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PREVIEW GRAMMAR STUDENTS WORKBOOK

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THE TEACHER´S LAIR PREVIEW LEVEL STUDENT´S WORKBOOK

TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

1.1) Common Nouns

1) Nouns

STRUCTURE

bag, bank, basket, box, computer, monster, robot, etc.

1.2) Proper Nouns

Anna, Tom, etc.

1.3) Singular and Plural

one, two, three chairs

1.4) Irregular Plural forms

mouse-mice

1.5) Countable Nouns lemon-lemons 1.6) Uncountable Nouns

rice, money, sun

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1) NOUNS

Understanding Common and Proper Nouns Common Nouns name any Proper Nouns name special person, place or thing. people, places or things. Proper nouns begin with a capital letter. friend city Charlie Brown pet Apple Street school Kansas City teacher Mr. Smith Snoopy Page 2


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I.

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Write the plural of these Nouns in the correct boxes:

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Uncountable Nouns  Uncountable nouns are those that can‟t be counted. bread – two breads  They don‟t have a plural form. They are always followed by a verb in the singular. This butter tastes delicious.

 We can‟t use a / an or numbers before them. milk – a milk – ten milks  We can use some, any, little, much… before them.  There is some milk in the fridge.

Examples:

Food

meat, cheese, bread, butter, fruit, fish, chocolate, flour, salt, sugar, jam, yoghurt…

Liquids

water, milk, wine, oil, beer, coffee, tea, petrol…

Materials

wood, gold, silver, paper, glass, iron, steel, cotton, wool, metal, plastic…

Abstract nouns

love, justice, freedom, help, time, advice, beauty, honesty, anger, health…

Natural phenomena

weather, heat, snow, lightning, rain, wind, thunder…

Other nouns

luggage, baggage, furniture, money, traffic, business, news, information, work…

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Are these nouns Countable or Uncountable. Write each noun in the corresponding notebook.

butter

spoon

knife

juice

egg

money

boy

salt

fork

plate

gold

packet

love

homework

cup

traffic

joke

rice

night

year

electricity

tourist

petrol

news

 soup

 car

 honey

 meat

 bag

 food

 job

 child

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TOPIC

2) Determiners

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

2.1) A / an

a banana, an apple

2.2) The

the car

2.3) Some & Any

I want some milk I don´t have any money

2.4) A lot of

I have a lot of toys.

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2) DETERMINERS A / AN / THE: a + consonants

a n + vowels

Phonetic Rule

a book

an apple

a unicorn

a fish

an egg

a university

a toy

an igloo

an hour

a hat

an orange

an honest

a window

an umbrella CIRCLE THE CORRECT ARTICLE IN EACH OF THESE SENTENCES.

His uncle is [a, an] investigator.

My dad is [a, an] doctor.

His uncle is [a, an] investigator.

That is [a, an] alligator.

This is [a, an] expensive motorcycle.

She has [a, an]

My brother has [a, an] pet dog.

Butterfly is [a, an] insect.

Painting is [a, an] interesting hobby.

There is [a, an] pen in my bag.

My teacher is wearing [a, an] blue skirt.

This is [a, an] egg.

apple for her sister.

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A / AN / THE

Indefinite articles: A + consonant An + vowels (a –e-u-i-o)

The: definite article used to refer to : particular things all people, things, etc of a stated kind group or nationality geographical names Musical instruments

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SOME and ANY:

Use We use some in affirmative sentences. Exm: There is some milk in the fridge.

We use any in negative sentences. Exm: There isn't any milk in the fridge. We also use any in questions.

Use

Is there any milk in the fridge? Page 13


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A LOT OF “A

lot of” is used with both countable and uncountable nouns. We normally use it in affirmative sentences: I have a lot of friends. She has a lot of food in the fridge. We can use “a lot” without a following noun, but you must remember that in this case we can´t use the preposition “of”. COMPARE: Do you have a lot of friends? Yes, I have a lot of friends. Or: Yes, I have a lot. NOT: I dont´t have a lot of.

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Use some, any, a lot of: - There aren´t ______________ oranges in the basket. - Is there ___________________ cheese on the table? - There is _____________________ butter on the table. - There is ______________________ ham on the table. - There isn´t ____________________ jam on the table. - There are __________________ apples in the basket. - Are there __________________ pears in the basket? - There is ______________________ milk on the table. - There are ___________________ pears in the basket. - Is there ____________________ bread on the table?

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Complete the sentences with some or any.

Is there ...................... meat in the fridge? Pepe doesn’t have.................... brothers or sisters. There are .................pencils on the desk. There is ....................cheese on the table but there isn’t milk. There are .......................books on the shelf but there aren’t CDs. I have .....................cake. Here, take a piece.

II.

Circle the correct answer.

There aren’t some / any pears in the refrigerator. Would you like a / some cereal for breakfast? I’d like any / a snack, please. I’m hungry! We don’t have any/ a cheese for the sandwiches. Can you go to the grocery store, please? Why don’t you have any / a piece of cake for dessert? I want to lose some / any weight so I’m joining the gym. III.

Complete the sentences with some or any.

There is .............................. coffee.

There is ............................... ketchup.

There are ............................. pears.

There aren’t ...................... potatoes.

There aren’t .................... bananas.

There isn’t ................................ jam.

There are ............................ beans.

There is ................................... rice.

There is ................................. cake.

There aren’t ............................ eggs.

There is ............................... honey.

There isn’t ............................ butter. Page 16


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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

3.1) Numbers 1 to 20

3) Numbers

3.2) Addresses

Oral and Written

3.3) Phone Numbers

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3) NUMBERS

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CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 to 20:

1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven

11 eleven

8 eight

12 twelve

9 nine

13 thirteen

10 ten

14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty

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Complete the following crossword puzzle with the correct spelling of all these numbers‌ Good Luck!

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Fill in the blanks with the correct personal information:

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Fill in the blanks with the corresponding phone number:

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Answer the following questions about personal information:

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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

Personal Pronouns: Subject Pronouns 4.1) Personal Pronouns (Subject and Obect)

I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they Object Pronouns

4.2) Possessive Adjectives 4) PRONOUNS

4.3) Apostrophes

4.4 ) Demonstrative Pronouns

me, you, him, her, it, us, them Possessive Adjectives my, your, his, her, our, your, their Apostrophes: For Contraction and Possession Demonstrative Pronouns:

4.4.1) This

This is a pen

4.4.2) That

That´s the window.

4.4.3) These

These are my books.

4.4.4) Those

Those are my friends.

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4) PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns I You He She It We You They

Possessive adjectives Me You Him Her It Us You Them

Object pronouns

My Your His Her Its Our Your Their

Mine Yours His Hers Its Ours Yours Theirs

Possessive pronouns

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Personal Pronouns (Subject and Object):

I / me

She / Her

SINGULAR

He / Him

You / You

It / It

PLURAL

We / Us

You / You

They /Them

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS CHART:

Number

Singular

Plural

Person

Personal Pronouns

Gender

Subject

Object

1st

male/female

I

me

2nd

male/female

you

you

3rd

male

he

him

female

she

her

neuter

it

it

1st

male/female

we

us

2nd

male/female

you

you

3rd

male/female/neuter

they

them

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POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES:

I.

Complete the gaps with a possessive adjective:

1. That is Mike‟s room. That’s _____________________ bedroom. 2. We are children and these are ______________________ toys. 3. Maria is playing with _______________________ cousin. 4. The boy’s playing with _______________________ robot. 5. You have an uncle. ______________ name is Peter. 6. I am a girl and this is ________________________ bathroom.

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PRONOUN OR POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE:

4. Complete with a pronoun or a possessive adjective: Hi! ___’m Becky and this is ___ dog, Clay. ___ are in my room now. ___’m doing ___homework and Clay is helping ___. Later, ___ are going for a walk in the park. Clay usually sees ___ best friend there, and ___ meet ___ friend Anne, who takes ___ dog for a walk, too. ____ usually tells me about ___ day, and ___ do the same. ___ both love chatting! Anne has an older brother, but ___ never brings ___ to the park because ____ is always busy. I hope to see ___ both today!!

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APOSTROPHES:

SOME MORE EXAMPLES:

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APOSTROPHES EXERCISES:

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DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS (THIS, THAT, THESE, and THOSE):

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READ & FILL IN

1 2 7

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5

6

3

4

8

5. This is my 4. Is this is my _____________? 3. This is my

_________ _______ 2. That is my

_________ _______

_________ _______ 6. This is my

_________ _______ 7. Is that my ___________?

1. This is my

8. That is my

_________

_________

_______

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TOPIC

4) PRONOUNS

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

4.3) Interrogative Pronouns 4.3.1) Who?

Who is she?

4.3.2) What?

What is your name?

4.3.3) Which?

Which pen is yours?

4.3.4) Where?

Where is the marker?

4.3.5) When?

When is your birthday?

4.3.6) How?

How do you feel?

4.3.7) Why?

Why are you angry?

4.3.8) Whose?

Whose pen is this?

4.3.9) Whom?

Whom do you prefer?

Interrogative Pronouns:

mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs 4.4) Possessive Pronouns I´d like one orange, please!

