Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2020 | 04

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The Inflight Magazine for Canadian North

JULAUG 2020 | 04 YOURS TO KEEP

Summer North of Latitude 75

The Hudson Strait Expedition of 1927–28

Ship Time in the Arctic

The Line of Life A natural wonder of the Arctic

PM40050872

o www.arcticjournal.ca



Dear Guest ᑐᕌᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓄᑦ, At Canadian North, the safety and well‐being of our passengers, customers, employees, and all other lives we touch is always our highest priority. All our team members are trained to spot, report and immediately act on any potential safety concerns. As part of our strong safety culture, we have proactively implemented many COVID‐19 precautions over the past months to help keep everyone well at every step of their journey or interaction with us. This includes: · Maintaining physical distancing whenever possible through floor markings, boarding procedures, seating assignments, and building capacity limits. · Frequent, thorough wipe‐downs of our airport and cargo counters, baggage stations and equipment throughout the day. · The use of face coverings by all our employees who serve customers, with face coverings also used by ‘behind‐the‐scenes’ employees when they are not able to physically distance them‐ selves from others. · Placement of plexi‐glass shields and hand sanitizer dispensers at our counters, where possible. · Enhanced grooming of our aircraft and all passenger surfaces with disinfectant wipes and continuous cleaning of our galleys, lavatories, flight decks, and equipment throughout the day. · Fogging of our aircraft at the end of every day with a disinfectant mist. · Continuous cycling of fresh, clean outside air on all our aircraft with HEPA filtration also used on our jet aircraft that captures 99.9 per cent of airborne particles. · The temporary suspension of meal and snack service on our flights, with bottled water service still offered. · Reducing touchpoints by removing non‐essential items from our aircraft, including blankets, pillows, and some of our seat‐pocket materials. In the coming weeks, we will also begin to distribute convenient Canadian North Care Kits to our passengers, which will include a disposable mask, gloves, sanitizing gel and wipes. These are just some of the many steps we have taken. You can find more information on our website at www.canadiannorth.com/cn‐care‐program. We know that our customers and communities are depending on us in all aspects of their lives, so we will continue to do everything we can to ensure that everyone we serve is able to travel and ship with complete peace of mind. The one thing that will never change is our friendly and helpful customer service, so please know we are thinking of you all and hope to see you soon.

Chris Avery President and CEO Canadian North

Chris Avery fE{ ∑KE

Johnny Adams ÷i ≈bu Executive Chairman of the Board, Canadian North ᐃᓱᒪᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᒃᓯᕙᐅᑕᕆᔭᐅᔪᖅ ᑲᑎᒪᔨᓂ, ᑲᓃᑎᐊᓐ ᓄᐊᑦ

ᑲᓖᑎᐊᓐ ᓄᐊᔅᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᖏᓂ, ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᖁᑎᑦᑕ, ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᔭᖅᑐᕐᐸᒃᑐᖁᑎᑦᑕ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑦᑕ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᒃᑯᓕᒫᑦ ᐋᓐᓂᖅᑎᑕᐅᑦᑕᐃᓕᕙᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᓄᐃᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᑎᑕᐅᓂᖏᑦ ᖁᑦᑎᖕᓂᖅᐸᐅᑎᑦᓱᑎᒍ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐸᐅᑎᒋᐊᖅᐸᒃᑲᑦᑎᒍ. ᑕᒪᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖅᑎᒌᒃᑐᖁᑎᕗᑦ ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᔭᐅᓯᒪᒻᒪᑕ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᓯᒪᓕᕈᓐᓇᕆᐊᒧᑦ, ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕆᐊᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᑲᐅᑎᒋᕙᒋᐊᒥᒃ ᖃᓄᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᖃᓄᐃᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᔭᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᕐᓄᑦ ᐊᒃᑐᐃᓂᕐᓗᒍᑎᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ. ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᑎᑦᓱᒋᑦ ᓴᖖᒋᓂᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᓄᐃᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕋᓯᕆᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ, ᐃᑲᔪᕐᓂᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᓱᑎᒃ ᑕᖅᑭᓂ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᓂ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕋᑦᑕ ᐊᒥᓱᐃᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐳᕝᕕᕆᓇᖅᑐᐊᓗᒃ ᓄᕙᒡᔪᐊᕐᓇᖅ 19ᒧᑦ ᐊᐃᑦᑐᕐᓗᒃᑎᑦᑎᑦᑕᐃᓕᒪᔾᔪᑎᓂᒃ ᑭᒃᑯᓕᒫᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖏᓂ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᖃᖅᐸᓐᓂᖏᓐᓂ. ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓚᖃᖅᐳᑦ: · ᑎᒥᒃᑯ ᐊᓯᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᖓᓯᒃᓯᓯᒪᐃᓐᓇᕋᓱᒃᐸᓐᓂᖅ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖖᒋᑐᐊᕌᖓᑦ ᒪᓕᒃᐸᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᓇᑎᕐᓂ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓂᐅᔪᑦ, ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒧᑦ ᐃᑭᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᕐᒥ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕈᓯᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃᒃ, ᐃᒃᓯᕚᕐᕕᒃᓴᕆᔭᐅᑎᑕᐅᔪᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᒡᓗᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᖃᔅᓯᓂᒃ ᐃᑎᖅᓯᒪᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᓄᑦ ᑭᒡᓕᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᔾᔪᑎᐅᔪᓂᒃ. · ᐊᑯᓚᐃᑦᑐᒥᒃ, ᓇᐅᒃᑯᓕᒫᖅ ᐃᓗᐊᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᑦᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᓯᔭᐅᕙᒃᑐᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᕐᕕᖏᑕ, ᐱᖁᑎᓕᕆᕝᕖᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᖃᕐᕕᐅᔪᑦ ᐊᓪᓚᖅᑎᒐᐅᕙᓐᓂᖓ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᔾᔪᑎᓄᑦ ᐅᓪᓗᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓᓂᑕᒫᑦ. · ᓴᑉᓗᓯᒪᕙᒋᐊᖃᖅᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᓕᒫᕗᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᕋᖅᐸᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᔪᒪᔪᓂᒃ, ᓴᑉᓗᓯᒪᒋᐊᖃᖅᑎᑕᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃᓗ ‘ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᓇᑎᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᕐᕕᓐᓃᑉᐸᑦᑐᑦ’ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑦᑕ ᑎᒥᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᓯᒥᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᖓᓯᒃᓯᓯᒪᒋᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᑐᐊᕌᖓᑦ. · ᐃᓕᐅᖅᑲᐃᓯᒪᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᖓᓛᖖᒍᐊᓂᒃ ᓴᑉᓗᒃᓴᓕᐊᖑᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒡᒐᒻᒧᑦ ᖁᕕᕐᕈᐃᔭᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᓵᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᕐᕕᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓂ, ᐱᑕᖃᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᔪᓐᓇᑐᐊᕈᑦᑕ. · ᐱᐅᓯᒋᐊᖅᑎᓯᒪᓕᕐᓗᑎᒍᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓕᒫᓄᑦ ᐃᓂᒋᔭᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᖁᐱᕐᕈᐊᓛᖏᔭᐅᑎᓄᑦ ᐊᓪᓚᕈᑎᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑕᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᖅᑕᐅᕙᓪᓕᐊᕙᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᐃᓄᖃᖅᐸᒃᑐᓂ, ᖁᐃᔭᖅᑐᕐᕕᓐᓂ, ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒧᑦ ᐃᑭᕙᓪᓕᐊᕕᖕᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᖃᕐᕕᐅᔪᓂ ᐅᓪᓗᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᑕᒫᑦ. · ᐳᔪᖅᑎᑦᑎᔾᔪᑎᓂᒃ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᔾᔪᑎᐅᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖁᐱᕐᕈᐃᔭᐅᑎᓄᑦ ᑎᖕᒥᑳᕐᕕᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐅᑉᓗᑕᒫᑦ ᐃᓱᓕᑐᐊᕌᖓᑦ. · ᐊᑕᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᓯᓚᒥᖖᒑᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᐊᓂᖅᓵᖅᑐᒐᔅᓴᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓪᓗᑕ ᑕᒪᐃᓐᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕆᔭᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ, ᐊ ᑐᖅᐸᒃᓗᒋᑦ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᕙᓪᓕᐊᔾᔪᑏᑦ HEPA-ᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᓱᐴᔫᓖᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᓂᖃᖅᐸᒃᑐᓂᒃ 99.9 ᐳᕐᓴᓐᑎᓪᓗᖓᓂᒃ ᐊᓂᖅᓵᕐᑐᒐᔅᓴᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖃᖅᐸᒃᓱᑎᒃ ᓴᓗᒪᐃᓐᓂᐅᔪᓂᒃ. · ᐊᑕᐃᓐᓇᕐᑎᑕᐅᓂᐊᕋᓂ ᓂᕆᔭᒃᓴᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑕᒧᐊᔭᒃᓴᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᓄᖅᑲᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᕗᒍᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓗ ᐃᒥᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑦᑏᓐᓇᕐᓗᑕ. · ᐊᒥᓲᔪᓐᓃᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᕐᓯᒪᓪᓗᑕ ᐊᒃᑐᖅᑕᐅᒐᔪᑦᑐᔅᓴᓂᒃ ᐲᔭᐃᓂᖅᑎᒍᑦ ᑕᐃᒪᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᓪᓚᕆᒐᑎᒃ ᓱᓇᖁᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑕ ᐃᓗᐊᓐᓂ, ᐱᖃᓯᐅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᕿᐲᑦ, ᐊᑭᑏᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓚᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐴᕐᕕᒃᓴᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᐅᖅᑲᕐᑕᐅᓯᒪᕙᑦᑐᓂᒃ. ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂ, ᑐᓂᐅᖅᑲᐃᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᐊᕋᑦᑕ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᑑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑲᓃᑎᐊᓐ ᓄᐊᔅᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᒐᔅᓴᖁᑎᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ, ᐃᓗᓕᖃᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᑕᑰᕐᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᓱᑎᒃ ᓴᑉᓗᓂᒃ, ᐊᒡᒑᓐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒡᒐᒻᒧᑦ ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᔾᔪᑎᓂᒃ ᑭᓂᐸᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓪᓚᕈᑎᔅᓴᓂᒃ. ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᐃᓚᐃᓐᓇᕆᒻᒪᒋᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᐊᓘᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᓯᒪᓕᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᓂᒃ ᑐᓴᒐᔅᓴᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᕆᑕᐅᔭᑎᒍᑦ ᐱᑐᒃᓯᒪᕝᕕᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐊᕐᕕᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᐳᓯ ᐅᕙᓂ www.canadiannorth.com/cn-care-program . ᖃᐅᔨᒪᒐᑦᑕ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᖁᑎᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᓂᕆᐅᕝᕕᒋᔭᐅᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᑦ ᑕᒪᐃᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᑎᔅᓴᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᐊᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ, ᑕᐃᒪᓕ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᑕᒪᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᕋᕐᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᕗᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓐᓇᖅᑎᑕᐅᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕐᓂᐊᕋᑦᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓪᓚᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᒃᑕᖏᓂᒃ ᐃᓱᒫᓗᒍᑎᖃᕆᐊᖃᕐᓇᑎᒃ. ᐊᑕᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᐊᖖᒋᒻᒪᕆᒃᑲᑦᑕ ᐃᒪᓐᓇ ᑐᖖᒐᓇᖅᑑᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᓱᑕ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᕋᕐᓂᕆᕙᑦᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ, ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓂᐊᖅᐳᓯ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᑦᑎᐊᕋᑦᑎᒋᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᓚᒻᒥᒃ ᑕᑯᖃᑦᑕᐅᑎᓂᐊᕐᒥᒐᑦᑕ.

