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MASTER IN COLLECTIVE HOUSING 2013

arq. rafael medrano

MCH


arq. rafael medrano +52 (55) 54 07 34 04 armedrano@gmail.com master in collective housing escuela tecnica superior de arquitectura de madrid universidad politecnica de madrid, 2013


seminar 01

housing theory

02

seminar 02

energy & sustainability

08

workshop 01

slow madness

16

workshop 02

building depth

34

workshop 03

playground city

42

workshop 04

live as an animal

52

seminar 03

low cost

64

workshop 05

inhabited screens

72

workshop 06

housing: a method

84

seminar 04

construction

92

workshop 07

urban housing conditions

110

seminar 05

residential urbanism

120

seminar 06

business and management administration

124


the projects presented in this book are a compilation of the work done in the master in collective housing that last from juanuary to july 2013, in collaboration with architects from all over the world. the master was organized by workshops and specialties that took place during an intensive week each one, dealing with a different subject always being directly related with housing. the final result is a summary of many approaches for dealing with many different housing matters. the works are presented in the same order as they were done.

01


02


seminar 01 housing theory

specialty director dick van gameren

team members rafael medrano, mexico

objective study the spatial and functional design of a key project that tried to introduce low rise typologies in highrise/high-density projects to develop new standards for housing design. The analytical research was focused on three aspects: - how does the project define urban space ( block form and context) - how is the access system and collective space of the building organised, and how does this define the relation between the exterior and interior. - how is the dwelling itself organised, spatially and functionally? All three aspects are represented in diagrams and three dimensional drawings.

03


harumi apartments by kunio maekawa tokyo, 1958

flat type a

flat type b

there are only two types of dwellings in this building. both typologies have the same program ( dinning room, living room, kitchen, bathroom, wc, bedroom, storage) but with different dimensions. they just change their dimensions in order to generate a corridor that allow inhabitants to acces their dwelling. 04


accesability

main circulation secondary circulation tertiary circulation

connections between main and secondary circulations

connections between secondary and tertiary circulations

05


2 flats type a

windows & sliding doors

flat divisions

distribution

1

building’s structure

6

5 2 4

7 3 7

plan of flat type a 1 2 3 06 4

dinning room kitchen living room bathroom

5 wc 6 bedroom 7 storage


comparisson

tachibana’s lady residence

harumi’s flat type b

fujiwara no toyonari’s mansion

harumi’s flat type a lateral corridor

similarities -parallel composition -lateral corridor -washitsu -flexible space in the washitsu

entrance

washitsu

porch

lateral corridor

07


08


seminar 02 energy & sustainability

specialty director javier garcĂ­a-germĂĄn

assistant alia garcĂ­a-german team members rafael medrano, mexico

objective having a 50x50x50 building located in new york as a starting point, its external shape and orientation had to be modified in order to generate better conditions related to a location analysis. after dealing with the shape, some active systems were added to the building in order to improve its performance. finally, a schematic proposal of a housing unit was developed answering to this climatic conditions. 09


climate

new york altitud : 39.30 m latitud /longitude: 40.78째 north, 73.97째 west

10

annual psychometric chart

annual temperature chart

sun shading chart in winter

sun shading chart in summer

wind rose in winter

wind rose in summer


position, external shape and orientation in relation to climate 1

3

2

5:00 PM 70°

70°

3:00 PM 5:00 PM

12:00 PM 9:00 AM 7:00 AM

winter’s sun azimuth

winter’s sun path

4

7:00 AM

25° 12:00 PM

sun’s angle at winter

5

6

7:00 PM

5:00 AM

prevailing winds in winter

prevailing winds in summer

summer’s sun path

115° 115° 5:00 PM 7:00 AM 80° 80° 3:00 PM 9:00 AM 0° 12:00 PM

70° 12:00 pm

50° 9:00 am / 3:00 pm

25° 7: 00 am/ 5:00 pm

summer’s sun azimuth

south facade

north east facade

resulting shape

11


SOLAR RADIATION + VENTILATION ACTIVE SYSTEMS

HOUSING

BAR

HOUSING

CLUB

HOUSING

CLUB

HOUSING

BAR

schematic section

south facade perspective

hot air’s flow in winter

HOUSING

BAR

HOUSING

CLUB

HOUSING

CLUB

HOUSING

BAR

schematic section

12

south facade perspective

air’s flow in summer


THERMODYNAMIC CONCEPT

courtain wall

green house effect

courtain wall

vertical circulation and heat producers lattice

heat producers and vertical circulation

lattice

vertical circulation and heat producers vertical circulation and heat producers

green house effect

flown elements to generate shadows 13


CASEMENT WINDOWS

LATTICE

COURATIN WALL BEDROOM

KITCHEN/DINING/LIVING

unit floor plan during winter

14

general floor plan

unit floor plan during summer


climatic typology

night club, bars and vertical circulations (heat producers during winter)