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1. Translate all the expressions and then match the WH word with the kind of answer:

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POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:

Subject Pronouns (person or thing) Used as actor in a statement

Object Pronouns (person or thing) Receives action in a statement, follows verb

Possessive Adjective (use with a NOUN)

Possessive Pronoun (use without a NOUN)

Describes whose something is

Used as a subject or object in a statement

I

me

my

mine

You

you

your

yours

He

him

his

his

She

her

her

hers

It

it

its

its

We

us

our

ours

They

them

their

theirs

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I.

Change the possessive adjective to the pronoun form. Follow the examples.

1.

It’s my house.

=

It’s mine.

2.

They’re my shoes.

=

They’re mine.

3.

My shoes are black.

=

Mine are black.

4.

My house is old.

=

Mine is old.

5.

It’s her car.

=

__________________________

6.

Her car is a Toyota.

=

__________________________

6.

They’re her earrings.

=

__________________________

7.

Her earrings are lovely. =

__________________________

8.

It’s his house.

=

__________________________

9.

His house is cozy.

=

__________________________

10.

They’re his sneakers.

=

__________________________

11.

His sneakers are Nikes.

=

__________________________

12.

It’s our classroom.

=

__________________________

13.

Our classroom is large. =

__________________________

14.

They’re our books .

=

__________________________

15.

Our books are new.

=

__________________________

16.

It’s their homework.

=

__________________________

17.

Their homework is complete.= __________________________

18.

They’re their lockers.

=

__________________________

19.

Their lockers are full.

=

__________________________

20.

It’s the dog’s bone.

=

__________________________

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TOPIC

5) Adjectives

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

beautiful, best, big, favourite, 5.1) Common Adjectives good, happy, new, nice, old, right, sad, small, sunny, young

5.2) Synonyms and Opposites

pretty - ugly, fat - thin, tall short, big - small, new - old, clean - dirty.

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5) ADJECTIVES Definition: An adjective modifies a noun. It describes the quality, state or action that a noun refers to. ADJECTIVE RULES: 1. Adjectives can come before nouns: a new house 2. Adjectives can come after verbs such as be, become, seem, look, etc.: that house looks new 3. They can be modified by adverbs: a very expensive house 4. They can be used as complements to a noun: the extras make the house expensive

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Choose and Complete the following Physical Descriptions:

This is Mary. She is ____________ (thin/fat) and she has ____________ (short/long) legs. Her hair is ____________ (blond/gray) and ______________ (straight/curly). She has ______________ (blue/brown) eyes. She is very ______________ (ugly/beautiful).

She is Cynthia. She is ____________ (thin/fat) and she has ____________ (short/long) legs. Her hair is ____________ (blond/brown) and ______________ (straight/curly). She has ______________ (blue/brown) eyes. She is very ______________ (ugly/beautiful).

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SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS : A synonym is a word that means the same as another word, or more or less the same. If a word is slightly different, it is a near-synonym. Example: “pretty” is a synonym of “beautiful”; illness – sickness, etc. An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another. Examples: “new” is an antonym of “old”; strong – weak, fat – thin, hot – cold.

SYNONYMS

ANTONYMS

TERRIBLE/AWFUL

QUIET/LOUD

POLITE/KIND

HUGE/TINY

PRETTY/BEAUTIFUL

OLD/NEW

IMPOLITE/RUDE

NARROW/WIDE

OCCUPIED/BUSY

LAZY/HARDWORKING

BIG/LARGE

SUCCESSFUL/UNSUCCESSFUL

SAD/UNHAPPY

INTERESTING/BORING

DANGEROUS/RISKY

CLEAN/DIRTY

CAPABLE/ABLE

SHARP/BLUNT

DEPENDABLE/RELIABLE

FAT/THIN

WEALTHY/RICH

PEACEFUL/VIOLENT

ORGANIZED/TIDY

ILL/HEALTHY

SCARED/FRIGHTENED

HOT/COLD

SENSIBLE/RESPONSIBLE

WARM/COOL

USUAL/COMMON

RIGHT/WRONG

LUCKY/FORTUNATE

WEAK/STRONG

SILLY/STUPID

SANE/INSANE

SMART/INTELLIGENT

NERVOUS/CALM

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SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS CROSSWORD PUZZLE

6. opposite of sober 7. synonym of big 9. synonym of capable 11. synonym of intelligent 13. opposite of nervous 15. opposite of shallow 17. opposite of expensive 18. synonym of fashionable 21. synonym of wonderful 22. synonym of well-known 23. synonym of frightened 24. synonym of mad

1. opposite of right 2. synonym of penniless 3. opposite of cool 4. opposite of interesting 5. opposite of careful 8. synonym of glad 10. opposite of heavy 12. synonym of fortunate 14. synonym of terrible

25. opposite of near 27. synonym of dangerous 29. synonym of organized 31. opposite of same 32. synonym of stupid 33. opposite of good 35. opposite of cold 37. synonym of thin 38. opposite of sharp 39. opposite of short 41. synonym of sad 44. opposite of rich

46. opposite of healthy 47. opposite of late 48. synonym of responsible 49. opposite of successful 52. opposite of old 53. opposite of beautiful 54. opposite of difficult 55. opposite of huge 56. opposite of high 59. synonym of quiet

16. opposite of violent 19. opposite of clean 20. opposite of friendly 23. opposite of hard 26. synonym of impolite 27. synonym of dependable 28. opposite of dry 30. opposite of sane 34. synonym of funny 36. opposite of thin 40. opposite of wide 42. opposite of quiet 43. opposite of old

44. synonym of kind 45. opposite of useless 50. opposite of weak 51. synonym of common 55. opposite of fat 57. synonym of rich 58. synonym of occupied 60. opposite of hard-working

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TOPIC

6) Verbs

SUB-TOPIC

6.1) Regular Verbs

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STRUCTURE

Infinitive & Gerund

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CROSS ONLY THE REGULAR VERBS YOU FIND:

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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

7.1) There Is

There is a monkey in the tree. / There´s a ...

7.2) There are

There are some books on the table.

7) There is / There are

8) Prepostions

at, behind, between, for, in, in front of, next to, of, on, to, under, with

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7) There is / There are We use there is and there are when we want to say that something exists (or does not exist):

There are two good reasons to do this. There isn't any flour in the pantry. There aren't any seats available.

Note that we often use there is and there are with a/an, some and any. A/an go with singular, countable nouns. Some and any go with uncountable and plural nouns. (See more about countable and uncountable nouns). A/an and some are used in the affirmative. Any is used with questions and negative statements:

There is a book on the table. There is an ant on your leg. There is some tea in the pot.

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7.1) There Is:

There is a little butter

There is some butter

There is a lot of butter

Affirmative

Is there any margerine?

Interrogative

No, there isn´t.

Negative There isn´t any margarine.

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7.2) There Are:

There are a few beans

There are some beans

There are a lot of beans

Affirmative

Are there any lemons ?

Interrogative

No, there aren´t.

Negative There aren´t any lemons. Page 52


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Are these sentences about the picture TRUE or FALSE? Look at the picture and check () the correct answer.

TRUE

FALSE

a) There isn´t a beach.

b) There are two churches.

c) There is a hotel.

d) There aren´t any factories.

e) There are some shops.

f) There isn´t a bus station.

g) There aren´t any apartment buildings.

h) There are two schools.

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8) Prepositions A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence. The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount. In the sentence She went to the store, to is a preposition which shows direction. In the sentence He came by bus, by is a preposition which shows manner.

In the sentence They will be here at three o'clock, at is a preposition which shows time. In the sentence It is under the table, under is a preposition which shows place. SOME EXAMPLES: Prepositions of time: at two o'clock on Wednesday in an hour, in January; in 1992 for a day Prepositions of place: at my house in New York, in my hand on the table near the library across the street under the bed between the books Page 54


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PREPOSITIONS:

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I.

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Look at the pictures and write the correct preposition on the line:

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TOPIC

9) TENSES 9.1) Verb to Be

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SUB-TOPIC

STRUCTURE

9.1.1) Simple Present Vb. To Be (Is, Am, Are)

Simple Present Vb. To Be ( Is, Am, Are ) :

9.1.1.1) Affirmative

Nick is happy

9.1.1.2) Negative

She isn´t happy

9.1.1.3) Interrogative

Are you sad?

9.1.2) Simple Past Vb. To Be (Was / Were)

Simple Past Vb. To Be ( Was / Were ) :

9.1.2.1) Affirmative

Nick is happy

9.1.2.2) Negative

She isn´t happy

9.1.2.3) Interrogative

Are you sad?