ᑯᕆᔅ ᐄᕗᕆ ᐃᒃᓯᕙᐅᑕᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ ᑲᓃᑎᐊᓐ ᓄᐊᑦ


ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᑉ ᐅᔾᔨᕆᔭᐅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖓ Employee Spotlight | Iqqanaijaqtiup Ujjirijautitauninga

ᐋᓕᒃᓵᓐᑐᕐ ᖃᑦᓗᑦᓯᐊᖅ | Alexander Kadlutsiak ᐃᒡᓗᓕᒃ, ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥᐅᑕᑦᓴᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ, ᐋᓕᒃᓵᓐᑐᕐ

Originally from Igloolik,

ᖃᑦᓗᑦᓯᐊᖅ ᓄᒃᑎᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᕗᑦ ᓄᓇᖃᓕᖅᓱᓂᓗ

Nunavut,

ᓴᓂᕋᔭᖕᒥ.

Kadlutsiak moved to and

ᐋᓕᒃᓵᓐᑐᕐ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᓯᒪᓕᕐᐳᖅ ᑲᓃᑎᐊᓐ

lives in Sanirajak (Hall

ᓄᐊᔅᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᓕᕆᔨᖏᓐᓂ ᑕᐃᒪᖖᒐᓂᑦ

Beach).

ᐅᒃᑐᐱᕆ 18, 2016-ᒥᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᐊᓂ ᐃᑲ-

Alexander has been with

ᔪᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᒥᓂ ᖁᕝᕙᖕᓂᖅᓴᒧᑦ

Alexander

Canadian North since

ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᕆᔭᐅᓕᓚᐅᖅᓱᓂ

October 18, 2016 as a

ᐅᑭᐅᖑᓕᕐᑐᒃ ᒪᕐᕉᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᐊᓂ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᔨᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᒡᓗᓕᒃᒥ, ᐊᑕᐃᓐᓇᐅᔭᖅᑐᒥᒃ

Station Attendant and

ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᓯᒪᓕᕋᒥ ᑲᒻᐸᓂᒃᑯᖓᓐᓂ. ᐱᓕᒻ-

was promoted two years

ᒪᒃᓴᔭᐅᓯᒪᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓚᖃᖅᐳᑦ ᖃᕆᑕᐅᔭᑎᒍᑦ

after as Station Coordi‐

ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᔾᔪᑎᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᐸᒌᖅᑎᑦᑎᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ.

nator in Igloolik, after

ᐅᓪᓗᒥᐅᓕᖅᑐᖅ ᐅᓯᔭᐅᔪᒃᓴᓕᕆᔨᒧᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎ-

diligently working for the

ᒋᔭᐅᕙᓕᓚᐅᕐᑐᖅ ᑕᐃᒪᖖᒐᓂ ᐊᐃᐱᕆ 8,

company. His training

2020-ᒥᑦ ᐱᖓᓱᓂᒃ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᓂᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃ-

includes Advance Ticket‐

ᔭᕆᐊᖅᓯᒪᕙᒃᓱᓂ.

ing Sabre training. He is

ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒃᓴᕆᕙᒃᑕᖏᑦ ᐃᓚᖃᕐᐳᑦ ᐅᓯᔭᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᐅᖅᑲᐃᔨᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᓰᔭᐃᔨᐅᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ

now Cargo Attendant in Iqaluit doing three weeks rotation since

ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓂᒃ, ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᐅᕙᓐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑦᑕᐅᑎᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ

April 8, 2020.

ᐅᓯᔭᐅᔪᒃᓴᓂᒃ. ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖃᕐᐸᒃᑐᖅ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᖃᕆᐊᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑦᑎᐊᕙᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓯᖏᓂᒃ ᐱᖃᑎᐊᓗᒃᑖᕐᓯᒪᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᒻᒥᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᖖᒋᐅᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐳᕌᕕᓐᓯᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᕕᒃᑐᖅᓯᒪᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ. ᐋᓕᒃᓵᓐᑐᕐ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᕆᔭᒥᓂ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕈᑎᖃᑦᑎᐊᒻᒪᕆᒃᓱᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒃᓴᕆᔭᒥᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕐᐸᒃᑐᖅ

His duties involve loading and offloading planes, helping customers with plane tickets, and organizing cargo. He enjoys working with the great people in the company and likes making new friends at work from different provinces and territories.

ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᓪᓗᓂᐅᒃ ᐃᒃᐱᒍᓱᑦᑎᐊᖅᑑᓗᓂ, ᑐᓴᐅᒪᖃᑦᑕᐅᑎᑦᑎᐊᕐᓗᓂᓗ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓱᓂ

Alexander puts his heart and soul into his job and believes that being

ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᖃᑎᖃᖅᐸᓐᓂᖅ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑎᒌᓂᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᑎᐅᓯᒪᕙᓐᓂᖓᑕ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᒥ ᓯᕗᒻᒧᒃᐸᓪ-

understanding, communicating, and working hard as a team helps

ᓕᐊᔪᓐᓂᕐᓄᑦ.

him be successful at his job.

ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᕐᓇᖅ ᐃᓱᓕᓯᒪᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖏᑦ ᐃᓚᖃᖅᐳᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᓄᓇᓯᐅᑏᑦ

His hobbies include fixing vehicles, cleaning and maintaining rifles,

ᐃᑯᒪᖏᓂᒃ, ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐃᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐋᖅᑭᐅᒪᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᖁᑭᐅᑎᓂᒃ, ᐊᖑᓇᓱᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ

hunting, and camping.

ᓄᓇᓕᐊᖅᓯᒪᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ.

If Alexander could have any superpower, he would want to be

ᐋᓕᒃᓵᓐᑐᕐ ᓴᖖᒋᓂᖃᕐᔪᐊᖅᑑᓗᓂ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᖃᕋᔭᕈᓂ, ᐱᕋᔭᒃᓯᒪᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑎᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᒪ-

Sherlock Holmes.

ᒐᔭᕐᑐᖅ ᓲᕐᓗ ᓲᕐᓛᒃ ᕼᐆᓪᒻᔅᑎᑐᑦ. ᐃᓅᓯᖓ ᓲᕐᓗ ᐃᖖᒋᐅᓯᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᑕᕐᕆᔭᒐᔅᓴᑎᑐᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᐅᒪᓂᖃᕋᔭᕐᐸᑦ, ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᕋᔭᕐᓱᓂ

If his life was a song or movie, it would be Art of Drying — Best I Can because “I'm trying my best to keep moving forward, even if it

ᐸᓂᖅᓰᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖅ — ᐱᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᓕᒫᒃᑯᑦ (Art of Drying — Best I Can) means taking second chances, either with a job or anything in life”. ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒍ “ᐱᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᓕᒫᒃᑯᑦ ᓯᕗᒻᒧᒃᐸᓪᓕᐊᓇᓱᒃᑲᒪ, ᑐᒡᓕᕆᔭᖓᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᒃᑲᓐᓂᕆᐊᖃᕋᓗᐊᕈᒃᑯ ᓱᓇᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᕆᔭᓐᓂ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᓱᓇᑐᐃᓐᓇᓂᒃ ᐃᓅᓯᓐᓄᑦ ᑐᕌᖓᔪᓂᒃ”.


From the Flight Deck How do we manage birds? During flight, we need to share the sky with other aircraft, but we also need to share it with the birds. We do our best to find ways to ensure that we are able to do this safely. I’m sure that everyone recalls when the U.S. Airways flight hit some Canada Geese just after takeoff and landed in the Hudson River. That was a rare and extreme case since that aircraft collided with a large flock of large birds. While pilots don’t often have to deal with situations like that, birds are something that we need to consider. What efforts are made to allow aircraft to safely share the sky with birds? Since our aircraft operate at altitudes well above those at which birds fly, we spend most of our time away from the birds. Birds are generally only a concern at lower altitudes during the early stages of our climb and the later stages of our descent. Most birds tend to fly below 10,000 feet, and therefore, pilots have slightly different procedures above and below 10,000 feet. The most obvious difference is that we leave all the external lights on the aircraft turned on when we are flying below 10,000 feet, even during the day. Evidence has shown that birds see the lights and tend to avoid the aircraft. Our aircraft are also equipped with radar equip‐ ment that is used to detect bad weather. Interestingly, this equipment tends to also deter birds so we will operate those systems even in good weather conditions when we expect bird activity to be present. There is even a speed limit that applies when we are flying below 10,000 feet. This reduced speed helps reduce the risk if we do hit a bird. Aircraft are designed with an awareness of the potential of bird strikes — both the air‐ craft itself as well as the engines. Extensive

What efforts are made to allow aircraft to safely share the sky with birds? © eurotravel/istock.com

testing is carried out during the certification process to demonstrate that the aircraft can withstand a bird strike should one occur. A great deal of effort is also made by the individual airports to keep birds away from runways. All airports are required to have a plan in place to address, among other things, bird hazards around the airport. Major airports have staff whose main job is to scare birds away from the airport. The airport ground staff also play a key role in this plan and they devote a large amount of attention to things like grass cutting. Many big airports have lots of grass and that grass needs to be mowed quite frequently. Leaving the grass too tall tends to attract birds that eat the insects that live in taller grass. As well, they try to avoid leaving long trimmings on the ground since those also attract insects, which draws the birds back. The COIVID‐19 pandemic is actually having an interesting impact on the airports too. As you have likely seen yourself, quite often, when you scare a bird off, it returns quickly

to the same spot. To get the bird to move away, and stay away, you must scare it off multiple times. Normally, between the airport staff, and the arriving and departing aircraft, birds get scared away many times in a day. As a result of the recent dramatic drop in aircraft traffic, airports are seeing fewer take offs and landings on a given day — which means there are fewer times that the birds get scared off by aircraft. Consequently, the airport staff must work much harder to keep birds away, and continue to employ techniques such as flares, noise makers, and occasionally, specially trained birds of prey. Pilots also continue to remain vigilant and report bird activity to airport staff so they can respond and keep things safe for our operations. Captain Aaron Speer Vice President, Flight Operations Canadian North If you are curious about a specific topic regarding flying and aircraft operations, let us know what you’d like to learn about and we’ll try to include it in a future column. Email: editor@arcticjournal.ca



Contents

The Inflight Magazine for Canadian North

JULAUG 2020 | 04 YOURS TO KEEP

Summer North of La琀tude 75

The Hudson Strait Expedi琀on of 1927–28

Ship Time in the Arc琀c

July | August 2020 Volume 32, No. 4

8 23

The Line of Life A natural wonder of the Arctic

PM40050872

o www.arcticjournal.ca

L to R: Alex Fine and Black Feather guide Micheil Hill return from Bylot Island back to the sleds. © Bruce Raby

29

Publisher: above&beyond ltd. Managing Editor: Doris Ohlmann doris@arcticjournal.ca Advertising: 613‐257‐4999 Toll Free: 1‐877‐2ARCTIC 1‐877‐227‐2842 (Canada only) advertising@arcticjournal.ca Design: Robert Hoselton, Beat Studios above&beyond ltd., (aka above&beyond, Canada’s Arctic Journal) is a wholly owned subsidiary of First Air, and a media instrument intended solely to entertain and provide general information about the North. The views and opinions expressed in editorial content, advertisements, or by contributors, do not necessarily reflect the views, official positions or policies of First Air, its agents, or those of above&beyond magazine unless expressly stated. above&beyond ltd. does not assume any responsibility for any errors and/or omissions of any content in the publication. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited. We welcome contributions but assume no responsibility for unsolicited material. Send to editor@arcticjournal.ca.

