze classrooms that use standardsbased teaching, and even standards-based assessment, which is another new development; and finally they will be able to analyze the implications of standards-based instruction on cur('olllill;/l'.,路




From page 7)



riculum and materials development. So I think there will be several courses in which these ideas of standards will be integrated. M.G.: I think it will be an excellent component to add to the programo Ann, this concept of standards may not be too unrelated to the question I wanted to ask you now. l've been hearing a lot of discussions about non- native speaking teachers of English, and leven heard that there was a group in TESOL that was considering starting a new Interest Section for non-native speaking teachers of English. Since you have such an important role in the preparation of teachers of English who are not native speakers of the la nguage, I was wondering if you would like to make some comments on this? A.S.: 1'11 be happy to do that. Yes, in fact there's a new Caucus in TESOL. It's been approved, and to my knowledge they met at last year's and this year's TESOL. I want to congratulate the founders of this group for taking this important step. I think it is essential to improve the status of nonnative speakers in the profession. I remember a few years ago, at TE SOL 1995, in Long Beach, California, Claire Kramsch from the University of California, Berkeley, who's actually a German and EFL teacher, gave a talk called The Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker- 1'11never forget the title. She made some excellent points about how the profession has tended to elevate the status of the native speaker to the detriment of the non-native speaker. I thought that her points were very well taken and somehow reflected feelings that I had always had but had never put quite into those terms. I think it is very important to encourage teachers to get involved in special interest groups. Actually, my col-

league, Lia Kahmi-Stein, current editor of the newsletter of the group of nonnative speakers in the profession. is always looking for submissions for the publication. I'm sure that being Argentine herself, she would lo ve to have her colleagues represented. I do believe this is an important development. When one thinks about TESOL as an international organization, it only makes sense that we seek to elevate status of non-native speak rs. Firstly, there are many more non-native speaking professionals worldwide than native speakers. Secondly, more and more of our students will use English to speak to other non-native speakers. not to native speakers. So, it's a natural reflection of demographic changes in the current trends in the use of English. On the other hand, in my experience here in Argentina, and in many other EFL settings in the world, l'rn so consistently impressed with the quality of English spoken by non native teachers, their level of professionalism, their commitment to the field, that I'd apply any effort to be part of an interest group in which they feel that their particular concerns and their particular needs are being emphasized and discussed. I think it's a marvelous new development in TESOL. and I encourage teachers here in Argentina to get involved. M.G.: Ann, thank you so very much for your time. In this one hour we were talking I learned so much, it reminds me of the wonderful classes of our programo Now, l'rn eager to share everything you said with all my colleagues and especially with all the readers of the ARTESOL newsletter.

~--------------------------------------------------_. [nnnpuvÂŤ: -'

teacher be in a less advantageous position than a NS teacher is? Do NS teachers necessarily possess better expertise than NNS teachers do? Or do NS teachers have more pleasant personalities or personalities that are more suited to teachinq? For instance, a mythical belief holds that NSs are by nature more humorous and therefore are better able to establish good relationships with students. In the process of reflecting, I could not convince myself that I was necessarily less eligible to teach ESL than my NS counterparts were. On the other hand, my Iranian student's sentence started me thinking about what advantages NNS teachers possess over NS teachers as far as teaching ESL is concerned. Because NNS teachers themselves have learned English as a second language (L2) or foreign language, they understand the needs and experience of ESL students better. As L2 or foreign language learners themselves, they have probably spent a great deal of time and effort trying to master the language. How they learned grammar, how they attempted to expand their vocabulary, and how they overcame the problems they faced during learning are all precious experiences that they can share with students. Their determination to succeed, and the fact that they did succeed, provide an excellent example for ESL students. In fact, NNS teachers themselves are good role models for ESL students. The presence of NNS teachers brings home the message


Newsletter, Winter


that mastering English as an L2 is an achievable goal. More important, their presence can help dismantle the false dichotomy between NSs and NNSs. Once an ESL student asked me, "How can I write like a NS? After all. what is NS cornpetence?" It is a fuzzy and unreal concept. Unfortunately, an ESL field dominated by NS teachers will only perpetuate the false ideal of NS cornpetence that is so deeply rooted in ESL students. As a NNS teacher, however. I do not mean to elevate NNS teachers and denigrate my NS colleagues. I firmly believe that what makes us good English teachers has nothing to do with our nationality or our accent. Rather, it is the dril/e. the motivation. and the zeal within us to help our students and make a difference in our teaching that make us better. If there were more NNS teachers of ESL. so that they beca me the norm rather than the exception, my students would no longer look at me skeptically and ask, "Are you a volunteer?" They would no longer single out my accent and try to embarrass me by making me think that my NNS status makes me not as good a teacher. ley Lee teaehes ESL in British Columbia.


