Fall 1992 Vol 5 N°10

Page 1

ARCENTINA

Newsletter rESOL Fall92

.Araentina T eachers of Eualillh to Spélkers of Other LaIJlU&llll

Them4tic Units: CrNting

INSIDI

(1ft

Eftrirorunent for lMIrning MUle c. GiGftelli .

1

Editors Note: Elemeruary and secondary ESL teacbers aro faced wi/b tuo tasks: teacbtng a second language lo tbeir students and simultaneously instruatng studeuts tn tbe contentarea subjects tbat learners at tbese leoels must master. Marge Gianedi describes boto ber scbooi district ;'1 Texas addressed tbese lUJO issuos by creating tbematic units. Her students na only improoed tbeir Englisb ta,¡guage abüiues bUI also gained kllowledge in all ateas 01 tbe school curricutum. Her paper should be 01 interest lo ESLelementary and secondary tcadier»; and also lo ESL a lid NL educators al al/ /evels toho may desire lO implement tbematic units ;/1 tbeir scbools. 11also bas grea: importance loprop,ram administrators and curnculum

and material deoetopers.

How do teachers decide what to teach cvery day? Do we follow the currículum

guide? Do we use the scquence of the textbookfs)? Do we analyze the deficiencies of each student and indivídualize lessons? Is coverage of the content of a discipline the best way for our students to hccome knowledgeable, competent students, or should we Iocus on language? Answers to thesc qucstions are esscntial for tcachers of English as a second language (ESL). Especially in an c1ementary or secondary school setting, we teachers find it tremendously difficult to balance the dernands of the school curriculum and the students' need to learn English. There must be a way to ensure that neíther need is neglected while children are learning both languaue and content.

\

'nlemat1c Units: Creatin¡ an Bnvironment for Learning ............••.••.

Although 1 am no longer in the classroom, 1 struggled for years wlth these questions. For the past 5 years, as director of bilingual and ESL prograrns, 1 have been working with teachers to implernent a thematíc approach to curriculum organization in Canutillo Elementary and Canutillo Middle School. Together we began the process at the kindergarten level 5 years ago and have now progressed through grade six. A drastic change like

Vol S·No.t·O

organizing the cur- .

riculum around themcs requires a tremcndous amount of effort, but the results have been worth the effort. Previously, classes were se'! up so that students spent set arnounts of time in the different disciplines: an hour for readíng, an hour for ESL-Spanish, 30 minutes for spelling, 20 mínutes for social studies, and so on. The lesson concluded at the proper time no matter what was going on. I observed many flnc lessons cut short because "time was up." Rcading, writing, study of grammar rules, and spelling wcre never connected; each was selí-contaíned. In addition, the bilingual teachers were frustrared because there was never enough time 10 teach in both languages. Other teachers also complained about the lack of lime.

Tbe resutts baue been dramatic. No longer do students forget what tbey are studying~

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Affillate Newe ....•.••...•p 4.In Memorian Tracy Terrel ••.•..•.••..•• P 4.Acknowledgemente •••.••.•••P 5.Aek the TJ .•..•..••.•..•.• P 7.Tesol arants •.•••••.•.•.•. p 8.Call for part1c1patlon 6th ARTBSOL COnvention •••.p 12.Calendar of Bvents .••.••..p 14.-

But worst of all, students weren't learníng, They couldn't remember from one day lo the next what they had been taught, the spelling words were never spelled correctly in actual writing situations, and more than one-third of the first-grade students were being rctained because they were, unablc to read. Students counted their succcsses by the numbcr of papers they had to turn in, and were kept after school only for not tuming in a paper (never for inability lo read): thus, ihe bbjec; of the day was to turn in papers. No students 1 ever asked knew what they were leaming in scíencc, or what story they had rcad in reading. When asked, 'What is scíence", a student responded, "II's right after lunch." To remedy this fragmentcd approach lo learníng, the teachers (who wcre as díscouraged as I) and 1 decíded to try focusing on th~mes

(CONTINtJI'.D ON.PAR 10)


Ar,tltia. TES8l (ARTESOLl

'r'fltil' TESOl (AlTESal)

Prni.Hh

MewsIetter 15 ,ublisbed t"ice ayear (FalI aft' Spriagl

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lluu~mi

. Vict-'rni'Ht 11 . . ft¡iel Gallo

Al

S'ECIAl ACIMOIlE6EIIUl:

Vict-'rtsi'.lt 21 &rieiela RedriQu!1 Stcrtt.rYI .

"l. Terna

Ar!entiRa TESOl .ish., to ackRollledge an4 p•• licly think ¡CAMA .bieh b.s la4e this publicitl0n possiUe.

Ahelaira

h't,-StcrthrYI "Ilnica Sequa Tnn.,.r:

ARTESOl Addrm

htricii Vtcito UI't,-Tmmtn "abel Chm

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"aipa 672 íl0061 Buenos Aires Argentila fu 1: 322-2106

Voti., hl~tm

Cu ••e Torhrolo AdriuI Pereira ftónica Ruieri lur a Pis torino lilian Hreljac Pi\rici¡ Solmt

CALL FOR PARTICIPATION II

I (

6t" ANNUAl ARTESOl CONVENTION OCTOBER 2 & 3, '992

(

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".......

,

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LYDIA STACk

(

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TESOL PAST PRESIDENT KEYNOTE SPEAKER r

..----------------------~ Librería General de Tomás Pardo SRL

ENGLlSH BOOKS IN BUENOS AiRES ...?

VIAMONTE

2052

OF COURSE ... !

,

Matpu 618 - 1006 Capital T.E. 392-6759/ 322-0496 DICCIONARIOS ENCICLOPEDIAS


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VISTAS-

INTRODUCING THE FIRST COMMUNICATIVE SERIES FOR ABSOLUTE BEGINNERSI ·INTERAcnVEI

PRACnCAL!

• Eases beginning leamers into the program with fifteen readiness lessons.

