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REGENERATION OF THE MILITARY FACILITIES HERITAGE BUILT DURING COMMUNISM PERIOD CASE STUDY: CAPE OF RODON, LLOGARA, CORUM.


WORKED BY : ARNEN SULA SUPERVISED BY : ASSIST. PROF. DR. FRIDA PASHAKO


INTRODUCTION


Objective of this thesis

Planning of provision and programs to guarantee

• Urban regeneration • Environmental protection • Sustainable development o Natural resources o Landscape protection and use o Cultivable land


Objective of this thesis

Planning of provision and programs

• Balance of the needs and interests • Digitalization of 673 military facilities (ArchGis) • Providing a better management • Development in architecture scale


… space is not a “reflection of society”, it is society…. [Castells, et. al. 1983]


Motivation

Identification of problems

Areal photo of military department In Rrogozhina (2007)

Areal photo of military department In Rrogozhina (2015)


Motivation

Identification of problems

• 20 million m² of property • Environmental pollution • Physical and intellectual energy spent by our firsts • Unaesthetic visual vocabulary • Uncountable millions of dollars


Methods used

Qualitative Identification of various problems, literature, online sources, related works , site visits, archive documents, informal conversations. Quantitative Statistical information , analysis of military facilities typologies.


Methods used

Schema of the logistic of the thesis analysis

Data collection

Building the database (with georeference)

Elaboration of the database in country scale

Proposals for further refinement


LITERATURE REVIEW


Historical background

Political influence in building military facilities


Historical background

Expenses made for military purposes/INSTAT YEAR

PERCENTAGE OF MONEY USED

1950

21.9 %

1960

8.3 %

1970

9.6 %

1980

11.8 %

1985

11.4 %

1990

8.1 %


Consulted references Books

Military geography Myslym Pasha •

Analyzes the perspective and factors that affected the formation of military units in a narrow correlation with geography

Studies the relationship of man and its environment and the influence on the strategic decision-making

Honor of the people 1 , For the army of people 2 Enver Hoxha •

Directives and instructions of how the military and its subcategories would work and continue to function properly among them.

Sazan the island of the gods Sulejman Abazi •

Military life, service, way of thinking and functioning, the typologies of Military structures

Ideas on turning the island into a touristic site by using military buildings


Consulted references Books

Armed forces on focus

Tunnel type military facilities

Zaho Golemi

Ministry of Defense

Marks the first methodological and chronological edition of the armed forces

The material sheds light on the military past

Detailed information on the operative structure, its origin of formation, evolution

Built all over the country especially near military units

The construction of tunnels is particularly performed quite different from those of building surface facilities.

Different functioning like; Stalls, bakery, parking, hospitals, deposits, and battery.


Related reference works Bunk ‘art Museum TIRANA • •

Bunk’art is a huge, secretly kept bunker built in case of a nuclear attack The museum bunker is composed of Historical Exhibition areas , Museum Exhibition areas , Art Installation areas and Assembly hall Bunk’Art is the most successful work according to adaptive reuse of military facilities in Albania.

Indoor farming CHICAGO • • • •

90.000 square foot warehouse. This project reuses the abandoned buildings and warehouses as vertical farms. Vertical farms needs 98 % less water and 70 % less fertilizer, 200 % more food for square foot. The environment is similar to racket and tanks parking, oil depots and fire battery tunnels in Albania


Related reference works Book Bunker MASSACHUSETTS

Cold war haritage MATSU

Archival book storage that serves for five different colleges.

500.000 volumes of books.

• •

The revitalization of this site has turned the focus in cultural tourism and serves to promote the identity of the local inhabitants Matsu has now advanced through sustainable future. Economical growth, sustainable development, cultural tourism, promotion of local identity, and preserving the history


Related reference works Bunker like homes SWITZERLAND and UK •

Offers natural insulation

Green roofing keeps the energy consumption minimal.

Sustainable efficient use of materials

Similar to the fire batteries found all over Albania


ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FACILITIES LOCATED IN ALBANIA THEIR CLASSIFICATION


Classification of military facilities

Military Departments (332) Artillery and depot group (85) Battery (77)

Regiments (7) Garrison (1) Battalion (88)

Military Companies (45) Military Division (4)

Camp (1) Brigade (33)


ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FACILITIES LOCATED IN ALBANIA IN RELATION TO NATURAL AND CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT


Natural environment /Water features Military facilities in relation to sea.

• Great economic and geographical importance • 325 km in length 0-1 km - In function of tourism - 2.97 % of overall area 1-5 km - In function of agriculture - 8.5 % of overall area 5-15 km - Sea Museum - 41.9 % of overall area


Natural environment /Water features

Military facilities in relation to sea in Porto Palermo.