°Although I believe that nonnative speaker is not an entirely aecurate deseription of myself and many other eol/eagues with similar backgrounds, for the sake of eonvenienee I use this label in this arliele.





by Selva Sandonato and Patricia de Abreu The aim of Ihis paper is to share an experience in class which has provided students wilh a useful 1001 for successfui inleraction oulside Ihe class. We inlend lo show how to go aboul Ihis activily and how significanl our role as teachers becomes so as lo attain our aims. The activity consists in training studenls of any level. approach or age to tackle phonological difficulties that are a roadlock lo efficienl interaction (Iislening & produclion). We divide Ihis activily inlo two stages: Ihe first stage deals wilh the detection of phonological difficulties: Ihe second slage is aboul integration of accuracy. fluency. vocabulary work and reaclion to expected or unexpected comments. Let's reler to Ihe íirst staqe of Ihis activity: A phonological difficulty can prevenl students from reacling promptly. Sometimes they are unable lo answer because they can't understand whal is hoinq said. Consider the tollowing examplas: He can't come tomorrow I He can come lomorrow COII o/ cen't? I won't go there / I want to 90 there / Won't or want? This bus schedule rsn't convenient BI/s schedule o/ besket? Soup or salad? / Super salad? If these sentences occur in context. the phonological difficulty won't hinder comprehension, but if they are produced in isolation or short exchanges Ihey will represent a stumbling block. If we train our students lo decode these diíficullies they will evenlually be able lo overcome thern successtully.

Wn choosc five sentences with contracled forms. Students listen to the first one and they have to repeat what they understand. We must bear in mind that we are training them and ha ve to guide Ihem. rnake them mfer. predicI and lead Ihem by means 01 queslions. We do not have to lell Ihem whal the sentence says. so we write on Ihe board as many senlences as Ihey tell uso For example: "People iion't like 'iin 'cal/se he isn't friend/y". We write on Ihe board whal students understand. We play Ihe tape till they get the correcl version that is to say the same sentence (Ior phonological reasons). II mighl be diHicul1 Ior Ihem lo undersland "like 'im", 'cause". "isn't friend/y" (Ior instance. in this lasl example Ihey could understand is untrientttv instead of isu 't friend/y): The idea is correcl but we should insisl till they get Ihe right senlence and Ihen show Ihem Ihe difference lrom Ihe point of view of phonology. Although Ihe meaning is Ihe same we should help them become aware tnere is a prefix Ihey might get across in other inslances. During Ihis process we should encourage Ihem lo check by means of questions (tool) if what they understand is correct. When they gel Ihe senlence. we ask Ihem lo repeat it and we show them on the board how they have been able lo go from their first version to Ihe real one and we make it c!ear that they could produce il if they wanted to. but thal Ihe aim is recognilion. Then we continue warking on the rest of the sentences. Right alter students have overcome Ihe different phonological difficulties we engage them in the second stage of the activity which has been carefully planned be-