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION RATES Canada US/Foreign 6 issues $30.00 6 issues $45.00 (includes applicable taxes) Send change of addresses to info@arcticjournal.ca or the address in the Publications Mail box below.

Read above&beyond, Canada’s Arctic Journal, online: arcticjournal.ca or issuu.com/Arctic_Journal Visit us on facebook/arcticjournal.ca or www.twitter.com/arcticjournal

18 Features

08

Summer North of Latitude 75

18

Scouting a Shipping Route by Air

All around us was found a host of wildlife, from walrus and muskoxen, to tern, ptarmigan, and weasels. — Text and photos by Nick Newbery

In 1926, the government decided to verify the length of time that the Hudson Strait could be open as a shipping route. — Season Osborne

23 PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40050782 RETURN UNDELIVERABLE CANADIAN ADDRESSES TO: ABOVE&BEYOND LTD. P.O. BOX 20025 CARLETON MEWS CARLETON PLACE ON K7C 3S0 Email: info@arcticjournal.ca

The Line of Life

The line of life, one of the natural wonders of the Arctic, teems with life: polar bears, narwhal, seals, sometimes walrus and perhaps even bowhead whales. — Text and photos by Bruce Raby

29

Ship Time in the Arctic

Like the crumbs set out in a fairy tale, hill after hill beckoned. At each summit, we peered down at the river, shouting through the wind for the magic ship to show herself. — Marian Dodds

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A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

10 Living Above&Beyond 17 Resources 34 Profile Pierre Berton — Alan G. Luke

36 Culture Inuvialuit Day 40 Business Sewing for Survival — Carol Outram 42 Recipe 43 Bookshelf 44 Arctic Trivia Quiz — Alan G. Luke

46 Inuit Forum — Natan Obed, President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami

7


Summer North of Latitude 75 Text and photos by Nick Newbery ne summer I used my Aeroplan points and a tour company to get to Devon Island and to Alexandra Fiord on Ellesmere Island. It was high summer and under the midnight sun the small tourist group not only enjoyed the incredible scenery and wildlife but came across Thule and Dorset qarmaqs (sodhouses), including one being researched by two University of Alberta anthropologists who had discovered Viking artifacts on Skraeling Island, including chain mail, metal items and carpenter’s tools. All around us was found a host of wildlife, from walrus and muskoxen, to tern, ptarmigan, and weasels. The walruses, some weighing well over 1,000 kg, seemed to like playing a game of trying to see how many could fit onto one small piece of ice before rolling off and diving for clams. By contrast, the muskoxen (a small group of young ones who hung around one of our campsites) seemed decidedly shy and, on one occasion as we approached them to take pictures, they retreated into a small lake, making them look wet and embarrassed until we felt sorry for them and moved away. At our Alexandra Fiord campsite on the east coast of Ellesmere Island we adopted a mother ptarmigan who proudly displayed her brood of six chicks. Unfortunately for her, the family was also noticed by a local weasel who eliminated one chick daily until the mother had to fly away for her own safety.

O

Nick Newbery taught in several communities in Nunavut from 1976-2005. The photos in this article are from Nick’s Arctic photo collection which can be found at www.newberyphotoarchives.ca and should be viewed from a historical perspective. Nick passed away February 2020. We will continue to publish articles we have on file from Nick, with his permission. A Thule qarmaq with artifacts still clearly visible.

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A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

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Top: Midnight on Ellesmere Island.

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Middle left: Skraeling Island: a community hall type of qarmaq where the sleeping platform has been replaced by a circular stone bench.

Bottom left: Young muskoxen hang out in a lake on Devon Island.

Middle right: A 1200-kg mother walrus and her newly arrived calf.

A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

Bottom right: Two rare ivory gulls.

9


LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

New Inuit benefit agreement signed with Mary River Mine Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation and the Qikiqtani Inuit Association signed a new Inuit Certainty Agreement on June 16. The agreement, which is meant to give more authority to Inuit over the environmental impacts of the Mary River Mine, will be worth more than $1 billion over the life of the iron ore mine. The agreement includes an Inuit steward‐ ship program that will expand to all communi‐ ties impacted by the mine. The stewards will monitor the land and water and report to a committee that will alert the mine if there are

concerns and work together with Inuit to find solutions. The new agreement will allow the mine's phase‐two production and rail expansion to move forward, which would increase production at Mary River. Starting immediately, royalties paid to the Qikiqtani Inuit Association will increase from 1.19 per cent to 1.5 per cent. If the expansion goes ahead, royalties will gradually increase to three per cent over the next five years. Inuit employed by Baffinland would also start

receiving a daily childcare subsidy for each child under the age of 14. The mine is also committing up to $3 million per community for daycares. A country food study will also be led by Inuit in Pond Inlet, Nunavut, to gather baseline data for use in future environmental decision‐mak‐ ing between Inuit and the mining company. The Inuit association says it will launch videos in both languages over the summer explaining the benefits within the Certainty Agreement.

Baffinland's Mary River Mine, Nunavut. © Hark Nijjar, Hark Nijjar Photography

10

A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4


LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

New sculpture honours past leaders On June 24, Tuktoyaktuk a small coastal hamlet in the Northwest Territories, unveiled their first public historic cultural sculpture. Through the Tuktoyaktuk Carving Project, Derrald Taylor Pokiak, the lead carver for the project, worked with elders in the community to design it. Inuvialuit Artists Ronald Nuyaviak, John Taylor and Derek Taylor were also in‐ volved. The 5,000‐pound sculpture is made from a grayish marble. It features animals significant to the community, like caribou and a beluga whale. It also has a polar bear, with the face of the first leader of the community, Mangilaluk. Stories of the leader from elders tell that the leader was a shaman who could shape‐shift into a polar bear. The statue also represents four other past leaders of the community: Eddie Gruben, Persis Gruben, Thomas Umoak and John Steen. They were chosen because they represent different points in time and have influenced the shape and culture of the community. The artists worked on the art piece for about three months. They worked with the help of Parks Canada and the Tuktoyaktuk Com‐ munity Corporation to make the sculpture come to fruition. “Our people, our history”. © Jocelyn Noksana

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A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

11


LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Nunavut Day celebrated virtually with contests and prizes Congratulations to all winners in the online activities organized by Nunavut Tunngavik for Nunavut Day this year. Winners were from across Nunavut and beyond.

Youth winners of the Nunavut Day Home Cook Challenge: First prize, Kelvin Tatty from Rankin Inlet for Tuktu Tomato Vegetable Soup. Second prize, Bidgette Jancke of Cambridge Bay for Muskox. Third prize, Nipi Kreuger‐Lindell of Arviat for Aqpik (N) ice cream.

Teen winners of the Nunavut Day Home Cook Challenge: First prize, Karla Qavavo from Taloyoak for Muskox Burgers. Second prize, Carter Lear of Cambridge Bay for Baked Char. Third prize, Sanisha Nakoolak of Rankin Inlet for Mikku.

Adult winners of the Nunavut Day Home Cook Challenge: First prize, Mathew and Allasua Knickelbein from Niaqunnguq for Char Curry. Second prize, Charlotte Kuutsiq of Rankin Inlet for Buns, Coleslaw, Fish Burger. Third prize, Rhonda Ohokannoak of Cambridge Bay for Caribou Pastry. Judges for the Cooking Challenges were: Sheila Flaherty in Iqaluit, Kelly Lindell in Rankin Inlet and Tasha Tologanak in Cambridge Bay.

Winners of the Nunavut Day TikTok Contest for videos about Inuit life, language, and culture in Nunavut: First prize, Jeannie Illuitok from Kuggaruk. Second prize, Atuat Shouldice of Rankin Inlet. Third prize, Joseph Koonoo of Ottawa, Ontario. Check out the videos at: https://www.facebook.com/Tunngavik/

Airline ticket winners: Congratulations to Leonie Ekwalak of Win‐ nipeg, Manitoba, and Joey Paneak of Clyde River, who each won a pair of tickets to any‐ where Canadian North flies. For more information, visit tunngavik.com . 12

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Strategy report to help revitalize NWT species at risk A collective of wildlife co‐management boards and governments in the Northwest Territories has come out with a strategy to revitalize barren‐ ground caribou populations that includes conservation and recovery efforts. The Conference of Management Authorities released a 70‐page document in July outlining threats to caribou and guidance for protecting their herds and increasing their numbers. The strategy applies to all barren‐ground caribou herds in the NWT except for the Porcupine herd. The strategy’s five goals are: • For groups to collaborate on the develop‐ ment and implementation of caribou monitoring and management plans. • To monitor caribou, their habitat, and threats to their herds in the NWT. • To complete knowledge gaps using tradi‐ tional, community and scientific knowledge. • To conserve and protect caribou popula‐ tions and habitat. • To educate people and promote respect for caribou, their habitat and conservation efforts.

The Bathurst Caribou herd has shrunk as much as 98 per cent from its peak size. © GNWT/Anne Gunn

Though caribou herds have fluctuated in size over time, recent estimates suggest their numbers have reached historic lows. The Bathurst herd has shrunk as much as 98 per cent from its peak size. This herd has also been most affected by human activity, with 2,100 kilometres of road and dozens of exploration camps within its range.

The declining numbers are likely due to “multiple interacting factors,” including mining and oil and gas activities, roads, wildfires, par‐ asites, predators like wolves, and climate change. A progress report on caribou conservation and recovery efforts is expected every five years, with the first report due in 2026.

Canadian North helps support the hungry This year, in lieu of the usual Beaver Tails and other treats and community initiatives for Nunavut Day, Canadian North made donations to the Niqinik Nuatsivik Nunavut Food Bank and the Iqaluit Breakfast in a Bag program.

The Niqinik Nuatsivik Nunavut Food Bank The Niqinik Nuatsivik Nunavut Food Bank (NNNFB) was founded in 2001 as a Nunavut registered non‐profit society to help reduce hunger in Iqaluit and Nunavut. The number of families served has grown from around 30 to over 130. This number represents approxi‐ mately 500 individuals, with 47 per cent of them under the age of 18. NNNFB is fully administered and operated by volunteers from the community, with approxi‐ mately 100 registered volunteers. All funds used to operate are donated from businesses, organizations, and individuals. The NNNFB does not receive funding from Federal or Territorial sources. The 2015 annual budget was $80,000. Ninety‐eight per cent of all funds received are J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4

used directly to purchase food for clients. The remaining funds are used for distribution space rent, director’s insurance, and printing, postage, and fundraising expenses. Collaboration with the Qayuqtuvik Society (Soup Kitchen) is done on a regular basis, sharing food resources for community events. A part‐ nership with the Uquutaq Society (Men’s Shelter) helps spread donated food around to those in need from both food resources as well.

