ARGENTINA T E S O L
N EW r e tt
Argentina Teachers of English to_Speakers of Other Languages Difficult Circumstances: Reality or Perception? Frederick
What have come to be known as "higher order cognitive skills" are oftentimes simply the age-old mental confrontations between nature and mind. Analyzing a situation, forming judgments about how to alter Ăt, making a plan to promote change, and following the plan are stages in problem solving that are as old as humankind. Furthermore, what is resolvable in one scenario may not even be thinkable in another; so much of what we perceive as the way things are is dependent on such impinging factors as culture, place, historical precedents, and prevailing philosophies. Many ESL teachers will recall personal lessons leamed, for example, in the Peace Corps, when an available solution to a problem is considered by the native population to be "unthinkable" . For some, much is considered to be beyond their control instead of beyond control. Humans are defined by circumstances, thereby linked personally to the overall human condition, the era, the homeland, and the culture. What is, is; the bonds between the individual and
the prevailing circumstances, as per Ortega y Gasset, the Spanish philosopher, are precisely what define each persono The struggle between the individual and his/her search for the meaning (and nature) of reality is older than Plato's ponderings: just as ancient is the desire to alter reality to fit one's needs or wants. Thus. humankind has always debated what constitutes givens and what is simply in the eye of the beholder. This is one of the rnost ancient and persistent mind puzzles and is certainly as fresh in the minds of today's ESLlEFL educator as it has .been throughout history. What, then, does an L2 educator view as a difficult circumstance? How does he/she stri ve to modify, rebuff. or embrace the situation? Must a difficulty be com pletely eliminated in order to teach or leam a new language, or must the instruction be accepting of the circumstance, molding or melding to the conditions? What are some we llrecognized problem areas for many language educators and how may they be reconciled?
And, specifically, what Ăs the defining line between a "problem" and a "nuisance"? Below are some broad examples of circumstances that may be perceived by ESL/EFL teachers as impediments to good teaching and leaming: (continued
on page 4)
INSIDE DifficuIt Circumstances Book Review
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ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93 EXECUTIVE BOARD MEMBERS President: Blanca Arazi Vice-President: Mabel Gallo Secretary: María Teresa Abelaira Under Secretary: Mónica Segura Treasurer: Patricia Veciño Under Treasurer: Mabel Chena Voting members: Adriana Pereira Claudina Lo Valvo Mónica Ranieri Vivian Morghen Carmen Tortarolo Laura Pastorino Editor Editorial
7th .9I2tPES OL 5lnnua[
Mabel Gallo M. Teresa Abelaira Laura Pastorino Patricia Veciño
September 24-25 1993
ARTESOL Address: Maipú 672 (1006) Buenos Aires, Argentina Fax: 322-2106 Special Acknowledgment Argentina TESOL wishes to acknowledge publicly thank ICANA which has made loublication possible
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ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93 Difficult Circumstances:
Geography : Where I teach makes it difficult for me lo access materials. pro vide my students with natural language-learning environment, keep abreast of my field, design instruction according to ways 1_ was taught lO do so, etc. * Philosophy: My definition of sound education isn't in concert with the prevailing philosophy of education in a given place or school. My instructional goals aren't acceptable in this milieu; 1 arn stymied by the gap between what I believe lO be the best way and what 1 am being told is the acceptable way. * Economy: How can students learn when textbooks are unaffordable or unavailable. when class enrollments are huge. when a subpoverty-level salary forces me to hold several jobs and prevents me from doing my best at any one of them? * Socio cultural Factors: how can I get students lo comrnunicate in English when cross-talk is prohibited by cultural norms? How can 1 be a facilitator or collaborator when I am perceived culturally as the boss, a superior? * Views 011 Language: Can a language be scrutinized, dissected, and used according to individuals' communicative needs or is it "God-given" as it is? Are there many ways to express a thought or is there but one correct way? What are the purposes of languages or the easiest languages to learn? Absent from these categories. but implicit in each, are myriad learner variables in cognitive. affective, and sociocultural domains because attempts lo list them would be futile, given the range of our field and the size of our world. Suffice it to say that every mural is the result of many brushtrokes, each unique yet integral to forrning the big picture. Furthermore. none of these categories can be completely isolated from any 01' the others: components of each touch components 01' others,
ESL Versus EFL Teaching English lO speakers of other languages within a surrounding English-speaking environment and teaching English within non-English-speaking settings are frequently dichotomized, each being viewed as a setting with different conditions and constraints. However. there are many more common denominators than we often choose to illustrate, Let's consider the following comments from teachers of EFL and ESL: Geography EFL: We. are so isolated from American magazines, film, television ... everything! We can't get English textbooks from the United States and we must be cautious about teaching American culture. In the end, 1 wonder whether we're teaching real English or only something hollow.
(Czechoslovakia, 1987, high school). ESL: In our county, virtually everybody works on farms. We're an economically depressed region with no rnovies, a: weekly newspaper, poor schools, and a local school population that national tests indicate is "80% language-delayed". We're hours from the nearest major city and there's no cable televisi贸n. What chance do our 50 or so Spanish-speaking migrant children have to learn English? Why bother? (Rural southern _United States, 1991, elementary school). Geographical isolation with concomitant problems in access to learning resources, to language exposure, and to motivating conditions can be a major problem, wherever. Philosophy EFL: It's so frustrating! 1 really believe in communicative methodology. but neither my supervisor nor my students perrnit me lO go far. The national exams are all tests 01' gramrnar, discrete-point stuff, so what's the use? (Japan, 1988. urban prefecture high school). ESL: My students in the Intensive English Program at the university are driven to get a specific TOEFL score in order to gel admitted for degree programs. They refuse to even attend my classes in cross-cultural communication or speech communication and they consider group activities and collaborative work as time-wasters. (Major midwestern university's English language institute instructor. 1992). Whenever institutional policies clash with classroom philosophy and procedures. students' goals will be directed toward satisfying the dominant requisites 01' the institution first, and those of the individual teacher secondly. Efforts by the teacher lo portray are negated by students' desires to move on swiftly. Indeed, the ESL teacher may be perceived as an impedimeut by the student who needs to begin degree studies as soon as possible.
