EXECUTIVE BOARD PRESIDENT
Mabel Chena 1ST VICE PRESIDENT
2ND VICE PRESIDENT
Claudina Lo Valvo SECRETARY
Graciela Cerutti TREASURER
Approaches to empirical research in TESOL.
Mercedes Auad Teacher Education for Integrating Language
Mabel Gallo Clara Muñiz Elida Messina Alej andra Pron Estela Gambelín Gabriela Castiñeira Gabriela Alemani Andrea Rapetti
and Content Instruction
Developing critical thinking skills in ESP
Last TESOL Conference ofthe Millennium in the Big Apple
Blanca Arazi EDITORIAL STAFF
Mabel Gallo Vivian Morghen Claudina Lo Valvo
Argentina TESOL wishes to aclmowledge and public1y thank ICANA which has made this publication possible. Argentina TESOL wishes to thank the following publishers and book.dealers for their support: Cambridge University Press, Estari, University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate, V.I.F.
SOUTHERN CONE CONVENTION BOOK
Index of Spéakers
Index of Exhibitors
Argentina TESOL (ARTE SOL) Newsletter is published twice ayear (winter and surnmer)
ARTESOL Winter 1999
ApPROACHES TO EMPIRICAL
By Katbleen Bailey Reprintfrom
TESOL Matters 8.6, December 1998/January 1999
esearch is one of the five components of TESOL's Forward Plan, yet there is much disagreement about the sorts of research we need in TESOL and which approach to research is best. Empirical research is based on the collection and analysis of primary data, which may be quantified (such as test scores) or not quantified (as in joumal entries or observational field notes). Nonquantified data are often referred to as qualitative data because they deal with the qualities of the people or processes being studied. The three broad approaches to empirical research are experimental research, naturalistic inquiry, and action research. The experimental tradition is the most familiar and has been the dominant approach. But it is not without problerns, especially in addressing language-related phenomena. As a result, the altemative paradigrns of naturalistic inquiry and action research are quickIy gaining ground. The experimental research tradition consists of a family of research designs (standardized plans for conducting research) and analytic procedures based on probability theory. The so-called "true experimental designs'' include the randornization of subjects, control groups, and experimental groups (which get the "treatment") as well as a high degree of control over the variables that might influence the study's outcome. These designs are considered the strongest because they eliminate many threats to validity. In the less powerful designs, the researcher exerts less control over variables and therefore cannot make the causal clairns possible with true experimental designs. This control! causality relationship is tied to the three main goals of experimental research: to build theory by testing hypotheses and/or answering research questions; to discover relationships, especially causal relationships; and to generalize results beyond the subjects in the study to the wider population. Advocates feel the experimental approach has several advantages. First, its highly codified procedures provide an elaborate culture that is shared by experimental researchers worldwide. It uses agreed-upon criteria for deterrnining statistical sig-
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nificance and attempts to replicate the objectivity of the physical sciences. Because this tradition has prestige in universities, pre-service teachers can usually get training in the experimental approach. Because of its prescribed systematicity, comparisons across studies are often possible. There are, however, several disadvantages to the experimental approach, particularly in research on language teaching and leaming, because one can seldom control all the variables influencing the outcome of a treatrnent designed to "cause" leaming. Language leaming is too complex to be reduced to simple causal clairns. The leamer's aptitude, motivation, previous language leaming experience, and intelligence are just a few of the variables involved. Thus, powerful research designs that require a high level of control over variables are not always possible in language research with hurnan subjects, for ethical and practical reasons. Other disadvantages of experimental research are data-related. Most statistical procedures require quantifiable data, but many linguistic phenomena are not easily or validly measured or counted. In the pursuit of "hard data" and objectivity, we may therefore end up trivializing key variables because they are not easily quantified. This results in studies in which individual leamers are represented only by test scores. Their individuality is further obscured when the scores are averaged. Furthermore, many cornmon statistics require that individual iterns of the data be independent (i.e., not related to each other). This condition is questionable when we are analyzing discourse-length data, such as conversations or classroom transcripts. Most statistical procedures work more reliably with large numbers of subjects, which may not be available to language researchers. Because of these concems, many researchers have tumed to other approaches to conduct research on language teaching and leaming. In my opinion, the two most important are naturalistic inquiry and action research. Whereas experimental research uses control and experimental groups randomIy selected for the study, naturalistic inquiry works with naturally occurring settings and groups. In this tradition, preselection, or control, of variables is purposefully avoided. The main goal of naturalistic inquiry is to discover pattems in behavior by describing phenom(continues on page 4)
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ena, rather than to fmd causes of observed behavior. This approach to research is interpretive and exploratory: its goal is to understand the phenomena being investigated. Naturalistic inquiry inc1udes many different research methods, such as ethnographies and case studies. Ethnography is the "the study of people's behavior in naturally occurring, ongoing settings, with a focus on the cultural interpretation of behavior" (Watson-Gegeo, 1998, p. 576). A key tenet of ethnography is the emic principle -the idea that ethnographers must try to understand the participants' perspective in any given situation. A distinction is made between the emic perspective, held by the members of a group, and the etic perspective, based on the researcher's interpretive framework. Another important method of naturalistic inquiry is the case study. The case may be one person or a few people, single or multiple c1assroorns, or even schools. In the experimental research tradition, the primary value of case studies is in generating hypotheses. However, in naturalistic inquiry, well-documented, longitudinal case studies have been especially important in second language acquisition research. The naturalistic inquiry tradition offers several advantages. It permits in-depth study of individuals, settings, or interactions. In emphasizing both the emic and the etic perspectives, no point of view is disregarded. Naturalistic inquiry promotes discussion of language issues that are often lost in statistical analyses associated with experimental studies. In addition, its analytic procedures are not restricted to quantifiable data. Naturalistic inquiry typically generates reader-friendly reports that do not require statistical training to be understood. It also yields rich interpretive accounts of linguistic and sociolinguistic phenomena. There are, however, several disadvantages to naturalistic inquiry. Data collection, reduction, and analysis are extremely labor-intensive, particulady since ethnographies and case studies are longitudinal by nature. There is also a lack of agreedupon criteria for determining the significance of the outcomes. Furthermore, the analytic procedures of naturalistic inquiry are not as well understood or codified in our field as are those of experimental research, and training in this approach is somewhat less accessible. The third major approach to empirical research in language teaching and leaming is called action research. Until recently, this approach was less well known than the other two, but it is rapidly gainĂng ground and is very promising for teachers who wish to conduct research in language classroorns.
The term action research refers to a reiterated cyc1e of procedures. After planning, an action (or "small-scale intervention") is implemented to improve a situation. The apparent results are systematically observed through a variety of data collection procedures (e.g., audio or video recordings, observers' notes, etc.). The action researcher then reflects on the outcome and plans a subsequent action, after which the cyc1e begins again. Action research, like naturalistic inquiry, is conducted in naturally occurring settings rather than with artificially composed experimental groups. Action research is sometimes described as "participatory research" because the researchers are usually members of the cornmunity under study -a c1ear contrast to the desired distance and objectivity of experimental research. The broad goals of action research are to seek local understanding and to bring about improvement. "Action research is a form of selfreflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improvethe rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices and the situations in which these practices are carried out" (Kemmis & Me Taggart, 1989, p.2). Action research has several advantages. It do es not require quantifiable data, large numbers of ..subjects, or artificial control over variables. By definĂtion, it is intended to lead directly to applicable results, and it involves participants in investigating and improving their own settings. Thus, conducting action research can be an empowering process. There are also disadvantages to action research. Although this approach began in the 1940s, for various reasons it has not enjoyed much prestige in some parts of the world. As a result, relatively few published examples are available in the literature of linguistics or language education, and there is still limited professional status associated with conducting action research. One of the reasons for this current lack of popularity is because there are no agreed-upon criteria for determining the significance of the results in action research. Critics c1aim that, because there is little or no control over variables, no strong causal statements can be made. Because the subjects are not randornly selected from the population, the fmdings may not be generalizable beyond the particular setting and peopie involved. AIso, conducting action research creates additional work for teachers. One possible solution is to use a collaborative model of action research in which tearns of teachers and outside researchers pair up to conduct action research in the teachers' settings. Since the goals of action research are to de(continues on page 6)
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velop local understanding and bring about improvement in one's own context, action researchers typically do not concern thernselves with issues of generalizability. But if action research is conducted exc1usively by participants in a given setting, the results may be limited to an entirely emic perspective. And if there is no concern for generalizability, then action researchers may not be motivated to disseminate their findings, and much useful information could be hidden in staff-room discussions. 1 have been discussing experimental research, naturalistic inquiry, and action research as if they were completely separate approaches -and indeed, their underlying philosophies and goals are quite different. But we should not overlook commonalities or affinities among the three. For exampie, some experimental research uses both quantitative and qualitative data to provide a richer interpretation in the data analysis. Some qualitative data collected in the naturalistic inquiry or action research traditions can be codified and quantified in a variety ofways. When the experimental tradition was dominant, and alternative research paradigrns were scorned for yielding "soft" data, researchers seldom combined procedures drawn from the different traditions. Nowadays, language education researchers use diverse procedures to address questions of interest. So, while there are c1ear differences in goals and philosophies, these various approaches to research may not be as mutually exc1usive as they may appear at first glance. These three approaches to empirical research in language education have very different purposes as well as differing advantages and disadvantages, but none can be said, a priori and out of context, to be superior or inferior to the others. It is simply an issue of appropriateness. A researcher must choose the approach that is right for the hypotheses or research questions under investigation. Arguments over which approach is best overlook the multiple purposes of empirical research and also ignore questions of personal preference. Some people are more cornfortable with the control aspect of the experimental research tradition; others, finding such control dehurnanizing, prefer naturalistic inquiry or action research. Regardless of our choice of approach, it is important for us as ESL and EFL educators to be well informed about research alternatives. It is my hope that in the future, the potential of each approach will be more fully realized and that teaching and learning will be improved, in part, through more effective research. REFERENCES
Kemmis, S .., & McTaggart, R. (1989). Action Research. 1ATEFL News/etter, 102,2-3. Watson-Gegeo, K.A. (1988). Ethnography in ESL: Defming the essentials. TESOL Quarter/y, 22, 575-592.