H. Douglas Brown

• Enables students to leam language functions and vocabulary using all four skills.

To reque" ••• mlnatlon copies, contact your local Prentlce Hall reprnenhltlve or wrlte to:

• Introduces structures in clear. easy-to-read frames. • Prepares students for a more creative use of English with a careful progression from presentation to application.

To request yOllr .,.amination copy wrile lo: Mr. Hay Mame. Prentice Hall Regenla Internatioaal, Englewood Cliff., New Jersey, 07632. U.s.A. or call, (201) 592-2019 .

.A P~

C-mwUaJ~

PHR

PREIInlCE HALL REGENTS

C-fHUUI

• FUNCnONALL y APPEALlNGI • Features humorous. real-lite situations. all colorfully iIIustrated. • Contrasts and recycles structures. functions, and vocabulary utilizing a spiraled scope and sequence. • Fumishes Teacher's Editions, Workbooks, Audio Programs, Tests, and Picture Cards that make VISTAS both practical and accessible.

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nE 1lTHER SIDE OF Tl€ COI" tiere lidniea Puglieu joj,¡rra Celestel:lrimau are nighly weleome.

ttl¡';e. ue tne issuea "Biiingual or Bieultural1:: raised by in our l:)pring issue. i'¡ore commel1ts on this challenging topie

::1 htlve read

lIIIitn 9reat pleasure tne artiele by Celeste Grillau (BU ingl.lal or Bieultural?"i in tne lui; iS5ue oi tne TESOLNtIoiSLETTEÑ. Although our teaening situations are probablyciifferent, ¡ alBo come from a small piace. T"at ia prooably why ¡ can uncie,·stand ner pc<int of view ano share he,siudent.: feeling5 and ey.pectations. They lRay ask themselves ::wnai;:s tne point oi learning toe history or ;;;,e customs oi a countr'{ we: ¡¡ p'robabl y never v i51 t 7::. Learning a foreign language is noi; just ::speaidng:: tnat language. Le.1rnin~ a. foreign ¡a~.uag~ is .ha.ving. ti:'e. op'p'odunit'( to. inc:C?rponte. ~o our personaL Daggage a wloer Knowleoge OT wna~ otner people, ln otnar cOUntrles do, rear. love or hate. Learrüng a ioreign lan..9uage is n<lving the chance te. cOlIIPare difi'erent cultures, diffareni; people, diirerent places al diiferent times. ~ .~o r.tC?t und~reiótimat. ~u.r tracii tion by stuciying tna custc<ms oi another country. WUlte tne con~rary, we 111110en our scope. Knowing about otner cuiture5ó nelps Uióappreciate our own. Let:s give our stucients tne chtlnce to do i t ¡" Mónica Pugl iese T<ilntH ¡

THANK YOU, MIDTESOL We wish to tank MIDTESOL for the funde they have donated ARTESOL for renewing four TESOL memberships. ARTESOL Executive Board granted these funds to four ARTESOL Board Members. MIDTESOL grant recipients are:

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* Maria Teresa Abelair-a, ARTESOL Secretary

* Patricia Veciño, * Laura Pastorino,

ARTESOL Treasurer ARTESOL Board Member * Adriana Pereira, ARTE SOL Board Member

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Tracy Terrell died on Decernber 2,1991 at the age of 48 after a long illness, We have lost afine scholar and a good friendo A graduate of me University ofTe.x8S, Tracy Terrell wasa Professor ofLinguistics al the University of California al Irvine and at the University ofCalifornia at San Diego. A respected sociolinguist, he was best known as the originator of the N atura! Approach. The Natural Approacb was originally designed for foreign languageinstruction, and had wide acceptance at the university level. Natural Approacb oriented texts (Dos Mundos, Deux Mondes, and Kontakte), developed by Tracyand colleagues, are wide1y used throughout North America. At me time of bis death, Tracy was developing a high school version ofDos Mundos. Soonafter its debut as a foreign language teaching method, The Natural Approacb was used in ESL and EFL classes around tbe world. In the United States, many public school systems, inc1uding those in Los Angeles,El Paso, and San Diego adopted the Natural Approach for ESL. Tracy was a major contributor to the California Tbeoretical Framework in Bilingual Education, and in January, 1990, the California

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Traey D. Terrell 1943·1991 Bilingual Association bonored Tracy for bis contributions to the language education of language minority students, Tracy was, oC course, the most enthusiastic supporter ofbis method, and was also its best critic, He was a pbenomenal presenter, and bis lectures and demonstrations brought the Natural Approach 10 many school districts and colleges, He was also constantly refining the method, and examining its linguistic and affective impact on students, Tracy bad, of course, known that be had AIDS for several years before his death, He nevertheless continued to devore himSelfto bis work. He extended bis textbook series, and wrote several outstanding scbolarly papers in the last few years of his lífe, inc1uding a study of affective reactions of students to the Natural

~

Approacb (Koch & Terrell, in Horowitz & Young's volume on language aoxiety, "The Role of Grammar Instructíon in a Cornmunicative Approach" (M[J, 1991), and a paper presented at bis last public appearanee at a major conference, "Foreigner talk as eompre~ hensible input" (Georgetown Universiry Roundtable,1rl 1990). He also continued te devore himself to his friends.

,.. '\ 1

Tracy Terrell's work has greatly facilitated language acquisition for foreign language and second language students around the world, and will continue to affect . the lives of students and language educaron for ycars to come. He has earned an honored place in tbe history of foreign and second laoguage pedagogy. Friends wisbing to send lo Memoriam contributions are requested to send them in Tracy Terrell's name to AIDS Services oC Austin; PO Box 78765-4874; Austin, TX 78765. Goodbye my friendo Thank you for your enthusiasm, your honesty, and your good humor. Written by Srephen Krashen, Departmen: of Foreign Languages, Univemry of Southem California.