Economy EFL: The classrooms are barren. there are no books or equipment.i.not even an overhead projector. .. and l have lo teach 60 students In each beginning -English class. The school is freezing cold in the Winter and unbearably hot the rest of the year. It's impossible to get anywhere in class; 1 don't think anybody's learning mucho (China. 1990, technical school). ESL: 1 have a so-called immersion ESOL class for 3 hours a day with 18 kids from seven language backgrounds. They range in age from 7 to 10, and, honestly. they're each at different proficiency levels. We're crammed iuto ~ converted storage room for our class and the administration says it has no money LO update equipment or materials. Is this Arnerica or the third world? Or both? (United States, 1992, - elementary school). (continued Oll page 5)
We are pleased to announce the visit of professor Jack Richards to Arsentina. He will be lecturing al the o . APIBA Annual Seminar to be he Id in Buenos AIres al Asociaci贸n Argentina de Cultura Inglesa on July 21st, and in Cordoba City on July 20th. Professor Richards is the author of the Interchange Series and a number of books on Teacher Education published by Cambridge University Press, For further information and registration please contact:
Cambridge University Press, . Martha Frenkel de Frers, ELT Representative, Paraguay 946 - 42 Piso A, Buenos Aires, Telephone & Fax: 'lS41) 311 7648
English for International Communication Jack C. Richards with Jonathan HuI! and Susan Proctor
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Loel l - from false-beginner to low-intermcdine level,presenting basic langllagc items with opponuniries for personalisarion right froni rhe srart
Lcvcl2 - motiV2ting material that nkes the learner up to intermediae levd Leel 3 - for intermediate learners and above, extending the grammatical. fllnctional and lexical skills oflearncrs using challenging conremporary materials
Book Review Dialogue Journal Writing with Nonnative English Speakers: A Handbook for Teachers Review of chapters
Many teachers have found that in most of the cases students are not willing to write. Teachers often wonder whether this is due to the students' reluctance to write or to the teachers' inability to create the need for them to write. Finding ourselves in this same situation we resorted to our library for motivating ideas. One of the books we came across! threw some light on this matter. In this AlN issue we would like to share with oue readers the suggestions given in its first two chapters. Dialog journal writing offers a refreshing chance to rethink how and why we make written communication with oue students an integral part of every class. This model emphasizes the use of meaningfullanguage in order to engage in "an open exchange of ideas". A dialog journal is "a conversation between the teacher and an individual student" This interaction between the teacher and the student hasthe qualities of good conversation and tt is relevant to the student. The teacher and the student are committed to writing regularly to one another. The teacher is a partner in a conversation, who accepts what is written and responds as directly and openly as possible, not grading, correcting or making evaluative comments. "Students have the opportunity to use writing to communicate: to express concepts that are important to them, to accomplish real purposes, to be read by an interested audience, and to receive a reply that is genuine and meaningful" . We will be glad to go on discussing further chapters in coming issues. Laura Pastorino Patricia Veci帽o LC.A.N.A
Kreeft P. J. and Reed L. 1990 .. Dialogue journal writing with nonnative English speakers: a handbook for teachers, Alexandria: Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Ine.
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93 (from page 3)
It is a bonus that money makes a difference.
The major issue is whether the impoverished educational environment is pervasive in the school system or spotfocused on the ESL/EFL programo The former situation affects all: the latter clearly discriminates against some. Sociocultural Factors EFL: How am 1 supposed to teach English but eliminate any cultural referencesto English-speaking groups if they clash with my studerus' culture? I can't even attempt a role play unless it's all male or all female. Everything 1 feel is importa ni to present naturaUy becomes contrived or empty. (Middle East. 1986. high school ). ESL: They say "yes" when 1 ask if they understand. but they don't. They won't look at me when 1 talk lo them. They talk but not in English when 1 turn my back and they cheat on every test by whispering answers to each other. Homework? Forget it! They go home and forget everything 1 taught during the day. (Florida. 1992. high school ). Sociocultural constraints ex ist everywhere! Intracultural constraints are as prevalent as intercultural ones: when they occur within a formal institution, such as a school, they are further magnified by factors such as group control procedures, peer-group etiquette practices, enforced social hierarchies ... Education ethnographers refer. perhaps euphemisticaUy, lO this and much more as the "school culture" or "classroom culture". No matter where we teach, no matter what we teach, we are restrained by explicit or implicit rules that affect both actions and beliefs.
(Limited English Proficiency) students don't becorne English-t1uent overnight? The rnysteries of language acquisition that compel us to do research and seek ways to enhance language learning are, to many fellow teachers, devoid of suspense. As an internationally renowned mathematics educator (himself a nonnative speaker of English who learned English as an immigrant child) once said 10 me in public, "You make such a big thing 01' this language learning: all you have to do is make them learn il and they will, if they need to" (emphasis his). To some, language is holy: lo other, language is a 1001 to be used in a precise. unalterable manner according to one's needs. To sorne. language learning is synonymous with rule learning; to others. it's rnan ipulatin g the code to address specific communicative needs interpersonally. In short, all ESL/EFL teachers realize early in their careers that their effectiveness is dependent on negotiating a common definition of language of students. without which no learning goals can be either defined or reached. Diminishing Difficult C ircumstances lnsurrnountable circumstances abound just 贸.JS do surmountable ones. The challenge to all language educators is to differentiate one from the other and 10 make accommodations for both .. Major changes in sociocultural norms or deep-rooted philosophies will not be made by one teacher on a short-terrn contract. whether he/she be teaching in Lima, Peru or Lima, Ohio. Change requires both time and energy LO erode. to infiltrate. 10 rebuild, and to refine deeply grained practices and beliefs. Even ihen, no change is a possible outcorne. In short. when confronted with a gi.ven insurmountable reality. each of us may choose either 10 acquiesce or 10 fight. Yet we are driven 10 become part of the erosion process; it's the force that fuels teachers. lt's our service mission as educators, and each ESL/EFL professional has a moment or two when a dent is made, even though it, too, may be eventually eroded. By bending our O\'J'll beliefs and practices as English teachers lo conform to the different body of beliefs and practices itl which we function. are we not able lo promote the educational process to, al least. a modest extent? lf we are required to teach English as a rulegoverned entity. surely we can do so much beuer today than we could only a short 40 years ago when natural-Ianguage examples 100k second place 10 cont:rived examples. There are newer mies available 10 us, the results of fruitful thought and work by psychologists, linguists, researchers, and practicing teachers ... rules with roots and branches, exceptions and variations. Do educational or cultural restrictions prevenring oral discourse in an EFL classroom preclude students' practicing their English together outside of class?