Dr. Kathleen Bailey's presence at the 3rd Southern Cone YESOL Convention was made possible thanks to YESOL's Speaker Trauel Grant
2OOO NAVIGATING THE NEW MILLENNIUM March 14-18, 2000 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
COLLABORATE ANO COOPERATE. TEACHER EOUCATION FOR INTEGRATING LANGUAGE ANO CONTENT INSTRUCTION by JoAnn Crandall Reprintfrom Forum Vol. 36 No 1, Jan - Mar 1998
eachers may be uncomfortable teaching both language and content, but as Mohan (1986) had reminded us, in the real world, people leam language and content simultaneously, and teachers need to be able to address both within their c1assroorns. To leam academic English requires the use of academic English. Content teachers cannot expect students to arrive at their c1assroorns fully proficient in academic English; nor can English language teachers leave the task of presenting academic texts and tasks to the content teacher. As 1 have argued previously, "students cannot develop academic knowledge and skills without access to the language in which that knowledge is embedded, discussed, constructed, or evaluated. Nor can they acquire academic language skills in a context devoid of content" (Crandall 1994:256). Students leam academic language when they have something to think or write about in that language (See Mohan and van Naerssen 1997:22; Master 1997:30), and they leam the academic registers of specific disciplines when they are engaged in understanding and constructing meaning in those disciplines, perhaps in the project work which Stoller (1997:2) discusses. 1 can't teach (choose one: science, mathematics, social studies)! I'm an English Teacher 1 can't teach (choose one: science, mathematics, social studies) to those students. I'm not an English Teacher We are confronted by a dilemma, then, when English teachers feel unprepared to integrate authentic texts, tasks, or tests from content area in their English c1asses, or when content teachers perceive thernselves as unable .to help English language leamers to understand academic concepts through the language they are still leaming. This problem is not just one confronted by teachers in English-as-asecond-language contexts. Increasingly, in many countries, students are expected to participate in English-medium c1assroorns for at least some of their academic or professional careers. At a minimum, students may need to read some academic
texts in English, they may discuss or write about them in their prirnary language. Or, students may enroll in courses or entire academic prograrns which are taught through English and be expected to function at least part of the time as both a student and a professional in English. It is not surprising, however, that both language and content area teachers may be frightened at the prospect of integrating language and content instruction, since there is lirnited attention to language needs in the preparation of content teachers, and lirnited attention to either the specific discourse of academic disciplines or to the practical concems of needs analysis, text adaptation, curriculum development, or collaborative teaching in most language teacher education prograrns. The majority of teachers who develop strategies, materials, or prograrns on integrated instruction leam to do so after they have be en teaching for some time. Too often, teacher preparation focuses on decontextualized theory, with lirnited attention to practice. Too often, inservice teacher development is mired in the daily challenges of teaching, and opportunities for continued development rnay be limited to workshops or brief seminars, without opportunities for reflection, application to the c1assroom, or opportunities to explore new theories or approaches. But it is possible, through collaboration and cooperation, for teachers to develop the confidence and the competence to effectively integrate language and content instruction, in any of the rnany models by which it is practiced around the world: through content-based language instruction (Krueger and Ryan 1993; Crandall 1987), sheltered content courses (Krashen 1993), adjunct or paired courses (Snow and Brinton 1988; Crandall and Tucker 1990), thematic or task-based instruction (Enright and McCloskey 1988; Nunan 1989) or language for academic or specific purposes (Brinton, Snow, and Wesche 1989; CrandallI987). (See Crandall, 1993a for a review of these program models and instructional strategies in content-based language instruction.) This artic1e reviews some strategies for helping prepare preservice (prospective) and inservice (experienced) English language and content area teachers to more effectively teach students to (continues on page 8)
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function in English-as-a-second or foreign-language c1assroorns in elementary, secondary, and tertiary educational contexts around the world. The strategies are drawn from the three major models of teacher development: craft or 'training; mentoring and coaching; and inquiry and reflection (See Crandall 1993b for a review of these.) At the core of each is an opportunity to collaborate or cooperate with colleagues from across the curriculum, helping to improve instruction for English language leamers at the same time as engaging in professional development for oneself. While the audience for the Forum is more likely to be language teachers, 1 have deliberately inc1uded content teachers in the discussion, since 1 believe that both need to be involved for optimum leaming of both teachers and students. Moreover, the language teacher is likely to encourage the involvement of content teachers in the teacher development program, and the strategies described below can serve as suggestions. It is also my hope that teachers educators, adrninistrators, and others charged with preservice and inservice teacher education will inc1ude these strategies in their prograrns. These strategies need to be viewed as part of an ongoing process of teacher development which begins in preservice (teacher preparation) prograrns and continues throughout the professionallife of the teacher. Knowledge, skills, and confidence develop over time, as one has the opportunity to acquire new understandings, to work with new students in new contexts, and to reflect upon one's own growth as a professional. Since there has been lirnited focus on integrated instruction in preservice teacher education, many of the strategies or models which are described are from inservice teacher development. However, ways to adapt these for teacher preparation prograrns are also described. SOME COLLABORA TIVE AND COOPERA TIVE TEACHER DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Teacher development in integrated instruction usually begins when one English teacher seeks out one content-area teacher to discuss the language leaming needs or acadernic language problerns of shared students (Short, Crandall and Christian 1989). Sometimes the catalyst for the discussion is a sense of frustration by the content teacher, who feels the student's English is not sufficiently proficient to participate in the c1ass; other times the student sparks the process by asking for help with specific English. The teachers' discussion rnay lead to a number of very productive collaborative strategies, benefiting both the students and the teachers. These inc1ude 1) analysis of texts, materials, and curricu-
lum; 2) c1assroom observation, reflection, and feedback; 3) collaborative action research and reflection; 4) development of integrated or complementary lessons, materials, or curricula; 5) collaborative or team teaching; and 6) collaborative university courses for preservice and inservice teacher education. Each of these is discussed in more detail below. ANALYSIS OF TEXTS, MATERIALS, AN CURRICULUM What makes acadernic language complex? Why is it that students develop seeming fluency in informal, sociallanguage before they are able to understand and write acadernic texts? A number of studies have demonstrated that it can take a great deal of time for students to master the cognitively complex, relatively unembedded or context-reduced language of the acadernic c1assroom. (See Collier 1992 for a review.) But what does that language look like in acadernic texts? How important is it to understanding the basic concepts expected in the mathematics, science, or social studies c1assroom? These are questions worthy of collaborative analysis, discussion, and reflection. They can help the English language teacher better understand the types of texts, the nature of the written language discourse (e.g., "Find a number such that 3 times the number plus 9 is equal to 30" or "Every action has an equal and opposite reaction"), the key vocabulary (technical, sub-technical, and cornmon vocabulary which has a special meaning in that discipline, such as "root" or "irrational" in mathematics) and structures (e.g., passive voice or historical present) which students need to understand if they are to be able to use the language to construct meaning in their other courses. By looking at English language teaching texts and material s, the content area teacher can get 'cf better understanding of how language can be taught, leamed, and integrated into problem-solving, discussion, or writing tasks that could be adapted for the content c1assroom. Text and materials analysis is a frequent first step in both preservice and inservice teacher development prograrns, whether these prograrns occur within one school or program or across many institutions, since this analysis and discussion can help develop a cornmon vocabulary and framework for further collaboration and leaming. Being able to read and understand texts written in English is likely to have a high priority in most educational contexts, and reviewing others' materials and texts is a natural and non-threatening place to begin. However, it is usually onIy a beginning, since without an opportunity to observe c1assroorns to understand how the (continues on page 9)
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text material is used in the class, what instructional strategies are employed, and what concepts and vocabulary are most important, it may be difficult for a language teacher to develop appropriate integrated instruction. CLASSROOM
Peer observation can be a powerful source of insight and discovery, though it can be intimidating, especially in contexts in which observation is usually undertaken only for supervision and evaluation. To be effective in teacher development, observation needs to be thought of as a cooperative discovery process. A focus on shared students and their attempts to negotiate meaning and construct understandings in both classes can help keep the attention focused on student leaming, rather than on teacher effectiveness. An observation form can also help structure the observation and keep it from becoming an evaluation. The following kinds of instructional questions can be asked:
school, university, or district to leam from in their attempts at integrating instruction. Observation can help experienced teachers develop new strategies and experience a kind of renewal, since most will not have had the opportunity of observing different teaching strategies or classrooms in many years, if at all. Issues of time, access, or attitude may have prevented much opportunity for classroom observation even in the preservice teacher education program, and teachers may be relying on their experiences as a student (termed their "apprenticeship of observation") for their understanding of the teaching process. If it is not possible to engage in classroom observation, it may be possible to have classes videotaped. Individual teachers or groups can then engage in discussion and reflection, using a form such as the above to structure the discussion. It may also be possible for teachers to view the tape from different perspectives by focusing on a specific student or group of students or on particular activities or skills. The video offers a neutral stimulus to trigger discussion and also focuses attention on how language and content classrooms work. COLLABORA TIVE ACTION RESEARCH AND RE-
5. 6. 7.
What is written on the blackboard? Is it in English? Does it focus on information or concepts that are developed in English in either a written text or oral discussion? What written texts are used during the class? Are they in English? What are the major concepts developed during the class? What key vocabulary is required to understand these concepts? What kinds of questions do students ask? Where do they have difficulty in expressing themselves in English or in understanding the content? What kinds of questions do teachers ask (in English; in other languages)? What activity used in the class could you adapt for your own instruction? What questions do you have for the teacher?