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9) TENSES The verb tense shows the time of the action or state. Verbs are conjugated (inflected) to reflect how they are used. Conjugation for tense Conjugation for tense is carried out on all verbs. All conjugations start with the infinitive form of the verb. The infinitive is simply the to form of the verb For example, to begin. The present participle form (the -ing form), is formed by adding ing to the bare infinitive. For example, to begin - beginning. There are two other forms that the verb can take, depending on the tense type and time, the simple past form and the past participle. The form of the verb or its tense can tell when events take place. For example, the verb kiss:

Present Simple kiss/kisses

Past Simple kissed

Future Simple will kiss

Present Perfect has/have kissed

Past Perfect had kissed

Future Perfect will have kissed

Present Continuous (Progressive) is/am/are kissing

Past Continuous (Progressive) was kissing

Future Continuous (Progressive) will be kissing

Present Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive) (Progressive) Continuous (Progressive) has/have been kissing had been kissing will have been kissing Present Simple kiss/kisses

Past Simple kissed

Future Simple will kiss

Present Perfect has/have kissed

Past Perfect had kissed

Future Perfect will have kissed

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Future Continuous Page 58


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(Progressive) is/am/are kissing

(Progressive) was kissing

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(Progressive) will be kissing

Present Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous (Progressive) (Progressive) Continuous (Progressive) has/have been kissing had been kissing will have been kissing

TENSES AND FORMS OF THE VERBS MIND MAP:

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I.

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Look at the boxes and fill in the blanks with the correct form

Remember the following sentences in which we use the verb to be:  I´m 13 yeas old. (age)  He´s 1.56. (height)  I´m a 40. (size)  He´s a doctor. (job)  It´s sunny / cold / hot … (the weather)  It´s $10 . (prize)  My dad is ill. (physical state)  He´s very nice. ( character)  I´m afraid of snakes. (fears)  The film is about the 2nd world war. (subject)  I´m good / bad at sports. (abilities)

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(Aff. Neg. or Int) of Verb To Be: 1. Complete with the Verb To Be: a) I __________ Jane. b) You _________Paul and Carla. c) They________ my parents. d) He _______ my father. e) She _______my girlfriend. f) It _______ my dog. g) We ______ friends. h) You ______a student. i) She _______ a doctor.

2. Change the sentences to the negative form: a) Samantha is my mother. _________________________________ b) Mindy is my English teacher. _________________________________ c) Tina and Paul are friends. _________________________________ d) I am your German classmate. _________________________________

3. Change the sentences to the nterrogative form: a) Meg is my American girlfriend. __________________________________________? b) I am a doctor. __________________________________________? c) You two are French. __________________________________________? d) She is your mother. __________________________________________? e) He is Bob. ______________________________________?

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VERB TO BE SIMPLE PRESENT PRACTICE:

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I was …

I wasn‟t …

Was I… ?

He was …

He wasn‟t …

Was he … ?

She was …

She wasn‟t …

Was she … ?

It was …

It wasn‟t …

Was it …. ?

We were …

We weren‟t …

Were we … ?

You were …

You weren‟t …

Were you … ?

They were …

They weren‟t …

Were they … ?

Fill in the gaps with WAS – WERE / WASN‟T – WEREN‟T : 1. I _________ born in Japan but my brother __________ born there. He ______________ in England. 2. We _________ at the cinema last night. 3. Susan and Megan _________ hardworking when they _________ at primary school? 4. Marilyn Monroe _________ a beautiful actress. 5. Mr Brown ________ a rich man when he _______ young but now he is a rich man. 6. It _______ rainy yesterday but it _______ cloudy. 7. Where _______ your sister yesterday afternoon? 8. I ______ good at football when I _______ little but now I am good at football. 9. My father _________ at home last night because he _______ at work. 10. When ______ your parents born? Page 63


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A. Now look at the images and complete these sentences and questions with the correct form of Verb to Be Simple Past:

“__________ you at home

“Where

yesterday at 3:00?”

__________ they yesterday after

“No, we __________ . We

school? They _________ at home

_________ on My grandparents’

because no one answered the

farm. We helped to pick

phone.”

oranges.”

“Yesterday after school? Well, they __________in the park.”

When I _______ younger I _____ afraid of dogs. But not anymore! I L

VE MY DOG!

“Why __________ I so bored yesterday morning? Can’t you guess it?

“It __________ Ann’s

Where _________ you yesterday?

birthday yesterday! She

__________you at school? Of course not! Teachers __________ in a meeting and I ______ at home all day long.

__________ so pretty in her pink dress. Well, all girls _________ pretty. They just ___________ very happy because Sean, Ann’s “handsome” brother, so they say, __________ at the party yet!”

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TOPIC

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SUB-TOPIC

STRUCTURE

9.2.1) Affirmative

The cat´s sleeping

9.2.2) Negative

He is not swimming

9.2.3) Interrogative

What are you doing?

9.2) Present Continuous (Is, am, are + ING)

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9.2) PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE: USES A) We use the Present Continuous when talking about actions that are happening at the moment (present or temporary action). For example, "Alex is writing a new book" can have one or two meanings, depending on the situation. 1. He is writing the book at this very moment. (present acitivity) 2. Alex is in the process of writing a new book. (Even though he is having a nap at this exact moment.) We may guess that: He probably spends a few hours a day working on it. He plans to finish the book or make a break soon. (temporary action). B) We also use the Present Continuous for actions that will be done in the future. (future arrangement) I'm flying to Rome next week.

TIME EXPRESSIONS just now, these days, this afternoon, today, in the evening, at present, at the moment, look, now, this month, tomorrow, next week, currently, right now.

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PRESENT CONTINUOUS MIND MAP

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9.2.1)

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Present Continuous (Affirmative):

He is playing baseball

He is painting the box

He is walking home

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9.2.2)

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Present Continuous (Negative):

She is not dancing now. isn´t

He is not reading now. isn´t

He is not studying now. isn´t

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9.2.3)

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Present Continuous (Interrogative):

Is she dancing now ? Yes, she is.

Are they eating dinner now ? Yes, they are.

Is she sleeping now ? No, she isn´t She´s skating now. Page 70


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LET´S PRACTICE NOW!

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Complete the sentences using a suitable verb from the list in the Present Continuous. CLEAN WORK WASH STUDY WRITE HAVE SLEEP DO READ GO LISTEN PLAY EAT COOK DRINK HAVE WATCH BRUSH WORK PLAY HAVE TAKE PLAY GO

1

2

1. What is Mary doing? She is ____________________ her essay. 2. My grandma ______________ a book at the moment. 3. Their mother________________________ dinner.

3

4. Tom_______________________ for a walk with his dog.

4

5. Mary helps her mother with the housework. At present, she_____________________ the dishes. 6. Tom _________________________to music.

5

7. Henry__________________________ to school now. 8. Where is Barry? He _______________________the guitar. 9. It’s lunch time now and Bill______________________ the 6

sandwich. 10. She is not doing her homework now.

7

She_______________________ computer games. 11. They have a break now. They_____________________ coffee. 8

12. Sam____________________________ TV now. 13. What they are doing? They_______________________ shopping.

9

14. She isn’t at home right now. She_________________ at her office. 10

11

12

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14

13

Spelling rule for ING words: Ing means continuing to; as talking, continuing to talk. The following words, in taking their suffix, double the final letter. The last letter is doubled when the word ends with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel:

Plan - ning / win - ning / stop - ping

What are these people doing?

They are ____________.

She is ___________.

She is ___________.

He is _____________.

He is _____________.

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Present Continuous and Sports 1) Write the sports: football, tennis, volleyball, badminton, baseball, basketball, boxing, golf

a) __________

b) ________

e) _________

f) __________

2) Write what they are doing:

c) _________

g) __________

d) ___________

h) _________

hitting, kicking, swimming, running, throwing,

catching, holding, jumping

a) She is _________.

b) He is _________ the ball.

c) She is ________

d) He is __________.

the ball.

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e) They are ____________.

f) She is _________ the ball.

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g) He is __________ the ball.

h) He is __________ the ball.

3) Look again at the previous pictures and make the correct questions: a) __________ playing golf ? No, she isn´t. She ______________ swimming. b) __________ running ? No, he isn´t. He _____________________baseball. c) __________ playing rugby ? No, she isn´t. She ______________________. d) __________ playing soccer ? No, he isn´t. He _______________________. e) ____________________ ? Yes, they are. They _______________ volleyball. f) __________ playing softball ? Yes, she is. She _______________________. g) __________ playing basketball ? No, they aren´t. They _________________. h) __________ swimming ? No, he isn´t. He ____________________________.

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CHALLENGING WRITING ACTIVITY: I.

You are on holiday. At the moment you are at the park. Look at the picture and write a letter describing what are people doing.

Dear Ann: I’m having a great time here , right now I’m sitting under a tree and there is / are: ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................

Love ................................

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TOPIC

9.3) Past Continuous (Was, were + When + Simple Past)

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SUB-TOPIC

STRUCTURE

9.3.1) Affirmative

I was walking down the street when I saw you

9.3.2) Negative

He wasn´t sleeping when you called.

9.3.3) Interrogative

Were they eating when you arrived?

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9.3) PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE: THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE depicts actions in progress at a definite time in the past. We use the Past Continuous to say that somebody was in the middle of doing something before now. He was working hard at 4 o’clock last Monday. » WHILE is used for two or more actions that were happening at the same time in the past Our mother was doing the housework while we were sleeping.

ACTIONS IN PROGRESS

SIMULTANEOUS ACTIONS

The past continuous is also used to talk about an action that was in progress in the past and was interrupted by another past action. The phone rang when I was having a shower. While we were walking home, it started to rain.

We can use this tense to talk about two actions that were in progress at the same time. While my mother was cooking lunch, my father was reading the newspaper. They were waiting at the station while their friends were looking for a taxi.