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The Iqaluit Breakfast in a Bag program The Iqaluit breakfast program, spearheaded by Jamie Rochon, a student support assistant at Joamie Ilinniarvik School, and run by a group of volunteers, provides approximately 250 break‐ fast bags for kids in Iqaluit each day during the school term. Donations enable the program to give out nutritious breakfasts that include milk, cereal, fruit, cheese, and yogurt. With more funds, the plan is to hopefully add additional items like juice boxes, granola bars and lunch meats.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Annual Billy Joss Golf Tournament tees off The 34th Annual Billy Joss Golf Tournament took place in Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, on Victoria Island July 17‐19, 2020. The nine‐hole course is the most northerly golf course in North America. Volunteers cook over open fires all weekend and bannock, all sorts of char, muktuk, soups, stir fries and hot coffee and tea is free all weekend to feed guests and golfers.

Above: Lisa Alikamik was the Overall 2020 BJO Tournament winner in the Ladies scoring 156 after all three rounds. Left: Gary Okheena, often a chaperone and coach of youth for Northern Games, golfs with Ulukhaktok’s Three Hills in the background, which provide a good walk and lookout point between Queen’s Bay and Jack’s Bay in the community. Below: Golfers walk and tee off at the next hole, showing the rocky landscape around King's Bay beyond. © Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (7)

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND Elsie Klengenberg, elder and renowned artist for her printmaking, is pleased to win a fishing pole at the awards gathering.

Marge Akoaksion, Ulukhaktok Community Corporation (UCC) Manager, looks on as Colin Okheena, UCC Chair and IRC Board member, swings.

Nickolas Alonak was the Youth Overall Winner at the 2020 BJO 34th Annual.

Mary Kudlak takes a break from cooking — she made seven big bowls of bannock over the open fire — to watch the Long Drive Contest with other spectators and golfers.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Ayalik Fund provides mobile canoe-camp You may be wondering what, if anything the Ayalik Fund is able to do during this rather strange summer. We had thirty youths slated for various programs in NWT, Alberta, and three different Ontario locations — the expected array of camps and canoeing and tall‐ship sailing. Most of this was unavoidably cancelled. But not all! In mid July, 11 boys, 14‐ and 15‐years‐olds from the Kitikmeot region flew to Yellowknife (with the territorial chief medical officers’ permission) to participate in a two‐week mobile canoe‐camp in the Pensive Lakes area at the far end of the Ingraham Trail, 70 km east of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Accompanying them as a trip‐leader‐in‐training was 17‐year‐old Andrew Anavilok from Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, an alumnus of previous Ayalik canoe trips, and a notable success story for the funds’ collective efforts. This year’s new program was arranged by the Jackpine Paddle outfitting company in Yellowknife. The Ayalik Fund website has also been updated, including a new video overview of the program at https://youtu.be/AU8T3HVyEZE . Visit www.ayalikfund.ca . Trip-leader-in-training Andrew Anavilok. © Ayalik Fund.

Made by Inuit TV for Inuit coming to Nunavut

Besides its own programming, Inuit TV would broadcast shows by the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation, such as Takuginai. The Takuginai crew, L to R: Kabla (baby in amauti), Oloota, Janet Evic, Ul Uakalla, Greenie, Ippiksaut Friesen, Cynthia Pitsiulak, Kuku, Pilot Biscuit Monster, Malaiya, Issaci, Michael Ipeelie, Pukki, Jacket Monster, Johnny. © Inuit Broadcasting Corporation

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An educational Inuktut TV channel is in the works for Nunavut that would broadcast shows by the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation, as well as produce its own programming. Called Inuit TV, the aim is to create and broadcast Inuit‐created educational television programming in Inuktut dialects across the circumpolar North. Inuit TV will partner with Inuit, anywhere in the Inuit circumpolar North, to tell stories about the land, culture, and language. The network will be a place for Inuit filmmakers to show their work. The station’s goal is to strengthen Inuktut, Inuit culture and identity and access to information in Inuktut, the majority language of the territory. Many Inuit homes don't have computers or good internet access. This new network will fill that void. Alethea Arnaquq‐Baril, president of the new Inuit TV Network, plans to launch the Inuktut‐ language station some time this year. They've filed paperwork with the Canadian Radio‐ television and Telecommunications Commission. The Inuit TV Network is planning occasional programming for this year and full‐time pro‐ gramming in 2021. The channel will likely air on a conventional television station in Nunavut. It would also have a channel on Isuma.tv, a Nunavut‐based website for Indigenous media art. The network is being funded by $2.4 million over the next three years from the Nunavut Tunngavik Foundation — a charity of Nunavut Tunngavik Inc., the organization that represents Inuit in the territory. First‐time filmmakers can access funding through organizations such as the Nunavut Film Development Corp. Inuit TV has a board member in each region.

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RESOURCES

NWT and Nunavut Mining Weeks go virtual By Doug Ashbury, Public Awareness Manager

This year, with the COVID-19 pandemic, Nunavut Mining Week, timed with national mining week in May, and NWT Mining Week in June, went virtual. To start the week, the Government of the Northwest Territories launched its free geology Walking Tour App featuring rock walks around Yellowknife. Who — as in which species of northern wildlife — pooped? If you completed NWT or Nunavut mining week activity booklets, you would know! Wildlife identification methods was one of the many fun and interesting exercises included in the booklet, which was produced for recent virtual mining weeks in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. But how does this relate to the northern minerals industry? For environmental and wildlife workers in mining and exploration, wildlife scat (poop) is one way to monitor which animals are living and travelling nearby. Discovering more about the many careers in mining, learning about prospecting and mining, seeing how minerals are a part of our everyday lives and their important role in renewable energy technologies, and connecting the cultural value of palaeontology with communities, are among the publications’ many topics. Designed J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4

for Kindergarten to grade 12 students, those who completed the exercises had the chance to win some great prizes too! Along with the territories’ activity booklets, infographics were produced for Nunavut and in the NWT, the territory’s geological survey produced videos highlighting geology. The Northwest Territories Women in Mining Chapter, launched at last year’s Geoscience Forum in Yellowknife, was also highlighted. To start the week, the Government of the Northwest Territories launched its free geology Walking Tour App featuring rock walks around Yellowknife. This year, with the COVID‐19 pandemic, Nunavut Mining Week, timed with national mining week in May, and NWT Mining Week in June, went virtual. All materials were uploaded to the NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines public awareness website at www.miningnorthworks.com . Have a look under the site’s Where It Works menu for all the materials. “Going virtual was a great way to go,” says Doug Ashbury, Chamber of Mines, public aware‐ ness manager. “The northern mineral resources industry is a fascinating place, filled with so many opportunities,” he adds. “A big part of what we were trying to do with virtual mining week was communicate, especially to young

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people, just how amazing the mineral resources industry is.” Going virtual meant many partners were involved with support from Nunavut and North‐ west Territories governments, and resources provided by the Northwest Territories Geological Survey, Yukon Women in Mining, Mining Matters, the Mining Association of Canada, Crown‐Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs Canada, northern minerals industry companies, and the Chamber of Mines offices in Yellowknife and Iqaluit. “Unfortunately, this year, the miners’ picnic, and the mine rescue competition, were cancelled due to the pandemic. We missed those events and we certainly hope to see them back next year. The positive is that we saw a great partnership create a very successful virtual mining week,” Ashbury says. And it’s worth noting that mining week could never have gone virtual without the minerals mining produces, like the many elements that make laptops work. NTGS video links: · Ranney Hill geology hike · Yellowknife urban rock walk · Meet a geologist · Mine Training Society Submitted by the NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines. 17


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Scouting a Shipping Route by Air The Hudson Strait Expedition of 1927–28 By Season Osborne On July 17, 1927, an expedition headed North with 44 men and seven single engine airplanes, as well as sections of prefabricated buildings and hangars. Their 14‐month mission: survey Hudson Strait to determine how long it would be ice‐free for shipping. etween 1884 and 1912, the Canadian government mounted four expeditions using wooden sailing-steamships to determine the feasibility of shipping Prairie grain from a port on western Hudson Bay, through the 750-km Strait, and on to European markets. The subsequent expeditions’ reports put the date when the passage was navigable at between July 10 and October 20. In 1926, while the Hudson Bay Railroad was laying tracks through northern Manitoba to a new port at Churchill, the government decided to verify the length of time that the Hudson Strait could be open as a shipping route. This time, it would assess the Strait by air. The Hudson Strait Expedition of 1927–28 was an ambitious project, involving the construction of three bases at strategic points along the Strait. Two Fokker Universal monoplanes would carry out regular patrols from each base. Port Burwell, on Killiniq Island at the eastern entrance to Hudson Strait, was chosen for Base A. Nottingham Island at the entrance to Hudson Bay was chosen for Base B. And Base C, positioned midway between the two, was established at Wakeham Bay (Kangiqsujuaq, Nunavik). Each base included a large dwelling, a storehouse, aircraft hangar, and a radio shack.

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Station men and residents of Base C, October 1927. Courtesy of Canadian Aviation and Space Museum (CASM) Archives (HSE-A11-P20-C6) J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4 A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

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Bobby Anakatok, who helped the pilot and mechanic survive their 13-day ordeal on the ice and journey back to Base A. Courtesy of CAHS Journal

Local Inuit, Lucas, Bobby Anakatok, and Johnnie were integral to the running of the base and often travelled with the pilots. Courtesy of CASM Archives (HSE-A13-P21-A84)

Two Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) pilots and four airmen (mechanics and flight support) were stationed at each base to carry out regular flight patrols. The other station men included an RCMP constable, a member of the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals (RCCS) cooks, doctors, and radio operators. Two Inuit families were also hired, as their expertise would be invaluable to the men living at each base. There was already a large community of Inuit living in the Kangiqsujuaq region, and many of them supported the activities at the base. The men helped with maintenance, moving the planes, and clearing the runways. The women were engaged

in making clothing, including qammiks (boots) and parkas for the station men. These were far warmer than the RCAF issued clothing. Initially, the plan was for daily flight patrols from each base to conduct aerial surveys and collect data on meteorological and ice conditions. However, the Strait and bases were shrouded in dense fog one out of every three days. Weather, visibility, times of the tides, sea conditions (often too rough to operate a seaplane), daylight and darkness were all factors that seriously hampered their ability to fly. Although all three bases were established by September 12, due to bad weather, the first patrol flight didn’t happen until two weeks later. The planes first took off from Base C on September 29, from Base B on October 11, and from Base A on October 23. Port Burwell at the eastern entrance to the Strait was consistently hit with the worst

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Map showing flight paths from the three air bases on Hudson Strait. Courtesy of Canadian Aviation History Society (CAHS) Journal

weather. In the 53 days from the first flight at Base C until the Strait froze up, only 10 days were suitable for flying. Fog, snow, and high winds kept them grounded. The Fokkers were outfitted with floats that could be changed to skis once the Strait froze up. They could reach an altitude of 2,400 metres. However, as their main goal was to take photographs of the region, they flew well below the clouds. They were also limited from flying higher because the proximity to the North Magnetic Pole and the amount of ore in the region made the compasses unreliable. The pilots also found that the maps—mainly 19th century British Admiralty charts—were inaccurate. The Fokker had an open cockpit forward of the wing, and a cabin for up to six crew and passengers. Surprisingly, the pilots didn’t find the open cockpit uncomfortable in the sub-zero temperatures. They wore layers of clothing and a sheepskin-lined leather helmet, face mask, and goggles. Each patrol had a pilot, a mechanic/photographer, and an Inuk guide whose knowledge of ice and his skills living on the land would be invaluable in the event of a forced landing. The plane carried 770 kilograms in fuel, cameras, people, and emergency supplies. Three times over the year these emergency supplies, and the Inuk guides’ expertise, were critical when poor weather forced the pilots to land on the ice. In February 1928, Flying Officer Alexander Lewis took off from Base A, accompanied by Flight Sgt. N.C. Terry and Inuk guide Bobby Anakatok. Lewis got off track in a blizzard and landed on hummocky ice on the frozen Atlantic Ocean, which meant he couldn’t take off again. The three men made the treacherous journey across ice and along the Labrador coast back to Port Burwell. Thanks to Anakatok’s skills and guidance, they arrived 13 days later, suffering only minor frostbite. Their comrades at Base A had given up their search, assuming they had perished.