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Celeste Grimau •.• thanks

ARTESOL and Prent:ca Hall

What iI wonderful exper i4Pnte it ••••• to aUe.nd the Sth. ARTESOL ConvenUQn ! Fortunately it. did not finish on the 5th. of October beca"".. W'len 1 calMf btlck ioE} C,dafate, 1 started sharing Convtmt1on liucperiencl'. "i.thll\y colleagt.,tn and students. Thus _ h"d the chanee to put into practice what 1 learned during the ARTE SOL prHentattons.They ..,.re all It)(t.remely uuful.

"'y

1 ""nt to thilnkPrentl.;:1' Hall R~~. for the travel grilnt which lItildft i t possib 1. far M to go,downto Buenos Aird andattend the Convention. Events ·ofthis ktnd help prolllOte und.rstandinq through the sharlng of ideas aOO eJ(pirrhfnce. átllOngEFLprofHsionals .• 1 a1<l0 ••ant.tothank tha ARTESOL. NltWliletier for publhhi!"lg ih.arUcie 1 "rot.. .¡LIIEUAL ~ BIQJ..~. It tila' very chaU.nging to be abi. t'? eX¡:Jra•• the.l<feas., . needsJ ffteqf\9_ and el(pIPctaUons 01 pllOpl. ""o 'l1ve 3,000 kll\fro. ~he Capi,tal. BUlde. r a. extremely happy bectlua. I have recetved. . ver.,. lntvrnting' feedback on my article fro~ t.achara all over the country. They a11 141.,. they ""ni to hilve pen-frlencts fra. S41nh Cruz, therefarl! r •• i'fOrklno .to help build t,lp 4 stude"~ anct/or teacher ntnwork. 1 a. elCcitttd: atal1the po•• ibi 1i ti •• that opened up thIP MOHnt 1 d.4il'cided1;0 !K1arell!V •• parl.nces wHh .'1 ARTEBOL ftiends. ",

Thank 'you Prentice

Hal1',Regentlil

:.'.

,,"

Th&ntt yo" ART~SDL I

~

Diag. Pte. Roque Séenz Peña 893 7(JP, OJ. T (1035)Buenos Aires

Oxford American English

Te~hone:326-4306 OPEN SESAME Engllsn as a 5ealnd Language Series

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ELEMENTAAY Jane Zion Brauer

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Grover's Orange 8001<, the newest addition to Opon seseme,

fills

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missing stage between Big Bird's Yellow 8001< and Cooki« Monster's Blue 800k, forming a soliQ basis for an introduction to printed words,,<"

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Op6Í\

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Exclusive díetributors: Acme Agency, Suipacha 245 32 P (1008) Buenos Aires, Tel: 46-1508/1662 Librería Rodri ez Sarmiento 835 1041 Buenos Aires Tel: 326-37 53927382


Want d Have you written, or are you in the proceee of wrltina a book review, a project, a report on your TBFL experiencee or a reeearch paper which you wou1d 1ice to ehare with 800 ARTBSOLere? If eo, pleaee eend it in ae soon as poeeib1e tor pub1ication in the Sprina ieeue of the ARTBSOL Newsletter. !be Ootober Annual ARTBSOL Convention wi11 be the perfeot occaeion to aet your colleaauee' feedback on your work. Haximum number of words: 250 Deadline: September 10,1992 Send to: ARTBSOL Newsletter HaiP'l872 (1008) Buenos Airee Araentina

Designing Our World

, Program Chair: Mary Lou McCloskey Florida Atlantic University Associate Chair: Bill Powell The University of Southem Mississippi

Assistant Program Chair: Beverly Benson DeKalb College Local Co-chairs: Ruth Hough Georgia State University Liz Rieken Gwinnett County 5chools

Tuesday, April 13;路toSaturday, April 17, 1993 Atlanta, Georgia, l!.S.A.


ARTESOL

th~nks a11 the ART~SOL

Convention

presenters

The fifth Al'"gentina TESOL Convention was held on Octobel'" 4-5 1991~ at {he Instituto Cultural Al'"gentino Horteamel'"icano. Pal'"ticipants attended three plenal'"ies,and had the opportunity to choose froID among 4 concul'"rent sessions en the first day and 3 on the seeond day. These pl'"esentations offered a wide variety 01 tapies of intel'"est to TESOL professionals:The Lincoln Centel'"Library and the EFL Teacher.Salom~ Hernandez Lincoln Centel'"Director; Teaching English: The Hon-School subject~ and What's new in teaching materials to help teehers develop-thinking skills~ Samuel Fernández Saavedra~ Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educacion~ Santiago de Chile;Investigative language aequisition, Michael Walker Addison Wesley; Having fun with video~ Cecilia Interlicchia, and Maria Lucrecia Carruthers, VIP Institute; Co_ies only for fun?, Marta de Macias and Eva Cssaks, Instituto de Intercambio Cultural Argentino Norteamel'"icano~ Córdoba; Laugh and Learn, Carmen Tortal'"olo, Asociación Argentina de Cultura Inglesa; Creative Learning: A different approach 01'" just self-awareness~ Beatriz Dominguez, Asociación Argentina de Cultura Inglesa; They are playing our song ••• in the EFL classroom~ Omar Villareal~ Instituto Superior del Profesorado Técnico; How to mal<-.ethe most of commercials and ads~ Graciela Guzmán~ Eva Debat~ Instituto de Intercambio Cultural Argentino Norteamericano, CÓrdoba. Big Hool'"raytor all presenters Thank you Addison Wesley Walker's presentation.

~

I I

for

giving

Very special thanks to: ACME~ Edici~l, Estari, Kel, Longman~ generous contribution to the 5th ARTESOl

us the Oppol'"tunity ot having Michael

Pardo~ OUP~ Convention.

TESOLgrants and awards TESOl-~ponsored

grants and awards

are rnade pos-ible by the generous

Marckwardt ~ Aften

can be made when pay-

ing annual membership dues, when regístering for a TESOl

.~rymes

convention.

or at any other time. In addition, all

we

proceeds from the Awards Raffle as

\-.11 as a portion of proceeds from the

GJGAF

Fun Run at the TESOl

fol' theil'"

~

The TESOL Awards Ccmmitree provides [he following information about awards and grants available in 1992-1993.