Natural environment /Water features

Military facilities in relation lakes and reservoirs.

• 4 Trans-boundary Lakes • 700 Lakes and reservoirs • Durana zone • 500 m buffer • Potential for economic and social activities growth • 54 % of overall area near lakes


Natural environment /Water features Military tunnel in relation To the reservoir of Kashar.


Natural environment /Water features Military facilities in relation rivers of Albania • 11 Main rivers • 152 water streams • 200 m buffer • Development of sports activities and fishing • Facilities for collection and recycling of Waste materials •

1.7 % of overall area


Natural environment /Water features

Military facilities in relation rivers of Albania


Natural environment /Topography Military facilities in relation with field terrain

• Slopes that do not exceed 2-3° , Height of 20 to 30 meters • 200 km length • Most populated and economically good • Sea, riverbed, cultivable soil, high density of population • Orient the further development to Tourism and agriculture •

91.3 % of overall area


Natural environment /Topography Military facilities in relation with Hill terrain

• Slopes that do not exceed 5° , Height of maximum 100 meters • Rifling of relief and contrary slopes create favorable condition for defense • Presence of air raids • Terraced hills • Growing of citrus and olives • 7.5 % of overall area


Natural environment /Topography Military facilities in relation with mountain terrain

• 30 mountaintops that pass the height of 2500 m • Rise directly from sea level to height that redeemable to mountains in Llogara • 9 military departments and 1 battalion • Hiking sport development • 1.16 % of overall area


Natural environment/Cultivable lands Military facilities in relation with Agricultural lands and forests

• Among 2875 ha land 696 are agricultural lands • Fier has 121.6 ha • Collective warehouses, farming facilities


Natural environment/ Natural monuments • 760 natural monuments • 5 km buffer • 79.9 % of the overall area • Info points, museum of fossils and stones with special forms


Cultural environment/ Protected zones Military facilities in relation with Agricultural lands and forests

• 7 National Parks , 4 reservations, 26 reservoirs, 4 protected urban areas • Protected zones occupy 5.9 % of Albanian Territory • Buffer zone 5 km • 60 % of military facilities overall area • Galleries to inform tourists


ANALYSIS OF MILITARY FACILITIES LOCATED IN ALBANIA IN RELATION TO MAN MADE INFRASTRUCTURE


Man made infrastructure/ Vehicular Road • 18,000 km • Tirana and Durres • Buffer zone 300 m • 93 % of military facilities located near


Man made infrastructure/ Urban and rural zone • Territorial division of 2003 • 65 civic centers and 308 municipalities • Urban zones 53.5 % and rural zones 46.5 % of population • Military units located in Urban zones is 18.14 % of overall area • Military units located in Rural zones is 81.85 % of overall area


Man made infrastructure/ Cultural monuments

• 2,400 cultural monuments - 200 cult monuments - 600 ancient medieval monuments • Berat , Gjirokastra ,Korca and Shkodra. • 2 km Buffer zone • 78 % of military facilities • Binding element for historical timeline


CASE STUDY CAPE OF RODON, LLOGARA, CORUM.


Site Selection criteria

• Vehicular road • Western lowlands • Landscape • Overlay of maps to exploit as many as possible


MILITARY DEPARTMENT LOCATED AT CAPE OF RODON


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Evaluation of actual condition

• 100 km roundtrip from Tirana • Seafront of Adriatic Sea • Four Batteries • Two Tunnels • Residential two floor building


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Analysis of strength, weakness, opportunities, threads of Cape of Rodon. Weakness

Strength • • • • • • •

Advantageous geographical position Beautiful shores and landscape Closeness with cultural monuments Tourism Potential in investment Mediterranean climate Military facilities in good physical condition.

• • •

Lack in infrastructure Landslide Two floor military building is not used.