The observation form also helps structure the follow-up feedback session, when both teachers meet to better understand the goals, instructional means, and student difficulties with the class. The discussion of specific activities, over time, may lead to ongoing collaboration by the teachers, with each trying to integrate materials, strategies, and concepts from other's classes, leading to joint development of curriculurn or materials, workshop or conference presentations, or the informal recognition of these teachers as "master teachers" for others in the
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Analyzing texts and observing and talking about classes are two exciting ways to increase one's understanding of other classrooms and disciplines. They are often part of an action research project conducted formally or informally by teachers interested in looking more closely at some aspect of their own teaching. Action research engages teachers in collecting and analyzing data from a variety of sources that both describes what happens in classes and helps improve practice. Student interviews, analysis of student writings, audio- or video taping of classes,' dialogue joumal writing with students or other teachers are all possible means of addressing and analyzing instructional questions. While teachers engage in informal action research in their classes all the time, it can also be undertaken collaboratively by several teachers to answer parallel or complementary questions about the curriculum, materials, assessment, or teaching strategies which affect students that teachers share. Table 1 shows the kinds of questions these might be. These are all questions which teachers have asked and researched in their action research projects. The first project involved both a high school chemistry teacher and a graduate student preparing to be an ESL teacher in looking at what problems (continues on page J O)
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leamers have at different levels of English language proficiency and what strategies were most helpful
DEVELOPMENT OF LESSONS, MATERIALS, OR CURRICULA
Since few content-based language texts or sheltered content material s exist for the classroom, 1. Is it possible to teach chernistry in English to beanother focus of professional development for langinning or intermediate English language leamers? guage and content teachers may come through col2. What are the major sources of difficulty my stulaborative curriculum or materials development. The dents face when they are in the algebra class? development of lessons, materials, or curricula 3. How can we promote greater thematic integrawhich can be taught by either or both teachers, or in tion in students' overall curriculum? new courses which serve as a bridge to the content 4. What can we leam from individual students that area, is also a natural outcome of peer observation can enhance our understanding of their English lanor action research and reflection. guage and content needs? For example, a university in which English 5. Can dialogue journals help students develop was becoming more widely used in different disciacadernic writing skills? plines, decided that a series of specialized English courses should be offered to students who had exfor each. In the second project, a rniddle school ited the basic English programo There were few mamathematics teacher and an ESOL teacher collaboterials for most of these courses which would reflect rated to identify both gap s in the students' rnathethe ways in which English is used in the university. matics education and problerns that these students For example, in agriculture, students were only exhad with basic mathematical and algebraic language. pected to read basic materials such as simple manuAction research projects can focus on one als or brochures, while in engineering and medicine, or many students and involve a variety of datamuch of the instruction and all of the texts were in gathering procedures. It can engage a number of English. Tearns of applied linguists, English lanteachers in a common research question, such as guage faculty, and faculty from the various colleges promoting greater thematic integration across the met to discuss the needs and then engaged in a twocurriculum for students or engage individual teach- . year development effort. Content faculty indicated ers in research projects which collectively help adbasic concepts to address and possible texts for use dress instructional questions. For example, teachers in the materials, and they also served as members of in a graduate course on "W orld Englishes and their review tearns to suggest changes in the materials despeakers" each conducted an in depth case study of veloped by the English language and linguistics facone student, recording and interviewing that student, ulty. The completed texts were a series of thematic analyzing that student's English, and engaging in units which used both more popular and technical week1y dialogue joumal writing to get a fuller aptext as the basis of oral and written discussion and preciation 路of the student's background, strengths, also served to develop acadernic language and conand needs as they relate to acadernic English lancepts, while also teaching study skills, problemguage and conceptual development. Reflecting on solving, and other cognitive and metacognitive these case studies and sharing them with each other strategies. Not only were new texts created in this helped promote greater understanding of the chalprocess, but both English and other faculty became lenges and possible strategies for meeting these in more aware of the sources of difficulty for students English language and other classroorns. and possible strategies to address these in both EngAction research projects can engage teachlish and content classes. ers in looking at the reading and writing demands Sirnilarly, in a rniddle school in the United across the curriculum (and in the process, build betStates, teachers who worked together in instructer understanding among the teachers). It can intional tearns identified possible themes such as cavolve focus groups interviews with small groups of reers, archaeology, exploration, and pattems, which students engaged in discussing a passage from a text could be used to integrate curriculum and instruction or attempting to solve a complex mathematical for students at each grade level. The social studies problem. And, it can lead to other professional deand ESL faculties have also collaborated on both velopment activities such as the development of new content-based ESL and sheltered curriculum to be materials, the co-presentation of a workshop, or coused by the ESL and the social studies teacher durauthorship of a paper delivered to a teacher seminar ing the semester, leading to the development of a or conference. "sheltered social studies" guide which was shared with other rniddle school teachers with linguistically (continues on page 11)
diverse c1assrooms. The process of working together on curriculum and material s development provides ongoing professional development and deepens the understanding of what is involved in integrated instruction. Even when the collaboration is lirnited to two or more English language teachers engaged in addressing cornmon concems, the opportunities for introspection, reflection, and impact on one's practice can be profound. Involving prospective English and content teachers in the collaboration can broaden the impact. Teacher candidates often have access to new materials or approaches to share and they, in tum, can leam from more experienced teachers in the process. COLLABORA TIVE OR TEAM TEACHING Teaching parallel courses (as in the adjunct model) or co-teaching within the same c1assroom can also offer an ongoing means of developing both the knowledge and skills for integrated instruction. In an adjunct model, an English language c1ass is paired with a content c1ass, with the English teacher focusing primarily on reading or writing, using the content and texts from the content c1ass as a starting point. Adjunct teachers must co-plan their instruction and to the degree possible, provide parallel attention to the language and content underlying content area objectives. Other models of cooperative teaching involve an English language and content teacher co-teaching a core course in which students of all levels of English language proficiency are engaged; assigning additional materials in English to a content course which is taught through another language or conducting conversation or discussion sessions focused on that course in English; or cooperating on a program of student tutoring. There are other, exploratory models of teaching which foster even greater opportunities for collaborative leaming. For example, in one program in a secondary school in the United States, an experienced ESL teacher suggested to the principal that she could provide a better instructional program for beginning English language leamers if she were able to co-teach with the content teachers for the students' entire instructional day. That ESL teacher coteaches all the content areas, inc1uding English language arts instruction, in a true partnership of equals. While the content objectives are deterrnined by the other teachers, the ESL teacher helps develop rnaterials, introduces and c1arifies concepts for the c1ass, and works with srnall groups of students. In the process, the ESL teacher models appropriate strategies such as the use of graphic organizers, cooperative leaming, or joumal writing, and also pro-
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vides use fui rnaterials which the content teacher can adapt for use in other contexts or with other students. While the cost of this model rnight seem prohibitive, the team of teachers perrnits larger c1ass sizes and increases the effectiveness of the instruction so that students can be more readily moved from this intensive ESL program to less intensive ones. COLLABORATIVE UNIVERSITY COURSES FOR PRESERVICE AND INSERVICE TEACHERS Action research, curriculum development, or inservice serninars can often develop into courses which bring prospective teachers (undergraduate and graduate students), teacher educators, and others into the teaching and leaming process. In my experience, the best of these courses are taught collaboratively by teachers and teacher educators, and may even inc1ude students in the instructional process. In the course of my work with teachers, school districts, and universities, I have often been asked to "teach a course" that will help both language and c1assroom teachers to integrate language and content instruction. I have found, however, that experienced and prospective teachers, groups of students, and groups of teacher educators can often provide a more appropriate and effective course which brings together theory and experience frorn a variety of perspectives. For example, in a course on "Content ESL and ESP" for prospective and current English language teachers, teachers of other disciplines teach the course. A course on "Strategies for teaching linguistically and culturally diverse students" for content teachers involved master English language and content teachers in the instruction. Finally, in "Strategies for integrating language and content instruction" and the "World Englishes" course described above, experienced and prospective teachers, teacher educators, adrninistrators, evaluation personnel, and students participated in the instruction. One of the fundamental tenets of cooperative leaming is that "None ofus is as srnart as all ofus". That's specially true in rnatters of integrated instruction. SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR GETTING STARTED The best integrated teacher education efforts, in my experience, begin small and involve comrnitted teachers who are deterrnined to better understand the nature of their work. When others witness the renewed energy and excitement that these efforts create, others will want to become involved as wel1. Adrninistrators can help pro vide re leas e (continues on page 12)
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time, cornmon planning time, materials, or financial support for these efforts, but they should not require others who may not be interested to participate. A focus on student achievement will also help encourage participation by teachers who might be intirnidated by the prospect of close examination of their own practice. And, finally, it is important to begin with a focus on practice, as well as theory. IMPLICA TlONS EDUCATlON
There is remarkable agreement among those who have proposed or developed teacher development prograrns about the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that such prograrns should help content teachers develop (Crandall and Tucker 1990; Teemant and others 1996). At a minimum, the program should foster: a) Basic understanding of the developmental nature of second language acquisition and of errors as a sign of learning; b) Understanding of the nature of academic language and skills and helping students to develop this through content study; e) Strategies for accornmodating different levels of English language proficiency in the classroom without "watering down" the curriculum by providing: i) Multiple opportunities to negotiate meaning and construct understanding through the use of multiple media (reading texts, writing assessments, class discussion), ii) Repetition or rephrasing of difficult concepts or vocabulary; iii) Multiple grouping strategies which : pro mote cooperative learning, peer tutoring, and other learner-centered approaches and provide opportunities for instructional conversations, scaffolding, and support from more experienced peers or the teacher; iv) Demonstrations and experientiallearning to reduce dependence on academic language for conveying meaning and understanding; v) Visuals, realia, and other means of using concrete, embedded instruction as a bridge to the more abstract; and vi) Graphic organizers and other pre- and post-reading and listening strategies to break concepts into rnanageable chunks and focus students' attention on major concepts, rather than number of pages to be "covered"; ARTESOL
An understanding of differences in crosscultural cornmunication; and e) Strategies for assessment and evaluation, including portfolios, checklists and inventories, and other accornmodations, such as the use of the primary language. For language teachers, all of the above is needed, and much may already be part of the language teacher education programo What needs to be added, however, to enable English teachers to more effectively address academic language needs, is: a) An understanding of different ways to conduct needs analyses, including analyses of textbooks and curriculum and classroom instructions; b) Strategies for integrating content into language instruction, including ways to focus on both essential ("content-obligatory") and related, useful sub-technical or other academic ("content-optional") vocabulary (See Snow and others 1989); and e) Strategies for developing learning strategies, specially cognitive and metacognitive strategies that will increase students' effectiveness and efficiency in using English as an academic medium. This content could be most effectively delivered in a teacher education program that brings together prospective and experienced teachers, administrators, teacher educators, and even students using some of the strategies described above. In fact, if teacher education is to be a searnless process of lifelong learning, then preservice and inservice teacher education needs to be better integrated from the outset. Too often, experienced teachers remark that new teachers have lots oftheory, but not much ability to apply it in the classroom, which is not surprising, given the lack of attention to practice in most teacher education prograrns. On the other hand, new teachers often feel that experienced teachers are working from instructional theories and ftameworks that are not very current. These teachers need time to step back frorn their daily practice to reflect upon their students, courses, and instructional techniques. Both can learn these more effectively when they have opportunities to interact with each other and with colleagues across the curriculum from the beginning of their teacher education program. (See Crandall 1994 for a fuller discussion of this kind of integrated teacher education model.) In addition, as linguistic and cultural diversity and the role ofEnglish in some aspect of education or professional preparation increase, it is vital that some attention to integrating language and content instruction be a focus of both preservice and inservice teacher educa(continues on page 14)
How effectively can you communicate in English? The answer is:
TOEIC Test of English for International Communication
A highly reliable and efficient test of English designed to evaluate how well those whose native language is not English can read and understand English in real-Iife situations.