housing

15


16


workshop 01 slow madness

workshop director juan herreros

assistant marĂ­a auxiliadora gĂĄlvez

team members jose alberto bethencourt, venezuela antonio g. de los salmones, spain alejandra novoa, colombia rafael medrano, mexico

objectives considering the urban tissue, preservation values of the catalogued buildings and the social richness, the work was done with total freedom to design at a scale that is somewhere in between a building and an urban plan. These conditions generates advanced residential projects that can read the diversity of its users and the demand of the building and housing types excluded by traditional real estate. Facilities, collective programs and public space will be main ingredients of this project, always avoiding typical elements such as: esteriel hybridization, nonsense 3d public spaces, absurd green rooftops or cheap sociological speeches. 17


bar restaurant real state locutorio travel agency drugstore cafeteria food store clothes higienic products bank tobacco hair cut social center toys casino laundry public library-university market [project location]

THE MARKET

THE STREET

18


l e v e l s b u i lt 7 levels 6 levels 5 levels 4 levels 3 levels 2 level ground floor empty plot p u b l i c s pa c e

19


THE MARKET

20

DRUGSTORE

BOOKSTORE

W. C .

HAIR CUT

OFFICE

FOOD

FLORIST

SHOE STORE

CLOTHES SELLING

WINES & BEER

LAUNDRY


THE PROCESS s a n f e r n a n d o ’ s m a r k e t i s g o i n g t h r o u g h a c o n s ta n t t ra n s f o r m at i o n . w h at u s e d t o b e a f i s h s t o r e n o w a day s i s a n a r c h i t e c t u ra l a n d d e s i g n s t u d i o , f o r say i n g o n e e xa m p l e . t h i s p r o j e c t a i m s t o ta k e t h i s g r o u n d f l o o r s i t u at i o n a n d p u t i t i n a v e rt i ca l w ay . g e n e rat i n g d w e l l i n g s w h e r e t h e m o s t p r i vat e s pa c e s fa c e t h e s t r e e t a n d t h e l e s s p r i vat e fa c e s t h e v e rt i c a l c i r c u l at i o n a l l o w i n g t h i s s pa c e s t o b e used as offices, workshops or small stores where people going to the market has to go by. as people goes up through this vertical street they may found some p ublic spaces generated thanks to the substraction of dwellings that af terwards are going to be replaced at the bottom of the building as another type of housing.

MARKET

WORKSHOP GALLERY

MARKET

HOUSING

TOPOGRAPHY

PERMEABILITY

TOPOGRAPHY

H O U S I N G21


0 1

ground floor

first floor

second floor

third floor

fourth floor

22 fifthfloor

sixth floor

5

10

20 mts


seventh floor

eighth floor

ninth floor

tenth floor

eleventh floor

twelfth floor

the units, in both housing types, have a technologic wall that allows the user to deal with the distribution in many ways depending on their needs. at the same time, the units have an extra space facing a more public space. this extra space can be use either for having more housing sqm or for having a small local bussiness such as workshops, small stores, an office, etc.