Views on Language EFL: How do 1 get anywhere when every student wants me to only give them grammar rules? They refuse to accept the fact that language var铆es. that English isn't rigid or limited to a few "right" ways. They believe that language has a sequence and that I'm failing to give them the key to learning it all ! (Costa Rica, 1989, adult language school). ESL: We ha ve this great Brazilian basketball player we want to recruit for this Fall. bUI he doesn't know any English and he has to learn it so that he can be admitted to the university in order to participate. How long will that take, 3 or 4 weeks? (Former basketball coach talking to me). Have you noticed that virtuaUy all foreign language learners expect the target language to be tidy, cornpact, and logical, yet are stymied when asked about perceived inconsistencies in their native language? Have you marveled at the lack of insight shown by individuals who openly confess their inability to learn a foreign language but who grumble to us ESL teachers when recently arrived LEP
ARTESOL Newsletter FalI '93
New from Oxford University Press American Chatterbox For children at the elementary level. thís four-part series combines grarnmar wlth llstenlng actlvltles. storles. songs. and dialogues. Each level conslsts of a Student's Book. Teacher's Book, Workbook. and Cassettes. American ChaUerbox has: • a comprehenslve yet controlled syllabus • a thorough coverage of a1l four language skllls • a IIvely. colorful format • a serial comic strip adventure story
A slx-Ievel series for beglnner to Intennedlate levels. American WOW! or Wtndow on the World Is based on a fictional1V show for young teenagers. Each level conslsts of a Student's Book . Teacher's Book, Workbook and Cassette. The series Is wrltten speclfically for young teenagers, Is modern. colorful. and motlvating and has: • a rellable syllabus • clear slgnpostlng of actlvltles • bullt-In revlew and recycllng of material For further InformaUon about these books please contacto Exclusive distributors: Acme Agency, Suipacha 245, 3° P. (1008) Buenos Aires, Te!': 46-1508 / 1662
Oxford University Press English Language Teaching Diag. Píe. Roque 54m2 Peña 693, 7' T (1035) Bu"",," Ai •.••• 3U-4J06
Librería Rodriguez, Sarmiento 835 (1041) Buenos Aires, Te!': 326-3725 /3826
CALENDAR OF EVENTS June 1993 27-1 July Intemational Conference on Teacher Eduacation, "Teacher Education Toward the 21st Century: From Practice to Theory", Tel Aviv, Israel. Contact Ms. Efrat Drori, MOFET Institute, Levinsky Teacher Education College, 15 Shoshana Persitz St. , PO Box 48130, Tel Aviv 61481, IsraeL TeL 972-6902406_ Fax 972-3-6902449 July 1993 11-14 English Teachers' Association of Israel (ETAI). 3rd_ Intemational Jerusalem Conference lEFL-lESOL, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Contact ETAI, POB 7663,Jerusalem, Israel 91706. 19-21 Asociación de Profesores de Inglés de Buenos Aires (APIBA), Annual Seminar. Tel. 814-3788/42-6884. August 1993 17-20 ICANA Annual International Seminar for Teachers ofEnglish. Maipú 672,1006_ Buenos Aires. Argentina. Tel (54-1)322-3855/4557/4971. Fax (54-1)322-2106 September1993 24-25 Argentina Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (ARlESOL)_ 7th Annual Convention, Contact ICANA Maipú 672,1006 Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tel (54-1)322-3855/4557/4971. Fax (54-1)322-2106. March 1994 8-12 Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages (lESOL) The Twenty- Eighth Annual Convention and Exposition. Contact TESOL, Conventions Department. 1600 Cameron St., suite 300- Alexandria, Virginia 22314-2751 USA July 1994 19-22. Intemational Reading Asociation (IRA). World Conference. Contact Asociación Internacional de Lectura. Lavalle 2116 - 80 B - (1051) - Buenos Aires, Argentina. Tel: 953-3211.