Each base had a Fordson tractor used to tow the planes from the hangar to the water and vice versa. The tractors also built the 180-metre ice runway. Courtesy of CASM Archives (DND RE-1207-6)

Each plane was equipped with a wireless transmitter that had a range of 160 kilometres for voice transmission and 800 kilometres for keyed transmission. Pilots preferred the keyed transmission, as they found it difficult holding the microphone while wearing a face mask and heavy mitts. The plane radios did not have receivers, though. The pilots could communicate with the base, but could not receive messages, or acknowledgement that their own messages had been received. The three bases had 46 metre transmission towers that connected them to each other by radio, as well as to headquarters in Ottawa and the outside world. The cold had a significant effect on the airplane engines. They had to be drained of oil after every flight, and the oil then kept in a warm place. The plane engines needed to be warmed up before they could be flown. So, the men set blowtorches on the

Fokker G-CAHE readying for first flight at Base C, Wakeham Bay, (Kangiqsujuaq, Nunavik). Courtesy of CAHS Journal

ground, which heated the air that went up through a stovepipe to the engines. Between January and May, flights were reduced to every two weeks as ice conditions changed little during that time. Regular patrols resumed May 10. Ice operations and patrols ended August 3, 1928. The men intended to fly south at the end of the summer but abandoned that plan when one of the planes was damaged on takeoff. The airplanes were then dismantled and taken aboard the supply ship that picked up the station men on August 24, 1928. The Hudson Bay Expedition of 1927–28 was a veritable success. The three bases accomplished 227 air patrols, for a total of 269 hours 44 minutes of flying. They took 2,285 photographs and collected information on ice conditions and winter flying. The information gathered was invaluable, as were the two directional finding wireless stations they set up, in aiding marine navigation in the Strait. The first token shipment of Prairie wheat left Churchill and travelled through Hudson Strait in late September 1929. The final expedition report recommended mid-July to beginning of November as optimal for shipping through Hudson Strait — the same length of time recommended by the seagoing expeditions 40 years earlier. The Port of Churchill closed in 2015. Arctic Gateway Group, a consortium led by Manitoba’s Indigenous communities, purchased it and the Hudson Railway line in 2018. In September 2019, shipments of grain were again unloaded from freight cars onto cargo vessels, then shipped overseas. Despite marine technological advances, 90 years later, the shipping season still typically runs from late July through October. For further information on this topic, check out: The 1973 NFB film, Aviators of Hudson Strait (28 minutes) at https://www.nfb.ca/film/aviators_of_hudson_strait/ and Season’s article published in above&beyond about shipping prairie grain at http://arcticjournal.ca/featured/the-strait-story/

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The Line of Life A natural wonder of the Arctic Photos and text by Bruce Raby I have already made two trips to the Arctic, one to Baffin Island to paddle the Soper River, the other to Coral Harbour to photograph walrus. For me, the Arctic is both mystical and intoxicating. Once there, I knew I had to go back. Spring reflections just east of Pond Inlet.

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decide to go to the floe edge. Pond Inlet, Nunavut, is my first trip above the Arctic Circle. It is also my first trip to the Arctic with snow still on the ground, the sea still covered in ice and days that are light for 24 hours. Getting to Pond Inlet, feels like going to the end of the world. The distances in the North are staggering. Ottawa, Ontario, to Pond Inlet is 3034 km. Pond Inlet to the North Pole another 1932 km. By comparison, Ottawa to Vancouver, British Columbia, is 3540 km. I don’t have the knowledge or equipment to travel in the Arctic on my own, so I sign on with Black Feather, a wilderness adventure company. The floe edge is a magical place. It is the place between sea ice and open ocean. In the spring, it is a place where sea ice begins to melt and break apart, creating large floes of pieces of ice — a place where Arctic mammals and birds congregate. The floe edge, called “sinaa” in Inuktitut, is described as the line of life, one of the natural wonders of the Arctic. In the springtime, it is one of the most dynamic ecosystems in the world. It teems with life: polar bears, narwhal, seals, sometimes walrus and perhaps even bowhead whales. As an amateur photographer, this is why I want to be there. I land in Pond Inlet a day early, check into the Sauniq Hotel and immediately go out to shoot some pictures. I always have to force myself to put my camera down for a few moments and just enjoy the scene. As I stand on a bank overlooking the water, a Pond Inlet resident asks me how far I think the other side is. He tells me it is 40 km distant, a full two day’s walk. The size of the land is quickly obvious.

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Purple Sandpipers at the floe edge.

The next day, I meet up with the rest of my travel companions and our guides for a trip briefing meeting. The following day it is down to the waterfront to load our gear into two qamutiit. These are sleds approximately 20 feet in length that are pulled by snowmobile. Today they are built out of wood without screws or nails. Pieces are lashed together for optimum flexibility when travelling across the rough terrain of frozen sea ice. Qamutiit are like the pickup truck of the south. We take approximately three hours to reach our camp. It is located on the ice along the shore of Bylot Island and perhaps 15 minutes or so from the floe edge where Eclipse Sound and Baffin Bay meet. Heading out to our campsite, we must traverse several large cracks in the sea ice. Our Inuit guides explain that the sea ice still rises and falls with the tide. This puts

Feeling small at the floe edge.

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Snowmobiles and qamutiit park off Bylot Island with Baffin Island in the distance.

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Opposite top: Our Inuit Guide Jeremiah Awa, from Pond Inlet, takes a break at the Floe Edge, Baffin Island in the background. Opposite bottom: Ballooning on Bylot Island.

A nose heavy qamutiq drops into a crack in the ice.

stress on the layer of ice, which is up to 3 m thick, causing it to crack. This cracking tends to occur in predictable and reproducible places year to year. At one of these larger cracks, the nose of the sled drops into the crack as we try to cross it, bringing the sled to a rather abrupt stop. We must unload the sled and pull it back from the crack with the snowmobiles before reloading and continuing to our camp. Winter camping in the Arctic is quite an experience. Black Feather provides lined winter boots, a warm parka, and a polar sleeping bag. We each have our own tent. We sleep on cots that are approximately four inches above the tent floor which of course is on the ice. I never feel cold and, in the morning, and when the sun is shining, the tent becomes uncomfortably warm. The biggest challenge was getting dressed in the fourfoot clearance of the tent. The daily routing is up by 07:00 hrs or so. Breakfast in the dining tent. Discuss the day’s activities. Load the sleds and head off to the floe edge or to Bylot Island to explore the surroundings. On one such trip, we visit an old Inuit sod house site, last used perhaps 60 or more years ago. Back to the camp site by about 16:00 hrs to discuss the day’s outing, dry any wet clothing and enjoy a wonderful “home cooked” meal. Tucked into our warm sleeping bags at night, we could sleep peacefully knowing we have our Inuit guide standing polar bear watch through the night. It feels like we are camped on the main route to the floe edge. Hunters move back and forth between Pond Inlet and the floe edge. The sea ice is covered with snowmobile tracks

making the surface look like a well-travelled highway, just not the kind of highway that southern visitors are used to. At the floe edge our guides always check the ice thickness before allowing us to set up chairs, tripods and settle in for a few hours of hopeful watching. We see other visitors in the distance along with hunters, and one group with a hot air balloon. It rises majestically close to Bylot Island, a brilliant blue against the brown of the mountains behind it. The colour of the ice floes varies from white to wondrous shades of emerald green/blue. The sky varies from overcast grey to soft shades of yellows and, of course, blues. Sea birds fly back and forth along the floe edge as if putting on a show. Finally, a lone narwhal surfaces in front of us. Not close, but close enough to capture it with my camera. It is the only one I see. This is followed by a grey seal, one of the larger seals in the Arctic, reaching as much as 300 kg. One afternoon, we see a polar bear at the floe edge perhaps 2 km away. We watch it slowly amble towards the open water, dive in, and begin swimming along the floe edge towards us. That day, there are a lot of pieces of ice floating along the floe edge. When the polar bear reaches us, it pauses at one of the large pieces of ice directly in front of us. It looks at us, then checks the ice for seals. Seeing none, it continues to swim around the back of the ice and on up the floe edge. For me, this is one of the highlights of the trip. By the time we return to Pond Inlet, there is considerably more melt water on the surface of the ice. This creates some wonderful photo opportunities with the reflections of the mountains in the surface water. I finish my trip with two days walking around and shooting images of the people and the town and the unique way of life that these communities in the North offer to those who choose to visit.

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Ship Time in the Arctic Quest to see the magic ship By Marian Dodds Once word came that the annual supply ship had embarked from Quebec and was heading North, my parents talked of nothing but the thickness of the ice on the Koksoak River. Would it melt soon enough? What if icebergs blew in, blocking the mouth of our river? Could the ship get close enough without running aground? How would we survive winter without supplies? Radiophone updates crackling into dad’s office spread quickly across town: Ship rounded Newfoundland’s east coast, past Labrador heading to northern Quebec, then Ship navigating eastern Ungava Bay. Spontaneous ululations filled the air when news was telegraphed that the ice blocking our river’s mouth had broken up.

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ow, Fort Chimo was abuzz — the ship was sailing the Koksoak River, would soon drop anchor in deep water and send a barge load of supplies to our isolated settlement of five hundred people and about a hundred sled dogs. This ship, a lifeline from the Outside world, ensured our survival in a harsh sub-Arctic climate. Inuit seal hunters spotted the ship and sped full throttle back to Chimo, juicing their freighter canoe engine, driving it up on the gravel shore. Shouts of “Ship Time! Ship Time!” ricocheted around town. Napping huskies perked their ears and howled. Ravens atop poles croaked in their language. The entire community — Inuit, Whites, kids, and a few unchained dogs rushed to the shore. Hoping to be first to spot the barge, I stood scanning the river with my parents and younger brothers — nine-year-old Kenny and five-year-old “baby brother” Eric. Our brown and white husky pup, Pingwa charged in and out of the freezing river, yipping and circling with excitement. Once the barge docked, Eric, Kenny, Pingwa and I crowded in with the rest of the kids to watch the frenzy of adults offloading cases of food and ammunition, long boxes of hunting rifles and fortyfive gallon drums of fuel, stenciled with HBC, for the Hudson’s Bay Company. Next came cardboard boxes of food rations for government employees, then huge crates of prefabricated housing, even a four-wheel-drive vehicle. J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4 A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