.·IRTESOL Newsletter, Wintcr


forehand. As we have already mentioned, this stage consists mainly in the integration of accuracy and fluency. vecabulary work. and getting a prompt reaction to unexpected comments or questions based on the sentences students were able to understand. The phonological difficulty, now overcome. will trigger Irue to life interaction with our students. We will have to behave as if we were talking with somebody about a real siluation. As regards accuracy, we have to guide them to use ilems actively, we have to elicit them. As regards vocabulary, we should make them use items they have been taught through the different unifs. As to fluency and ability to react to stimuli promptly will depend on how we, teachers, can keep Ihe conversation qoing and how we can take advantage of any comment they produce. Just to gel lo the second stage we ask them to listen to one of the sentences we have been working on and we ask Ihem to imagine a situation that fits this sentence. We have them repeat it and start a conversation. At this stage. we have to keep in mind that our top priority is to elicit their prompt reaction. We do not tell them to use a specific item, for example: past, present, comparatives, etc. We ask questions and then make comments so as to elicit the items they know and should use actively. This could be done in an individual class or in group class. If the group is too big the class can be divided into pairs. If we speak about a group class we should only guide the activity. We, teachers, should let students interact freely and we should ask a question or make a comment to check their reaction: For example: SI. 1 "People don't like 'im 'cause he isn't Iriendly" SI. 2 "How long has he been workmq here?" SI. 3 "He works here for two weeks" T. "Pardon? I couldn't get what you said. How long has he been working here?" (The teacher pretends to have misunderstood the student that's why she doesn't correct him on the spot, She wants him to become aware of the mistake by himself giving him the chance lo recycle, go back, consolidate the item he failed to use and correct himself naturally.) SI. 1 "He has been working here for two weeks ..." We should encourage students to ask questions (tool) when the message is not clear, thus fostering natural peer correction. So now. let's refer to the significance of our role as leachers so as to attain our aims. We .as teachers, should constantly bear in mind that we have to let students express ideas in their own way without telling them what we want them lo sayo Allhough, we, teachers, know that it is not easy lo avoid overhelping them we should assume a different attitude, more objective and less protective so as to train them to develop an independence that will be the key factor to interact in a true to life setting. We, as teachers, should develop our own flexibility and resourcefulness, we should also train ourselves to correct our students naturally and last but not least we should provide them withfeedback. For example: during the second t continucs

011 pagl'



English for Specific Purposes

Systems of Genres and the EAP Classroom by Brian Paltridge This arlicle first appeared TESOL Matters.

in the February/March

2000 issue of

A recent development in genre theory is the notion of systems of genres; that is, the way the use of one genre assumes, or depends on, the use of a number of other related genres (Bazerman, 1994). An example of this is the academic essay, which often draws from and cites a number of other genres, such as academic lectures, specialist academic texts, and journal articles. Academic essays also interrelate closely with assignment guidelines, assessment criteria, tutorial discussions, and tutor-student consultations. Although lectures, tutorials, and specialist academic texts are often dealt with in English for academic purposes (EAP) classrooms, other important genres, such as assignment guidelines, assessment criteria, and tutor-student consultations, often are not. Looking at genres, such as the academic essay, in isolation from other, related genres removes them in part from their context of production and interpretation, and removes much of the information needed to successfully produce them. Teachers need to remember this point when focusing on particular genres in EAP classrooms. A helpful way of drawing on the notion of systems of genres in EAP classrooms is through the use of what Burns, Joyce, and Gollin (1996) term communication networks. Drawing up communication networks for particular academic settings can help identify the contexts students need to interact in, the people students need to interact with, and the genres students need to understand and have control of. The networks, which can be completed by students themselves or with the EAP teacher, can be used in discussions with people outside the elassroom that students interact with in order to further explore the genres students need to understand and have command of. Communication networks can highlight genres that need to be covered in EAP classrooms, beyond what might at first sight seem to be the most important ones. To take the example of a university EAP class, typical genres focused on might include academic lectures, specialist academic texts, tutorial discussions, and written assignments such as documented essays and research reports. An examination of a communication network for this particular setting might reveal a number of other genres (e. g., teacher-student consultatior.s, library inquiries, administrative inquiries, and in- and out-ot-class conversations with other students) that are less often explored in EAP classrooms but are equally important for students. Other genres might inelude assignment guidelines, assessment criteria, degree regulations, course descriptions, and subject outlines. Genres such as these are explored much less often in EAP elassrooms, yet students need to be able to understand them as much as they need to be able to understand academic lectures and write academic essays. Once a communicative network has been established for the particular group of students, teachers can collect sample texts that are relevant to the students' present or future course of study, analyze them, and use them as the basis fOI developing tasks focusing on the particular genre. These tasks might consider aspects of the situation in which