longitudinal section

23


ground floor

housing type a levels 1-6

24 first

floor


housing type b levels 10-11

ground floor

first floor 25


cross section

26

1 PLACE: THE MARKET

2 PRIVATE ACCESS CORE BOMB 1 X2

3 PUBLIC ACCESS CORE BOMB 2 X2

4 THE MARKET GOES UP KEEP UNDERGROUND FLOOR

5 REDISCOVERING THE TOPOGRAPHY FREE GROUND FLOOR

6 PRIVATE CORRIDORS


7 THE LIVING KEEP THE physiognomy DOMESTICITY

8 THE STREETS PUBLICITY-DOMESTICITY

9 THE SQUARES PUBLICITY

10 THE ESCALATOR GROUND FLOOR-SQUARES-MARKET

11 THE WINDOW DISPLAY DOMESTICITY-PUBLICITY

12 THE HOUSES DOMESTICITY PUBLICITY

THE 2030 NEIGBORHOOD

27


cross section

28


dwelling flexibility diagram

the street

the unit

the extra space

the corridor

29


main facade embajadores street

30


view from embajadores square sombrerete street

31


public space above the dwellings-below the market

32


33


34


workshop 02 building’s depth

workshop director andrea deplazes

assistant fernando altozano

team members johanna cevallos, ecuador rafael medrano, mexico

objectives developing a collective housing project beginning from the unit going through the floor level, the building and at the end the block. thinking from the inside to the outside. the first part of the project consisted in developing a unit, knowing just 2 things: -a 9 meters building’s depth -90 sqm for the unit after this the building and the block were developed in an utopian place. to get into a unit, a interior street that goes through the building has to be crossed. then going up some semi-public squares can be found in several levels. this squares are the entrance to the corridors that will lead to the unit. in the interior of the unit first there is the common areas with a greater height and the private areas are located in a different level with a lower height. the units are arranged in pairs so the space used by the staris can be optimized. depending on the unit the private level could be located in a higher level or in a lower level.

35


the unit 90 sqm

level +1

level +0

36 level

-1


flexibility 75 sqm 110 sqm options 0.50 M

2.00 M

0.00 M 1.00 M

3.00 M

37


the building

groundfloor

level 1

level 2

level 3

3M 0.00 M

38

12 M 6M


N +30.00

N +27.30

N +24.00

N +21.30

N +18.00

N +15.30

N +12.00

N +9.30

N +6.00

N +3.30

N +0.00

longitudinal section

N +30.00

N +27.30

N +24.00

N +21.30

N +18.00

N +15.30

N +12.00

N +9.30

0.50 M

2.00 M

1.00 M

3.00 M

N +6.00

N +3.30

N +0.00

main acces facade

cross section a

cross section b

3M 0.00 M

12 M 6M

39


the block

ground floor

3M 0.00 M

40 level

1

a

b

12 M 6M


level 2

level 3

level 4

level 5

a

b 41


42


workshop 03 playground in the city

workshop director francisco burgos

assistant javier malo de molina

team members rafael medrano, mexico silvia melis, italy

objectives “imagine places where objects appear with a sufficient degree of abstraction as to not limit the child's imagination. Any element can be whatever a child wants at any moment or even nothing specific, but simply that of which hangs, jumps, passes, or whatever that allows all kinds of games and movements.� francisco burgos the playground could be located at any place inside lavapies’ neighborhood in madrid. each team was free to select the site.

43


the square selected for the playground is located in lavapies, a neighbourhood in the center of Madrid. the idea is to increase the horizontal public space and take it to a vertical orientation.

44


taking advantage of many blind wall’s square meters and using common elements from the neighborhood a playground that gives joy and identity to the locals is proposed.

45


spain

madrid

lavapies

Vertigo

Music

Game

Astonishment

Potentiate the sensations in the heights.

Enjoy the air. Jumping and flying.

46

for the neighborhood. The sounds of children.

A dynamic and floating structure.


excercising

hanging

laying down

tossing

jumping

swinging

aerialist

stunts

resting

cycling

climbing

balancing

playfull posibilites for tubes 47


48


49


50


the FLOATING WORM, an enormous animal that lives in residual vertical spaces like blind walls, has arrived to Lavapies. Its soft and transparent skin allows neighbors to see how children jump and bounce in a very free and safe way inside of it. At the same time the neighborhood is full of music thanks to the shouts of joy that come from the kids. adults and youngsters use the animal’s structure to make some excercise or sit in it to rest or read. This animal brought life to a square which used to be given the back by the buildings and neighborhood.