DOUBLE CONSONANT RULE: One syllable verbs ending in one consonant preceded by one vowel double the final consonant. Run- running Sit – sitting 

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PAST CONTINUOUS MIND MAP

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Past Continuous (Affirmative):

The mouse was eating a piece of cheese in the morning.

They were looking at each other with love last night.

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Past Continuous (Negative):

This man was not convincing his boss with his new idea.

The woman was not cooking while she was talking.

Lily and Anna were not doing their homework in the afternoon.

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Past Continuous (Interrogative):

Was he watching TV all night ? Yes, he was.

Were they planting tress last week ? Yes, they were.

Was she singing in the morning ? No, she wasn´t. She was baking a cake yesterday.

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW!

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Write what they were doing at 5 oâ€&#x;clock yesterday: 1. I ________________ chess with Dan.

5. We ________________ sandwiches.

2. Mum __________________ a letter.

6. He ______________ to some music.

3. The children _____________ a cake.

7. You _________________ your bike.

4. Lisa _______________ the bedroom.

8. The Browns ________________ TV.

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WHAT WERE THEY DOING WHILE‌?

I.

Look at the pictures above and complete the chart below filling the blanks with the correct form of the Past Continuous Tense.

II.

Now, change the sentences from the previous exercise into negative form:

1.- _______________________________

4.- _______________________________

2.- _______________________________

5.- _______________________________

3.- _______________________________

6.- _______________________________

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I was sleeping. What were they doing yesterday? she was‌ reading

sleeping

swimming

listening to music

taking a shower

cooking dinner

eating breakfast

watching TV

washing clothes

6:30 am

8:30 am

10:30 am

12:30 pm

2:30 pm

4:30 pm

6:30 pm

8:30 pm

10:30 pm

12:30 am

1. At 6:30 am ___she was sleeping.___ 2. At 8:30 am __________________________________________________________ 3. At 10:30 am __________________________________________________________ 4. At 12:30 pm __________________________________________________________ 5. At 2:30 pm __________________________________________________________ 6. At 4:30 pm __________________________________________________________ 7. At 6:30 pm __________________________________________________________ 8. At 8:30 pm __________________________________________________________ 9. At 10:30 pm __________________________________________________________ 10. At 12:30 am __________________________________________________________

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What were you doing at … yesterday? 6:30 am

8:30 am

10:30 am

12:30 pm

2:30 pm

4:30 pm

6:30 pm

8:30 pm

10:30 pm

12:30 am

I was sleeping at 6:30 am. I was… at 8:30 am. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Follow the structure I ate popcorn while I was watching a movie.

I was watching a movie when I ate popcorn.

1. He (call) me while we (have) a meeting.

1. I (eat) when the phone (ring).

1. He ____________________________ a

1. I ________________________________.

meeting.

2. I (walk) when it start to rain.

2. She (dance) while we (sing).

2. I _______________________________ to

2. She __________________________.

rain.

3. He (turn on) the lights while we (sleep)

3. I (shop) when I meet her.

3. He ___________________________.

3. I ____________________________ her.

4. He (get) hurt while we (play).

4. We (argue) when the doorbell ring.

4. He ____________________________.

4. We _______________________________.

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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

9.4.1) Affirmative 9.4) Simple Present 9.4.2) Imperative ("s/es”) & (Do / Does) 9.4.3) Negative 9.4.4) Interrogative

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STRUCTURE

I eat fruit / She eats apples Eat your lunch! I don´t like eggs. Do you like onions?

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9.4) SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

(+)

S + Infinitive *(-s)

(-)

S + don’t / doesn’t + Infinitive

(?)

Do / Does + S + Infinitive?

Uses:  Habits and Routines Jane always studies in the library  To talk about true facts Water boils at 100¨C  Permanent situations They don’t live in London any more.  With State Verbs* I don’t understand the text  To form the 0 and 1st Conditionals If she doesn’t come, we won’t go out.

Common words: FREQUENCY ADVERBS: always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, seldom, hardly ever, never

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TIME EXPRESSIONS: nowadays, every day, once a week, from time to time, in summer, on Mondays, etc

Uses: You use the Present Simple when you want to talk about something you do regularly. “I usually catch the bus.” To talk about facts that are generally true. “The sun rises every day.” Affirmative

Negative

 I / You / We / They wake up at 7 o´clock.  He / She/ It wakes up at 7 o´clock

 I / You / We / They don´t wake up at seven o´clock.  He / She/ It doesn´t wake up at seven o´clock

You can also use the present simple when you want to talk about your thoughts and feelings at the present moment. “I don't want to feel as if you don't like me.”

Interrogative Do I / You / We / They wake up at seven o´clock?  Does He / She/ It wake up at seven o´clock?

Short answers  yes, I/we/they do No, I / we/ they don´t.  Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she / it doesn´t.

Time expressions: on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday… at night, at the weekend in the evening, in the morning, in the afternoon every day, week, weekend, month, year, summer, Sunday, afternoon once a day, a week, a month, a year

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Frequency Adverbs

Form:

Uses:

Always, usually, often, sometimes, often, usually, always.

NEVER

HARDLY EVER

RARELY

SOMETIMES

They indicate how often something occurs and are generally used with Present Simple.

OFTEN

USUALLY

ALWAYS

100 %

0%

Position: We usually put these adverbs: Before full verbs: drive, say, feel. After the verb be.

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE STRUCTURE

Positive

+

Negative -

Interrogative ?

I You

eat eat

I You

don’t eat don’t eat

Do I eat? Do you eat?

He She It

eats eats eats

He She It

doesn’t eat doesn’t eat doesn’t eat

Does he eat? Does she eat? Does it eat?

We eat You eat They eat

We don’t eat You don’t eat They don’t eat

Do we eat? Do you eat? Do they eat?

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE MIND MAP

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9.4.1) Simple Present Tense (Affirmative):

AFFIRMATIVE I read You read He She

reads

It We

read

They read

I We

Complement

You They I drive my car to work every day. We drive my car to work every day. You drive my car to work every day. They drive my car to work every day.

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Third Persons

SPELLING RULES TO ADD ( S ):

Spelling rules 3rd person singular

visit – visits

With verbs endings: With verbs –s/ -ss/-sh/-ch/ x, add - es

tell – tells

fish – fishes

write – writes

watch – watches

Most verbs add - s

dress – dresses

With verbs endings: cons. + y

Remember!

- ies

go - goes

fly – flies

do - does

cry – cries

have - has

Exception: vowel + y ys play - plays

The Chef cooks Italian food.

The dog bites the man.

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DAILY ROUTINES

I always get up at 7:00 am.

I go to the bathroom and wash my face at 7:10 am.

After that, I have breakfast with my family at 7:30 am.

Finally, I go to school at 8:00 am.

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9.4.2) Simple Present Tense (Imperative):

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9.4.3)

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Simple Present Tense (Negative):

Negative I don‟t read You don‟t read He She doesn‟t read It We don‟t read They don‟t read

A plumber doesn´t take care of sick people. He

Doctors don´t fix pipes. They

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9.4.4)

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Simple Present Tense (Interrogative):

Interrogative Do I read ? Do you read ? he Does

she

read ?

it Do we read ? Do they read ?

Does a baker build houses ? No, he doesn´t.

Do architects put out fires ?

He bakes bread.

They build houses.

No, they don´t.

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Open Questions (Wh?) and The Simple Present Tense:

What do they like for dinner ? They like coffe and cake for dinner.

What does he like to eat ? He likes pizza, hamburgers, and lemonade.

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW!!!

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MATCH THE SENTENCES WITH THE RIGHT PICTURES: 1. My father usually wakes me up at a quarter past seven. 2. I get up and I go to the bathroom. 3. I wash my face. 4. Then I brush my teeth. 5. I go back to my bedroom and I get dressed. 6. It’s time to have breakfast. I go to the kitchen and I eat breakfast. I often eat cereal and drink a glass of orange juice. 7.I start school at half past eight. 8. When I arrive home, I do my homework. 9. Then, I listen to some music. 10. At five o’clock, I go to my bedroom and I study my lessons for the next day. 11. Before dinner, I have a bath. 12. Mom serves dinner at half past eight. 13. Then I watch TV. 14. I usually go to bed at ten o’clock and my father reads for me. I love listening to stories.

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Choose the correct option to complete each sentence about Nathan’s routine.

1

Nathan usually ………. at seven o’clock on weekdays.

a) wakes up b) gets up c) gets dressed

4

Next, he ……….

a) gets on the bus. b) combs his hair. c) brushes his teeth.

7

From eight till half past noon he ……….

a) eats lunch. b) rides his bike. c) has classes.

10

Next he ………. and studies his lessons.

a) eats lunch. b) rides his bike. c) does his homework.

2

Then he goes to the bathroom and ………..

a) eats breakfast. b) goes to school. c) takes a shower.

5

At about half past seven he goes to the kitchen and ……….

a) eats breakfast. b) watches TV. c) studies.

8

Then he goes to the school canteen and ……….

a) goes home. b) has lunch. c) plays with his friends.

11

At seven o’clock he ………. with his family.

a) goes to sleep. b) eats dinner. a) rides his bike.

3

After that he goes back to his room and ……….

a) gets dressed. b) combs his hair. c) does his homework.