Newsletter, Winter 2000

the genre occurs, such as its particular social and cultural setting, its purpose, its intended audience, assumed background knowledge, and the relationship of the genre to other genres. Samples of spoken genres, though more difficult to obtain, can, with appropriate permissions, also be collected, transcribed,. and examined in a similar way. Riggenbach (1999) provides an extensive discussion of ways to do this. Classroom discussion can focus on the content of the genre as well as its social and cultural setting. As Bazerman (1988) reminds us, genre "is not simply a linguistic category defined by a structural arrangement of textual features" (p. 319). There is a need to go beyond the text into the social and cultural context that surrounds the genre in order to fully understand its purpose and use. Students need to be aware of this as much as they need to have command of the language used to perform particular genres. The notion of systems of genre, then, is an important aspect of genre knowledge "outside the text" that can be usefully explored in EAP elassrooms. It provides another way to examine the tasks students need to perform in English and the situations in which they need to operate, as well as make descriptions of genres pedagogically more useful and relevant to the needs of students.

References Bazerman, C. (1988). Shaping written Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.


Bazerman, C. (1994). Systems of genres and the enactment of social intentions. In A. Freedman and P. Medway (Eds.), Genre and the new rhetoric (pp. 79B101). London: Taylorand Francis. Bums, A., Joyce, H., and Gollin, S. (1996). I see what you mean: Using spoken discourse in the elassroom. Sydney, Australia: Macquarie University, National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research. Riggenbach, H. (1999). Discourse analysis in the language elassroom: Vol. 1. The spoken language. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

Brian Paltridge is a senior lecturer in applied linguistics at the University of Melbourne. Beginning in April 2000, he wi/l be editor of the English for Specific Purposes Interest Section column.


tfrom pllge ')j

stage of the activity students interact with each other and the teacher. As we have already mentioned, we expect them to use some items actively. We, teachers should keep these items in mind during the conversation (resourcefulness) so as to make aware 01 those items and they can produce them naturally. Anyway. we should be flexible to accept any correct answer (this is what we mean by flexibility). For instance: T. "How long have you been workinq?" SI. "1 started working here live years aqo." If the answer is incorrecto it is our opportunity to make them aware of the item they could have used. We should ask them the question again or pretend to have misunderstood what they said. In this way they will be able to correct themselves naturally as we have already mentioned. After the activity, it is very important to provide them with feedback. As soon as we finish the conversation and as a sort of rounding off. we show them some of the comments they made, and ask them to improve on them. We remind them of the grammar items and vocabulary they could have resorted to but did not come up with during their interaction. Remember how important it is to use the board so that students can see what they did. and what the activity aimed al. You might wonder how you can remember what they said. There are different options 1. Record them and them work on the recording. 2. Jot down key words during the activity 3 Trust your memory 4. Correct them indirectly during the conversation so that both teacher and student will remember. We rnight conclude sayinq this kind 01 activity takes time but it is very rewarding. Students must know what is expected Irom them, there rnust be acode between the teacher and the student. It is a process and it calls for perseverance. We shouldn't think it will be successfuí the lirst class we put it into practice. The following principies should be taken mto account: • Training vs. Evaluating • Flexibility • Resourcelulness • Natural correction This kind 01 task requires a lot 01 previous work as teachers. since we have to anticipate the phonoloqical difficulty and then think carelully about the items and vocabulary to be elicited. It could be a complete lailure il students do not know what they have to do. As time goes by. they will become more aware that's why leedback is a must. Feedback will be the red light students will have to turn on when interacting the next time. It will be our red light too, because those items they could not produce on that occasion will be the items we will be insisting on the next time. We could think of the teacher as a movie director and 01 students as actors. On the surface. you see and judge the actors' performance which when outstanding, may overshadow the director's work. but at a deeper level an actor's successlul performance does not depend only on his/her natural skills but mostly on the director who knows how to get the best out 01 him and whose role should pass unnoticed. We should always keep our aims in mind (Irom the preparation / planning of the activity to the linal wrap up). These are:


Newsletter, Winter 2000

• • •

training students to overcome phonological difficul ti es making the students actively use what they have become aware 01 encouraging them to react promptly to the unex pected.