51


THE CLIENT

QUETZAL PHARAMACHRUS MOCINNO

MR. Q

ABOUT

LIFE CYCLE

LIVES UP TO 20 YEARS MATING AT 3 YEARS OLD ONCE A YEAR NEW NEST EVERY YEAR MONOGAMUS KIDS STAY CLOSE TO THE PARENTS

BIRD OF FREEDOM EASILY STRESSED PLANNING BIRD

CLOUD FOREST HUMIDITY WOOD ROOMS PRIVACY FAMILI FROM 6 TO 8 2.000 SQM MINIMUN AT LEAST 8 METERS HEIGHT DWELLING

REQUESTS

cloud

humidity

living mosses

epiphytes

ecosystem

trees

stucture 52


workshop 04 live as an animal

specialty director hrvoje njiric

assistant jose maria sanchez garcia

team members lucia de molina benavides, spain gabriela macias, mexico rafael medrano, mexico hans schwartz, guatemala

objectives the user is an animal, in this case the quetzal. first, a proposal of a dwelling for a single user was developed so a collective housing project for this client could be developed subsequently. after this first step, a housing for the human race was added to the proposal. the challenge, of course, was to manage how this two species could live together, not being totally separated but at the same time not being affected by each other.

53


mist producers

mist producers

wrapping

ground

54


22.50m

the unit is dependant on the collective space

minimum dwelling

up to 8 units can share the collective space

densify

55


32m

24m

16m 08m

cedro rojo

meters

56

1.50

helecho arborescente

aguacatillo

encina mexicana azul

1.10

1.00

0.66

32m

eat

24m

pose nest

16m

nest

08m

pose


32m

24m

16m

08m

04m

02m

meters

1.60

1.30

0.90

0.60

0.45

0.30

mirror

view

tree abstraction

nest and food

pose

moist producer

light

periscope

57


GROUND FLOOR

LEVEL 1

58

LEVEL 2


ECOSYSTEMS

HOUSING + INFRASTRUCTURE

STRUCTURE

PUBLIC SPACE + OPEN PROGRAM

59


60


61


62


63


sao paulo, brazil

64


seminar 03 low-cost housing

specialty director maria teresa diniz

assistant belen gesto

team members johanna cevallos, ecuador lucia de molina benavides, spain rafael medrano, mexico

objectives this work was done analyzing the bad conditions of an existing slum in sao paulo and making a proposal to generate better quality of life to the inhabitants. some of these conditions analyzed were the potable water, sewage, accesability, public space and security. later on, a proposal was made removing some “favelas� that were in extreme risk and some others that will help the neighborhood to be more accesible in terms of mobility. the people whose houses were removed had to be relocated, so a unique big element was added to provide housing to these people and at the same time creating a link with an important avenue that nowadays is very difficult to reach. additionally ther is a proposal for a linear park that allows to do excercise, play, read, etc. at the same time that the river can be enjoyed, creating a link between the slums and the big existing green area

65


intervention area jardim celeste

topography

66


current situation

67


removable slums

68

new fabric and final housing blocks


transport connections intermodal point

general plan

69


linear park river section

70


housing typology

floor plan

0

-1

unit type a

unit type b

0

5

1

10

2

20

3

4

5 71


72


workshop 05 inhabited screens

workshop director cino zucchi

assistant belen hermida

team members rafael medrano, mexico yichi wang, taiwan

objectives a photographic survey of residential facades in the streets of madrid was done as a first step. later one with this analysis a proposal was made focusing in the facade. the design methodology was basically work with working models, rethinking the shape once and again. several questions were made to define the final shape. where does the building begins? how does the building touch the ground? how does the building reach the sky?

73


location

74


75


idea

76


working models

process

77


levels 1,3 & 5

levels 2 & 4

78


south facade

north facade

east facade

west facade

79


a plugged extra space

80


south facade

81


a plugged extra space

82


south facade

north facade

83


84


workshop 06 housing: a method

workshop director dietmar eberle

assistant victor olmos

team members rafael medrano, mexico

objectives this workshop was carried out in three different places with different conditions (scale, users, activities, density,etc.). each mch participant worked alone in one place for one day in a very specific subject ( shape, materiality, distribution, etc.). the next day each participant had to chance place and to take someone else project, decide if something that has been done needed to be changed or not and go on with a different subject. and so on for a couple of days. for the last day, each architect had to improve it’s own project. at the end, the building frames a public square and plays with the context in shape and in materiality. the project is located in salamanca, a neighborhood whith high income neighbors in madrid.