Guidelines:

support from our members. Contributions

Roddguez

convention

Anocchiaro

l. Awards are for TESOL TESOl

and Service).

Nonmembers

by applying award.

for mernbership

2. Recipierus

.•

Affiliate Travel

of a TESOl

wishing to apply may do so when they apply for an

award or grant are not ehgible

01

grants . for the USIA Trave1 Grants are nOI eligible

3. Applicarus

for the Albert H. Marckwardt

made dunng the fiscal year 1991 ('iovember l. 1990 throug October

4_ Supponing

n, 1991)

only (except for the

for the same award twice but may be eligible for other

awards

are deposited into the award accounts. Tbe chart indicates contriburions

rnembers

VIrginia French Allen AWJrd for Scholarship

Travel Grants.

Jeuers of reference must be sealed by !he

writer and signed across the sealed flap.These

Awards Contributions

5. Applications

kuers

!he application.

must aceompany

thallad

any required

do not follow page-length

documentation

specifications

or

wilJ 001 be

eonsidered.

An overview ofTESOL Grants and Awards .

6. Applications

The Ruth Crymes Fellowships The A!ben H, Marckwardt The mOl

longman

to TESQL

300. Alexandria,

SIl:nvncr Institute

Travel Grants

Roben

The TESOL RegmulPrenli.ce

BE RECElVED 1992.

Maple Grant Hall Fellowship

for Gntdualt

Stlldy

The mOL R.esean:l\ ll\t~rt$I SectionJNewbury Newbury House DislinguW!ed Research Award The United States !nfonnalion

Agency TI1I"t"

TESOl of Pedagogical Marerials

House Dí.Cío¡.ui,hed

in Teaching

The James E. Alatis Award roe Servíce The TESOL Presidems'

¡\ward

Award for Scbolarship

ON OR BEFORE

Longman

Publishing

the funding

15.

uppon of the

Groups, Newbury HOIl5e and tbe United

Agency. Awards are also supported by

member eonrributions to the Ruth Cryrnes Memorial Fund. the Albert H, Marckwardr Fund, the Mary Finocchiaro Fund.lhe

Virginia French AUen Fund, and Ibe General

Awards Fund (GAF). and Service

Mt:ST

NOVEMBER

(a división of Heio1e 11<Heinle Publishers), Regents/Prentice Hall Publíshing Company. States Information

Grants

The TESOL Newbury Hoose Award fcr E"eellence VIrginia FrenchNlen

Interest Sectíon/: .

Noainatian

The mOl

Research

USA.

ANo NOMINATIONS

gratefutly acknow1edges

following:

are sent in the name of

lnc., 1600 Cameron Street, Suite

VA 22314-2751

7. ALL APPLlCATlONS

The Mary F'mocdúato AwanI for Excellence in tb< Developmeru

3

and norninations

the award lo TESOL.

Appli<atio~

Contnburions

ing annual membership TESOl

convention,

eontributions.

can be made when pay-

dues, when regisrering

for a

or al any other time. WithOllt member

rnany TESOl

awards would not be possíble.


TESOl International has launched a nelllpublication- lESOl Journal. Each hsue brings applicable ideas and strategies for all learners in diverse settings. "Ask the TJ" is an interactive section of the TESOl Journal ~hich gives members the opportllnity to raise questions for other .embers 01 the lESOl com.unity to tespond. Since lilefeel that this colu.n can contribllte to promoting interaction among EFl professionals, we have decided to start a similar coluen: ~A.k-th. ATN" (ARlESOl Hewsletter). We are including here the "Ask th. TJ" colllmn that appe.r.~ in the Autumn issue 01 the lESOl Journal~ ~. era also incllldingthe question raised at the end 01 this column because we think it focuses on an i.portant issue in the Argentine EFL teaching setting as well as in the internatiQnal one. We hope that many ARTESOL members wl11 submit answers for publication in our next issue. '

Aak the TJ QUESTION: What is content-area cngusn as a second language (ESL) instruction? How is it different from traditional, structure-based instruction? RESPONSE: Some teachers of English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) have little djfficulty achieving a sense of cohesion and progress as they lead their students to the promised land of English language mastery, but wandering through the wildemess can take íts toll. Many ESOL instructors no longer believe that jf the rule for third person singular conjugation is taught on Tuesday, the students wiIJ use it correctly from Wednesday onward. In fact, experience dictates otherwise. Educators can no longer deceive thernselves into believing that a curriculum based on mastering grammatical components represents progressive leaming. ESOL taught through a content-area curriculum, on the other hand, is a naturally effective vehicIe to English language fluency. Research in language acquisition suggests that language is Iike a river. It flows over, around, and, not infrequentIy, back on itself. The process occurs when interaction and communieation are meaningful and rich with contextual c1ues, when stress is low and repetition is high. A content-area currieulum lends focus and direction to language ínstruction. It imparts a sense of progression of topics, a chronology. Something has come before, is connected to what we are studying now, and prepares us for what comes next. Imagine a social studies ESOL c1ass. The students are leaming American history and beginning level English. They are told to bring in newspapers and library books on the American Revolution. Students first identify the many parts ora newspaper and, after a Iist is generated, cut out iterns from their newspapers to serve as examples for each item on the list. Then, in groups, they write their own newspapers. But the students must write as if they were joumalists in 1776, so they use their library books to conduct research. In the process, the teacher shows the students how to use an index, how to write a proper bibliography, take notes, write