TOEIC enables • • • • • • •
Verify your current level of English proficiency Qualify for a new position and/or promotion in your company Enhance your progress in English Set your own learning goals Track the progress of employees in English language programs
ICANA Testing Department 4322-3855/4557 ext.29 firstname.lastname@example.org
(from page 12)
tion, and that those ofus engaged in projects similar to those discussed above share the results of these efforts with colleagues in this joumal and other professional venues. REFERENCES
Brinton, D., M. Snow, and M. Wesche. 1989. Content-based second language instruction. New York: Harper & Row. Collier, V. 1992. A synthesis of studies exarnining long-terrn language rninority student data on academic achievement. Bilingual Researcn Journal, 16. pp. 187-212. Crandall, J. 1987. ESL through content-area instruction: Mathematics, science, and social studies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. 1993a. Content-centered learning in the United States. Annual Review 01 Applied Linguistics, 13. pp. 111-126. 1993b. Professionalism and professionalization of adult ESL literacy. TESOL Quarterly, 27. pp. 497-517 1994. Strategic integration: Preparing language and content teachers for linguistically and culturally diverse c1assroorns. In Strategic interaction and language acquisitions: Theory, practice, and research. ed. J. Alatis. pp. 255-274. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. Crandall, J., and G. Tucker. 1990. Content-based language interaction in second and foreign language instruction in second and foreign languages. In Language teaching methodology for the Nineties. ed. S. Anivan. pp.83-96. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional ... Language Centre. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 312-895. Enright, S., and M. McCloskey. 1988. 1ntegrating English. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Krashen, S. 1993. Sheltered subject-matter teaching. In Methods that work: Ideas for literacy and language teachers. 2nd edition. ed. J. Oller, Jr. pp. 143-149, Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Krueger, M. and F. Ryan. 1993. Language and cantent: Discipline- and content-based approaches to language study. Lexington, MA: D.C. Health. Master, P. 1997. Using models in ESP. English Teaching Forum, 35,4, pp. 90-36. Mohan, B. and M. van Naerseen. 1997. Understanding cause-effect: Leaming through language. English Teaching Forum, 35,4. pp. 22-29 ____
ARTESOL Winter 1999
Nunan, D. 1989. Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Short, D. 1991. Content-based English language teaching: A focus on teacher training. Cross Currents, 18. pp. 167-173 ___ .. 1994. Expanding middle school horizons: Integrating language, culture and social studies. TESOL Quarterly, 28. pp. 581608. Short, D., J. Crandall, and D. Christian. 1989. How to integrate language and content instruction: A training manual. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 305-824). Snow, M., and D. Brinton. 1988. Content-based language instruction: Investigating the effectiveness of the adjunct model. TESOL Quarterly, 22, pp. 553-574. Snow, M., M. Met, and F. Genesee. 1989. A conceptual framework for the integration of language and content in second and foreign language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23, pp. 201-217. Stoller, F. 1997. Project work: A means to promote language content. English Teaching Forum, 35,4. pp. 2-9. Teemant, A., E. Bernhardt, and M. RodrĂguezMuĂąoz, 1996. Collaborating with contentare a teachers: What we need to share. TESOL Journal, 5. pp. 16-20.
Developing critical thinking skills in ESP By Lynne Flowerdew Reprinted from TESOL Matters, Dec. 1998/ Jan. 1999
number of different syllabus types have been implemented for ESP courses over the past few years, inc1uding skills based, notional-functional, task based, and content based. (For a useful overview, see Jordan, 1997, chapter 4.) However, in this artic1e, 1 would like to suggest that regardless of syllabus type, ESP courses should also aim to develop critical thinking skills, especially if the courses are conducted for academic purposes within an academic setting. Ballard (1996) highlights the importance of such analytical approaches to learning at the tertiary level, where students are normally expected to demonstrate that they can systernatically organize their ideas and present their evidence to formulate a coherent argument. Many prominent ESP practitioners, such as Belecher, Swales, and Feak, have emphasized the value of addressing higher order cognitive skills in ESP as well. Therefore, language/skills instructions at the tertiary level should not merely be relegated to the teaching of proper gramrnar and appropriate genres but should inc1ude training in sound thinking, too.
What kind of critical thinking development is appropriate for an ESP course? 1 think Gardner (1996) provides the best answer when he explains that critical thinking embodies three separate skills: analysis, synthesis and evaluation. These skills are important because they allow a person to look bellow the surface of words to understand a writer's intended meanings and purposes. At a university, these skills can be developed when students leam to write an analytical report -a genre cornmonly taught in rnany university ESP courses. At the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, for example, students hone their critical thinking skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation when they write reports for the course Technical Cornmunication Skills. In one recent assignrnent, students evaluated the new Srnartcard that was designed to rnake ticket purchases on the Mass Transit Railway (MTR) in Hong Kong more convenient. Students based their reports on the analysis of primary-source data (i.e., survey questionnaires, observations, and (continues on page J 6)
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3rd Regional TESOL Southern Cone Convention
Jack c. Richards Sandy
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(from page 15)
interviews) and secondary-source data (i.e., the MTR's Web page). Different parts of the report required thinking, let's look at the assignment in more detail. ANALYSIS
This skill involves considering the relationship of the parts to the whole and inc1udes such aspects as distinguishing relevant from nonrelevant information, understanding conceptual divisions of a subject and its subdivisions, distinguishing more essential from less essential information and ordering it appropriately, and offer explanations. For instance, distinguishing relevant from nonre1evant information is important when writing the background and scope section of a reporto Looking below the surface of a text to make inferences and offer explanations is particularly relevant for the discussion section of a report, which gives an analysis and interpretation of the results based on sound reasoning and often cornmonsense or background knowledge of the subject. In the report mentioned above, students were expected to explain why, according to their survey data, the percentage of respondents who reported using the Smartcard had doubled during recent months. Students postulated the following three causes: (a) because the cornmon stored value ticket had been sus-
pended, the Smartcard had become the only choice for stored valued payrnent for traveling on the MTR; (b) as more and more bus routers implemented the Smartcard system, it became more widely used; and (c) because the new card had been extensively promoted, more people were aware of its existence and, thus, used it. To promote better critical thinking on this topic, c1ass discussions were then held to consider if the reasons put forward were valido Students were also asked to categorize their reasons into major and minor ones. SYNTHESIS
This type of critical thinking involves combining ideas for a particular purpose. In report writing, very often, evidence is provided from different primary or secondary sources to support a particular standpoint or argurnent. It could also refer to looking for correlations in the data to note pattems of sirnilarities or differences. In the section on reporting and discussing the results, students had to explain why, according to their data, more than 70% of the passengers preferred to go to the customer service counters to increase the value of their Smartcard rather than using the add-value machines. The students already had this data from their survey questionnaire results, (continues on page 18)
The Thirty-Fourth Annual Convention and Exposition â&#x20AC;˘ Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Ine.
T~ ~ o L 2 O O O NAVIGATING THE NEW MILLENNIUM
March 14-18, 2000 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
TESOL 99 LAST TESOL CONFERENCE MILLENNIUM
IN THE BIG ApPLE
hy Mabe! (,'allo xiona l issues we are currently
you can make it there, youIl mukc 11 anywhcre.. .. " \Ve can say that TESOL did mal«- II in NC\\ York as IO.()()O plus registrants ('<111 ;!Ill'st io. This conveuuon madc evideut once agaln ihar [he magnitude of the reward is tautarnouut only 10 tha: of rhc cliallengc involvcd in thc undcrtaking. ,\11l1 \;nv York is by a ll mcans rhc J110st chalknging ,hoiee Ior a convention sitc. /\ quict, small 01' I11C.hum- ~lLcel 10\\'n with ~I i;lrgc convention center suri oundcd by hlg hotels sccrns the J11()st viable serup ¡i)J a IJlgL' contercucc \ev,i Y ork, howcver. is an .. "1"
cuorrnous city with cxtremeiy cxpensivc hotels, cruzy iratfic. und le'" wcathcr in March. Howcver, in 110 othcr cuv ,:ouid wc have had such an exhilarating .nid le\\:lrdlll~ cxpcncnce. On the other h:111d. nothIllg or~;\lIi7l'1''' planncd, -bringing a Broadway show IU illL' ¡)!','niJlg l'.remony, moving thousands of ¡ll'llpk Iv L11¡, lsland on a cold windy night, I::klllg Pl'OP"-' OJleducational visits to differ(.'111 parts o t thc city using public transporta[l')n.- i\'a~ in any wa:, casy 10 carry out. But ¡ F::'OL. organizers measured up lo the challcngc and the result was the materializauon ofihe impossible drearn: New York. The quality 01' the convention program well befittcd the context in which it was hcld. In the opening plenary, The Future 0(' English, David Crystal succccded in holding thousands of TESOLers spellbound whilc he explored the outcomes oí' the expansión of the use of English language all over the world. He pointed out that the center of gravity for thc language has moved away from the U.S./U.K. towards the res¡ of the world where speakers oí' English as a second/foreign language gradually becorne the majoriry. In Wlia¡ Nave We Learncd in Two Decadcs 01 Language C/lI.1'sroO/JI Research:), Kathleen Bailey, TESOL outgoing presidenr, focused on ESU EFL teachers ' two-hat problern, i.e. teachers and researchers. These two foci can become more 01' less important at different times, and they feed upon each other thus constantly enhancing c lassroom teachers' professional dcvelopment. Another featured speaker presentation which 1 had the pleasurc the attend was JoAnn Crandall 's, Preparing Teacliers [or Real Classrooms: Aligning TESOL Teacher Education with Teaching, 111which she dealt with one of the hottest profes-
A I?TESOL Winter /999
facing 111our country. the needs of both novice and expericnced teachers. She argued that by integrating prescrvice and in-service teacher education, we can betler serve the needs of both groups of teachers. In addition, she described innovations that may be brought about in MA TESOL programs so as to prepare future teachers for the reality of the classroorn. It would be irnpossible to describe the wide range of topics and professional issues dealt with in the course of these four days. AlI 1 can say is that the TE SOL 99 program organizers took pains to eater to the needs of the extremely heterogeneous audience that events such as these always convene. ARTESOL wants to congratulate all the convention organizers, and especially Kathleen Bailey, a good friend of ours, upon the completion of her term as TESOL president. Our best wishes go to David Nunan, the new TESOL president. Lastly we want to thank TESOL our professional organization, which does so much for the professional development of English teachers throughout the world.