85


process

1

86

3

2


context

87


facade materials proposal schematic distribution plan

88

95 sqm

50 sqm

70 sqm

95 sqm

50 sqm

70 sqm

95 sqm

50 sqm

70 sqm

95 sqm

50 sqm

70 sqm

95 sqm

50 sqm

70 sqm

95 sqm

50 sqm

70 sqm


89


facade materials proposal

general facade

90


schematic distribution plan

schematic section

material’s context

brick

brick

concrete

91


92


seminar 04 construction & technology

specialty director ramon araujo

team members yoav elad, israel rafael medrano, mexico jon ander mendiola, spain

objectives this specialty consisted in taking alvar aalto’s schÜnbßl housing block in lucern, switzerland and redesign the project and construction according to contemporary requirements. an increase in the total amount of dwelling units and the amount of square meters per unit, such as an undergorund floor for parking space were the addings to the architectural program. also, the amount of square meters used for circulation in common areas was reduced in order to optimize the construction area. pre-cast concrete columns and steel beams were proposed for the construction system. this may allow to save money and time in any project. also the facade and divisory walls were proposed to be pre-fabricated.

93


94


original plan and transformation

95


underground parking level

96


groundfloor acces level

97


type floor housing

98


dwelling unit

99


general section

100


facade elevation and materiality

101


structural system pre-cast concrete columns and steel beams

102


103


detail pre-cast concrete column union’s section steel beams, column and slab union’s section

104


detail inner corridor and inner facade’s section

105


detail main facade an loggia’s section

106


detail main and secondary beams union with slab’s section

107


detail main facade and bedroom’s section

108


detail main facadeand bedroom’s elevation and plan

109


110


seminar 05 residential urban design

specialty director bernardo ynzenga

team members yoav elad, israel rafael medrano, mexico yichi wang, taiwan

objectives the workshop adopted the form of a twofold space of theory and practice, following a path that linked the house/project to the city/project, with special project emphasis in: • The character of the contemporary residential habitat, and the complex set of functions, activities and spaces that accompany or complement it. • The formation processes of different types of urban fragments forming the city, with special focus on the effects produced by increased scales and their corresponding mediation sequences. the project was developed, acting on a large area at Madrid southeast, having to do with the preparation of a new urban master plan for the city. the concept of nodal city served as reference frame. high density, plurality, connectivity and territorial sustainability were dominant concerns. the proposals was aimed at providing an alternative comprehensive image of urban formation strategy.

111


112

area

public transportation

industry

open space

equipment

sport

main road

public/administration

tertiary


urban situationand proposal

113


housing typology

total area: 34 ha HOUSING AREA_ super string block: 51000 sqm multi-type wall block: 51300 sqm mix-use wall block: 77000 sqm string block: 22000 sqm linear block: 20000 sqm TOTAL: 22.13 ha (65%)

DENSITY_ super string multi-type wall mix-use wall string linear

block: 340 pl/ha block: 360 pl/ha block: 250 pl/ha block: 360 pl/ha block: 400 pl/ha TOTAL: 342 pl/ha

super string density: 120 dw/ha housing for small family

string density: 70 housing for share / big family linear block density: 140 housing for small family

114

multi-type wall density: 140 housing for short- term apartment bussiness rent mix-use wall density: 90 housing for extra space


MASER LOOP: CULTURE & center > reina sofia > atocha station > museum atocha > shopping ARC > railway factory > center...

MASER LOOP: TRANSFER TOURIST & bus stop > new transfer cemter > commerce > workshop > factory

TERTIALRY USES_

administration atocha museum atocha

shopping center / atocha theatre & auditorium factory / spa center / office bar&restaurant

workshop transfer warehouse center office / commerce art center

115


north block’s facade

north block’s sections

section c

section b

existing building

116section

a

new bycicle path

existing railway


A’ C

B’

B A C’

existing railway

117


118


119


120


workshop 07 urban housing conditions

workshop director anne lacaton

assitant diego garcia-setien

team members pablo marcet, guatemala rafael medrano, mexico silvia melis, italy

objectives the work was not realized in any specific site. The daily working pattern was: 1 day / 1 topic / 1 fragment of a project. (SPACEBOARD) During the 3 first days, groups produced one document on the topic of the day, which was a fragment of the final presentation, as accumulative work. always using the same 3 tools: - words, (precise and short) - photos, collages, photomontages, assemblages - sketches, drawings the final assemblage of the material, was presented in the format of a STORYBOARD and a short animation. what makes the quality of life in individual space? what makes the quality of life in a public space? what makes the quality of life in the city?