6

At a quarter to eight he ………. by bike.

a) eats dinner. b) goes to school. c) goes to bed.

9

At half past three he ……….

a) goes back home. b) listens to music. c) takes a shower.

12

At half past nine he ……….

a) goes to sleep. b) listens to music. c) prepares his supper.

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SIMPLE PRESENT AND FREQUENCY ADVERBS ALWAYS √√√√√ USUALLY √√√√ OFTEN √√√ SOMETIMES √√ RARELY √ NEVER X I always play football on Mondays. Do you always play football on Mondays? I never play football on Mondays.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form: 1. I ……………... ( play) football every day. 2. We ………….…. (like) ice cream. 3. She ………….…. (swim) in the pool in the evening. 4. My friends ……………… (go) to the cinema on Sundays. 5. My father …………….. (come) home at seven o’clock.

Complete the sentences with don‟t or doesn‟t: 1. I ………… go to bed at ten o’clock. 2. Tom ………. tidy his room on Fridays. 3. Alice …….... have lunch at 12 o’clock. 4. Jack and Dan …….…. play computer games in the afternoon. 5. Children ………… go to school on Sundays.

Complete the sentences with do or does: 1. ……. they play football every day? 2. What time …... you get up? 3. What …… he do at five o’clock? 4. When …… Bob have a shower? 5. Where …… you go after classes?

How many true sentences can you make: sometimes … in the morning I usually … in the afternoon always … in the evening never ... at night

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SIMPLE PRESENT AND PROFESSIONS

A surgeon (1) performs operations in hospitals.

A lawyer (2) people in court.

A flight attendant (4)______ drinks and food on a plane.

Complete the blanks with

____________

A plumber (3)____________ toilets and water pipes.

A porter (5) ____________ suitcases and bags.

the correct form of the verbs.

An optician (6) ____________ people`s sight.

A nurse (8)________________ sick people.

Type

Look after

Bake

Defend

Write

Test

Design

Stop

Perform

Repair

Carry

Serve

A baker (7) ______________ bread and cakes.

A fire fighter (9)__________ fires burning.

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1. Hi. I (be) _____ Bill. I (be) _____ an artist! I (take) _____ excellent pictures. Everybody (say) _____ that my photos (look) _____ amazing. I (think) _____ so too. I (not believe) _____ in modesty. I (believe) _____ in hard work.

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A) Fill in the correct form of the verbs in brackets (use the Present Simple). B) Match the texts to pictures

2. This (be) _____ Adam. He (live) _____ in a cave with his wife Eve. He (have) _____ two children. Every morning he (go) _____ to the woods and fields and (hunt) _____ animals for his family. He (not cook) _____, his wife (do) _____ this job. They (like) _____ living in Eden. 3. I (love) _____ climbing trees! I (do) ____ it very often. Sometimes, I just (sit) _____ there and (enjoy) _____ the view. But in most cases, I (look for) _____ nice, fresh leaves to eat. Eating leaves (give) _____ me the energy I (need) _____ to survive. 4. Look at Jane! She (be) _____ so happy! She (be) _____ engaged to be married. She (have) _____ lots of plans for the wedding. She (want) _____ a fancy white dress to match the fancy diamond ring she (love) _____ so much. Oh! She also (like) _____ her future husband. I hope... 5. Lisa (be) _____ very talented. She (work) _____ hard because she (want) _____ to be a ballerina. She (look) _____ beautiful when she (dance) _____. Some people (say) _____ that dancing (not be) _____ a real job. But Lisa (not listen) _____ to them. She (love) _____ it! 6. Hi! I (be) _____ Tom. I (be) _____ 11 years old and I (live) _____ in New York. I (have) _____ many dreams for the future. (you, know) __________ what's my biggest dream? I (want) _____ to win a gold medal in the Olympics for the 100 meter sprint. I (love) _____ running! 7. You (not want) _____ to mess with me! I (not be) _____ afraid of anything! They (call) _____ me Jack the Dreadful Pirate because everybody (scream) _____ when they (see) _____me. Hey! Don't tell anyone, I (not kill) _____ people, I just (make) _____ a lot of noise‌ 8. Rosie (live) _____ in a farm. She (not like) _____ the city life. She (prefer) _____ quiet places. Every morning she (wake up) _____ at 6 o'clock and (go) _____ to the chicken coop. After she (gather) _____ the eggs, she (rush) _____ back home and (cook) ____ breakfast. 9. Susie (not have) _____ too much free time. She (work) _____ every day because she (be) _____ very popular. She (know) _____ how to cut hair and people (like) _____ her because she (be) _____ friendly. She always (tell) _____ me I (have) ____ great hair. I (like) _____ her too. 10. Whenever I (feel) _____ down or worried, I (climb) _____ a tree, (sit) _____ on a branch and (calm down) _____. I (close) _____ my eyes and (try) _____ to clean my head. If I (not fall) _____ from the tree, it (work) _____. I (feel) _____ lighter and happier. Crazy, ha?!

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BIG CHALLENGE ACTVITY !!!

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AT THE RAILWAY STATION Proffesor Roberts and his wife are at the station at last.His wife is not travelling,she is seeing her husband off. The Proffesor is nervous,becouse there were no taxi and they were almost late. This train does not usually arrive on time, but today it is already waiting at platform four.There are many passengers on the platform and in the train. While the Proffesor is checking once more his passport, railway ticket and money, his wife is telling him to be careful and the ticket-collector is telling him to get on. Proffesor Roberts kisses his wife good-bye, gets on the train and it starts to pull out of the station. Proffesor Roberts is now on his way to Britain. -

When does the next train for London leave? At 7:45 p.m. You’ve got plenty of time. I’d like to buy two return tickets for this train. For which class? First class,non-smokers, please. Here you are, sir! The train leaves from platform № 3. Translate to your language

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

A passenger……………….. A seat……………………… A ticket…………………… A stop……………………. A delay…………………… A timetable………………. first class………………. second class…………… non-smokers……………. Return ticket……………. Passenger train………….. Express train…………….. Waiting room…………… A carriage……………….. A sleeper………………… A dining-car…………….. A compartment………….

COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING USING THE RIGHT FORM OF THE VERBS:

TERMS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

A railway system A railway line A railway junction Railway transport Railway=railroad Anarrow-gauge line A broad-gauge line A railwayman = a railroader

Mr.Black and his wife\ be\ ….. at the Heathrow Airport. They\expect\…….. their friend Professor Roberts from Sweden.They\ get\……. his telegramme a couple of days ago and they\ know\………. the date and the hour of his arrival.The plane from Sweden\land\………. on time. The passengers\come\……..out but the Proffesor\be\…… not among them.So they\ go\……….. to the Information desk to ask about him. They\look\…….around once more and then\drive\……… .home. To their surprise,when they\get\……..back home they\ find\………Professor Roberts with his luggage in front of their house. The Professor usually\travel\……………to Britain by plane,but this time\decide\……….to travel by train. So, as usual, his friends\ go\………..to meet him at the airport, but naturally, he \ be\………..not there. Page 109


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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

10.1) Can ( for ability ) The baby can wave. 10) Can

10.2) Can ( for request Can I have some birthday or permission ) cake? 11.1) and

I´ve got a pen and a pencil

11.2) but

She likes it, but I don´t

11.3) or

Do you want baskets or boxes?

11) Conjunctions

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10)

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CAN

Can is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use can to:   

talk about possibility and ability make requests ask for or give permission

Structure of Can

subject + can + main verb The main verb is always the bare infinitive (infinitive without "to").

Form Subject Auxiliary Verb Main Verb

Comp.

+

I

can

play

tennis.

-

He

cannot

play

tennis.

play

tennis?

can't ?

Can

you

Notice that:  

Can is invariable. There is only one form of can. The main verb is always the bare infinitive.

It´s impossible to say: He can to eat. He can eat is good enough to understand the meaning.

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10.1)

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Can (Possibility and Ability)

We use can to talk about what is possible, what we are able or free to do:  She

can drive a car.  John can speak Spanish.  I cannot hear you. (I can't hear you.)  Can you hear me? Normally, we use can for the present. But it is possible to use can when we make present decisions about future ability. a) Can you help me with my homework? (present) b) Sorry. I'm busy today. But I can help you tomorrow. (future)

He can read very well.

He can´t sing very well.

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10.2)

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Can (Request or Permission)

can: Requests and Orders We often use can in a question to ask somebody to do something. This is not a real question - we do not really want to know if the person is able to do something, we want them to do it! The use of can in this way is informal (mainly between friends and family):   

Can you make a cup of coffee, please. Can you come here a minute. Can you be quiet!

Can you put the TV on ?

can: Permission We sometimes use can to ask or give permission for something: A. Can I smoke in this room? B. You can't smoke here, but you can smoke in the garden. (Note that we also use could, may, might for permission. The use of can for permission is informal.)

Can I swim with you ?

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW !!!

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I.

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Tell me more about yourself. If you are not sure, try it.

Can you whistle ? _______________

Can you touch your nose with your tongue ?

Can you sing ? _______________

_______________

Can you dance ? _______________

Can you jump on one leg ?

Can you bake a cake ?

_______________

_______________

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II.

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Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with Can or Can´t.