as passengers reported that the main problerns they en- ing. New York: St. Martin's Press. countered were "rnachines out of order" and " diffiJordan, R. R. (1997). Englishfor academic purculty in inserting bank notes." However, to provide poses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. further evidence from a synthesis of different sources, students also carried out on-site observations and conducted interviews with MTR personnel to verify their findings and lend more weight to their arguments. EVALUATION This aspect is concerned with judging the significance or worth of something. It applies to the main section of a report when the several alternatives are being judged against various feasibility criteria (e.g., financial, technical, environmental) to determine which is the best one. Therefore, it is of particular importance in compare-and-contrast-type reports. In the conclusion section of their reports, students had to make recommendations based on analysis and interpretation of their data. In this section, most students proposed modifications to improve the performance of the addvalue machines and suggested that the MTR carry out mote thorough checking of these machines. But they also needed to assess the feasibility of these suggestions, such as by contacting MTR personnel to see if the proposed modifications would be technically and econornically possible. CONCLUDING REMARKS In this short article, I have identified the various types of critical thinking skills that can be addressed in ESP work. ( See Flowerdew, in press, for specific exercises using content-based material to develop these cognitive skills.) Honing these skills will help develop competence in writing, which is reflected in the content and overall coherence of a text. Linguistic competence is, of course, important, but it is distinct from writing competence and should be introduced within a contextualized framework, namely, in relation to the different rhetorical sections of a reporto In sum, I suggest that this type of cognitive skills pedagogy can better equip ESP students to cope with the intellectual dernands rnade of them in their acadernic disciplines and, thus, improve the quality of ESP instruction for acadernic purposes. REFERENCES Ballard, B. (1996). Through language to learning: Preparing overseas students for study in Western universities. In H. Coleman (Ed.), Society and the language classroom (pp. 148-468). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Flowerdew, L. (in press). Critical thinking development and academic writing for engineering students. In M. Pally (Ed.) Sustained content teaching: Developing academic skills in ESLlEFL writing classes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gardner, P.S. (1997). New directions: An in tegrated approach to reading, writing and critical thinkARTESOL Winter 1999
ESTARI LIBROS SRL sinónimo de excelencia
buen servicio en el mundo del inglés,
lo invita a disfrutar de:
amplia diversidad de cursos para la enseñanza del idioma, incluyendo los niveles de EGB. textos de metodotogía. fonética. "busincss"y turismo. variedad de material de distintas disciplinos: Medicina, Historia, Ciencia, I\ÁJtrición. Geografía, etc. noveles completas y "rcaders" nivelados que ayudarán en le asimilación de lo aprendido. literatura infantil, "flaschcards' y material didáctica, enciclopedias y diccionarios tradicionales. específicos e infantiles, material suplementario poro reforzar las di fuentes "skills",
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THIRD REGIONAL TESOL
SOUTHERN CONE CONVENTION
BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA AUGUST 10
A nnsot. Winter I ~~~
Third Regional TESOL Southern Cone ConventiQn August 10- 14,1999 Buenos Aires, Argentina
8:00-9:00 AM 9:00-9:30 9:30-10:00 10:00-10:30 10:30-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00 12:00-12:30 PM 12:30-1:00 1:00-1:30 1~30..;2:00 2:00-2:30 2:30-3:00 3:00-3:30 3:30-4:00 4:00-4:30 4:30-5:00 5:00-5:30 5:30-6:00 6:00-6:30 6:30-7:00
. What is washback?
Academic Coffee Break
Getting students to write
Jo Ann Crandall
Commercial . Presentations
tote bag pick up
Welcome to The Third
Teaching is lifelong learning
Southern Cone Convention Show
Jo Ann Crandall
Panel Discussion Mapping out our Future
Visualize to learn Oriel Villagarcia
Official Opening Ceremony
What my EFL students taught me?
Musical get together
Dr JoAnn Crandall
Dr Kathleen Bailey
Jodi Crandall is Professor ofEducation, Co-Director of the MA Program in ESOLlBilingual Education, and Director of the interdiciplinary Doctoral Program in Language, Literacy, and Culture at the University of Maryland Baltimore County. She is a past President ofTESOL, WATESOL, and the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL)
Kathleen M. Bailey, President of TESOL (19981999), holds a MA in TESL (1976) and Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics (1982) from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Bailey is a professor of Applied Linguistics at the Monterey Institute of International Studies in Monterey, California. In 1985 she won the Allen Griffin Award for Excellence in Teaching. Dr Bailey research and teaching interests include teacher education and development, second language acquisition, language testing, classroom research, research methodology, and sociolinguistics.
Plenary: Teaching is lifelong learning: Collaborating for our professional development Thursday 12, 5:00 pm Abstraet: Teaching can be a very lonely profession. But if we rnake the effort to work with others, we can break out of that isolation and also grow as professionals. This talk will present examples of TESOL professionals at all levels (elementary, secondary, and postsecondary) who are collaborating with students, colleagues, prospective teachers, teacher educators, and the wider cornmunity in a number of ways to: 1) develop lessons, rnaterials, or curriculum; 2) engage in peer observation and reflection; 3) form inquiry or study groups; or 4) coteach. We will also hear what some of these professionals have gained from their collaborations.
Workshop: Getting them to write: Using pictures and poetry as a beginning Saturday 14, 11:00 am Abstraet: Writing is the forgotten skill in many EFL classes, especially for students with lirnited English proficiency. But writing can and should be integrated into all English classes. In this workshop, we will use pictures and poetry as the basis for both writing and talking about writing. Participants will work together on the writing assignments and discuss how these can be adapted for their specific classroom contexts.
Winter J 999
Plenary: What my EFL students taught me Wednesday 11, 10:00 am Abstraet: During the 1996-97 acadernic year, Dr. Bailey taught EFL at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. This presentation is based on data from a teaching diary she kept that year, about learning to teach in a new culture, with different students, and in a new program. The paper focuses on the ways in which these lower-intermediate learners' problems with English influenced Dr. Bailey's thinking about learning and teaching in general -both in terms of language learning and how teachers learn.
Plenary: What is washback and why does it matter? Fríday 13, 9:00am Abstraet: What is washback? Although there are many different definitions, washback is most commonly thought of as the influence of testing on language teaching and learning. It is a phenomenon that every language teacher swears is true, and yet -until recently- very little research has been conducted on this topic. In this presentation, Dr Bailey will review the recent research on washback and talk about how it influences us as EFL teachers. A handout will be provided which introduces key terms and provides relevant references.
9-10:30 am Concurrent Sessions
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10-11 am Academic Presentations 11-12:30 pm Concurrent Sessions
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11:30-1: pm Concurrent Sessions 2 -3:30 pm Concurrent Sessions
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2-3 pm Commercial Presentations
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2:30-4pm Concurrent Sessions 3-4:30 pm Concurrent Sessions 3:30-4:30 pm Commercial Presentations 5-6pm Academic Sessions
ARTESOL Winter J 999
Room E RoomB Room C Room D Room A
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C2 Presenter: James Banner Affiliation: Hiderstone College, England
C7 Presenters: Soledad Pampillo, Claudia Oxman Title of Presentation: Receptive English: Distance C3 Learning on TV Presenter: Susan Amor Affiliation: University of Cambridge Local Exarni- Abstract: This presentation seeks to cornmunicate the ongoing process of designing Receptive English, nations Syndicate TitIe of Presentation: The Cambridge approach to a distance leaming English language course to be broadcast on network television this year. assessing business English Abstract: UCLES has developed two complementary systerns to assess Business English. 1) A suite of Presenter: Oriel Villagarcía certificated exarns, called BEC (Business English Affiliation: Stratford Book Service Certificates) for individuals who need a qualification. TitIe of Presentation: Visualize to learn 2) An assessment service, called BULATS (Business Abstract: This presentation explores practical appliLanguage Testing Service), for organisations which cations of brain based learning and shows how visuneed inforrnation on the language skills (in English, alization, i.e., the capacity to create images in one's French, Spanish or German) of their staff, trainees or mind, can be used to learn lexical iterns, to practice job applicants. grarnmatical structures, and to brainstorm ideas that can give rise to oral and written composition. Visualization may be a teacher's most effective resource C4 to 'review previous presented iterns. Presenter: Esteban Cresta Thusday 12, 6pm Affiliation: Heinemann Title of Presentation: Now we have something to SMILE about Abstract: Fabulous photographs will fascinate children and motivate them to leam. Easy to teach and fun to use, this is the course to make everyone SMILE. CS Presenter: Gabriel Mohr Affilation: Cambridge University Press Title of Presentation: Passages Abstract: Passages, by Jack Richards, is a new intermediate to advanced course with a thematic syllabus that stimulates students to talk and write about a variety of thought-provoking topics. Activities foster fluency in the four macro-skills while presentation of advanced grarnmar points and vocabulary help students cornmunicate with great accuracy C6 Presenter: Soledad Sastre Affilation: Librería Rodríguez TitIe of Presentation: A new concep in teaching: 'Teacher and student-friendly' books Abstract: Express Publishing is a British publishing house with extremely interesting and useful ELT ma-
Winter J 999
I~=========A=C=A=D=E=M=I=C==S=E=SS=I=O=N=S=========I Al Presenter: Sherry Preiss Affiliation: Director of Instructional Design for Savant, LLC / Pearson Education Title: Reallanguage: The vitarnin for the student learning English outside the English-speaking world Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: Integrated skills, unusual themes, and critical thinking activities are powerful leaming tools for high school, college and private language students. Exploring contemporary themes from intriguing angles can stimulate students imagination and creativity while encouraging personal expression. Developing language skills systematically through interactive and cornrnunicative activities enhance language proficiency. A2 Presenter: James Banner Affiliation: Hilderstone College, England Title: Pronunciation and Iistening teehnigues for teaehers of English Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: The objectives of the presentation are to provide a friendly and enjoyable review of some of the main elements that distinguish native English speakers and to give useful pronunciation and listening tips for use in the c1assroom. The training offered is to be practical and irnrnediately applicable. The pace will be lively and participants will be given the opportunity to experiment with sounds, voice and English and American accents. ,1:
A3 Presenter: Alan Adelman Affiliation: Institute of Intemational Education Title: Preparing students to take the eomputerbased TOEFL exam Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstraet: As a first step in the evolution of language testing, the TOEFL program introduced a computer-based test in the surnrner of 1998. This presentation will assist instructors and advisors in helping students prepare for and do their best on the new TOEFL by explaining the changes in test format and structure as well as how the computer based-exarn is scored.