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93 (from page
Might these students willingly "dernonstrate" their oral communicative prowess by making an audiotape of a practice session held outside the classroom if assured by the teacher that they may remain anonymous? Oro am 1 able to alter my parameters for what constitutes, for exarnple, a role play activity? Ir 1 stretch a bedsheet from ceiling lO floor in the classroom to separa le the students into one large and one small group, and 1 backlight the sheet so that only silhouettes of the small group may be seen by the large groups can 1 gel members of the small group 10 stand up and engage in a role play exercise? When working in a setting where the U.S. credo 01' inclusive education ("Let each become all he/she's capable of becoming") is alien and where access lO higher education is greatly restricted, can the EFL educator glean satisfaction by assisting only one student in gaining entry to a university every few years? At home. can we witness our lO-year-old ESL student verbally disputing a close play al third base with an English-speaking classrnate? Of course we can !z Perhaps the most difficult personal challenge faced by all ESL and EFL teachers is the self-examination 01' beliefs about learning. We believe that the ways that we learned, the ways we were taught to teach, the ways that we were successful in learning, and the premium we placed on education are good, and therefore, right for others lO emulate. When confronted by gross differences in beliefs about leaming and teaching, it's difficult to
comprehend, let alone accept. that other views dominate and prevail. Yet lo comprehend and lo grapple with difficult circumstances. it is necessary 10 examine our belief systerns as well as the underpinnings of the perceived problem in order 10 become effective as teachers. Only then can we find solutions, make accomodations, accept some "givens", bend, and blend. As Duke Ellington is quoted as saying "A problem is an opportunity 10 do your best", By the mere fact that each of us has chosen a career in second/foreign language education, we are unified by the demands and difficulties inherent 10 it. We are problem seekers. We are problem solvers. All L2 teachers. when faced with instructional challenges. must ask themselves whether they are indeed. "victims 01' circumstances": or whether Ihey are feeling overwhelmed 'by the "circumsiunces of victims": only by clearly determining causes first will we be able lO determine how to do our best. Author Frederick L, "Rick'' Jenks is full professor and program coordinator ill Multilingual Multicultural Education and director of the Center [or lntensive English Studies al Florida state University. He is (1 former member of the TESOL Rules and Resolutions Committee (1982- 1989) and TESOL Journal Editorial Board ( 1990-1992). (Froni TESOL Journal Vo12. N°}, AWUII/Il 1992»
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ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
By Danny Schechter In the Fa11 of 1984. I went to Lisbon, Portugal. to start a job as a teacher at the American Language Institute (ALI). where 1 would teach EFL to Portuguese adults. I immediately fell in love with Lisbon's charms: cheerful trolleys rolling up narrow , cobblestone streets, civilized cafĂŠs where politics and soccer were the topics of discussion, a mild Mediterranean climate, and miles of sandy beaches only a short ferry ride away. Unfortunately, the overwhelming burden of preparing for and teaching 21 hours of classes per week reduced me to a state of nervous exhaustion and kept me from fully appreciating Lisbon's simple pleasures. Most of ALI's new recruits had just graduated college and had little teaching experience. I was a bit more experienced, having taught EFL for 6 months in Bogota, Colombia. But ALI's methods of language instruction were more sophisticated than 1 was accustomed to. Veteran teachers modeled EFL teaching techniques for us with a class of Portuguese students. (In exchange for acting as guinea pigs, these students paid no tuition). All of us were deeply impressed by the quality of these demonstration classes. The teachers had meticulously prepared their lessons. They used professionally made visual aids and audiotapes in their performances. The results were obvious: Student participation was high. and the class seemed to learn the concepts being taught. Our first assignment as teacher trainees was to develop 15minute class segments on target concepts (e.g., the third person s in present tense verbs or the use of count vs. mass nouns). The night before our segments were due, we a11 gathered in our
pension's faded dining room to come up with snappy ideas. Some Irainees cut oul pictures from magazines lO teach key vocabulary . while others created dialogues lo illu str ate grammatical rules. On average. we each spent al least an hour preparing our miniclasses. After completing the training program and traveling brietly lo Portugal's southern coastal region, I returned lo Lisbon ready lO begin teaching. All 01' the AL! teachers met al the Institute on the Sunday afternoon before the start 01' the Fall Irimester to receive our teaching assignments. I was told 1 would teach five classes at three different levels for a total of 21 evening class hours per week. Ves, the vacation was definitely over. It didn't take long for me to realize that planning one 15minute class segment was far different from planning 4 1/2 hours of classes. It was the difference between hanging a picture and building a house. For my first term at ALI. I devoted each day, from the moment 1 woke up, to planning lessons. By nature a plodder. I had to plan every minute of each hour and half class: what 1 was going to say. what 1 expected the students to say, what 1 was going lo write on the black-board, and all the other minute logistical details necessary to keep a language class running smoothly. Since it was easier -theoreticallyto improvise with an upper-level class, I spent the morning working out the mechanics of my level 2 drills, only 10 remember at lunchtime that 1 didn't have the slightest idea what 1 was going to do with my level Is. So 1 would either skip lunch or dash across the street to a hole-in-the-wall restaurant and wolf down salt-cod casserole,
drink one or two cups of powerful espresso, and smoke a cigarette. As the hour of the classes grimly approached, 1 had to wash up, catch a bus 10 the Institute. type up and make copies of my handouts, find visual aids, and cue tapes for three consecutive classes (which followed one another without a break). Often. I had not even figured out what material s 1 would need despite the long hours of planning, so I would simply grab batch of anything I thought would keep the class busy. Needless to say. by the time I arrived in class, 1 was a nervous wreck. The students always welcomed me warrnly. but before long they saw that I was wound up and irritable. 1 was so obsessed with the lesson plan(whether it existed or not), and so concerned with controlling every single event that occurred in the classroom that 1 lost interest in whether the students were actually learning. Sometimes, 1 would nOI even look at thern, my face buried in my notes. Even if an activity was going we ll, I worried about how long it was going to last and what we were going to do next, That year 1 lived and breathed EFL. The only time 1could relax was after the final class was over at 9:30 in the evening. Then 1 felt giddy and emotionally drained, as if a great weight had been lifted. 1 would join some of the other teachers down at the comer cafe. They were undergoing the same pressure s , and we supported each other. Some teachers, however, were not having nearly as much trouble. They would breeze into the teacher's room half an hour before class, pick up their attendance sheets, and read a