This experience we are sharing has proved to be an ellicient way for us to help our students sound more conlident, Iluent, accurate and be ready to answer or ask questions by means 01 a simple sentence. A sentence that carries a lot of meaning and sometimes can be rrusunderstood. As the sayings say "practice makes perfect" and "the sky is the limit". We insisto the more we train our students to overcome this kinds 01 difficulties, the more they will be able to understand and therelore interact better no! only in class but outside the class.

Selva Sandona/o and Patncio de Abrell SOCo Clara MlIIliL y Asociados

are /eachers

of CA-

Teachers 01 English to Speakers 01 Other languages, Inc. The Thirty-FiHh Annual Convention and Exposition




February 27-March 3, 2001 St. Louis, Missouri, USA • Penowned Speakers- Pre- ollrJ Pn:;lcollverrlrorr l'ISlrlule." Sottwar« F,lir • Poster Sesstons • Ernpln'/rncnl Cli;Z;rrrlollOuse• ELliJcalrOIl.ll visus • SI"I3P Snop • Work,110DS' (\llloqrllil • Elcrtronrr Ifrllaye' PlrlJllslwrs lIlll Software bpll'ltiurr • uuerest SCCIIOIlEvent,· Allr!r:llc lvents> EIlt'rl]l' BréJ,c ·ljrr!>'u SII[1·.\".,se • Popers • DrSCUSSlollGrOIlI'S • Protessronal De'/p!ullrllcIlI Teachers 01 English to Speakers 01 Other Languages. Inc.

700 South Washington Street. Suite 200. Alexandria. Virginia 22314-4287 Telephone: 703-836-0774· Fax: 703-836-7864 E-mail:

• Web: hllp://


AR1 esot ~


SoptOHtOO' 8 - 9,2000



7I4CI4Htált, A'9olttílta






08:00 - 09:00





Registration Concurrent Sessions --

09:00 - 09:30

Opening Ceremony ,

Plenary Content Based Instructíon

09:30 - 10:30 --10:30 -11:00



Coffee BreaK -


TESOL Matters


Classroom Observatíon on Coachíng and Peer

- _-.-_._ ..- .._-- .._--



11:00 - 11:30 Coffee Break

-----------y----11:30 - 13:00

---- ----Concurrent Sessions .-

--13:00 - 15:00


Lunch Break

-- -- -15:00 - 16:30




Closing Ceremony -

Plenary Readíng to Wrítíng to EFL Líteracy Teachíng Strategíes 1st part


, I


16:30 - 16:45 Coffee Break


, ~

16:45 - 18:15 I


Newsletter, Winter 2000

Plenary Readíng to Wrítíng to EFL Líteracy Teachíng Strategíes 2nd Part











LYOlA STACK is currently a Supervisor at the Language Academy in the San Francisco Unified School District. She headed the Mentor Teacher and Beginning Support and Assessment Programs from 1992-1997. She started her eareer as an elementary Spanish Bilingual and English as a Second Language teacher. For ten years she was ESL Department Head at Newcomer High School in San Francisco where she worked with recent immigrants at the secondary level. She is currently involved in curriculum writing and in teacher training and she has been a consultant and presenter worldwide.

(Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), an international association of teachers concerned with English language teaching worldwide. Ms. Stack is considered a teacher's teacher beca use of her classroom experience with immigrant children of all language backgrounds. She is a practical educator whose pedagogy is ground in experience and research.

She has co-authored three- three book series, Voices in Literature (Bronze, Silver and Gold), Making Connections (Books 1 ,2 & 3) , and WordWays (Gameboards, Cubes, and Cards). In 1991-92 she was President of TESOL

Title: Content based Instruction This workshop will provide teachers with practical ways to integrate both language and content into their lessons. Models will be shared and participants will have time to develop their own lessons using the models. Title: Reading to Writing to EFL Literacy Teaching Strategies EFL programs are increasingly expected to prepare students for high-Ievel reading and writing. The Presenter will share instructional strategies to (1) help students understand and analyze literature and readings and (2) develop and refine their own writing based on the literature they read. ARTESOL

Newsletter, Winter 2000

Title: Classroom Observation on Coaching and Peer This workshop will focus on ways peers can helping each other become better teachers. The Presenter will share the characteristics of a trusting relationship, observation techniques, and a video of a coaching session with follow-up.