A4 Presenter: Sherry Preiss Affiliation: Director of Instructional Design for Sa-
ARTESOL Winter 1999
vant, LLC / Pearson Education Title: Inspiring ereativity and imagination: Strategies for sueeess in English Abstraet: While it is obvious that the use ofreal (as opposed to "textbook") English enhances students' comprehension of real spoken English, it is less appreciated that c1assroom use of real language is equally a component in students' ability to produce English. This workshop will contrast typical "gramrnar in context" models with models of real English that unite real social language with necessary grarnmar, supplying the input unavailable to the student studying outside the English-speaking world. In addition, integrated skills, unusual themes, and critical tasks make powerful leaming tools for highschool, college and private language students. Carefully designed and irnaginative activities allow for active engagement, full language expression and creative expansion of ideas. AS Presenter: Julio C. Gim茅nez Affiliation: Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Universidad Nacional de C贸rdoba. Title: Setting professional standards: The state of ESP teaeher development. Type of Presentation: Colloquium Abstraet: This presentation offers an analysis of the state of ESP teacher development in intemational contexts as well as in Argentina. It focuses on the most fundamental questions any ESP training program should be able to resolve and presents a summary of the relevant issues for advancing the professional development of the field.
A6 Presenter: Mary Meyer Zorrilla Affiliation: Instituto Superior de Lenguas-National University- Asunci贸n del Paraguay, US Title: Bits and pieees of lesson planning at kinder and primary c1asses Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: A hands-on workshop for pre-school and early prirnary teachers who want to experiment with different ways of planning and presenting their c1asses. Participants will be asked to analyze activities according to children abilities, the skills they wish to develop, the learning styles they wish to serve, the habitats and values they wish to instill and the language goals they seek to reach.
POSTER SESSIONS Friday, August 13, 4:30 pm
Presenters: Lidia Aguirre de Quevedo, Graciela Llopis de Segura, Mónica Allemand de Ahumada Affiliation: Universidad de Catamarca (Ciencias Agrarias y de la Salud) Title: Proposal to improve reading eomprehension in high sehool Type of Presentation: Poster session Abstraet: A reading program applied in all the study areas of high school included teacher training, application to students in experimental and control groups, a reading lab, and assessment of the whole activity. Two case studies taken from the experimental group attempt to show how they benefited from this experience. P2 Presenter: Iliana Amalia Martínez Affiliation: Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto Title: Developing grammatieal eonsciousness in aeademie writing eourses Type of Presentation: Poster session Abstraet: Grammatical awareness has not been systematically developed from the perspective of discourse grammar. The focus of this pos ter will be on the development of awareness of structures associated with impersonality in the Research Article, particularly the processes and the configuration of participation of participants as they occur in the rhetorical sections ofthe article. P3
Abstract: This poster will present the principies underlying the building of a digital corpus of the language of biological sciences to be analyzed with a concordance software. The corpus is intended to have pedagogic and research applications in the area of acadernic writing of the N ational University of Rio Cuarto. P5 Presenters: Stella Maris Orsi, Patricia del Valle Ortiz, Diana Rosenfield Affiliation: UBACYT, Departamento de Lenguas Modernas, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires Title: Cultural interferenee in the reading of efferent texts Type of Presentation: Poster session Abstract: The reading of an efferent text in a foreign language is often impaired by its cultural loado Can we understand whatever we read without sharing the author's background and experience? Can we really understand the otherness? Or do we develop an ethnocentric stance? This research will attempt to answer the above questions and determine if cultural differences can be mediated in classroom practice. P6
Presenters: Sue A. S. Hirschmann, Ana María Delmas, Patricia Insirillo, Ana María Otero, Elida Rolli Affiliation: UBACYT, Departamento de Lenguas, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires Title.:.Strategie Iistening in a foreign language Type of Presentation: Poster session Abstraet: Can university students achieve an acadernic listening level in a foreign language (FL) without having a threshold level in that target language? How can these students develop strategies to comprehend conferences delivered in that FL? The pos ter will include results from the latest research in listening and from the current study at the University of Buenos Aires.
Presenter: Elba Villanueva de Debat Affiliation: Escuela Superior de Lenguas, Univ. Nacional de Córdoba Title: Portfolios as tools for refleetion in teaeher edueation Type of Presentation: Poster se ssion Abstraet: Portfolios are becorning popular learning and assessment tools. Just reading about this practice may not be sufficient for pre-service teachers. By experiencing portfolios as tools for reflection and inquiry, teachers will be in a better position to develop them with their students. P7 Presenter: Mariela Cynthia Lucente P4 Affiliation: Universidad Tecnológica Nacional Presenters: Iliana Amalia Martinez, Renata F. Car- Title: Double negative eonstruction and issues in dinali FL aeguisition Affiliation: Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto Type of Presentation: Poster Session TitIe: Building a corpus of seientifie language (continues on page 26) Type of Presentation: Poster session
(from page 25)
Abstraet: The double negative construction is a late acquired structure in the FL acquisition. How and when is the DNC acquired? What about transfer? Results and conclusions from an investigation using the technique of grarnmaticality of ill-formed DNC will throw light on the issue.
dren start speaking confldently and proudly when they are ready, saying what they want to convey in a non-threatening , relevant and fun student-centered atrnosphere. Pll Presenter: Angela Teresa Bartolazzi Affiliation: UBACYT, Departamento de Lenguas, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Buenos Aires Title: Transfer and the learners' pereeptions of the Ll-L2 distanee Type of Presentation: Poster session Abstraet: Based on Kellerrnan's study which examines lexico-sernantics and resorts to native speakers' intuitions of their own language, the presenter will focus on the learners' perceptions of the Ll-L2 distance and their influence on transfer. She will discuss the purposes of her proposal and methods of data collection.
P8 Presenters: Patricia Orsi, Liliana Orsi, Gabriella Botello, Sofía Veron, Paola Lobillo, Graciela Jankielson Affiliation: Rainbow Institute TitIe: Newsletters, self-esteem builder and assessment tool Type of Presentation: Poster session Abstraet: How do we asses student's progress and build self-esteem? Newsletters produced by the students with teachers' guidance are an answer. Presenters will show real newsletters designed and developed at school and at the workplace. Presenters will also share tips on how P12 to make this activity a rewarding experience. Presenters: Alba Loyo, Mabel Rivero de Magnago, Mariana Pascual, Romina Piccio Affiliation: Departamento de Lenguas, Universidad P9 acional de Rio Cuarto Presenters: Ana María Rocca, María Claudia Albini Affiliation: ILSE, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, TitIe: Computer mediated eornmunieation (CMC) teehnigues in an ESL eyber c1assroom UBA, Escuela Argentino Modelo Title: Key words and their role in L2 readinl?: Type of Presentation: Poster session eomprehension Abstract: The aim of the presentation is to share Type of Presentation: Poster session some pedagogical techniques and experiences carried Abstraet: This study shows a picture of how the out in CMC. Therefore, the poster includes a brief clustering of key words into groups helps readers or- description, a diagram, a bar graph and a set of phoganize the main idea of a text in L2 reading compre- tographs showing the process and the results of the hension. The presenters will discuss the methodology application of these techniques with university stuused to conduct an experiment at the Universidad de dents. Buenos Aires, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras during the fírst semester, 1998, with twenty students en- P13 rolled in the third level of the reading cornprehension Presenter: María Gabriela Ferrero, Fabiana Claudia course. Guerrero, María Inés Baroni Affiliation: Saint Agnes Institute PIO TitIe: Meeting the new-millennium student's Presenter: Juan Uribe needs and interests Title: Holistie language aeguisition for ehildren Abstraet: The poster will display visual aids and Type of Presentation: Poster session ideas for amusing and short activities. These activiAbstraet: This pos ter session airns at discussing in- ties are aimed at helping students improve their Engforrnally the experience of the author with language lish in a signifícant and funny way. They will provide acquisition with very young children, aged 2 to 8, in teachers ideas to enlarge vocabulary, reinforce struca holistic environment. Displays will show a new ap- tures and develop the learning skills. proach, in which input is done through TPR and chil-
1Jo.u aire inoiied. ÚJ- pwdicipaú in tire SWM
a,.UJll~t 12, 12 - 2:30 pm
CONCURRENT 1302 Presenter: Mariel G贸mez de la Torre Cerfontaine Affiliation: Peru- TESOL Title: Sharing our stories. The use of ehildren's Literature Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstract: Are your students bored with reading? Using stories, incorporating music and art activities into lesson stimulate children to learn English while enjoying the story. This demonstration will help participants develop creative, story- based techniques that enhance language learning at all levels through activities focusing on the four language skills.
1304 Presenters: Graciela Conocente, Denise Bartolomeo Affiliation: AMICANA Title: Thanks for diversity Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: By means of video segments the presenters will have the students see the characteristics American people have in them. 1-As Americans are not the only stereotyped ones, the presenters will show videos showing how movies have created an image of people such as Japanese, German, Lat铆n, etc. 2-The presenters will have the students come to the conc1usion that stereotypes are wrong, and that values are important. 3-The presenters will point out the importance of culture in language teaching.