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
tJ tJ tJ
ARTESOL held its 6th Annual Convention at the Instituto Cultural Argentino Norteamericano, 011 October 2-3, 1992. It was a great honor for ARTESOL to have as the key note speaker for the occasion TESOL Past President, Lydia Stack, one of the most prestigious professionals in the EFL / ESL . A11Artesolers agree that their handling of writing lessons could be divided in two periods: before and after attending Lydia Stack's presentations. Participants who actively engaged in actual writing experiences realized that when given the opportunity to write for a real audience, and to consult freely with peers and teachers, writing takes on new dimensions and can be extremely cha11enging. Thank you Lydia, You're a terrific teacher!! It was extremely fortunate too, that Dr. [ames Stack was also able to participate in the convention. Dr. Stack is currently working for the Testing Evaluation and Research Department of the San Francisco Unified School District. Since testing has always been a matter of great concern to a11 of us English teachers, his participation was extremely valuable. Participants also had the opportunity to choose from 3 concurrent sessions on very interesting topics: "Working Carnes: Enjoyment and success go hand in hand'', by Mar铆a de los Angeles Criscuolo, Asociaci贸n Argentina de Cultura Inglesa; "Project Work", by Beatriz Isabel Dominguez, Asociaci贸n Argentina de Cultura Inglesa, and "The Creativity Workshop: Developing Language Carnes". by Omar Villareal, Secondary School Director of Colegio Los Molinos, and Lecturer at the Instituto Nacional Superior de Profesorado T茅cnico. A very special THANKS for all these wonderful presentations! We do hope that many ARTESOLERS will follow the example that Maria de los Angeles, Beatriz and Omar have given uso
Prentice Hall Regents Grantee's Thank you letter First of all I want to thank Prentice Hall Regents for the travel grant that made it possible for me to go down to Buenos Aires and attend the 6th ARTESOL Convention. It was a fantastic experience that I will never forget. I think that events of this kind are very useful to help promote understanding through the sharing of ideas and experience among EFL professionals. I'm extremely happy because it was very challenging to express the ideas, needs and feelings of an EFL teacher who lives 1200 km from the Capital. Fortunately, alI the convention events carne up to my expectations. The lectures by Mrs. Lydia Stack were great and extremely useful. 1 wilI share my convention experiences with my colleagues. As soon as 1 get back 1'11organize a meeting LO tell the Catamarca EFL teachers everything 1 learned during the convention. Then 1'11 start putting into practice the new writing process presented by Mrs. Stack which I'm sure will improve our students' writing ability.This technique is it great because students write what they want.I'lI use itwith my adolescents. I know 1'11obtain good results because this technique is not boring, on the contrary it is very active and it will permit the students LO be creative. The concurrent sessions were auractive too, especially one of them called 'Working-Garnes'. The presenters conducted a great variety of activities especialIy tailored for children, which were extrernely useful and a lot of fun too! Thank you Prentice Hall Regents !! Thank you ARTESOL!!
Liliana Bernel Catamarca
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
Thanks!!!! -----ARTESOL thanks very especially all the bookdealers exhibits we have hado Thanks lo publishers and bookdealers ACME -t\DDISON WESLEY EST ARI LIBROS KEL EDICIONES
who pul up one of the most
for Iheir excellent contributions 10 a very successful book raffle. LONGMAN NUEVO EXTREMO OXFORD UNIVERSlTY PRESS PRENTICE H.ALLREGENTS
TESOL SUMMER INSTITUTE !!!
A TESOL TRAVEL PLAN
. ... "
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...•,rs~'f •...SU":lmer ···~----:···Instatute
TESOL and affiliate members who like to be on the move will want advance notice about a tour through Eastem and Central Europe during the Surnmer 1993.
...•~~ .... .•~•••• :~ •• e·o
On Friday, June 25,1993, TESOLers from cities throughout the US and abroad will embark on a 2-week joumey that will take them to The Netherlands, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, and Belgium. There will be chances to meet up with professional colleagues in Dresden (former East Germany), Bratislava (site of the TESOL '92 Surnmer Institute in Czechoslovakia), and Hungary, with its very active groups of English teaching professionals, inc1uding one which maintains a teacher-exchange with professionals abroad.
Session 1: June 28 - July 9, 1993 Management Institute lar Internatianal Affiliates: July 12 -14,1993 Session 11: July 19 - 30,1993
Stops in Germany and Belgium will offer participants a chance to discuss implications of the new European Cornmunity on English language teaching and policy. Retum from Brussels will be Thursday, July 8. The trip will provide opportunities for interaction with colleagues in the ESOL field as well as sightseeing. TESOL is pleased to promote this exciting avenue to enrichment among teachers from several nations. The recent expansion in TESOL membership outside the US provides us all with added sources of professional enrlchment
Sponsored by: TESOL (T eachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) California State University, San Bernardino
For more information, contact: Mendy Warman Oflice 01 Extended Education CSU. San Bernardino 5500 University Parkway San Bernardlno. eA 92407-2397 FAX: (714)880-5907 TELEPHONE: (714)880-5977
Further information about the Surnmer '93 trip is available from Sue Anne Toms, TESOL Travels, 413 Holiday Dr., Thibodaux, LA 70301 USA, Tel. 504-448-0949.
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
ARTESOL President, Blanca Arazi, Under Treasurer, Mabel Chena and AR TESOL member Beatriz Solina from Santa Fe, were present at the 27th ARTESOL Convention in Atlanta, Georgia. We are alllooking forward to their feedback on the convention when we get together at the 7th ARTESOL Convention in September.
Argentina was present at the Atlanta Convention too by contributing one of the squares that make up the beautiful patchwork quilt, which symbolizes the joint efforts of many different cultures in the pursuit of international communication. We want to thank Salta whose marvelous artisans have made this contribution possible.