Threads

Opportunities • • • • • •

Create recreational spaces Promote tourism Closeness with cultural monuments Return to a profitable business Diversity of flora and fauna Premise to turn into an ecological tourism

• • •

Degradation of the military facilities Lack in promotion Preservation of natural and cultural heritage


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Architectural intervention

• Construction of pedestrian road (2 km) • Restoration of the military batteries by turning them into multifunctional spaces • Reconstruction of two floor building by turning it into a hostel • Giving function to the mines tunnels - First tunnel may be used to serve to the tents - Second tunnel may be turned in function of sea sports


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Proposals for reuse / 4 military batteries


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon

Proposals for reuse / 4 military batteries/ Meditation center and cinema


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Proposals for reuse / two floor building


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon

Proposals for reuse / Hostel/Ground floor and First floor

Ground floor plan

First floor plan


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Proposals for reuse / Mine depot


Military Department located at Cape of Rodon Proposals for reuse / In function of tents


MILITARY DEPARTMENT LOCATED AT LLOGARA NATIONAL PARK


Military Department located at Llogara national park Evaluation of actual condition • 40 km distance from Vlora city • Important role as touristic destination • Transit bridge for the Jonian sea • Two Tunnels - 4.2 meters high, 10 m long and with a width of 5 m - Connected to each other with hall and several rooms • Two floor high building - 126 square meters each floor


Military Department located at Llogara national park Evaluation of actual condition


Military Department located at Llogara national park Evaluation of actual condition


Military Department located at Llogara national park Analysis of strength, weakness, opportunities, threads of Llogara. Weakness

Strength

• • • • • • •

Advantageous geographical position 925 m above sea level Closeness with vehicular road Highly visited by curious tourists Potential in investment Mountain and fresh air climate Diversity of natural resources

• •

Poor management Lack of internal infrastructure

Threads

Opportunities

• • • • •

Promote tourism Closeness with natural monuments Return to a mirror of south Albania Diversity of flora and fauna Premise to turn into an ecological tourism

• •

Degradation of the military facilities Lack in promotion of villages located to the south


Military Department located at Llogara national park Architectural intervention • Construction of pedestrian road (100 m) • Reconstruction of two floor building by turning by it into a territory museum • Giving function to the tunnels by turning them into parachute jump centers


Military Department located at Llogara national park Proposal for reuse / Two floor building/ Territorial Museum


Military Department located at Llogara national park Proposal for reuse / Two floor building/ Territorial Museum


Military Department located at Llogara national park Proposals for reuse / Territorial museum / Plans

Ground floor plan

First floor plan


Military Department located at Llogara national park Proposal for reuse / Tunnel


Military Department located at Llogara national park Proposal for reuse / Tunnel


ARTILLERY GROUP LOCATED AT CORUM (RROGOZHINE)


Artillery group located at Corum (Rrogozhine) Evaluation of actual condition • 5 km away from the highway of “Durres-Rrogozhine” • 8 km away from the Spille Beach • Three military tunnels with a height of 5 meters, 7 meters width and 30 meters long. • Seven military buildings each of them one floor high • Eight military batteries all connected to each other with tunnels to the back


Artillery group located at Corum (Rrogozhine) Evaluation of actual condition


Artillery group located at Corum (Rrogozhine) Analysis of strength, weakness, opportunities, threads of Corum. Strength • • • •

• • •

The geographical location West lands of Albania Closeness with vehicular road 5km near one of the most frequented highway Transit road to Spille Beach Potential in development Diversity of natural resources ; lakes, productive lands, sea products

Weakness • • • •

Poor management Lack of internal infrastructure Landslide Lack of landfill that collects and promotes the local products.

Opportunities • • •

Promote tourism Closeness with natural resources Usage of the military artillery group in function of agriculture by creating a suitable environment for collecting and distributing of local products. The zone has premises to turn into an agricultural tourism

Threads • •

Degradation of the military facilities Lack in promotion of local products


Artillery group located at Corum (Rrogozhine) Evaluation of actual condition


Artillery group located at Corum (Rrogozhine) Architectural intervention • Military batteries are well thermo-isolated under this circumstances the transformation of them into refrigeration rooms is very suitable. • Construction of inner roads (500 m) • Revitalization of the 1 floor military buildings by giving them new programs like , restaurant, olive factory, and bazaar in coordination with their location. • Revitalization of the military tunnels by turning them into inner vertical farms, places to grow mushrooms and wine canteen.


Military Department located at at Corum (Rrogozhine) Proposals for reuse


Military Department located at at Corum (Rrogozhine) Actual condition VS Proposal for reuse


Military Department located at at Corum (Rrogozhine) Actual condition VS Proposal for reuse


CONCLUSION


THANK YOU !

Profile for Arnen Sula

REGENERATION OF THE MILITARY FACILITIES HERITAGE BUILT DURING COMMUNISM PERIOD  

This thesis examines the past, present and potential future of Albanian military units (built during communism) that are now in list of prop...

REGENERATION OF THE MILITARY FACILITIES HERITAGE BUILT DURING COMMUNISM PERIOD  

This thesis examines the past, present and potential future of Albanian military units (built during communism) that are now in list of prop...

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