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Andre, the tallest and oldest boy, assumed himself leader of our kids’ gang. I was eleven too, but a girl. I suppose that ruled me out. Andre begged to get in on the action. “Let me help, I can do that, I’m strong!” “You kids get out of our hair,” mom shooed us away, lumping us into one collective nuisance. Dad added: “This is dangerous work. Go play somewhere else.” Our gang retreated north of the dock to puddle in the icy river in our rubber boots, waving off angry clouds of mosquitoes, prodding slithery sculpins in tide pools, tossing sticks for Pingwa to fetch, and skipping rocks at flotillas of birds, inciting flutters of outrage. Giant horseflies tore fleshy chunks from exposed forearms. Knowing not to waste mom’s time over minor complaints, we slathered our bites with river mud. Still, the ship time action remained irresistible. This was the most excitement we’d seen since that floatplane crash-landed in a thunderstorm. We snuck up onto a flat spot on the granite hill overlooking the dock, watching crates and boxes being stacked high onto skids and hauled away. Tarpaulin-covered humps soon dotted the settlement. For three days we hounded the adults to take us to the deep water to see the ship, the source of such largesse. Every day they waved us away like mosquitoes: “Buzz off, we’re too busy, the ship is too far. Can’t you see we’re working all day and long into the midnight sun to get this barge unloaded?” They muttered, “Don’t you realize the ship’s on a tight timeline to reach other communities before freeze up?” Couldn’t they see how obsessed we were? We pictured the ship as a cavernous metal hulk and shivered at the possibility of it running aground in our shallow waters if the captain wasn’t careful. Was that rumour we’d overheard true? A few years back caseloads of whisky had drifted in from a shipwreck and the entire community was drunk for a week? No adult had time for our questions. In our imaginations the ship grew magnificently tall, possibly with furled white sails. Kenny told Eric the ship was crawling with pirates like in Peter Pan. Pirates with hooks for hands, wooden legs and eye patches, shouting, “Hoist the sails boys, anchors away!” Wide-eyed and gullible, Eric begged nightly for the next chapter of our ship time tales. We had to see that ship! Perched on our granite platform above the dock, our gang hatched a secret plan. Andre said we couldn’t risk taking the littlest kids. Kenny and I cornered Eric: “You’ll stay in tonight after supper; pretend you’re sick. Don’t you dare tell mom and dad.” The annual supply ship. Photo from author’s collection, photographer unknown, taken 1960 or 1961.

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The Dodds family with husky Pingwa. L to R: Ken, Marian, Sam, Dedie, and Eric in front. Photo from author’s collection, photographer unknown, taken 1960 or 1961.

“But I want to come too,” he whined. “You’re too slow. Plus, you’d get scared.” We both knew how to bribe a brother who, according to dad, was a ‘bottomless pit” for anything edible. “If you keep quiet, we’ll get you chocolate bars from the Hudson’s Bay store,” I said. Eric, expert at wheedling, negotiated us up to 10 bars. Eric enacted our plan perfectly; mom fell for his faked stomachache and sent him to bed. After supper, Kenny and I called Pingwa outside, met up with four others. We began climbing the rocky Canadian Shield above the houses and tents of Chimo, playing our usual game of hiding behind boulders, leaping out to attack imaginary foes, shrieking when we scored a hit. Halfway up I looked back at our small settlement and said, “Ok, the adults are too busy unloading to notice, let’s hurry.” We edged further and further up the granite hill — a dark, sleeping mammoth streaked with pink lines, splotched with brilliant orange and pale green lichens and mysterious black spirals. Birds squawked off rock ledges as we climbed, flying high to safety. Summer brown ptarmigan flapped on the tundra to divert us from their nests. At the top, after a quick look backward, Andre shouted, “Yippee, no one is following us!” and led our charge down into the spongy moss valley like a bold cavalry, except with one dog, no horses or swords. We raced up the next hill, excited to greet the big ship. At the top a panorama of pale blue sky framed an undulating mosaic of brown and green moss hummocks interspersed with grasses, low shrubs and purple clusters of Arctic wildflowers. Trickling rivulets thawed by the summer melt were harder to spot than the numerous small puddles reflecting the sky. From our windy outlook we scanned eastward and down onto the wide snaking river, its shores jumbled with rocks and stands of skinny sparse-needled tamaracks. No ship. In the distance another dark hill beckoned. “Onward and upward,” roared Andre. I began chanting, “We’re going to see the ship, see the ship, see the ship!” Kenny addressed the ship directly: “Here we come Big Ship, ready or not, here we come!” Kenny had lots of imaginary friends. I’d wandered the land alone before, but never dared go beyond the first hill into this forbidden wilderness. Exhilarated, sensing release from my enclosed world, the wind pressing my cheeks like freedom, I spread my arms to embrace the vastness, and fell flat on my back onto a thicket of Labrador Tea. I’d forgotten the tundra was riddled with lemming tunnels. Inhaling the piney scent, I leaned sideways, plucked some spiky kayak shaped leaves, caressed their fuzzy orange underbellies and took a nibble. The ooze of melting permafrost seeped through my pants. I leapt up, re-joining the others before anyone noticed my clumsiness. J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4 A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

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Marian Dodds, hand tinted photo taken by her grade 6 teacher Miss MacKenzie in 1960. © Miss MacKenzie

Like the crumbs set out in a fairy tale, hill after hill beckoned. At each summit, we peered down at the river, shouting through the wind for the magic ship to show herself. None of us had ever dared venture this far from home. Up and down, we chanted and stumbled, sinking into damp, spongy moss, re-gaining our footing, hopping puddles onto lichen-crusted boulders. Soaking wet socks slid down, rubber boots blistered bared heels. The sun lowered, a hint of yellow smeared across pale turquoise. At the next outlook Kenny implored the elusive ship: “Stop hiding! Show yourself now!” The river had grown choppy, rippling with whitecaps. Rising winds chilled our sweat. Trudging up hard rocks, down crevasses treacherous with tangled roots and sinking into boggy moss was exhausting us. But hadn’t we come too far to give up? The sun, now sieved though clouds hovering on the horizon, glowed pinky yellow. Pingwa suddenly bristled on full alert, nosing the wind, then began circling and nudging us. “She’s telling us to turn back,” I said. “She senses something’s not right.” Andre was a gambler who couldn’t quit. “Only one more hill.” At the next hilltop we clustered together, scanning the dark water below. “Look! Look! There it is!” Kenny shouted. “Where?” Everyone strained to follow Kenny’s pointed finger. “Can’t you see? It is right there.” “You mean that dark spot way ahead? Are you sure?” I couldn’t make out any ship. “Yes, that’s the ship,” Kenny insisted. His eyesight was sharper than mine. Mom had promised to get my eyes tested when we went south next summer. “So, we have seen it!” I wasn’t convinced that tiny dot was the ship; I just wanted to go home. “It’s way too far,” Andre admitted. “We better get home before dark. But don’t forget, we saw the ship!” The way home felt much farther than the way out. Had we really gone so far? Plunging into deep, darkening ravines, Kenny whispered to me, “Is this really the way we came?” In the fading light the littlest ones, snagged by tangled roots, began to panic, crying for their mothers. Increasingly anxious, scrambling over rocks, stumbling through prickly dwarf willow, we urged them on. “Hurry, hurry, we’ll be home soon.” With the horizon now a deepening band of fuchsia, the white plume of Pingwa’s tail became our beacon. Surely home was over the next hill? But it wasn’t. 32

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Then I heard wolves. Howling. “Did you hear that?” I whispered to Kenny. “Yes, are they getting closer?” Desperation thumped in my chest. “Pingwa’s still a puppy, what if they get her?” Kenny always imagined gruesome things. Picturing Pingwa ripped apart by wolves, I turned sideways to hide my tears, not wanting my younger brother to see my fear, needing to be brave for the smaller kids. My mind was racing: Will we have to sleep out on the land? Why isn’t anyone coming to rescue us? Thrashing through tangled scrub in fast fading light, Andre, Kenny and I grabbed the younger kids, yanking them along by one arm, running and staggering up the next rocky hillside. Pingwa circled us anxiously as we headed down into another darkening valley. The wolves sounded closer. Please, please hurry, I willed us forward up the next hill, stumbling and scrambling on the rocks. Gasping for breath, we reached the summit and stopped short. Transfixed. Like magical fireflies, dozens of lights were flickering uphill. Our names echoed through twilight. The entire community was searching, their flashlights crosshatching the hillside. Kenny and I rushed down into the arms of our parents, relief palpitating through sobbing embraces. “We’re so sorry, we’ll never do this again, sorry, sorry.” Our house was comforting with the yeasty aroma of mom’s fresh baked bread. Of course, we were severely reprimanded, told how “worried sick” we’d made mom, how disappointed dad was in our recklessness. Dad spanked us half-heartedly, “to teach you kids a lesson”. After the punishment, mom made hot cocoa and thick buttery toast. By next morning the ship was gone. It took days to unpack the ration boxes piled beneath our tarp. Playing store — we tidily stacked our shelves with tins of fish, meat, fruits and vegetables, bottles of cooking oil, sacks of sugar and flour, packages of baking powder, yeast, pasta and dehydrated eggs and spices. Kenny snuck off to the Hudson’s Bay store for the chocolate bars. Eric ate them in one go, our parents none the wiser. Tucked inside my nest of flannelette sheets and plump pillows each night, with Pingwa curled warm against me, I shivered at distant howls of thwarted wolves before drifting into dreams of still irresistible tundra tapestries – luxurious mosses, wildflowers blossoming against all odds, lichens, the solidity of granite, wind on my cheeks, sniffing for new scents. Koksoak River. Photo from author’s collection, photographer unknown, taken 1960 or 1961.

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PROFILE

Pierre Berton Yukon Icon “My best advice to writers is to get yourself born in an interesting place.” — Pierre Berton By Alan G. Luke A popular and prolific author, the Canadian iconoclast infused our country with considerable insight and interest in the golden era of the Klondike. This year is the centennial of the birth of Pierre Berton, born in Whitehorse, Yukon, in the summer of 1920. One year after his birth, his family moved with him to the town of Dawson City (1921‐32). Nearly 20 per cent of Berton’s 50 books published featured the Klondike Gold Rush. His stories document greed, courage and fool‐ hardiness in his non‐fiction narratives. These were evidently influenced by his upbringing in the region. In The Great Klondike Gold Rush, Berton conveys stories of the prospectors, the gold seekers and the mineral that drove them mad. He identifies the Klondike veterans (Sourdoughs) and newcomers the (Cheeckakos). In Klondike: The Last Great Gold Rush (1896 ­99), Berton introduces a cast of characters such as Silent Sam Bonnifield, Swiftwater Bill Gates and Soapy Smith through their tales. With a dramatically authentic historical back‐

drop we meet heroes and villains, as well as paupers turned millionaires in this rugged Canadian frontier. When the word of the Klondike gold discov‐ ery became known worldwide by the summer of 1897, it initiated a seemingly interminable influx of future fortune hunters. Berton depicts this in his novel, Bonanza Gold: The Great Klondike Gold Rush (1991). Pierre Berton chronicles the arduous trek along mountainous trails over indomitable terrain. In 1897, the steamer Portland transported two tonnes of pure Klondike gold reflecting the substantial yield the region reaped. Adventurers and “wannabe” miners converged in the Klondike Valley. From dreamers and desperados to dance hall girls and dead horses, all are covered amid the gold mania. One‐time dance hall girl, Kate Rockwell (1873‐1957), gained fame for her notoriety due to her flirtatious dancing prowess. She became a member of the Savoy Theatrical Company in Dawson City. Her act was so popular with the miners that she received the stage moniker, “Klondike Kate”.

Berton wrote many stories about the Klondike.