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
Dear ARTESOLers thank you very much for your challenging contributions to our ATN. We have had really enthusiastic responses to the question raised in our Spring issue. In case you have forgotten about it, it read as follows: Dear ATN, Children and teenagers do not usually ask to learn a foreign language. From their position in society they are not often confronted with problems of communication with speaker s of other languages. They are not motivated to learn another language in the way that older learners might be. If they are to take part in a foreign language course with success, the motivation has to come from another source. How can you motivate your students to study English? True, most children and teenagers do not ask to learn a foreign language, and we alI know that teaching anyone who is not interested is quite a difficult task. In our school years there were professors we will never forget. Inadvertently they made us produce what we ignored was in uso They were neither the stern, repressive professors nor the lenient permissive ones. They mastered the art of giving us "just what we wanted" and we absorbed it blindly. What does it take to be like one of them? We know that IDENTITY is structured and organized gradually according to age and experience, this is why IDENTIFICATION with exceptional and prestigious people is commonplace among children and adoleseents. Passionate admiration for historie and contemporary characters who are salient for their independence, pride or ascendancy are decisive factors in the shaping up of personality and are part of the process of IDEALIZA TION. Therefore our goal should aim at trying to become one of those "perfect models" admired and loved and apt to be imitated. Apart from striving to become good models for our students, we teachers should take into account the stage of cognitive development they are going through in order to keep up their motivation. In preschool years Play is of utmost importance . It permits children to deal with their emotional concerns and facilitates eognitive and social development as well. Motor learning is fostered by means of actions such as throwing. catching. running, jumping, building, etc. As for cognitive development ehildren in this stage are ready to become gradualIy acquainted with dimensions, shape, size, color and texture. In middle ehildhood games should be eompetitive and should include team activities structured by rules. In the cognitive aspeet
Piagetian concepts of amount weight and volume should be taken into account. When dealing with adoIescents we should emphasize Group Identity in relation to the world. Adolescents are ready to engage in discussions of their perception of the environment and of their personal concerns since at this point they can think 01' "the possiblc" as well as 01' "the real". They can use abstraer thinking and reasoning and understand metaphor and humor. Identity formation does not end in adolescence. Development is gradual and continuous. All the above mentioned considerations are extremely important if we want to foster our students' motivation. However, none of them would be effective without the help of warm loving teachers happy to guide their students. and always willing to eneourage individual initiative. Teaehers endowed with sueh attitudes and al the same time knowledgeable of what differcnt students need at different stages 01' their developrnent can build up their students' self esteem without which no learning can take place. Elba RodrĂguez Lic. en PsicologĂa UBA
As 1 was thinking of a reply to the question on motivation raised in the SPRING issue, 1 happened to come across an exeellent article on this subjeet written by Christopher Green and published in the January issue of The English Teaehing Forum. Green idenLifies 3 levels of motivation: holistic, cultural-linguistic, and eognitive-linguisLic. When he explores the third aspect, he includes a quotation taken from one of David Asusubel's books, whieh 1 would like 10 share with my eolleagues: *The most apropirate way of arousing motivation to learn is -to foeus on the cognitive rather than the motivational aspects of learning, and to rely
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93 on the motivation that is developed from successful educational achievement to energize further learning.
, '\..,' \
1 think that in these few lines Ausubel expresses very clearly and concisely what most of us, English teachers who are trying to incorporate content in our EFL classes, strongly believe in. Creen, Christopher.1993. Learner drives in second language 'acquisition. Englis)i Teaching Forum 31 (1): 2-12 Ausubel, D. P. 1968. Educational psychology: A cognitive view, New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Mabel Gallo LC.A.N.A.
Question: Dear ATN, What is the best way to cope with large c1asses? Can communicative activities be used succesfully without a complete loss of control? If you would like to respond to this new question, send in a short response (under 200 words). W e will publish several of your responses in an upcoming issue. AlI question and responses should be sent to: Mabel Gallo Editor, Ask the ATN ARTESOL Newsletter ICANA, MaipĂş 672 1006Âˇ Buenos Aires
(from page 9 ) book on the terrace until class time. 1 admired their ability to put things in perspective. All frequency observed its teachers in an effort to maintain high teaching standards. Veteran teachers sat in on my classes as did the director at AL!. If 1 knew 1 was going to be observed, 1 put even more effort into that day's planning. 1 would try to prepare a perfect lesson and to give a performance to rival the training demonstrations we had observed at the beginning of them. Consequently. 1 was even more nervous and ill-at-ease than usual. Once, when 1 knew the director was going to observe. 1 prepared a lesson that couldn 't go wrong-except that when 1 arrived in class. 1 couldn't find it. Panic-stricken. 1 dashed back to the teacher's room and searched everywhere. but it had simply disappeared. Sornehow, 1 managed to wing
it, and the director seemed pleased with the class. But that experience taught me a valuable lesson. 1 realized that my overreliance on a written plan had cut me off from the students and stifled the vital interaction a true learning environment must have.
The director later warned me that 1 had better observe the veteran teachers' classes if 1 hope to continue my employment al the AL!. Al first. 1 was hurt to hear someone else suggest that 1 was struggling. But observing those classes was invaluable for my growth as a teacher. For one thing. 1 realized that these regular classes were not as polished as those we had seen in training. More important was the teachers' whole approach to teaching. They tried to analyze the needs of the students and engage then in activities that responded to those needs. Also, they always made sure that all students had a chance
to shine before their classmates, no mauer what their level. 1 realized during this period that a teacher's main role was to motivate students to work harder. 1 survived my de Iacro probation period, and 1 went on to teach another 2 years at AL1. That first trimester had been a great emotional strain, but it had not been worthless. After all those hours of preparing lessons. 1 found myself with an extensive repertoire of activities 1 could adapt to future classes. 1 had also grown accustorned to standing in front of a room of 15 or 20 learners and had realized that 1 could actually have fun with more experience (admittedly. in an effort to keep my job), I learned the true functions of an EFL teacher. (From TESOL Journal Vo12. NÂ°1. Autumn1992 )
lrY' Affiliates TESOL
local level develop ana seek improvement in teacnir.« tonouaoe. These regional affiliates provide educators with professional int orrr.atíon and support in a qeoorapnic are a. Affiliate c onierencee, newetet t er s arid varied membership services encour aqe int or mation exchange ano provide a valuable source of cor.tact for ot+er associated or qontzottor.e.
rr.atrvt ain effective oroamzottons English as a eecor.a or i oretqn
cont act . ARTESOL - Maipú 672 Buenos Aires - /006 Argentina Fax (54-/) 3222/06
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Help us keep our records up to date address to ARTESOL , Maipú 672 Prompt reporting of changes of publications and help the Association
t o gowith
by sending your ARTESOL Newsletter label and your new 1006, Capital Federal, Buenos Aires, Argentina. address will guarantee steady delivery of membership avoid additional expenses for remailing materials.