1305 Presenter: Eduardo Fasano, Gabriel Lanzaro Affiliation: URUTESOL Title: Our bubble is about to eraek Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstract: We bring music and images into the c1assroom to promote the creation of a Complete Contextualized Unit to be used as any other text. Our aim is to keep students interested in their tasks while using authentic material.
play the games and share suggestions for variations. Handouts will i.n:c1ude detailed explanations and blank masters.
1307 Presenter: Ruth Botwinik Affiliation: Queensborough Cornmunity College Title: Get Ready, get set, get published! Type of presentation: W orkshop Abstraet: At one time, publishing professional journal artic1es was the domain of the university professor. Now, however, with the proliferation of educational journals, there are publishing opportunities available for the c1assroom teacher. This workshop will give practical information about how to plan, write and get an artic1e published
1308 Presenter: Florinda Scremin Marques Affiliation: Inter-Americano Title: FRAGILE! HANDLE WITH CARE. Music, video and the environment Type ofPresentation: Workshop Abstraet: The goal of this workshop is to show how the use of music and video can help students become concerned about the environment. The activities presented help develop students' awareness of the simple things they can do to help save our planet from being destroyed.
1309 Presenter: Marta Garcia Lorea Title: Eight Ways of Beeoming a Smart Teaeher. MI Theory. Type-of Presentation: W orkshop Abstraet: Teachers will reflect on viable ways of improving their perception of their students' talents and interest and their c1assroom environments, how to free the learning potential and creative expression of each student, and the possibilities of presenting each teaching point so as to reduce academic failure while offering multiple options for success.
Presenters: Maria Laura Rossi, M贸nica Aparicio Title: Make your own games Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstract: Games are motivating and fun, but sometimes teachers do not have the time to prepare new ones. The presenters will introduce games that are easy to play and are adaptable to different ages and levels. Participants will gain hands-on experience as they
Presenter: Wayne T. Schams Affiliation: National Kaohsiung Hospitality College Title: Motivating EFL students to develop impromptu speaking skills Type of Presentation: W orkshop Abstraet: This paper will discuss how EFL students can improve their impromptu speaking skills. First,
Winter J 999
(continues on page
1319 Presenter: María Cristina Gallo Affiliation: Instituto Neuquino del Profesorado en Inglés Title: Integrating CALL into the language classroom Type of Presentation: Demonstration 1311 Abstraet: This presentation aims at helping teachers to Presenter: Alejandra V. Pron integrate the computer as a teaching aid in their c1assAffiliation: ICANA, ARTESOL Title: Implementing task-based instruetion in EFL rooms, providing practical ideas such as sample lessons and projects to make the most of the use of settings CALL, both with the use of specific software and the Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: This workshop will explore the use of proj- World Wide Web. ects and task-based instruction in EFL c1assrooms. The presenter will provide participants with the rationale, a 1320 model unit plan and the corresponding steps for cur- Presenters: Sara Walker, Martin Eayrs riculum designo Participants will also reflect upon how Affiliation: BRAZ- TESOL these ideas might be implemented in their teaching Title: Critieal thinlóng and refleetive praetiee for situations. teaehers Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: Participants will engage in a series of activi1312 ties designed to stimulate critical thinking skills and to Presenter: Silvia Corrales develop reflection on their own practice. By recognizAffiliation: CASOC ing their personal underlying values and enhancing Title: Foeus on sueeess at TOEFL preparation their critical thinking skills, teachers and trainers can Type of Presentation: workshop Abstraet: A practical approach to TOEFL preparation enrich their professional skills. practice and test skills development in coaching mainly adult leamers in the professional and business world, 1321 with strategies to deal with the major problem areas of Presenters: Camilla Dixo Lieff, Elizabeth Pow the test and tactics for the best use of specific material Affiliation: Catholic University of Sao Paulo, Brasil. and other linguistic resources. Cultura Inglesa Sao Paulo, Brazil Title: Talón!!: the stress out of pronuneiation in1313 struetion Presenter: José María Romero Type of Presentation: Demonstration Affiliation: CASOC Abstraet: Teachers often express negative feelings toTitle: Teaehing eorporate legal English: What? wards pronunciation work because of lack of backWhen? How? ground knowledge of English phonology and pronunType of Presentation: ciation teaching skills. This session will explore possiAbstraet: The purpose of this presentation is to pro- ble routes to confidence building and to an enjoyable vide useful tools to teach corporate legal English. The ' pronunciation leaming experience, which can posifocus will be laid on jargon, sentence structure, the use tively affect the teacher's own speech and his/her c1assof foreign words, fonnallinkers, and business English. room practice. (from page 27)
of good impromptu speaking skills. Then he will explain how EFL students can minimize their fears of Impromptu speaking through preparation, good organization and practice.
1316 Presenters: Lidia Mabel Cieri, Maria Celina Barbeito, Renata Fabiana Cardinalli Affiliation: Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto Title: Teaehing phonetics to EFL trainee teaehers. An innovative approaeh Type of Presentation: W orkshop Abstraet: Most students entering Teacher Training College show little awareness of English phonology. The presenters will demonstrate how to awaken the trainees' awareness of pronunciation and sensitise them to the workings of infonnation through innovative activities.
1322 Presenter: Mercedes Rossetti Affiliation: Universidad Hebrea Argentina Bar l1án Title: Training teaehers in hard cireumstanees Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstraet: Share the strategies for effective teacher training in hard circurnstances in Argentina. We will reflect on realistic approaches and discuss EFL in such scenario. We will also look into the reality of English teaching in the public school system when teachers are not pedagogically trained.
(continues on page 29) ARTESOL
(jrom page 28)
1323 Presenters: Adriana Martín, Mónica Reggini, Gerrnán Warckmeister Affiliation: ICANA Title: Net-based aetivities: Internet in EFL settings Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstraet: Presenters will share their personal ínsights in the remaking of their roles as professionals in the light of Internet. They will show how to integrate Internet into EFL settings through web-based activities they have developed and implemented to demonstrate strategies regarding teacher training, class organization, and group dynamics.
problems to researeh Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: The purpose of this workshop is to develop research areas, elaborate hypotheses, and establish a methodology of research on a topic that concerns the participants of the workshop. After a general presentation on research methodology, the participants will discuss and develop, through guided activities, questions, research topics, and hypotheses according to their areas of interest.
1328 Presenters: Liliana Orsi, Patricia Orsi Affiliation: Rainbow Institute Title: Entertaining authentie video ehoiees and material development 1324 Type of Presentation: Demonstration Presenter: Gabriel H Diaz Maggioli Abstraet: Presenters will show segments of TV proAffiliation: URUTESOL grams, video and movies to demonstrate how they Title: Sharing our stories can be used to expose students to authentic English. Type of Presentation: W orkshop Focused on students' needs, tips and ideas will be Abstraet: This report on research conducted with given to create and design your own material inteteachers in Uruguay will highlight the life-stories of grating all skills while entertaining. those teachers and address the critical question: how 1329 do we develop as teachers? Presenters: Susana B. Tuero, María Alejandra Rosas 1325 Presenters: Gabriel H Diaz Maggioli, Rose Marie Affiliation: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata Title: Fairy Tales as a Means to Improve NarraVicenzo tive Skills Affiliation: Uruguay TESOL Type of Presentation: Workshop Title: Paths to sueeessful teaehing Abstraet: The purpose of this workshop is to show Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: Who are we, as teachers? How is our how class activities foster class discussion among adteaching style bom and how does it develop? What vanced learners and are used as a starting point to are our life-stories? How can we become more effec- improve narrative writing skills. tive teachers? This workshop will attempt to answer 1330 these and other questions posed by our audience. Presenter: Solange Espina de Annuitti Affiliation: URUTESOL 1326 Titler Projeets: Making all the possible eonneePresenter: Simone Gordon Gellhaar tions Affiliation: Associacao Alumni Sao Paulo, Brazil. Type of Presentation: Demonstration Title: Teaehing for multiple intelligenees Abstraet: Teachers are rightly enthusiastic about Type of Presentation: W orkshop Abstraet: The workshop aims at giving participants classroom projects: they are vital and fascinating an opportunity to reflect on the use of MI theory to source of activities and ideas for language teaching. identify and explore students' potentials. In the ac- This presentation examines the main potential probtivities proposed participants will identify the intelli- lems which may threaten their validity and describes gence favored and examine their reactions so that this a project which was carried out in school. experience can be transferred to the classroom, en1331 hancing stude ts' leaming results. Presenters: Raquel Ramos, Julia Forte, Selva Beltramone de Sondón 1327 Affiliation: Saint Agnes Institute Presentet e Spath Hirschmann Affiliation: UBACYT; Departamento de Lenguas Title: A task-based approaeh to ESP tailor-made Modernas, Facultad de Filosofia y Letras, Universi- eourses Type of Presentation: Demonstration dad ofBuenos Aires Title: Reflecting. on teaehing and diseovering (continues on page 30)
Winter J 999
(from page 29)
Abstraet: The presenters will discuss and show benefits of a task-based approach to ESP syllabus design where the content of the teaching is a series of purposeful tasks the students need to perforrn in theEFLIESL classroom. 1332 Presenter: Elizabeth Whalley Affiliation: San Francisco State University Title: Job task analysis for workplaee language training Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstraet: This demonstration will show participants how to do a job task analysis. First, the presenter will brief1y explain the steps in doing a job task analysis so that participants will know what to look for during the demonstration. Then the participants will discuss what they observed and analyze potential pitfalls.
reality through critical thinking skills, which will disclose rich language forms and content. 1339 Presenter: Gladys Ledwith Title: Taekling the self fulfilling propheey Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstraet: Research has proved that the Pygmalion effect does happen in educational settings: teachers forrn expectations about students, teachers treat students differently and students react to this differential treatrnent in ways that confmn teachers original expectations. A case study will be presented on self-fulfilling prophecies. 1340 Presenter: Julie M. Thompson Affiliation: Comisión Fulbright Ecuador Title: Strategies for developing reading skills in the muIti-level c1assroom Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: Strong reading skills are key to academic success. The reciprocal reading technique teaches students to employ questioning, clarifying, surnrnarizing and predicting skills to achieve total comprehension, while allowing teachers to accommodate several skill levels in a single classroom. This workshop will provide the hasis for employing the reciprocal reading techniques at different proficiency levels.