Sal贸n Los Arcos Jun铆n 534


AR.16S0l aOH"OHtioH eOltC"'l'l'oltt Sossiolts



9 08:00 - 09:30




11:30-13:00 Workshop Discovering your inner self through words Salón Los Arcos (Junín 534)

Demonstration Writing Latin American folktales in the EFL classroom Room 8

Workshop Co-op to cope Room 9

Workshop Video: A powerful resource for EFL clesses Auditorium ATICANA



-- ---


--_ ..-

Demonstration The Internet: The killer application Room 12

Workshop (post) Reading (in) the postmodern Salón Los Arcos (Junín 534)

Demonstration Approach to an introductory for trainee-teachers Room 13

Workshop Writing and its ways Room 13



Phonetics course

-.-.- ---.-.----. ----·1-----·_-----------------_·_··_---

Demonstration ESP for South American practitioners Room 14


----------------+----------------------Poster Session Attitudinal factors and gains in EFL sophisticated learners

Demonstration Testing or assessing reading? ATICANA Auditorium ---- ... ------.. --.-.--------.. _.

Workshop Multiple Intelligencies at work Room 14

-_.- -.. -.


Demonstration Feedback revisited: A positive perspective Room 8



Poster Session From PPP to TBL: A commitment with multipIe implications

Poster Session Biographical diversity and integration in the adult English Class

ARTESOL Newsletter, Wiuter 2000


(!,ONet4nneN7 SeSS30NS A8s7nAe7S Title: Discovering our inner self Abstract: This workshop aims at an audience 01 all levels. Selected topics related to important cultural leatures in Salto (Northern province 01 Uruguay) will be dealt with dwelling on the ideas, leelings, and values. Participants will interact on tasks aimed at enhancing the written texts. Presenter: Ana Brú de Caballero Affiliation: National English supervisor tor secondary schools; URUTESOL Vice-president (Montevideo, Uruguay) Title: Co-op to cope Abstract: By means 01 a music video, participants will explore how to work cooperatively. Together they will analize differences and advantages 01 cooperation over competítion. Presenters will enhance the importance 01 "cooperation" in language learning and language teaching. Presenters: Estela Teresita Magni; María Betriz Tobares Affiliation: English teachers at AMICANA (Mendoza, Argentina) Title: Approach to an introductory Phonetics course for trainee-teachers Abstract: The presenters will show techniques being cur-" rently used in the phonetics courses at the University. The purpose is to awaken awareness 01 English pronunciation and intonation by using innovative and with practical ideas. Presenters: Lidia Mabel Cieri; Maria Celina Barbeito; Renata Cardinali Affilation: English teachers at Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina Title: Testing or assessing reading? Abstract: Reading tasks lound in textbooks often require students to read a text and answer questions on it. Do these activities give reliable inlormation about overall understanding 01 a text? What are good assessment tasks? Presenters: Gabriela Castiñeira; Patricia Lastiri Affiliation: G. Castiñeira is head 01 the EFL Institute at St. Patrick's School and P. Lastiri teaches ESP and EAP at the Instituto de Enseñanza Superior del Ejército. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Title: Feedback revisited: A positive perspective Abstract: The provision and uselulness 01 leedback is one 01 the most controversial aspects 01 EFLlESL teaching. Teachers lind it tedious and unrewarding. Feedback only becomes productive once students act upon it. In this session the presenters will demonstrate how University instructors may provide productive feedback. Presenters: Mariana Pascual; María Celina Barbeito Affiliation: Teachers at Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina). Title: ESP for South American practitioners Abstract: The aim 01 this session is to demonstrate the advantages 01 networking and the outcome 01 a team participating in a pioneer experience in Latin America, the first