Wante Have you written, or are you in the process of writing a book review, a project, a report on you TEFL experiences or a research paper which you would like to share with 600 ARTESOLers? If so, please send it in as soon as possible for publication in the Spring issue of the ARTESOL Newsletter. The Annual ARTESOL Convention will be the perfect occasion to get your colleagues' feedback on your work. Maximum number of words: Deadline: Send to:
250 July 30, 1993 ARTESOL Newsletter Maipú 672 1006 - Buenos Aires Argentina
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
'Lt'5 time to
The news is out! Your membership in ARTESOL will expire soon unless you act to keep your name on our mailing lists. We don't want to miss you, and you don't want to miss the ARTESOL Newletter and publications that keep you up-to-date and in the know. Due to security reasons we can't accept checks or money drafts. For tenewal, please complete the form on this page, as soon as possible and bring it to ARTESOL.- Maipú 672 - Buenos Aires - Argentina.
A.Tqentina T:E80L R.enewa.t form
Membershi number Name Address Phone number Cit Zi Code
Membership categories INDIVIDUAL INSTITUTIONAL COMMERCIAL OVERSEAS
$12.00 $24.00 $36.00 U$S15.00
7th Annu.m ARTE80L Conventí.on 8eptem&er 24-25,
en O t"""
• Enables students to learn language lunctions and vocabulary using all tour skills.
• Eases beginning learners into the program with lifteen readiness lessons.
H. Douglas Brown
INTRODUCING THE FIRST COMMUNICATIVE SERIES FOR ABSOLUTE BEGINNERS!
• Introduces structures in clear, easy-to-reao trames.
lmernauonal. Engl<",ood C¡'(f.. N.", Jersej, 07632. u.s. A. or call. /201 J 592-2019. c,mmunica1ÜHU
'Tl • Prepares students tor a more creative use 01 English with a carelul proqress.on trom presentation to application.
To requesr your exam.nauon copv "'fllr lo: M,. Ra, Adame, Prenuce Hall
To request examination copies, contact your local Prentice Hall representative or write to:
• Features humorous, real-lile situations, all colorlully illustrated. • Contrasts and recycles structures, tunctions, and vocabulary utilizing a spiraled scope and sequence. • Furnishes Teacher's Editions, Workbooks, Audio Programs, Tests, and Picture Cards that make VISTAS both practical and accessible.
AffiGlEN'lrIINA 'lrlE§(Q)IL 1fdffi ANNlUAIL C(Q)NVlEN'lrII(Q)N CAILIL lF(Q)ffilFAffi'lrIICJIllDA 'lrII(Q)N lI»1ID<e lI»mfr<e~Aqun~fr ~®9 n~3l ARGENTINA TESOL is an Argentine organization with broad interests. The convention is planned for professional development and provides opportunities for social interaction among colleagues who share common interests. The program cornmittee invites presentations dealing with classroom practices, research in language leaming and teaching, or the connection between the two. We welcome proposals from teachers, teachers in preparation. graduate students, researchers, program administrators and materials and currículum developers, including colleagues in related disciplines such as comrnunication, educatíon, linguistics, foreign languages, anthropology, sociology and psychology. Kinds of presentations: Demonstration: Rather than describing or discussing, a demonstration shows a technique for teaching or testing. Normally the presenter's statement of the .theory underlying the technique takes no more than five minutes. The rest of the time is used for showing, rather than telling. The abstract should include a brief statement of the presenter's central purpose and a description of what will be demonstrated (e.g. role playing) and how it will be done (e.g. some of the audience participating as students or an unrehearsed lesson with actual students). One hour.
* Workshop: In a workshop, one or more leaders work with a group, helping them either lo solve a problem or to develop a specific teaching or research technique. There is very little lecturing by the leader(s), the emphasis ís, rather, on the participant's activity which is carefully structured by the leader(s). The abstraet should include a statement of the workshop's goal, a summary of the theoretical framework. and a precise description of the tasks to be performed during the workshop. Two hours. * Colloquium: A colloquium provides a forum for a group of scholars to discuss
current pedagogical, political, or research issues in TESOL. Ideally, participants exchange papers in advance and make formal responses to each other's presentations. In any case, both presentation and discussion, should be part of the session. Abstracts and proposals should include a description of the topic for the colloquium and the same name and affiliation of each of the invited participants. All colloquia will be open to non participating observers. Two hours. Presenter's Responsibilities: To write your proposal follow these stylistic guidelines and include: 1) title, 2) a biographical statement, and 3) an abstract. # rifle: Choose a title that will be clear to the intended audience, and limit it to a maximum of nine words. Capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and initials, do not put the title in quotation marks. Example: Music and movement for kindergarten and the primary grades. # Biographieal statement: In a maximum of 25 words, give your first name, family name, institutional affiliation and relevant activities or publications. Degrees are not normally listed, and titles such as professor are not capitalized. You can generally omit "currently". Example: Jane Dos, a specialist in curriculum development and composition, teaches ESL in Houston public junior high schools. (Not currentIy teaches ) (17 words). # Abstraet: Bear in mind that. the abstract is the first part of the proposal that the referees see. Because we have found that brevity helps people to crystallize their ideas, we ask that your abstracts be limited LO 250 words, All proposals must arrive at ARGENTINA TESOL, Maipú 672 (1006), Buenos Aires, Argentina by August 20,1993
ARTESOL Newsletter Fan '93
ARĂşENT'LNA TE80L 7th ANNUAL CONVENTWN PR.OP08A.LrOR.n -Complete the ARTESOL '93 Proposal Form. This fonn must be typed. If you need additional space, attach a single sheet of white bond paper. ( Type the mailing address lo whom all correspondence
should be sent)
(Office Phone #)
D Check here if not a member of ARGENTINA TESOL Presenters (In order in which the should be listed) Famil
name. Other Name(s)
Title of Presentation (9 Words) T e of Section (check one) Demonstration Worksho cono uium Surnmary (50 words maximum). Number of words in this surnmary: Abstract: (250 words maximum) Biographical statements (25 words per presenter, 100 words total)
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
THE PRENTICE HALL-REGENTS TRA VEL GRANT for the Argentina TESOL Convention, 1993 Purpose: to pay or help pay the expenses for an ARTESOL member to attend the 1993 Argentina TESOL Convention in Buenos Aires. Amount: U$S 300. Who is eliยก:ible: ARTESOL members who are currently teaching at a Public School or University and live farther than 400 km from Buenos Aires.