×

Maria can ______________ and she _______ dive, but she ___________ ride a bike.

×

Dennis _____________________________________________________________________.

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Look at these sentences (affirmative, negative, interrogative) and write the two missing forms.

1. Tony can play chess. ____________________________________ ____________________________________

Complete the sentences wit can or can’t.

1. Fish ________ live out of the water, because they die. 2. Richard ________ play the guitar, but he ________ play the piano very well.

2. Can you run five kilometres? ____________________________________ ____________________________________

3. Rose is very ill. She ________ go to work today. 4. ________ Alan windsurf? No, he ________, but he ________ swim very well. 5. I need some help with my homework. ________ you

3. Sara can’t swim very well. ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 4. I can speak Japanese. ____________________________________ ____________________________________

help me, please? 6. An ostrich is a bird but it ________ fly. 7. I ________ hear you, there is a lot of noise in the room. 8. If it is sunny tomorrow, we ________ go to the beach. 9. The baby is only six months, so he ________ walk. 10. I’ve got two tickets for the cinema, you ________ come with me if you want.

5. Mary and Tom can’t use a computer. ____________________________________ ____________________________________

11.

How many languages ________ you speak?

12. We are late for school. The door is closed, so we ________ come in.

Write the words in the correct order to make

5. sugar / drink / she / tea / can / without / ?

Sentences:

_____________________________________

1. ride / my / can’t / a / sister / bicycle ______________________________________ 2. you / question / this / understand / can / ? ______________________________________ 3. music / can / Margaret / read ______________________________________ 4. German / your / speak / brother / can’t ______________________________________

6. Karen / play / the / Tomas / and / can / violin ___________________________________ 7. dog / ball / catch / a / your / can / ? ______________________________________ 8. cook / well / can / Alice / very ______________________________________

Page 117 ______________________________________ 9. mother / car / my / can’t / a / drive


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Look at the pictures and answer these questions, as in the example.

Make questions with can and the following words, then give short answers, as in the example.

1. drive a bus / Fred

1. Can John sing? No, he can’t. He can play the trumpet.

Can Fred drive a bus? Yes, he can. 2. very fast / a turtle / run

2. Can the kangaroo fly? ________________________________________

______________________________________ 3. remember / you / his address

3. Can the baby walk? ________________________________________

______________________________________ 4. see / without glasses / your father

4. Can Lisa and George play the guitar?

______________________________________ 5. Susan / three languages / speak

________________________________________ 5. Can Arthur play football?

______________________________________ 6. your parents / play tennis

________________________________________ 6. Can Mary fish?

______________________________________ 7. sleep / your sister / with the lights on

________________________________________ 7. Can Paul drive a car?

______________________________________ 8. Alex and Anne / their keys / find

________________________________________ 8. Can the children cook?

______________________________________ 9. from tree to tree / jump / your cat

________________________________________

2

______________________________________ 10. study / you / ten hours a day

______________________________________

3

9. Can Sammy play chess?

4

________________________________________ 10. Can Elisa swim?

5

6 ________________________________________ 7

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PLAY THE TRUMPET

PLAY DRUMS

DRIVE A CAR

DANCE

FLY

PLAY THE COMPUTER

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PLAY THE GUITAR

SING

COOK Page 119


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11)

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CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction is a word that links words, phrases, or clauses. They may join single words or groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject + subject, verb phrase + verb phrase, sentence + sentence.

For

So And

Nor

But

Yet

Or

EXAMPLES: We have tickets for the concert and the movies.

My husband works full time, but I have a part-time job. Have you heard or seen a ghost before?

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11.1)

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Conjunctions (And)

We use “AND” to join two or more things together. When we use “AND” to join two things together, the verb

We may use “AND” to speak of one person or thing with two qualities.

must be plural.

Examples:

Examples:

 The

- John and Mary are friends. - The elephant and tiger are

policeman

is

brave and kind.  The soldier is tall and young.

large animals.

These apples are red and sweet.

Mr. Stone´s hair is short and curly.

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11.2)

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Conjunctions (But) BUT It is used to join two contrasting ideas. Ex: My father is Spanish, but my mother is French. The subject can also be omitted if it is the same as in the previous sentence. Ex :I like the cinema, but don´t often go.

They are sisters, but they hate each other.

11.3)

Conjunctions (Or) We use “OR” to show that there are two things, but we can choose only one of the two things. Examples: - You can have roast chicken or fried fish. - Which toys do you want, the plastic gun or the wooden train?

Are they friends or sisters ?

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW !!!

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I.

Read each sentence and circle the best option:

II.

Fill in the blanks with the correct word using : “and” / “or”

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III.

1.

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FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH: AND, BUT, OR

Why don't you phone Sue .....................

find out what time

she's coming over tonight? 2.

Secretary to Boss : Do you want anything else .....................

can I go home now? 3.

I love to travel ..................... I hate travelling by bus.

4.

I like living in the city ..................... my brother prefers living in

the country. 5.

I want to go to the party ..................... dance with my friends.

6.

I really hate to have to sell my car ..................... I need the

money. 7.

Are you busy this weekend ..................... do you have some

free time. I need some help! 8.

Is the Empire State Building in New York ..................... London?

9.

We can go by bus ................ we can walk.

10. Mindy

and John are visiting the Eiffel Tower .......... the L`ouvre

today.

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TOPIC

12) Adverbs

SUB-TOPIC

12.1) Common Adverbs

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STRUCTURE

again, now, there, today, too, very

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12) Adverbs An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".

We form most of adverbs (especially adverbs of manner) by adding –ly to their corresponding adjectives. wonderful – wonderfully kind – kindly slow – slowly nice – nicely BUT But there are some rules:

true – truly

 Adjectives which end in consonant + y change the –y to –i and add –ly. heavy – heavily easy – easily  Adjectives which end in –ble or –le change the –e to –y. probable – probably gentle – gently BUT whole – wholly  Adjectives which end in –ic add –ally. tragic- tragically basic – basically BUT

public – publicly

 Adjectives which end in –ll ad –y. full – fully

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There are different types of adverbs:  Adverbs of manner

How?

happily

 Adverbs of place

Where?

here

 Adverbs of time

When?

today

 Adverbs of frequency

How often?

always

 Adverbs of degree

How (adverb)?

very

 Sentence adverbs

How (sentence)?

hopefully

Adverbs of frequency answer the questions beginning with How often…? How often do you go to the theatre? I rarely go to the theatre.

100%

75%

50%

25%

10%

never

hardly ever

seldom

rarely

occasionally

sometimes

often

frequently

always

usually

These are the most common frequency adverbs:

0%

Position These adverbs are placed: 

before the main verb. I usually go out on Saturday nights. I don’t often eat meat.

after the verb to be or auxiliary verbs. She is always late for school. He has never seen that film.

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They tell us how somebody does something. We make them by adding –ly to the adjective (slowly)

They tell us when things happen:

Position:

*I came back last Monday.

-after the verb

Position:

*She dances well or whole expression *Maria dances „tango‟ well

*He replied immediately

-after the verb *She starts Monday.

work

next

-whole expression *She‟s coming back from France next Monday

They tell us where things or people are. Position: after the verb if there isn‟t an object: Peter ran away. After verb+object or verb+preposition+object *I saw Mandy outside the house. *I looked for Mandy outside the house.

They tell us how much something is done. Position: Before the adverb or adjective they modify. *She‟s a very honest person. If they modify a verb, before the main verb: *I ran but almost missed the train

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I.

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Choose an appropriate adverb from the box and complete the sentences. dangerously, carefully, quickly, sleepily,

beautifully, hungrily, slowly, happily

He is driving ___________________________________ .

He is walking ___________________________ .

The turtle walks _________________________________ .

She is walking on the line ____________________________ .

They are dancing _____________________________________.

He is eating _____________________________________ .

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Write the words in brackets in the correct place.

1. I have cereal for breakfast. (usually) __________________________________________ 2. Sandra is going to participate in the competition. (definitely) __________________________________________ 3. I was glad to see Mary after so many years. (really) __________________________________________ 4. We go to the cinema on Saturdays. (hardly ever) __________________________________________ 5. The two girls were talking when I arrived. (happily) __________________________________________ 6. My mother felt tired this morning. (extremely) __________________________________________ 7. I have an appointment with the doctor. (tomorrow) __________________________________________ 8. My brother is complaining about everything. (always) __________________________________________

9. The children played in the afternoon. (upstairs) _________________________________________ 10. Andrew ate his sandwich. (quickly) _________________________________________ 11. The football match had started when we arrived at the stadium. (already) ________________________________________ 12. My sister will go to Egypt in summer. (probably) ________________________________________ 13. Peter and Sam meet every day. (here) ________________________________________ 14. It is impossible that Ann arrives on time. (almost) ________________________________________ 15. The factory workers are on strike. (still) ________________________________________ 16. Karen opened her presents on her birthday. (eagerly) ________________________________________

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Write the words in the correct order and make sentences.