drafts, edít, and prepare the fmal copy. Some of the many language functions students leam in thls dass include reading and writing, developing vocabulary, conducting research, sununarizing, and even changing past tense verbs into present tense (as they write from the perspective of joumalists from 1776). Infonnation on what preceded and followed the American Revolution tíes the lessons together, and students develop a sense of progression. They pradice verb tenses, reading, writing, and SO00, but they also master real knowledge through the unít on the American Revolution. The content area, Iike a story line, establishes rich linguistic and knowledge context because it acknowledges what comes befóre and what follows. Contrast this approach with a traditional beglnning level ESOL class, Students may also study the parts of a newspaper. They can read articIes, discuss thern, and write 00their own. But once they are finished with their newspaper work, it may be a challenge to eonnect their next lesson lo the newspaper lesson. Language as its own curriculum tends to be choppy and nondirectional. ' . Teaching ESOL through content areas has other advantages. Most iimited-English-profic1ent students are at a disadvantage with regard to credits eamed toward graduation. Credits are often lost when students emigrate. Furthermore, until intermediate fluency is achieved, ESOL students may fmd it impossible to score a passing standard in a mainstream content-area course. Thus the students fal! even farther behind their native-English- . speaking peers, Many school districts are recognizing the advantages of developing ESOL through content areas, as students can eam credit while they are leaming Englísh, lessening the knowledge gap between ESOL students and their contemporaries. Naturally, the staffing of such classroorns requires professionals who have' a deep interest in the content areas they wiU teach along with ESOL. There is also the issue of preparing materials and making adaptations in the curricula. If students are to be given credit for American history as taught with ESOL, for example, the curriculum must adequately

cover those points considered essential by state departments of education. At the same time, the curriculum must be adapted to sup port and maximize language development This is indeed a challenge, but there are sev· eral commercially available texts. In addítion teacher-adapted curricula and materials are now being produced in school districts. In short, a content-based currieulum allows for English language leaming without sacrificing the leaming of vital areas of the . academie curriculum. For those of us involved in ESOL instruction, it provides the altemative to wandering through an uncharted wildemess. joel Bloom ¡ool Bloom teacbes Buropean history and intermediate level ESOl at tbe lntensíve Bnglisb Language Center of Monroe 2-0rleans Boces, Spencerpon, New York. He is also a teacber resource specialiu.

A Question to You, the Readers of the TESOLJournal Dear 1],

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I have frequently been told that it is important for students to interact with one another in my c1assroom. But when I try to get my students to ínteract, they make numerous errors and seem to forget every. thing we have studied in c1ass. I am very concemed that they will begin to pick up each other's errors. Does it really make sense for me to continue to have them interact in unstructured activities?

I1 you 1II0uldlike to respond to

this question~ send in a short response (under 200 words). We will publish several 01 your responses in an upcoming issue. All questions and responses shoul~ be sent to: ~abel Gallo Editor,Ask the ATN ARTESOl Newsletter ICANA~ "aip~ 672 1006- Buenos Aires Argentina

( FromT--' JournaI AutWllft 1991)


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LI·BRERIA

·.RODRIGUE~ HEAD OFFlCE

,1 by lsame

FaIc (54-1) ~

110 sup-

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re sevldition, 5 are

the :hart· 5

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SarmIento 835 Rortda sn 1041 Buenol Alr81 1005 Buenoa Are. Tel. ~725/3826/3927/19fR Tal: 326-499214993 TElEX Z!087 ElERRE AA

LITERATURE METHODOLOGY PHONETICS TEXT BOOKS' DICTIONARIES ENCYCLOPEDIAS c':

APPLV FOR ~ . to ort r

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Thc thematic approach can be defined as appllcation of "a methodology and Ianguage from more than one discipline in examimng a central theme ... (jacobs, 1990, p. 8). An example from our second-grade currículum guide is the theme of WJ!3tbef.,Wea!he~ can be studied from me point of view oC soence (fonnation of clouds), social studíes (rain or lack of rain's effect on crops), health (effects of weather on well-being), art (graphíc depiction of weather concepts in a mural), music (weather songs and sounds), and language arts (poetry about rain). Wc decided to make the themes 1 week long for kindergarten and flrst grade and In me second, third, and fourth grades to extend thern to 2 and 3 weeks. The themcs we chose were basically broad concepts that would have becn studied in the context of one of the disciplines but that in reaJity were muhidimensional. Each therne was devcloped to include all appropriate subject áreas, Students studied the seasons in kindergarten, the concept of living and nonliving in flrst grade, the ocean in second grade, and dinosaurs and fossils in third grade. We' decided in fourth, fifth, and síxth grades to combine only two or three disciplines instead of all of memo Language arts, music, and art are studied in conjunction with me social studies theme of Asia, for example; and health and rnath are integrated lnto a thematic unit on heredity. These units are 6 wceks long and two units are studied at the sarne time, a half day each.1 , The results have been drarnatic. No longer do studeríts forget what thcy are studying. For example, kíndergarteners who study giants in tnythology for a whole week become experts on the subject. No longer is the number of papers turned in the goal. Students in first grade voluntarily take their books on farm anímals home to read to their familíes because the object is to be able to . read! No\V only about 8% of our bilingual students faíl first grade, and they are usually new arrivals duríng the year, not products of our year-Iong programo .,. Research on how the brain works gíves )JS ;nsight into why thematic units facilitate < • leaming. 11)' an article on a braln-based approach tp leaming and teachíng, O'Keefe and Nadel state: The search for meaning (making sense of our experiences) is survival-oriented and basic to the human brain. The brain needs and automatically registers the familiar while simultaneously searching rOl' and responding to novel stimuli. (Cited in Caíne & Caine, 1990, p. 67.) The authors conclude that the leaming environmcnt rnustprovíde stability and famil, iarity yet "satlsfy the brain's enonnous curíosity and hunger for novelty, discovery and challenge" (p. 67). Because students learning through thematic unilS become quite familiar

with the general conlext, new lnfonnatlon ~ easy to introduce. rtHfelatel directly to the familiar, making it more meaningful. In addition, the brain seems to search for meaníng through pauerníng, "The brain resists having meaningless pattems imposed upon it

. , . When me brain's natural capacity to integra te infonnation is acknowledge~ ~ ínvoked in teaching, vast amounts of initial unrelated informatíon and activities can be prcsented and assimilated" (<:,aine& caine,. . 1990, p. 67). By organizing material thernatícally for the students, we create a powerful integrated learning environment where students have little problem assimilating new information. Language leaming is also facilitated beca use theme-related language and vocabulary are used and reused in new contexts, all of which are meaningfully related.