Applications are evaluated in terms of: 1- certified teaching experience 2- certified present teaching position.
To apply: Send 2 copies of each of the following: a) Application form b) A report on your current activities e) A personal statement indicating the benefit attending the ARTESOL Convention will bring to your instructional setting and to other teachers in your community.(from 100 to 150 words) Supportinยก:
documentation: endose with your application: 1- A letter of recommendation from a superv isor or colleague who can describe your classroom performance and your professional activities. 2- A certificate from organization you are working for at present 3- A certificate of residence which certifies your address.
The funds for this award are donated by Prentice
Hall - Regents.
Due Date: Applications must be postmarked ON or BEFORE August 20, 1993
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
THE PRENTICE HALL-REGENTS TRA VEL GRA T for the Argentina TESOL Convention, 1993 APPLICATION FORM Personal data: Name First
Home address Street
Degree or Certificate Obtained (attach photocopy signed by Notary Public)
Teaching Training College Date of graduation Post graduation courses:
(list 00 reverse side)
Teaching Experience (attach corresponding certificates)
Present job: Previous jobs: Professional Reference Name Address Teaching degree obtained Teaching experience
1 certify that all the information given in this application form is complete and accurate to the best of my knowledge and affirm that 1 am the person whose name and address are given on it. 1 agree to observe all the rules and regulation of Argentina TESOL.
ARTESOL Newsletter Fall '93
What 1,S Tt:80L? Mission:
TESOL's mission is to strengthen the effective teaching and learning of English around the world while respecting individuals' language rights. TESOL promotes scholarship, disseminates information, and strengthens instruction and research.
23,OOO+teachers, teachers-in-training, administrators, researchers, material s writers, and curriculum developers.
16 voting members meet twice ayear to establish organization policy.
*TESOL Matters, 6 issues per year; highlights professional interests conferences, and Association news. *TESOL Quarterly, 4 issues per year; refereed, researchoriented. *TESOL Journal, 4 issues per year, refereed, covers practical classroom concerns; available to TESOL members by subscription. *Interest section newsletters published periodically *Professional publications and policy statements
March 8-12,1994, in Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Member chooses primary interest section with voting rights and up to two other interest sections; receives periodic newsletters from select sections: ESOL in Adult Education Applied Linguistics: ESL in Bilingual Education Computer-Assisted Language Leaming Teaching English to Deaf Students ESOL in Elementary Education English as a Foreign Language Intensive English Programs
ESL in Higher Education Materials Writers Program Administration Refugee Concems Research ESL in Secondary Schools English for Specific Purposes Teacher Education Video
Awards Nominations Professional Standards
*Summer Institute: July 1993, San Bernardino, California, USA 76 autonomous affiliates(42 in the US, 34 outside the US) *Self-study guidelines provided for program regulation Employment Clearinghouse on-site at the annual convention *Placement Services and bimonthly Placement Bulletin *InfOlmation Service
Publications Rules and Resolutions Sociopolitical Concerns
Encourages access to and standards for English language instruction, professional preparation, and employment
What í,n the
Let us introduce ourselves. The letters EFL-IS stand for the English as a Foreign Language Interest Section of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). We are the largest of TESOL's seventeen interest sections, representing approximately a quarter of the total membership of TESOL (which now stands at over 20,(00). However, numbers are only one way to characterize an organization. The great majority of ESOL professionals around the world are involved in EFL. Their working environments and needs are diverse, but their concerns are similar. As a group, we try to address these concerns at the annual TESOL conventíon, in our lnterest Section Newsletter, and in our colurnn published in TESOL Matters, the organization-wide newsletter for the general rnernbership. Through both the diversity and communality of our members' experience, we learn frorn one another. Our name expresses our collective commitment to EFL whether we are native or non-native speakers of English, whether we work in a country where English is the first, second or foreign language, whether we are teachers, teacher trainers or textbook writers: researchers or practitioners. We recognize the distinct pleasures and challenges implicit in teaching and learning Ea. The following aspects distinguish the work of EFL professionals from the work of our colleagues teaching English as a Second Language (ESL): Ea learners have relatively little exposure to English and few classroom contact hours EFL learners have a comrnon native language background EFL learners have little need or opportunity to use English regularly outside class EFL teachers have relatively heavy teaching loads (up to 60 hours per week) EFL teachers are gene rally non-native speakers of English EFL teachers have limited resources available for keeping up to date in the profession Pleased to meet you! The EFL-IS is a forum for sharing concerns, exchanging ideas, and coming together to debate issues of common interest. Please join uso ,..
TESOL ~4 March 8-12, 1994 Baltimore, Maryland, USA "Sbaring Our Stories" Call for Participation Tbe Twenty-Eigbtb Annua/ Convention and Exposition Contact TESOL, Conventions Department 1600 Cameron Street., Suite 300 Alexandria, Virginia 22314-2751 USA Tel. 703-836-0774 • Fax 703-836-7864 Deadlines: Interest Section-Juried proposals due May 15, 1993 1n Progress, Poster & Video proposals due August 1, 1993
,/"'-../"".,r""./"-. Page 23
7thARTESOL Annual Convention
ARGE T CDtc.e,vJ-th
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Instituto Cultural Argentino Norteamericano Maípú 672 - 1006
Buenos Aires Argentina