121


housing conditions a 30 meters long dwelling in which every space has a view to the one unique facade except for the more intimate spaces. flexibility in this dwelling is not just the big amount of opportunities for organizing the spaces but the possibility of being exposed to the sunlight or being in the shadow in the same space.

122


urban conditions as in the housing conditions, the urban space intends to have a continous space where you can have the possibility of play with daylight. always interacting with nature and society.

123


124


seminar 06 business & management

specialty director fernando leon

team members jose alberto bethencourt, venezuela maria nieves fernandez, spain rafael medrano, mexico silvia melis, italy

objectives create a business model being aware of our strenghts and opportunities. set a target and develop the know how, always with the back up of the numbers. the group has experience in housing but one team member has been developing housing for elders for the last 4 years. at the same time, politics for making business with tourism in venezuela are very good for investors. we decided to create an office of architecture specialized in developing projects where elder people could live permanently, temporarily or just for holidays. a new product in which our office and the investors have the opportunity to be pioneers in a country whith a huge demand and with no offer for this market. eventually, an expansion could happen through south and central america. countries with economical growing potential.

125


ARCH. NIEVES FERNADEZ CASTAÑERA Spain / p.r manager

ARCH. JOSÉ A. BETHENCOURT GALLARDO Venezuela

/ project manager

ARCH. SILVIA MELIS Italy/ sales manager

ARCH. A. RAFAEL MEDRANO PÉREZ 126

Mexico / business manager


venezuela

-lack of services for elders -huge demand -non specialized architectural firms in this sector

2013

Nยบ elders

1,576,680

2030

Nยบ elders

6,491,401

127


how we do it?

FIND A PLOT

FIND A CLIENT AND ANDOPERATOR

CREATE A BUSINESS MODEL

DEVELOP AND SELLA SERVICE PACK •ARCHITECTURAL PROJECT. •MANAGEMENT OF THE PROJECT. •PERMITS. 128

•CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISION.


HOTEL RESIDENCE FOR ELDERS LOCATION: PLOT ZH 8B, ALDONZA MANRIQUE AVE. PLAYA EL ANGEL, PAMAPATAR, NUEVAESPARTA, VENEZUELA. PLOT AREA

8.550 sqm

CONSTRUCTION AREA : 80% : 6.840 sqm SUITES: 140 TOTAL INVESTMENT : NPV 6 YR

4.454.550,00

: 15.518 EU

IRR at 20 years : 13% 129


services policy

SATISFIED USERS SATISFIED CLIENTS

COMMITMENT SATISFIED INVESTORS SATISFIED ARCHITECTS

INNOVATION SAVINGS

SALES

SUCCESS

TIMING

EFFICIENCY MONEY

pricing policy €/ sqm

ARCHITECTURAL

In Venezuela is 25 € / sqm

PROJECT

171.000 *

4% of total amount of

PROJECT MANAGEMENT

the project’s €

136.800 *

- Tourism permits

130

EXTRA

5% of Arch.

CHARGES

€ 8.550 *

p roject.


office financial balance

Totalinvestment

26.000,00

Year1 revenues

39.900,00

Totalproject’s revenues 316.350,00

Year1 expenses

36.660,00

Year1 EBIT

3.240,00

Year1 Taxes

1.101,60

Year1 Profit

2.138,40

Year2 revenues

256.500,00

Year3 revenues

316.350,00

Year2 expenses

108.060,00

Year3 expenses

108.060,00

Year2 EBIT

148.440,00

Year3 EBIT

207.690,00

Year2 Taxes

50.469,60

Year3 Taxes

70.614,60

Year2 Profit

97.970,40

Year3 Profit

137.075,40

131


many thanks to the mch 2013 crew

director jose marĂ­a de lapuerta

manager sebastiĂĄn severino

secretary marĂ­a jose manga

participants jose alberto bethencourt, venezuela roberto carlucci, italy johanna cevallos, ecuador lucia de molina benavides, spain yoav elad, israel nieves fernandez, spain antonio g. salmones, spain gabriela macias, mexico pablo marcet, guatemala rafael medrano, mexico silvia melis, italy jon ander mendiola, spain borja navarro, spain alejandra novoa, colombia manal omar, united emirates carolina rodas, ecuador hans shwartz, guatemala maria elvira villareal, colombia yichi wang, taiwan

Rafael Medrano  

Compilation of works done by architect Rafael Medrano in collaboration with architects from all over the world during the master in collecti...