Creating Theniatlc Units Planning is important in utilizing thematic units lo avoid what Hirsh calls a "potpourrí problem" - a unit being only·a sampling of knowledge from each discipline" (dted in jacoos, 1990, p. 2), Dav.id B,i;t\ckerman , (990) propases four critería to use as guidelines for adopting a thematic approach. 1. ".. , verify that the conceplS Identífied are not merely related to the subjects but are important to them" (p. 27). 2. Verify mal the thematic approach "actually enhances the learníng of discipline-based concepts" (p. 27). 3, Verify that the unit has "the power to develop a sensibility incorporating and transcending those of the component subjects" (p. 29). 4, Verify that the unit will develop "desirable intellectual dispositions" (p. 30), The particular details of the lesson plan t¿ be inc1uded in the guide depend on the needs of me teachers of that grade leve!. For kindergarten and first-grade uníts, we ftnd that a general framework is sufficient. In the remainder of the grades, the teachers have requested more detaíled guldes describing t how to use suggested materials and strategies to develop the concepts and skílls in each subject arca, As much as possíble, the teachers of the target grade level participate in the writing of the curriculum documento The procedure we followed ls descríbed below, i: "SelectÍon ofthem~. We make lists of possible themes by poring over the statemandated curriculum, textbooks, and prevíous curriculum guides, and choose only those thernes we deem most worthy according to the critería described above. For exam pie, at one leve! dirJOSQurs was one topie suggested. With reference to the above critería, we found this toplc to be limíted in the arca of enhancing the learning of disciplinebased concepts. Wc then ¡¡ddedfossil5 to the unit, and together they formed a very complete integrated theme. \ 2. Identi8aldon of the most fmportant content afta concepts. It's impossible to teach everything about a topic. To choose the critical concepts of a theme, we brainstorm , ideas, discuss them, and add and eliminate . r topies.,)Vt theQ ,dtvi~,¡~cQ. ~qosen concept ~ ,. ' .. '\ . into súotopiCs. "We'follow thé same procedure for each thematk unir we write. For example, we asked ourselves, if we were to study

dinosaurs, which concepts would be absolu ly critica!? We decided that their place in e lution, their characteristies, thelr habitats, an theír extirK.tion were important concepts, bU -that most important were both the scientific methods used to discover and study them al me application of those methods to learn about other extinct (and nonextinct) spedes ~~We decided that.fl1Cmorization of me narnes of the dinosaurs did little to enhance the developmcnt of the important concepts, although children could do that jf they want· ed to (and díd). We develop subtopics for each of the main concepts and evaluate thes subtopics according tojhe same procedure we use for the maín topies. 3. ldentiflcation of the sJillls to be empbaslzed. The development of skiUscall for a different proceduk. We write objective by content, grade level, and English languag proficiency. For each grade level we develo] language skill objectives for beginners, íntermediates, and advanced leamers, in oral language, speaking, readíng, and writing. Because this task was gigan~ for a small dis trict such as ours, we worked off the bilingual immersion (BIP) currículum guides developed by me El Paso Independent School District Theír bilingual department had spent considerable ~ffort in developing language arts objectives·for second language learners based upon tht! state-mandated essential elements. By incorporating content, basic skills, and language arts objectives .Into our thematic uníts, we gíve a defuútivt scope and sequence to our curriculúm. At lhis poinl in the development oC the currículum guídes, we have a hierarchy of concepts related to a theme and lists of objectíves lo be taught and winforced throughout theyear, .,

.

4. Ident1fication of sttategies. Strategies must be appropriate. My:district had a lockstep skill-based reading program and a texto dependent curriculum. Again we asked for assistance from the El Paso Independent School District. The philosophícal basis of the BIP program was Whole'tanguage and we needed training. One of thelr master teachers trained a core group of our teachers. This group then identified the leaming strategies we wanted to use and wiote (or borrowed) descriptions for each one so they could be incorporated into the lessons, Of course, all the teachcrs needed in-service training in both the Whole Languag Approach and me teaching of themes. .'

Tbe units are uersatüe. Individual teafhers can create tbem toL teacb a . speciftc tbemé, or a district can tdke on a large

,

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operation.


le-

5. Gatherfng of materiab. Al thís poínt wc determinewhich discipline and what rnateriI~ best teach each concepto We review the lvailabletextbooks and supplementary materialsas well as books and audíovisual materilisin the school library to locate materials supporting the teaching of the concepts we have dellncated, Decause we found no materialsavaílable to teach some of tbe critical concepts,ccrtain materials had to be purthasedor developed. We brought die results togctheron a chart that lists the days across !he top and the disciplines on the left side. Because purchasing thematic support materialsfor each teacher was 100 costly, we assemblcda resource box for cach thematíe unit.The ieachcrs sign up for a tbematic unit ona calendar and receíve the guide, which containsreferences for all available materials, andthe resource box when no other tcacher ~using it. Thís proccdure is possible because lhe thematic units do not have to be •••• in anyspecíñc order. The librarian coodlllfes Ihe materials exchange process rOl' us. As an exarnple, a third-grade tcacher reservingthe dinosaur-fossil tbematic unit Ior Ihe farst 2 wecks in Octobcr receives the urce box, which includes the curriculum uide, filmstrips, rnodels, posters, stories with tapes,rcsource information for the teacher, plaster of parís, and garnes. The tcacher reads Ihe guide, looks over the resources, fmds referencesto the basals and state-adopted textbooks,which are locatcd in th~ c1~room, checks out suggested library books, and then plans the unit to fit the needs of the students. Generally flrst-tíme teachers follow the gulde dosely and improve on it in theír own way in sebsequent uses. Incorporating the concept of a resource box has been our most critical step toward success. Kindergarten and fírst-grade teachers already have access lo most of the materials, but the teachers of the second and third grades have more difficulty findlng related materialsbecause of the large quantity and varietyof rcsources nceded to develop the themesadequatcly. With a resource box and a detailed currículum guide, everyone has ual access to materials. For the kindergarten and first-grade teachers,our work ends here. Each thematic frameworkthey receive includes a dcscription of theteaching strategies, a Iist of the objectives, a Iistof suggested themes and the rnateríals available al their campus for each theme, and a sample lcsson plan. Teachers make their owndaily lesson plans, The remaining grade levelsrequire an additional step. 6. Writlng of modellesson plans. Because the expanded length and variety of materíalsincrease the complexity of lesson planning for each subject arca within a thematic topic in the second through sixth grades, we decided to help thc fírst-time teacher by writing model lesson plans that incorporate al! the elernents (important concepts, skills, materials, teaching strategíes and cvaluatíon),