The Berton home in Dawson City was renovated by the Klondike Visitors Association. © Alan G. Luke

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Berton referred to the aforementioned “Klondike Kate” in Klondike, however he did not mention the genuine Northern frontier heroine, “Klondike Kate” Ryan (1869‐1932), her contem‐ porary. She was a former nurse, restaurant manager and became the first female Special Constable in the North West Mounted Police. One may drop by Klondike Kate’s Restaurant today for some sustenance or partake in a walking tour of downtown Dawson with a costumed actor named Kate. In his six‐book series aimed at children, stories of foolishness, courage and greed are highlighted. The Klondike Stampede (1991) is a non‐fiction narrative focusing on the people who ventured into the Yukon hoping to strike it rich during the summer of 1897 and beyond. In The Golden Trail: The Story of the Klondike Rush, there is a vivid depiction of what occurred during 1896 and the frenzy that ensued after the gold rush and the golden quest thereof. There was a painstaking process of prospectors working claims. Panning and sluicing for nuggets there were fortunes won and lost on the streets and

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PROFILE Berton referred to “Klondike Kate” in Klondike. Visitors can partake in a walking tour of downtown Dawson with a costumed actor named Kate. © Alan G. Luke

current events and history. He also had a good run on his namesake show Pierre Berton Show (1962‐73), hosted My Country (1975) and The Great Debate (1974‐83). Pierre Berton received 13 honorary degrees in recognition of his work as a writer and historian; received 30 literary awards; was a recipient of the prestigious Order of Canada (1974) and became a Canada’s Walk of Fame inductee in 1998. A bronze bust of Berton was unveiled on Main Street in downtown Whitehorse in 2016. The sculpture depicts his signature sideburns and trademark bow tie. An accompanying plaque indicates that during his formative years as a youth in Dawson, his work experience in the Klondike gold fields and dredges became a catalyst for his future literary endeavours. Pierre Berton was a genuinely impressive nationalist, journalist and radio and TV host who possessed a great sense of humour as reflected by his appearance on The Mercer Report which aired in 2004, the same year the octogenarian succumbed. Considered one of the coolest cultural characters in Canada, his literary legacy will perpetually prevail as a prominent part of Canadiana.

Pierre Berton bust in Whitehorse, Yukon. © Alan G. Luke

in the saloons of boomtown Dawson City. Berton was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Live Action Short Film based on his novel, City of Gold (1957). He provided the narration describing Dawson during the heyday of the Klondike Gold Rush. Pierre Berton was the founder of the Writers’ Trust of Canada. This non‐profit literary organ‐ ization seeks to encourage our country’s writing community. Known as the “writers’ block” in Dawson City. Berton’s residence is on the same corner as the former homes of fellow scribes, Robert Service and Jack London. For decades he was a perennial celebrity on television with the TV series (1960‐61), Klondike based on his book Klondike Fever. He was a panelist on the long‐running TV staple, Front Page Challenge (1957‐95) that focused on

· · · ·

For more information, check out: www.yukoninfo.com www.travelyukon.com www.whitehorse.ca www.dawsoncity.ca

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C U LT U R E

Scottie Kasook led some of the dances when not drumming and teaches drumming and dancing. © IRC (3)

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C U LT U R E

Aar̂igaa. Happy Inuvialuit Day! It has now been 36 years since the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). This modern‐ day treaty gives Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) the mandate to work for social, economic, and cultural well‐being of all Inuvialuit. The IFA was achieved because of the dedi‐ cation and wisdom of the Committee for Original People's Entitlement (COPE) negotiators, some of whom we are grateful to still have with us. Inuvialuit Day takes place every year to commemorate the signing of the Inuvialuit Final

Agreement on June 5, 1984. Events are led by community corporations across the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Celebrations in Inuvik usually showcase drum‐dancing performances with a feast for a crowd of 300 to 800. This year, packages of traditional foods were sent to communities for distribution to elders and other community members. Inuvialuit are encouraged to take the oppor‐ tunity each Inuvialuit Day to recognize all the work and the effort their elders have put into

Patrick, known as Dang Gruben, drumming, with his wife Ethel-Jean Gruben dancing beside. They both won a Wallace Goose Award for their contributions to Inuvialuit culture from the Inuvik Community Corporation at the 35th year celebrations.

preserving our culture, our language, and our identity. Inuvialuit should be pleased with what we have achieved through the IFA and can look forward to further implementation of our land claim with Canada. Wherever they may reside, Inuvialuit can be proud to celebrate and conduct cultural traditional activities on Inuvialuit Day for their own benefit. This spring, many planned to be on the land and to celebrate Inuvialuit Day at their camps. Inuvialuit marked the anniversary

Vanessa Rogers sang holding her new baby in a traditional strap during most of Inuvialuit Day and dances here with Alayna Wolki, at a distance, in her red atigluk with ulu pocket.

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C U LT U R E Elder Albert Elias dances on Inuvialuit Day. Albert is on the Inuvialuktun Immersion Language Development Committee as well as participating in many terminology workshops and translating Sallirmiutun dialect along with his wife Shirley Elias. © IRC (5)

Elder Lillian Elias, a frequent Uummarmiutun dialect translator and teacher, dances with Marlo Kasook (on the right. Marlo’s young daughter also danced on Inuvialuit Day in a matching atigluk!

day of the IFA in family settings and in small groups for outside gatherings held at a distance. Traditionally this time of year, Inuvialuit might arrive back from their family camps by mid‐June with their muskrats, ducks, geese, and fish to then prepare for the beluga harvest. 541 families, meaning 1,986 individuals used IRC’s On the Land Support program for their health and physical distancing in spring 2020, which meant opportunity for the younger children and young adults to learn more about the traditions, their culture, and how to sustain themselves out on the land. This learning came along with additional opportunities to bond and build family skills together. IRC also provided some activities and challenges during this time and appreciated the participation and strong submissions in these contests by beneficiaries. Children’s stories and

artwork as well as photos on the land were sent as evidence of these positive experiences and healthy activities. Quyannaini, koana, quyanaqpak. Online performance videos of drum‐dancing were offered for Inuvialuit Day which enabled Inuvialuit from all over to come together and to share over 200 positive comments and greetings (8,000 views). While some of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region’s coastal communities lack internet to allow for streaming live, IRC was glad to see the effort from Aklavik Drummers and Dancers who were both able and willing to put one of these live performances together for the Inuvialuit Regional Corpora on Facebook page this year. Aar̂igaa! IRC will con nue the hard work to implement the IFA on behalf of all Inuvialuit and looks forward to welcoming guests to future Inuvialuit Day celebrations in our communities.

Brian, known as Nungkii Rogers, often leads the Inuvik Drummers and Dancers and opened the online performance with his singing. The East Channel of the Mackenzie River is in the background.

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C U LT U R E Lorna Elias, IRC’s Craft Shop Operator, who helped teach drum dancing to Inuvialuit Regional Corporation staff in the 35th year.

Alecia Lennie-Inglangasak (IRC's Regional Health Liaison), Olivia Inglangasak, and their mother Billie Lennie, in front, dance together in a line.

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BUSINESS

Rannva Erlingsdóttir Simonsen receives the Special Achievement Award at the 2019 Nunavut Trade Show from Mona Godin of DJ Specialties. The award is for an individual, business, or group who has displayed extraordinary success or innovation in their economic development activities in 2017-2018. © Michel Albert

Rannva puts her social conscience into action with Sewing for Survival At the 2019 Nunavut Trade Show and 2020 Northern Lights Conference, Rannvá Erlingsdottir Simonsen, owner of Rannva Inc., received a Special Achievement Award for her unique initiative “Sewing for Survival”. By Carol Outram A native of the Faroe Islands, Rannvá first set foot in Iqaluit over 20 years ago. Her luggage included her love of the far North, two small boys, a remarkable training in architectural design, and oodles of determination. These assets have helped her develop a unique and successful business — RANNVA Inc. specializing in sealskin outerwear and accessories, and an artisan pro‐ gram — Sewing for Survival, in which creativity, respect and well‐being are key. Sewing for Survival makes culturally inspired gift items and accessories, beautifully crafted from locally resourced materials: the line is charming and totally reflective of Arctic life and is sup‐ ported by customers from around the world. It is an organization imbued with cultural integrity and ingenuity and is making a difference

in the challenged lives of many talented Inuit artisans. One by one, little by little, Rannva has, over the past 14 years, nurtured, taught, and assisted each individual by supporting cultural preservation, helping to improve the quality of workmanship, creating meaningful employment, and developing a market for these unique gifts. As the International market for cultural authenticity and hand‐made products expands, so do the opportunities for Sewing for Survival products. For centuries, the seal has been the cultural corner stone of life providing food, nutrition, and materials for Inuit survival. In Nunavut, sealskin, hides, fur, and accompanying animal parts are traditional local resources. But today, traditionally harvested skins are quite rare and

Thor Ulvedal Simonsen models a VRONG scarf and sealskin bracelet. © Rannva Erlinsgdóttir Simonsen

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BUSINESS

Sealskin coat with fox trim. © Myriam Sevigny

highly prized commodities as hunters seek more remunerative means of employment. Over the years, Rannva Simonsen has devel‐ oped a passion for Arctic Ring‐seal, considering it to be one of the most exquisite ‘fabrics’ in the entire world. The hand, the drape, the subtleties of tone and colour speak volumes in her designer ear. With her deep respect for marine culture and her architectural precision, she has designed and crafted stunning coats for both men and women. Her clientele includes government ministers and officials, celebrities, and like‐minded wearers. Rannva regards Nunavut seal skins as precious, to be used with respect and skill in the design and making of exquisitely crafted items. In constant demand are the traditional menswear mittens, styled for a perfect fit and lined with wool and fur — the crème‐de‐la‐crème for toasty fingertips. Complementing these stunning classics is her sheared beaver line — VRONG — designed for everyone with an eye for colours and a sense of sartorial fun. The company is currently involved in exploring market expansion possibilities in the UK and Europe and securing a bigger profile in Canadian museums. Negotiations are taking place with UK museums and organizers of cultural events to secure a presence in the International arena.

Sewing for Survival products made from local materials: sealskin, seal claw, rabbit fur, and caribou antler. Kamiik/winter booties for toddlers, toy Oopik/owls, mini Kamiik, Igloo keychain, traditional containers with decorations, traditional tattoo bracelets, flower earrings, baby slippers, toddler slippers, kids Kamiik, flower, mini mitts, seal claw earrings, flower earrings, snow goggles, mini mitts, mitts, earrings, baby slippers, toy owl Oopik. © Thor Ulvedal Simonsen

The British Museum has placed a significant order with Sewing for Survival for gifts for the Exhibition shop. Quite an achievement for this remarkable one‐woman company, deeply committed to changing lives for the better.

For more information on outerwear and products, visit: www.rannva.com www.facebook.com/sewingforsurvival www.facebook.com/RannvaDesign info@rannva.com instagram: @rannvainc twitter: @IncRannva

Iga and Rosie, seamstresses in the Sewing for Survival umbrella, work on seal skin pins. © Rannva Erlinsgdóttir Simonsen J U LY A U G U S T 2 0 2 0 | 0 4 A B O V E & B E Y O N D — C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

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RECIPE

Deadleh Klik Kurry From the kitchen of Evan Pound INGREDIENTS 1 can of Klik 1 can of Peaches 1 can of Coconut Milk or alternative 1 cup of Breadcrumbs. Crushed crackers work just fine. Thai Curry spice 1 Lemon

1 Red Onion 1-2 Green Onions 1 packet of Yorkshire Pudding Mix 2 eggs (one for Yorkshire pudding, one for battering Klik) 1 cup of flour

Step 2: Prepare Coconut Curry Soup While your Yorkshire Puddings are baking, we have the perfect amount of time to prepare the soup base for the dish. Preheat a deep pan or good-sized pot and add one can of coconut milk. Be sure to shake the can well so the milk is mixed nicely. You can always mix it in the pan or pot if you forget. Add the can of peaches, including the peach juice into the coconut milk. Bring to a simmer and add in a healthy amount of Thai Curry seasoning. Any type of curry powder will work but aim for something on the sweeter side that leans towards Oriental styles of Curry. Think sweet and savoury when picking a seasoning. Red curry powder is a good alternative — yellow is not! Add in as much as you like to get a good rich colour. Typically, a healthy teaspoon or two is all you need. Continue to stir and add in thin sliced red onion and squeeze some lemon juice into the soup broth. Let the soup simmer while the rest of the meal cooks. Or you can put it in the freezer for a chilled effect. This will help thicken the soup and bring out some of the flavours. Step 3: Thai Fried Klik While your soup is simmering or chilling, you can quickly cook and prepare the last part of the dish. Preheat a pan slightly above medium heat. Once you can feel the heat coming off the pan, add a healthy amount of oil — chef’s choice. Let the oil get hot over a minute or two. Avoid having it smoke; that means the pan is too hot. Slice your Klik into half inch-thick pieces. Don’t go too thick or they won’t cook evenly. Mix your breadcrumbs with the same Thai curry seasoning or any other seasonings you like to add flavour. Chili flakes work great for a touch of spice with the sweetness.