1336 Presenters: Cecilia Antuña, Zulerna Noziglia Wilde Affiliation: Universidad Católica de Salta en Bs. As.! ICANA. Title: avigating through the pages: Dialog journal Writing Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: Dialog joumal writing is currently being used in schools, language institutes and companies in Buenos Aires with students of different ages and levels of language proficiency. This workshop will give an overview of the benefits of and strategies for dia- 1342 Presenter: Julio C. Giménez log journal use and will provide the steps for getting Affiliation: Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, Unistarted. versidad Nacional de Córdoba Title: Cross- Talk, Mismateh and Peaee-Making: Communieation Strategies in IntereuItural Nego1337 tiations Presenters: Graciela Morera, Patricia Veciño Type of Presentation: Workshop Affiliation: ICANA Escuela Superior Abstract: Based on the data collected from six Title: Hitting the headlines authentic business negotiations between non- native Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: Newspapers offer a valuable and motivat- English speakers, this workshop wilI provide particiing teaching resource. However, making them enjoy- pants with guidelines on how to best help business able and accessible to language leamers poses a chal- leamers get prepared for intemational negotiations, lenge. Participants will navigate through the different resolve conflicts and develop class tasks. sections of newspapers and experience various creative and original activities airned at integrating skills 1343 Presenter: Ivonne Mendibehere in authentic tasks to be used at different levels. Affiliation: Intemational Federation of Teachers of Living Languages, Uruguay. 1338 Title: Gender Imbalanees: Breaking Myths and Presenters: Gabriela Alernani, Graciela Morera Exposing Truths Type of Presentation: Workshop Affiliation: ICANA Escuela Superior, ARTESOL Abstraet: This workshop seeks to offer insight as Title: Teaeh ereatively, think eritieally Type of Presentation: Demonstration welI as to expose truths and frndings about gender isAbstraet: Critical thinking is highly valued by edu- sues which, eventualIy, could reframe theories excators as a vehicle to good decision- rnaking and posed and current practices in education. As multiempowerrnent. The presenters will take a pragrnatic cultural education has adopted an increasingly wide view by showing how leaming can be enhanced by agenda of change, gender issues clairn not only rigorbringing the classroom experience closer to students' ous ana:lysis but also unflinching debate. ARTESOL
(from page 30)
1344 Presenters: Patricia Lastiri, Gabriela Castiñeira Affiliation: Instituto Superior del Ejército / ICANA / ARTESOL Title: Movies in the EFL Classroom: Does the Returo Merit the Investment? Type of Presentation: Workshop By generating interest and motivation movies can create a clirnate for successful language learning. However, teachers often find them difficult to prepare and students hard to understand. Presenters will attempt to frnd a solution to these worries by showing how to choose, prepare and use movies in the EFL classroom.
1348 Presenter: John S. Martin Affiliation: University of Brasilia Title: Assessing for Learoing Disabilities in the English Classroom Type of Presentation: Demonstration Abstraet: It is cornmon for teachers to have students with unidentified learning disabilities. The presenter will show teachers how to adrninister and score a test to identify learning disabilities in the areas of auditory processing, visual perception, memory retrieval and organizational processing, and rnake curriculurn modification based on these results.
1351 Presenter: Mónica Szpak-Lombardo Affiliation: Saint Agnes Junior Sehool 1345 Title: Implementing learoing eenters: why and Presenter: Mabel Cieri, Graciela Placci, María Cris- how? tina Moral, Norma Depetris, Mariana Pascual Abstraet: Learning centers provide opportunities to Affiliation: Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto learn by doing. They ensure variety and excitement. Title: Improving advaneed EFL students' writing However, implementing learning centers involves exthrough reformulation via e-mail perimentation. Where should we start? The presenter Type of Presentation: Workshop will introduce some easy how-tos for setting up invitAbstraet: This workshop will address the issues of ing environment, share some students' productions providing peer feedback to advanced EFL writing and a video segment showing students at work. students using the reformulation technique via ernail. The theoretical framework will be presented. 1352 Participants will apply this technique to genuine stu- Presenter: Estela Gambelín dents' writing. Affiliation: American English Institute
1346 Presenter: Ornar Villarreal Affiliation: Universidad Tecnológica Nacional Title: Multiple intelligenee in the EFL/ ESL cIassroom Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: A quick round tour of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence with focus on how it can be practically implemented in the Argentinian context to cater for students with different learning needs and different levels of linguistic competence. 1347 Presenter: María Elena Levalle, Ana Alvarez de la Fuente, Alicia Lopez Affiliation: CASOC Title: Setting a benehmark in ESP training Type of Presentation: Workshop Abstraet: The presenters will outline the challenges involved in training two different student populations from diverse corporate cultures within one multinational company to meet the requisite standards in ESP. The presentation will enlarge on the techniques, materials, and diagnostic assessment tools utilized during the process.
Title: Keeping the brain mind Abstraet: Getting to know how the brain works will help you to profit from your daily work with students. Experience: sensory acuity, eye accessing cues, the link between mind and body, anchoring the effect of emotions, visualization and tips will go with you forever.
2OOO NAVIGATING THE NEW MILLENNIUM March 14-18, 2000 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Index of Speakers ACADEMIC SESSIONS Adelrnan, Alan Banner, James Girnenez, Julio Meyer Zorrilla, Mary Preiss, Sherry
A3 A2 A5 A6 Al / A4
POSTER SESSIONS Aguirre de Quevedo, Lidia Albini, María Claudia Allemand de Ahumada, Mónica Baroni, María Inés Bartolazzi, Angela Teresa Botello, Gabriela Cardinali, Renata F. Del Valle Ortiz, Patricia Delrnas, Ana María Ferrero, María Gabriela Guerrero, Fabiana Claudia Hirschmann, Sue A. Insirillo, Patricia Jankielson, Graciela Lobillo, Paola Loyo, Alba Lucente, Mariela Cynthia Llopis de Segura, Graciela Martinez, Iliana Amalia Orsi, Liliana Orsi, Patricia Orsi, Stella Maris Otero, Ana María Pascual, Mariana Piccio, Rornina Rivero de Magnago, Mabel Rocca, Ana María Rolli, Elida Rosenfield, Diana Uribe, Juan Ve ron, Sofia Villanueva de Debat, Elba
Pl P9 Pl P13 Pll P8 P4 P5 P6 P13 P13 P6 P6 P8 P8 P12 P7 Pl P2/P4 P8 P8 P5 P6 P12 P12 Pl2 P9 P6 P5 PI0 P8 P3
CONCURRENT SESSIONS Alernani, Graciela Alvarez de la Fuente, Ana Antuña, Cecilia Aparicio, Mónica Barbeito, María Celina Bartolomeo, Denise Beltramone de Sondón, Selva ARTESOL Winter
1338 1347 1336 1306 1316 1304 1331
Botwinik, Ruth 1307 Cardinalli, Renata Fabiana 1316 Castiñeira, Gabriela 1344 Cieri, Lidia Mabel 1316/ 1345 Conocente, Graciela 1304 Corrales, Silvia 1312 Depetris, Norma 1345 Díaz Maggioli, Gabriel H. 1324/1325 Dixo Lieff, Camilla 1321 Eayrs, Martin 1320 Espina de Annuitti, Solange 1330 Fasano, Eduardo 1305 Forte, Julia 1331 Gallo, María Cristina 1319 Gambelín, Estela 1352 García Lorea, Marta 1309 Gellhaar, Sirnone Gordon 1326 Girnénez, Julio 1342 Gómez de la Torre Cerfontaine, Mariel 1302 Hirschmann, Sue A. 1327 Lanzaro, Gabriel 1305 Lastiri, Patricia 1344 Ledwith, Gladys 1339 Levalle, María Elena 1347 Lopez, Alicia 1347 Martin, Adriana 1323 Martin, John S. 1348 Mendibehere, Ivonne 1343 Moral, María Cristina 1345 Morera, Graciela 1337/1338 Noziglia Wilde, Zulema 1336 Orsi, Liliana 1328 Orsi, Patricia 1328 Pascual, Mariana 1345 . Placci, Graciela 1345 Pow, Elizabeth 1321 Pron, Alejandra 1311 Ramos, Raquel 1331 Reggini, Mónica 1323 Romero, José María 1313 Rosas, María Alejandra 1329 Rossetti, Mercedes 1322 Rossi, María Laura 1306 Scrernin Marques, Florinda 1308 Scharns, Wayne T. 1310 Szpak-Lombardo, Mónica 1351 Thompson, Julie M 1340 Tuero, Susana 1329 Veciño, Patricia 1337 Vicenzo, Rose Marie 1325 Villareal,Omar 1346 Walker, Sara 1320 Warckmeister, Gennán 1323 Whalley, Elizabeth 1332
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Thank you very muchl 000
To thefollowing organizations and individuals who helped make this event possible
DR. KATHLEEN BAILEY / DR. JoANN CRANDALL
TESOL USIS MINISTERIO DE CULTURA y EDUCACIĂ&#x201C;N
Instituto Cultural Argentino-Norteamericano (1CANA)
The Thirty-Fourth Annual Convention and Exposition Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, lnc,
NAVIGATING THE NEW MILLENNIUM
March 14-18, 2000 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Renowned Speakers • Pre- and Postconvention Exposition
• Poster Sessions
• Colloquia • Breakfast
Institutes • Publishers and Software Visits
Events • Software Fair • Employment Clearinghouse
Visiting International Farulty Program
• Fun Run • Swap Shop •
• Interest Section Events • Affiliate • Video Showcase • Papers
Teach in the U.S.A.
The VIF Program seeks non-U.S. teachers of foreign languages, special education, science, math, and ESL for positions (ranging from 1 to 3 years) in North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia beginning August 2000. The program currently hosts over 400 teachers from Central and South America, Mexico, Canada, and Europe.
Requirements • Bachelor's degree
Compensation • Salary of US$ 25,000
• English fluency
• Medical insurance
• Foreign language teacher training
• Round-trip air travel
• Teaching experience w/ groups (ages 4-18) • Driver' s license
For information/to appJy, send l-page cover Jetter detailing your teaching background and copy ofyour C.V. to: MarieJa Funes. Calle 26 n° 1569, esquina 460. (1896) City Bell. Or by email to: email@example.com.