Jacobs (1990) recommends fol!owing a model of cognition likc 8100m's Taxonomy. Wc follow the lesson-cycle model in writing a suggcsted daily lesson plan and encourage the currículum dcsigners to íncorporate

Week One: Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Tbursday

Frlda,

bUva Langvag.

Inlroduction lo Dinosaurs

·Oinosaur Vocabulary

Dinosaur LEA

How Dinosaurs Died

Fossil Hunl

Engllsh I.Jnguage

FlowChart gigging up Dinosaurs

Dinosaur Vocabulary

Dinosaur Slory

FossR HunlilYil

Social Sludles

Oigging up Oinosaurs

Fossils and Minerals

Sel.ne.

WayFossils Made

paleontology

lne in Prehisloric Times Mineralsl . Products

Four Great Eras Four Great Eras

Making Imprints

•• sic

Geolagical Time Mural Dinosaur

Rap

strategies assoaated with Whole Language and :r variety of groupíng pattems into the lessons they write. The detailed modellesson plan uses the formal whíeh follows. One of these pages is filled out for each day and each discipline. This model includes more learning activities than can be accomplished in the time allotted; thus, the thernatic unit can easily be extended if the students and teachers so desire. THEME:

DAY: DISCIPUNE:, TEACHING OBJECTlVE: MATERIALS: STUDENT EXPECTATlONS: PRESENTATlON: GUlDED PRACTICE:. INDEPENDENT PRACTlCE: RETEACHING: ENRICHMENT:. ASSESSMENT:

_

_

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

Remember thar the thematic units were deveIoped over a period of 5 years by many people. The units are versatile. Individual teachers can crea te them to teach a specific 'theme, or a district can take on a large operation such as the one descríbed here. In either case, the procedure is the same. The teachers I work with enjoy using thematic units, but more importantly, students are excited about school and are never bored. The teachers are impressed with the length of time students remember concepts and with how easy it is to teach vocabulary. Parents know what their children are leaming bec~use they talk at home about what they do 10 school, Caine and Caine (1990) state that "emotions are critícal to patteming .... Teachers must understand that students' feellngs and attiludes wíll be involved in leaming and will determine future leaming" (p. 67). :

1:1

Geological Time Mural

Dinosaur

Rap

~cw:

Dinosaur Eggs Going on a DiO

Golng on a Dig Preparations

Heallh

Art

lnein ' Prehistoric Times Form,lion Fossils

.\ ne atmosphere in a thematically based classroom is positivc and fun when studcnts are involved. "When líteracy skills are developed in an integrated fashion through themed units and literacy activitics serving a realistic function, then children see a reason and purpose for becoming literate" (Strickland & Morrow, 1990, p. 604). Thematic units glve our students íntensíve, in-depth experience and expqsure to a tremendous amount of rneaningful Ianguage and a context 'in which to understand difficult concepts.

. References Ackerman, D. B. (1990). Jntellectualz .d practical críteria for successful curriculumintegration. In H. H. Jacobs (Ed.), InJerdlsclplillary cutriculum: destgn and implemell/alion (pp. 2537). Alexandria, VA:Associationfor Supervision & Curriculum Development. Caine, R. N., & G. Caine (1990). Understanding a brain-based approach to leamingand teaching. Bducational Leadership, 48,66-70. Holdaway, D. (1979). 'Ibe foundauons o/ literacy. Sydney: Ashton, Scholastic. Jacobs, H. H. (1990). The growing need for interdisciplinary curriculum contentoIn H. H. Jacobs (Ed.), Iruerdtsciplmary curriculum: destgn and implemenuuion (pp.I-lf). Alexandria, VA:Association for Supervision& Curriculum Development. Strickland, D. S., & L. M. Morrow (1990). ;nlegrating the emergent literacy curriculum with themes. Tbe Reading Teacher, 43, 604.(¡()5. Marge C. Gianelli bas been tbe Director o/ Bi/ingual Bducation al Canutillo IndependenJ Scbool Distria, a small district nortb 01El Paso, Texas, since 1985. She bas worked as a Spantsb and ESL teacber and as consultant and director 01 Title VII programs.

( Jl'roaa T.oI1ow •••• .••••••••••1•• 1)


CALL FOR PARTICIPATION Due D••te:

August

ARGENTINA TESOl i5 ~n Argentina organization with bro~d interests. The eonyantion is pl.nned for pro1essional dayelopmant and provides opportunities for social inhr.ction alllon9 eo11aaguas who .hara eo••on interests. Tha progr.. eo•• ittee invites presantation. de~ling with classroom practi eas, r.aeareh in language 1.arn ing and te~ching, 01" the connection between the two. We weleoae proposal. frolllt•.1ehers, teaehers in preparation, gr~du~te students, rasearcher., progr~. ~d.inistrator. and .~teriah ~nd curr culue davalopers, ineluding eol1e.19ues in related disciplines sueh as eom.unic~tion, aduc~tion, lingui.tics, forai9n l~nguages, anthropology, 50ciology ~nd psychology.