Deadleh Klik Kurry. © Evan Pound

Step 1: Prepare Yorkshire Puddings Preheat your oven to 425 degrees or as instructed if buying Yorkshire Pudding Mix. Add a small amount of oil to 6 to 8 sections of a cupcake tray. Put the cupcake tray in the oven for 3 to 5 minutes to allow oil in the cupcake tray to get hot. *This step is critical as it helps the Yorkshire puddings rise properly. Pour the Yorkshire Pudding batter evenly across each of the preheated cupcake tray spots. Put in the oven and cook for 16 to 18 minutes or until they have risen and are golden brown. *Note — Do not open the oven door to check on them. Set a timer and follow it. Yorkshire Puddings are a bit of work but are worth it when done right. Recipe submitted by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation.

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Cover your Klik pieces in flour, then egg and finally the breadcrumb mix. Once the oil is hot, fry your Klik on each side for 3 to 5 minutes or until golden brown and crispy to your liking. Remove from pan and let sit on paper towels to absorb excess oil. SERVING: Grab your soup broth and pour into a serving bowl. Your Yorkshire Puddings should be just about done by this point or have been for a few minutes. Once they are, gently place one in the middle of your soup. Fill the Yorkshire Pudding with your Klik and any extra ingredients from your soup, such as the peach and onion. Garnish with green onions and lemon zest.

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BOOKSHELF

Tanna’s Owl Rachel and Sean Qitsualik‐Tinsley Illustrated by Yong Ling Kang Inhabit Media November 2019 When Tanna’s father brings home an abandoned owl, she is not eager to take care of the needy, little bird. Tanna must wake at 4 a.m. to catch food for the owl. She must feed it and clean up after it, all while avoiding its sharp, chomping beak and big, stomping talons. After weeks of following her father’s instructions on how to care for the owl, Tanna must leave home for school. Her owl has grown. It has lost its grey, baby feathers and is beginning to sprout a beautiful adult, snowy owl coat. As she says good‐bye to the owl, she is relieved not to have to care for it anymore, but also a bit sad. This heartwarming story based on the authors’ own life experiences teaches young readers the value of hard work, helping, and caring.

Niam! Kerry McCluskey Inhabit Media December 2019

Transformed By A Tusk Martin Nweeia and Pamela Peeters The Institute for a Sustainable Planet March 2020 Graphic novel, Transformed By A Tusk, is the tale of co‐author Pamela Peeters’ kids loveable Eco‐Hero who is called to the High Canadian Arctic to help the narwhals. The children’s book introduces the Inuit Legend of the Narwhal, the effects of climate change and impacts of industrial development, and ultimately unlock‐ ing the mystery of the legendary tusk. Three prominent Canadian Inuit elders were consulted during the writing of the book about Inuit legends. It is also endorsed by the Nunavut Research Institute. The book will be eventually translated into Inuktitut. For additional copies, visit MyEcoHero.com and/or contact ask@pamelapeeters.com.

Author Kerry McCluskey has spent the last five years running the Mamaqtuq Cooking Club at Nanook elementary school in Apex, Nunavut. Niam! — yum in Inuktitut — is the cookbook inspired by the Club. From simple smoothies to jerk chicken to pizza from scratch, there is something in this book for all taste buds and skill sets. All the ingredients are readily available in Nunavut communities, and all recipes can be made with country food, so kids can learn how to create the perfect palaugo (a delightful hybrid of pogos and palaugaaq, traditional Inuit bannock) or make a mean meatball. This cookbook isn’t just about simple, delicious, kid‐friendly recipes. It includes ways to use cooking to give back to the community, traditional Inuit knowledge about country food, and lists skills kids will develop as they work their way through each recipe. Niam! can be found at Arctic Ventures and Malikkaat in Iqaluit, Nunavut, or online through Amazon and Inhabit Media.

Carrying a good selection of northern titles. Check out the website. We ship worldwide! 4921 - 49th Street Yellowknife, NT X1A 2N9 1-800-944-6029 / 867-920-2220

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TRIVIA

Arctic Trivia Quiz

BY ALAN G. LUKE

The Arctic has been the subject of myriad feature films and cinematic backdrops for movie makers over the years. Test your knowledge of these Arctic-oriented motion pictures and actors and authors thereof. 3. A pair of vaudevillian flops (Bob Hope and Bing Crosby) pose as a couple of bad guys and join the Klondike Gold Rush with a saloon singer (Dorothy Lamour) in Road to Utopia (1946). What release number was this “Road picture” in a series of seven (over a 22‐year period)? a) 1st b) 4th c) 5th d) 7th

1. A government researcher (Charles Martin Smith) is sent to the Arctic to examine the wolf “menace” and learns about the beneficial nature of the species. Never Cry Wolf (1983) is a survivalist film based on a novel by which author? a) Jack London b) Pierre Berton c) Margaret Atwood d) Farley Mowat

4. A silent documentary follows the lifestyle of an Inuk man and his family in the Canadian Arctic (Ungava Peninsula of northern Quebec). In what year of the silent film era (mid‐1890s – late 1920s) was Nanook of the North released? a) 1901 c) 1915 b) 1908 d) 1922 5. Ice Station Zebra (1968) was a Cold War era suspense and espionage feature film. Who starred as Commander James Ferraday, a captain of an American nuclear attack submarine in the Arctic Ocean? a) Rock Hudson b) Robert Mitchum c) Richard Widmark d) Glenn Ford 6. Miami dentist, Ted Brooks, travels to Alaska to claim his inheritance. He receives his mother’s property along with her pack of rowdy sled dogs. He decides to keep them and race in the local Arctic Challenge dog sled competition. Who played Ted in the comedy‐adventure film, Snow Dogs (2002)? a) Ed Begley Jr. b) Cuba Gooding Jr. c) Robin Williams d) Graham Greene 7. In the Canadian American co‐production of The White Dawn (1974), which one of the actors did not co‐star as a stranded whaler in Canada’s Arctic in 1896? a) Warren Oates b) Timothy Bottoms c) Louis Gossett Jr. d) Jeff Bridges

ANSWERS:

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9. Ordeal in the Arctic is a tv movie based on a true story. Blizzard‐like conditions near Alert, Nunavut, hamper the rescue of survivors. Who played Captain John Couch in this 1993 Canadian production? a) Brendan Fraser b) Richard Chamberlain c) Jeff Fahey d) Ed Harris 10.A Canadian bush pilot’s life is changed when he encounters a young Inuit woman and their challenge to survive on the Northwest Territories tundra. What actor wrote and directed The Snow Walker (2003)? a) Lou Diamond Phillips c) Charles Martin Smith b) Tommy Lee Jones d) Daniel Day Lewis

1. d) Farley Mowat 2. c) Charlton Heston 3. b) 4th film 4. d) 1922 5. a) Rock Hudson 6. b) Cuba Gooding Jr. 7. d) Jeff Bridges 8. b) Iceland 9. b) Richard Chamberlain 10. c) Charles Martin Smith

2. Based on an adventure novel by Jack London, The Call of the Wild, features a sled dog named Buck during the Klondike Gold Rush. Harrison Ford stars in the 2020 remake. Clark Gable starred in the 1935 film version while which actor starred in the 1972 production? a) William Holden b) Burt Lancaster c) Charlton Heston d) Kirk Douglas

8. A man stranded in the Arctic must decide whether to remain in the relative safety of his makeshift camp or to embark on a trek through the unknown. Where was this survival drama, Arctic (2019) filmed? a) Greenland b) Iceland c) Nunavut d) Northwest Territories

All images credit: Alan G. Luke

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INUIT FORUM

© Jessica Deeks

Inuit Post-Secondary Education Program is an investment in our future We know that Inuit students face an obstacle course of challenges related to pursuing and succeeding in post‐secondary education (PSE). We not only face unique academic barriers, but those related to navigating specific family circumstances, like housing, childcare and travel, that can stand in the way of success. Funding programs to support our people in overcoming these difficulties often pose barriers of their own — strict residency requirements to qualify or a narrow scope of programming or schools that can keep talented Inuit from pursuing their dreams. During a series of engagement sessions over the past few years, Inuit students, graduates and their families told us about issues that had stood in their way. We used this information to develop an Inuit Post‐Secondary Education Strategy and accompanying comprehensive federal funding package, in collaboration with Inuit regional organizations and the Government of Canada, to provide support to Inuit students throughout all stages of their PSE careers. In June, we announced a new Inuit PSE Program funded through an investment of $125.5 million over 10 years and $21.8 million per year thereafter announced in Budget 2019. This is a new stream of funding for Inuit, supplementing funding available through existing provincial and territorial programs. The funding is available to Inuit enrolled under Inuit Nunangat land claims agreements, regardless of where they live or where they are going to school. The program’s primary goal is to provide straightforward and direct financial support for Inuit students in addition to any other funding they may receive through other programs. Another critical aspect of the program is the development of regional engagement activities to draw more Inuit students into PSE, as well as the creation of new Inuit‐specific support services like academic training and counselling, to help our students succeed in PSE programs, graduate, and in turn inspire others to pursue their PSE goals. We want to increase PSE attainment rates to 42 per cent, a level consistent with the non‐Indigenous population, from the current level of 14 per cent. Our strategy proposes some initial steps towards equity in PSE by creating the conditions necessary to raise Inuit attainment, and we will continue to work with Inuit across Canada to respond to our students’ needs. It starts with the ambitious plan to double the number of Inuit graduates over the next 10 years, with a major emphasis on increasing university level education among Inuit.

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Lena Korkgak-Stokes looks for traces of plastic in Arctic Char in 2019 as part of the Nunavut Arctic College’s Environmental Technology Program. © Erika Marteleira

Inuit success in PSE makes sense for Inuit students and Inuit commu‐ nities, and it makes sense for Canada as a whole. Over the 10‐year course of our strategy, we project that the income for Inuit graduates will rise compared to the income they would have earned under a status‐quo scenario. Over the course of their careers, the additional Inuit graduates to emerge from this 10‐year funding strategy are projected to have an earning potential of $3.7 billion compared to the status quo. But it doesn’t just support our financial future. Supporting the success of Inuit students also supports our self‐determination as a people. It sets the foundation for Inuit leadership and success in all aspects of Inuit society, which is a benefit that surpasses any economic value. For more information about the Inuit Post‐Secondary Education Program, please visit www.itk.ca/ipse.

Natan Obed President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami

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