Winter 2000

ESP on-line workshop organized by ARTESOL ESP IS. Presenter: Patricia Orsi Affiliation: EFL teacher, ESP instructor and material designer, co-Iounder and co-chair ESP IS ARTESOL. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Title: Biographical diversity and integration in the adult English class Abstract: The presenters will center their session on the variety 01 strategies used to deal with diversity 01 culture, age and social extraction in the English class at the Adu/t City Schools. They will reler to the materia/s and groupdynamics techniques used to achieve integratíon and motivation in the learning process, a/ways respecting diversíty. Presenters: Ana Maria Roca; Eugenio López Arriazu; Diana M. Viz; Adriana S. Calabrese Affiliation: Escuela N"2, Adultos (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Title: From PPP to TBL: A commitment with multiple intelligences. Abstract: The purpose 01 this poster is to highlight the implications 01 shifting frorn the traditional PresentationPractice-and-Production learning -sustained by the advocates 01 structuralism, communicative grammar and functionalism- to the revolutionary and yet experimental TaskBased Learning. Presenter: Ana Maria Pinzani de Ochoa Affiliation: lormer teacher at IICANA (Córdoba, Argentina) Title: Writing Latin American folktales in the EFL classroom Abstract: From the linguistic point 01 view, the writing proc.ess 01lolktales on the part 01 the students aims al: comprehension and analysis 01 classical stories in English, enlargement 01 specilic vocabulary to improve written expression, application 01 grammar leatures intrinsic to narrative style, differenciation between a narration and a mere succession 01facts, inclusion 01 descriptions in a story to create atmosphere and depict characters or environment and analysis 01 paragraph division. The tasks involve all the skills, aiming at helping students recognize the way in which a story is developed. Presenter: Sonia Leticia Di Siena Affiliation: English teacher at New Ways School 01 English and Unidad Maryland. (Córdoba, Argentina) Title: Video: A powerful resource for EFL classes Abstract: Video material can be used as a powerful resource in the class. The presenter will demonstrate techniques to be used in different stages 01 the lesson. ELT materials, movies, broadcast programs and even L 1, materials will illustrate how enjoyable and productive classes can be. Presenter: Cristiane Lopes Affiliation: Pedagogical Coordinator at Prime Language Institute in Brazil, she is a committee member 01 BRAZTESOL Regional Chapter. (Sao Paulo, Brazil) (continuos


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Title: (post) Reading (in) the postmodern Abstract: This workshop will argue for the development of critical thought in EFL education, advocating principies of (post)critical pedagogy. Based on the assumption that EFL carries a strong potential lo pro mote change, the proposed activities will involve participants' world views and positions about what they sense as modern and postmodern attitudes. Presenter: Clarissa Menezes Jordao Affiliation: Master Degree in EFL Literature, she is EFL teacher in Brazil. (Curitiba, Brazil) Title: Writing and its ways Abstract: Writing, thinking, reading and investigating cannot be separated. Students need constant practice in the techniques used in the different academic disciplines. There is the stress on lormat-specific writing, but there is also a discipline-specific writing, which GMAT, TOEFL, GRE and SAT students have to be trained in, not just for their exams, but for their required essays and as a foundation for interviews and later life as graduate and post-graduate students. Presenter: Betty Wolff Affiliation: specialist in high tech, Internet, management and marketing in the business 01 English, heads BEWEnglish and Hypermedia 2000. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Title: The Internet: The killer application Abstraet: The Internet is more than a medium for connecting people and sharing intorrnation. It is one 01 those translormation technologies that appear very lew times in history.

It is a very powerful tool to deliver educational conten!. New media are additional too for learning: technology will neither replace competent teachers nor classroom education. Presenter: Carolina Ruiz Montani Affiliation: Developer of and an EFUESL consultant and researcher for educational websites in Argentina and New Zealand. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Title: Multiple intelligencies at work Abstraet: Results obtained in exams given to university students denote severe gaps in their knowledge and an insufficient development of skills Presenter: Marta Garcia Lorea Affiliation: Former Supervisor of Foreign Languages, M.C. B.A., lormer head of Municipal Schools 01 Languages. Lecturer on Methodology, Pearson ELT consultant. (Buenos Aires, Argentina) Title: Attitudinal faetors and gains in EFL sophistieated learners Abstraet: This poster will show preliminary results 01 the elfects 01 self-efficacy and attitudinal lactors on language proficiency gains 01 EFL sophisticated learners. The treatment involves awareness 01 learning styles and application 01 elfective learning strategies in sell-access mode. Attitudinal and sell-efficacy scales and achievement tests are being measured longitudinally and correlated. Presenters: Ana Longhini; Maria Edith Chiappello. Affiliation: Teachers at Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (UNRC) (Córdoba. Argentina)



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Winter 2000