31,

1992

TESOL. Id.dly, participanb .xehanga papers in .dvanc. and •• ka for •• l responsel to .&ch other' s presentationl. In any •••• both presenhtion .nd di.cu••ion. Ihould be par t 01 th. 1••l1an. Ab.tracb and proposah shouldinelud. a d.lcripUon of the topiefor tha colloquiu. and the sallle nal•• nd affilbtion of each of the inv1t.d puUdpanh. All colloquia 11I111 b opttn to non participatinQob••rv 's. T.o hours P,.. •• nt.r'. R•• ponSUliUU.I. To wri te your propald foUow th.1:o8 stylilUe Quid.Un.. and inelude. 1) tittle, 2) a biotr.phicd .bte •• nt, and 3) .n abltract. TiUe. Choosa & titi. th.t \IIi 11 be char to the inten'.d .udi.nce, and li.it it to ••• xillUll of nin. II/ords. Capitdiz. only th. flrst word, proper noua., and initid., do not put the Kinds of present!tion•• titIe in quotation aarks. Exallple: D••an.tr.tian: R~ther than rtusic and aDV nt for kindergart.n da.cribing 01" discussing, a and the pril.ryor.d.s. deaonstration shows a technique for * eio9raphicalstat ti In • /Auillu" teaching 01" testing. Nor.ally the of 25 wordl, Viv. your fir.t na.e, presenter's .tatelllent01 the theory underlying the technique takes no 1II0re fa.lly n'N, in,U tutiond aff11 ia Uon and r.l.v&nt acUy! tia. 01" than five Minutes. The rest of the publicAtions.D89r.a•• 1'"not nor.al1y tiae i. used for showlng, rather than li. ted, &nd U U•• luch.s professor telling. The abstraet should inelude a u. not c.pit.liz.d. Yau can gener.Uy brief It.t•••nt of the presenter's olit ·curr.ntly·. E••• pl•• central purpose and. dalcription of Jane Do., a .p.ci.lilt in curriculua what will be demonstr~ted (e.g. role dewlopa.nt .nd eoaposi tion, t•• che. playing) and how it wil1 be done (e.g. ESL in Hou.ton public Junior hiOh so.e of the audienc. participating as IChools. (Not curr.ot1y telch •• ) (17 Itudents 01"an unrehearsed leslon with actual students). One hour. words) • Abstraetl e.u lo .ind th.t the Work.hop. In a workshop, ona 01"aore abstriCt h ttt. 1irlt part 01 th. leaders work with a group, helping propon1 th.t th. r.fer.es .ee. theM either to solv. a proble. 01" to e.CAuse •• h.y. fooftd that brevity d.yelop a specific teaching or h.lpl peopl. \0 cry.tallize th.ir research technique. There is very id.~., •• .Ik that your Ab6tracts be little lecturing by the leader(s), the eftlphasis is, rather, on the lilited to 250 wordl. participant's activity which i5 All propOIals .ult arriv. at ARGENTINA carefully structured by the leader(s). TESOL, "aip~ 672 (1006), Bueno. Aires, The abstraet should include a ,tat•••nt of the \IIork.hop's goal, el Arventin. by ~u9ust 31, 1992. lu•••ry of th. thaor.tical fra••work. and • pr.ci•• '•• cription of the task~ PIIRTlCI'ATE! to be p.rfor••d during the work.hop. A TESOL.r. W~T ~HD HEED Two hour•• TO KNOW A80UT YOUR WORK! • Colloquiu.. A colloquiu. provides a foru. for a group of seholars to discus. current pedagogieal, politieal, ! or research issues in

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ARGENTINA rESOL '92 PROPOSAL FORM -complete the ARTESOL'92 ProposaJ Form. ThIs form must be typed. If you need addltlona' space, attach a ainge aheet of whlte bond paper.

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PARAGUAY TESOL's BINATIOMAL CENTER (CCPA)- AVENIDA ESPANA 3'2 - ASUNCION SEPTEPlBER

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Inaugura sus

nuevas oficinas de venta en Echeverría 4742 C.P. 1431 Tel.: 802-4021

Iq Argentina Au«ust t O-t 3, t 992

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ARGBNTlNA TBSOL ie a non-proflt or¡an1zation whoee purpoee le d1eeeminate infor.atlon and r8eearch ln the Teachinl of In¡lieh to Speak.ersof Other Lan¡uage8. ARGBNTINA TBSOL works for ever 1ncreaein¡ quality and profess1onaI1sm in cla8sroom practicee, in reeearch, in mater1aIs development, in profeeslonal preparatlon, and in profe8eional standarde in the workplace. ARGBNTINA TBSOL ,~_promotee profeeelonalism in the teachina learning - reeearch of KnsIleh to Speakere of Other Lansuases'. WHY roo SHOULD JOIN ARGBNTlNA T8S01•. ARGENTINA TlSOL works along wlth TISOL Internationa1, wh1ch 18 the moet r8epected profee8ional organizat1on in this fleld. .,' M a member you will 8hare'ARGINTINA TBSOL'e (ARTESOL) active work towards excellence. You will a180 ehare ARTISOL'e primar'ypurpo8e: TO KNHANCK 'nfI QUALITY OF PROnSSIONAL WORK IN BNGLISH LANGUAGI LBARNING, TKACHING ANO RlSKARCH AROUND THB i«>RLD. .

ARTISOL'8 INCWDI:

MlHBIRS}~IP

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-Qne Year Subecription to ARGENTINA TBSOL neweletter. Thle le publ1ehed twice ayear and containe newe from TBSOL Quarterly. TESOL NeweIetter'8 INtere8t Sections and topice of aeneral and practical 1ntereet from outslde world. ARTBSOL sponeors an Annual Convent1on which providee a network of affiliation and communicatlon, a forum for debate and an opportunity for. the exchanae of ideae and experiencee to further professional develoi88nt.l•'

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