1. often / in the afternoon / go / for a walk / I

9. in front of the TV / comfortably / Mrs. Jones / / is sitting / now

__________________________________________

_________________________________________

2. his dinner / Ben / hungrily / ate / at the restaurant __________________________________________ 3. the classroom / left / noisily / the students /

_ 10. all night / the baby / peacefully / in his cradle /

/ two minutes ago

/ slept

__________________________________________

_________________________________________

4. played / yesterday / the children /in the garden / / happily __________________________________________ 5. carefully / examined / the doctor / the patient __________________________________________

_ 11. always / carefully / her motorbike / rides / Susan _________________________________________ _ 12. very quickly / Janet / her homework /last night / did _________________________________________

6. my father / hard / always / in his office / works __________________________________________ 7. Alex / every day / to school / by bus / goes

_ 13. very / the plane / late / at the airport / arrived _________________________________________

__________________________________________ _ 8. I / go / tomorrow / probably / shopping / will __________________________________________

14. certainly / is / today / to the meeting / going / Paul ________________________________________ 15. my father / in the morning / early / usually / gets up ________________________________________ 16. Pam / wonderfully / at the concert / sang / last night ________________________________________

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Choose for each sentence the appropriate adjective, then complete the sentences with the adverbs of these adjectives.

2

1

1. David was very bad at tennis, but he plays __________ now. 2. Please, drive __________. The road is very wet. (good – bad)

3. I’m a bit worried, the child is playing very __________, I can’t hear him. 4. Let’s run __________.The bus is coming!

3

(dangerous - careful)

4

5. When Lisa got the phone call, she smiled __________. 6. Alison has got new glasses. Now she can see things __________. 7. I saw Tim at the dentist’s. He was sitting __________.

(noisy - quiet)

(slow - fast)

8. Thomas took an umbrella because it was raining __________. 9. Sam arrived at home late last night and his wife was waiting __________. 10.

Eddie works as a chef, but he cooks ________.

11.

Emily didn’t have breakfast so she ate her lunch __________.

12.

Daniel looks sad. I think he did __________ in the exam.

5 6 (happy - sad)

12

11

10

(bad - clear)

9

7

8 (good - bad)

(slow - hungry)

(terrible - good)

(angry - happy)

(quick - heavy)

(nervous - happy)

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EXERCISE 2

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EXERCISE 3 Underline the correct option.

Identify the type of adverb and write M (manner) F (frequency) D (degree)

1-He sings incredible/incredibly well

T (time) P (place) S (sentence adverbs)

2-This story is incredible/incredibly! 3-Lucky/luckily we got there on time.

1-Clearly _____

2-Badly__________

4-He got up immediate/immediately

3-there ______

4-Obviously ______

5-I hard ever/hardly ever drink tea.

5-lately ______

6-Seldom ________

6-Tina rare/rarely goes to the theatre.

7-nearly ______

8-Surely _________

7-I like your sister very/very much.

9-hard _______

10-really _________

8-He probable/probably got lost.

11-Today _____

12-Hopefully ______

9-She didn’t ever/even say goodbye.

13-much _____

14-Joyfully _______

10-Oh dear! I’m terrible/terribly sorry!

15-Actually ___

16-hardly ever _____

11-It’s a terrible/terribly film.

17-upstairs ____

18-well ___________

12-My friend drives too fastly/fast.

19-often ______

20-Apparently _____

13-Marina is a good/well dancer.

21-just _______

22-rather ________

14-Marina dances very good/well.

23-probably ___

24-already _______

15-Fortunate/fortunately I won the match.

25-then ______

26-extremely _____

16-Ann is a very fortunate/fortunately girl

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EXERCISE 4 Rewrite the sentences using the adverb in brackets.

1-Jenny went to the cinema (last night) __________________________________________ 2-I’m sorry about what happened. (terribly) ______________________________________ 3-Prices go up during at Christmas (usually) _______________________________________ 4-I’m sure I’m going to pass the exam. (quite) _____________________________________ 5-Peter plays the piano well (extremely) __________________________________________ 6-Sally hates alcoholic drinks. (definitely) ________________________________________ 7-He started to laugh at me. (suddenly) __________________________________________ 8-We thought about the problem. (carefully) ______________________________________ 9-Mary was tired when she got home. (incredibly) __________________________________ 10-I like watching television. (really) ____________________________________________

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EXERCISE 5 Replace the underlined part of each sentence with one of the following comment adverbs: Frankly / personally / unbelievably / sadly / luckily / generally / hopefully / apparently 1-In my opinion, I think people should work less hours. 2-It is extremely surprising, but I passed my driving test. 3-It’s fortunate that Peter didn’t break his leg when he fell down. 4-To be honest I think you should give up smoking. It’s bad for your health. 5-It is regrettable that we can’t keep you working here due to the economical crisis. 6-It is supposed to be true that you can find a job easily but in practice it is hard. 7-I wish it becomes true that you will win the contest. 8-On average, it takes four or five months to get a driving license.

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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

Have + Object + Infinitive

I have a car to paint.

Has + Object + Infinitive

She has a book to read.

13) Have and Has

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13) Have / Has Have is one of the most common verbs in the English language. It functions in various ways. A. To have as a main verb The verb “to have” implies the meaning of possession. The forms of the verb “to have” are have and has (3rd persons- present singular) and had for the past.

Have is often used to indicate possession (I have) or (I have got). Examples

FORM

Have

Question - ?

"Do you have a car

Positive Answer -

Have got "Have you got a car?"

"Yes I have a car."

"Yes I've got a car."

Negative Answer -

"No I don't have a

"No I haven't got a

No

car."

car."

Yes

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HAVE / HAS GRAMMAR CHART

AFFIRMATIVE

NEGATIVE

SHORT ANSWERS

LONG FORM

SHORT FORM

LONG FORM

SHORT FORM

INTERROGATIVE

I have

I’ve you’ve

I haven’t you haven’t

Have I ?

you have he has

he’s

she has

she’s

it has

it’s

we have

we’ve

you have

you’ve

they have

they’ve

I have not you have not he has not she has not it has not we have not you have not They have not

he hasn’t she hasn’t it hasn’t

Have you ? Has he ? Has she ? Has it ?

Yes, I have Yes, you have

No, I haven’t No, you haven’t

Yes, he has Yes, she has Yes, it has. Yes, we have

No, he hasn’t No, she hasn’t No, it hasn’t No, we haven’t

we haven’t

Have we ?

you haven’t

Have you ?

Yes, you have

No, you haven’t

they haven’t

Have they?

Yes, they have.

No, they haven’t

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW !!!

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I.

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WRITE ‘has’ or ‘have’ ON THE BLANKS AND THEN READ THE SENTENCES.

My sister __________ a small lamp.

The elephant __________ a long trunk.

She _________ a cake.

They ___________ umbrellas.

Tom ___________ many presents.

My dad and I _________ a pet dog.

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I.- Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb “to have”. 1. My brothers all _________ nice cars 2. My friend ________a red dress 3. My father________ a great job. 4. Does he ________ a pet? 5. They are poor,they don't ________ a house 6. My uncle and his wife ________ five children. 7. Does your cousin________a brother? 8. Yes, my cousin ________ a brother 9. My teacher________ an e_mail address 10. They don’t ________ time to waste in playing chess II. Change the sentences to the negative form

1. Samantha has a beautiful cat. ……………………………………………………………… 2.Bob’s teacher has a nice car……………………………………………………………………… 3.We have a lot of friends……………………………………………………………………………… 4.I have a big house………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5.You have a small schoolbag………………………………………………………………………………… III.- Change the sentences to the interrogative form

1. Meg has two sisters…………………………………………………………………………? 2.You have a lot of friends…………………………………………………………………? 3.Samantha has three children…………………………………………………………..? 4.He has a dog…………………………………………………………………………………………? 5.Ann has nice shoes……………………………………………………………………………..? Page 143


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IV.- Fill in the blanks with Have or Has as it belongs:

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TOPIC

SUB-TOPIC

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STRUCTURE

Swimming is good. 14) ING forms as 14.1) For descriptions Nouns I like swimming.

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14.1)

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-ING Forms as Nouns (Descriptions):

Gerund as subject: 

Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.)

When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same. When we use a verb in -ing form more like a noun, it is usually a gerund: 

Fishing is fun.

When we use a verb in -ing form more like a verb or an adjective, it is usually a present participle:  

Anthony is fishing. I have a boring teacher.

EXAMPLES:

Swimming is the best exercise.

Nothing compares to reading.

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SPELLING RULES TO FORM GERUNDS

If there is more than one consonant, just add ING: think + ing

thinking

If there is more than one vowel, just add ING: beat + ing

beating

If there is one vowel and one consonant, and the syllable is stressed, double the consonant and add ING: hit + t + ing

hitting

If there are one or more consonants and E, remove the E and add ING: take + ing

taking

In most other cases, just add ING: study + ing see + ing

studying seeing

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I.

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LOOK AT THE CHART AND MAKE SENTENCES USING LIKE AND DON´T LIKE + ing:

skating Kelly Tom Sarah Ben

v x x v

Playing games x v v x

dancing

singing

v x x v

x v v x

EXAMPLE: KELLY

I LIKE DANCING AND SKATING, BUT I DON’T LIKE SINGING OR PLAYING GAMES.

TOM

SARAH

BEN

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I.

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Choose the suitable form of the verb:

1. You should try ________ (talk) to your boss personally. It would be the most efficient thing to do. 2. Why don’t you try ________ (remove) this stain from the carpet ? 3. After long talks the medical staff stopped ________(protest) 4. I regret ________(inform) you that there had been an accident. 5. I really regret not ________ (join) the sport club. 6. She is a very active person. When she finishes doing her homework she goes on ________ (visit) her friends 7. I would prefer ________(visit) my parents than yours. 8. Can you imagine ________ (be) a totally different person? 9. I cannot miss ________(see) the national championships 10. I love ________(ski) 11. Don’t interrupt me. I’m very busy ________ (finish) the project. 12. Unfortunately he has difficulty in ________ (be) honest. 13. I look forward to ________ (see) you again. 14. In addition to ________ (be) very smart he is also very friendly. 15. I insist on ________(choose) the new president of our club. Page 149


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II.

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Choose AND Circle the suitable form of the verb: GERUND OR INFINITIVE 1. ______ fresh bread every morning is his job.

4. We forced her ______ the medicine.

(A) take (A) Baking (B) To baked (C) Bake

(B) taking (C) to take (D) took

(D) Bakes 5. You had better ______ now. 2. He made a lot of money ______ and ______ houses. (A) to leave (A) buy, sell

(B) leave

(B) buying, selling

(C) leaving

(C) to buy, to sell

(D) to leaving

(D) to buy, selling 6. ______ the burglar, the policeman radioed for help. 3. He is not used ______ on a boat. (A) Watch (A) sail (B) to sail (C) sailing

(B) To watching (C) To watch (D) Watching

(D) to sailing

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7. Don't eat the ______ food. 10. Please help me _____ the rat. (A) spoil

(A) catching

(B) spoiling

(B) caught

(C) spoilt

(C) to catching

(D) to spoil

(D) catch

8. The manager dismissed the clerk, ______ to do the work himself. (A) preferring (B) prefer (C)to prefer

11. He received some ______ news. (A) disturb (B) to disturb (C) disturbing (D) disturbed

(D) to preferring 12. Everyone is eager ______ the class. 9. We hurried there only ______ everyone gone.

A) to attend

(A) find

(B) attending

(B) to find

(C) attend

(C) finding

(D) attended

(D) found

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15) Let´s

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15.1) For expressions

Let´s go to the zoo!

16.1) for an action

Would you like to color that ball?

16.2) polite offering

Would you like some grapes?

16) Would like + Vb. Or Noun

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15) Let´s LET´S We use “let’s” followed by the base form of the verb (infinitive without “to”) when you want to say what you and somebody else can or should do. It´s a way of suggesting things. Let‟s play in the park. The negative is “Let‟s not…” Let‟s not argue about this.

LET ME We use “let me” followed by the base form of the verb (infinitive without “to”): -To make an offer: Let me show you how to do it. Let me help you with the exercises. -To allow somebody to do something: Let Karen come with us this evening. Let your brother wear your jeans today.

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Let´s (Expression):

I´m starving Let´s start eating !

Let´s not fight today! Ok, Fred ?

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW !!!

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Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with the affirmative or negative imperative form of the verbs in brackets or “let´s / let” + the verb in brackets. 1.

“______ (do) your exercises________ (waste) your time!”

2.

“_________ (forget) to water the plants or they will dry.”

3.

“_________ (take) your medicine and ________ (get up) till

you get well.” 4.

“I feel like dancing tonight. __________ (go) to the disco.” –

“O.K.” 5.

“Children, please __________ (make) so much noise. The

baby is sleeping.” 6.

“Ana, _______ (eat) the cake. ______ (wait) until dinner.”

7.

“It´s a nice day today. ________ (have) a barbecue in the

garden.” 8.

“Never _________ (leave) a fire on at night. __________

(remember) to put it out.” 9.

“It´s Mark’s birthday next Sunday.” “–Oh, __________ (buy)

him some presents.” 10.

“_________ (call) me at 7. I’ll be studying for my exam and I

don´t want anybody to interrupt me.” 11.

“I know something about Peter, but _________ (tell)

anybody. It´s a secret.” 12.

“Tim looks sad. “ “-Yes, you are right.” - _________ (ask)

him to come with us to the funfair. 13.

“I don´t understand the lesson very well. ” _______ (worry).

______ (open)your book and ______ me know where you have problems. 14.

“___________ (stop) fighting, please and _______ (go ) into

the classroom.” 15.

____________ (leave) that snake immediately! ________

___________ (touch) it. It might be dangerous.

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I.

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Read the expressions, choose from the box corresponding verb and write it on the dotted line:

the

go play speak have drink clean sing get up wash

set listen to read look swim call

1. Let’s ………. home.

2. Let’s ………. the piano.

3. Let’s ………. dinner.

4. Let’s ………. milk.

5. Let’s ………. cartoons.

6. Let’s ………. the car.

7. Let’s ………. the dishes.

8. Let’s ………. the table.

9. Let’s ………. at the blackboard.

10. Let’s ………….. the radio.

11. Let’s ………. a song.

12. Let’s ………. him.

13. Let’s ………. early.

14. Let’s ………. English.

15. Let’s ………. in the pool.

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16) Would like + Verb or Noun Would is a modal verb and like all others of its kind is followed by the infinitive without 'to' (Note: we consider that the modal verb 'ought to' is a single item, as the word 'ought' does not exist without the word 'to'): Would is often contracted in spoken English to 'd. I'd like to come with you, but I'm busy. He'd sit all day watching the people go by. Would is a very flexible word and has many uses. In Grammar definitions would is briefly mentioned under conditionals and reported speech. In our Grammar Archive see the use of used to and would for expressing habitual actions in the past.

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16.1)

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Would like + Verb or Noun (Common Expressions ):

Common expressions Would + like: This structure is used to talk about things that we want or don't want to do: Yes, I'd like to go with you. I wouldn't like to be outside now. Would rather This structure is used to express preferences: What would you rather do: go to the cinema or stay at home for the evening? I'd rather be poor and happy than rich and sad.

I´d like to go fishing ! Would you like to come? I´d rather staying at home !

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16.2)

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Would like + Verb or Noun (Polite Offering): Requests and offers

You can use would to ask people to do things: Would you do me a favour? Would you mind opening the window? To offer or invite you can use Would you like ‌? Would you like me to get you something while I'm at the shop? Would you like to come with me to the cinema?

Would you like some coffee?

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LET´S PRACTICE NOW !!!

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I.

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Read the sentences, identify the verb and complete the sentences with Let´s:

Would you like to study English?

Let’s study English.

Would you like to do homework?

Let’s …………………….. .

Would you like to cook breakfast?

Let’s …………………….. .

Would you like to drink coffee?

Let’s ……………………..

Would you like to play table tennis? Let’s …………………….. . Would you like to sing a song?

Let’s …………………….. .

Would you like to wait here?

Let’s …………………….. .

Would you like to swim in the pool? Let’s …………………….. . Would you like to color the picture? Let’s …………………….. . Would you like to watch television? Let’s …………………….. . Would you like to go to the party?

Let’s …………………….. .

Would you like to wear jeans?

Let’s …………………….. .

Would you like to walk to the park? Let’s …………………….. . Would you like to read some comics? Let’s …………………….. .

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I.- Fill in the blanks with would or wouldnâ€&#x;t + a verb from the box below. Use short forms wherever you can:

be

buy

enjoy

help

mend

obey

open

start

stop

work

1. I switched on the computer but it .....wouldnâ€&#x;t work.... 2. Mum said she ................................me with my spelling. 3. Dad promised he ...................... my bike. 4. Mrs Smith was angry with Betty because she ................ talking. 5. I thought I .....................................late so I began to run. 6. We got into the car but it ................................... 7. George.................................his dad, so he was punished. 8. We turned the handle, but the door................................ 9. I asked Peter and Susan if ......................the drinks for the party. 10. I knew you ...........................your holiday in Australia.

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II.- Below are some answers, but the questions are missing. Can you complete the questions using would you like + one of the phrases from the box? a cup of tea ice cream for dessert to come shopping to rest

a glass of juice some more noodles to go today to watch it

1. ...Would you like a cup of tea...? Yes please, I’d love one. 2. Where.............................................today? I’d like to go to the zoo. 3. You look tired. .............................................now? Yes, I would. 4. ................................................? I’d prefer a cup of coffee, if that’s OK. 5. I’ve got a new DVD. ...................................................? Yes, I’d love to. 6. ..........................................................? Yes, I’d love that. 7. ............................................................with me this morning? I’m sorry, I can’t - I’m busy this morning. 8. ..........................................................? No, thank you - I’ve had enough.

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III.- Say what you want to have or do, using I‟d like + a phrase from the box. Remember you can say I‟d love... instead, in answer to an invitation:

1. I’m very tired.

...........I‟d like to go to bed........

2. Where’s the post office?

.....................................................

3. I’m rather thirsty.

.......................................................

4. Is there a sports complex nearby? ....................................................... 5. I’m busy just now.

.......................................................

6. Thank you for the invitation.

.......................................................

7. Could you wake me early

.......................................................

8. What would you like for breakfast? .......................................................

a boiled egg and some toast a drink of water to buy some stamps to come to your party to finish this bit of work to go swimming to go to bed to leave at 7.30

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THE END !!!

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Studying English Basics