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A B O V E & B E Y O N D – C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L 2015 | 01 • $5.95

Charting Baffin’s West Side J.T.E. Lavoie’s Expeditions

Hidden Treasures of the Arctic Ocean

2 Visions. 1 Voice.

Destination Northwest Territories The Rise of Cultural Tourism

PM40050872

o www.arcticjournal.ca


First Air, The Airline of the North continues to play an important role in supporting the economic growth, development, health and overall advancement of the communities and people we serve — 365 days of the year.

Supporting Communities First Air staff work tirelessly year round, not just at the office, but also in their spare time, to support projects and initiatives that improve the overall health and well-being of the communities in which they are located. For example, in November, our Yellowknife team was there to help promote Northwestel’s Festival of Giving fundraising gala and “Dutch” auction for the Stanton Territorial Hospital, at which a total of $145,000 was raised to go toward much needed new equipment and enhanced services.

Boosting Business Development Creating opportunities for businesses, new and old, to achieve goals, or connecting their goods and services with their clients, is just part of what our First Air team, west to east, does on a daily basis. Attending region-based trade shows and conferences to support opportunities and provide important representation at sector-driven gatherings such as the annual Geo-science Forum held in Yellowknife each year, are key aspects of First Air’s commitment to help develop a successful and sustainable economic future for the North. Hiring new and energetic young northern companies, such as Atiigo Media of Iqaluit to provide their expertise as we move forward into 2015, is another.

Sharing Knowledge and Education Never has there been wider interest shown in the Arctic and its evolution. Be it greater engagement with climate change, oil and gas, or mining resource development, our own sovereignty claims to the North Pole, or the impact of a changing North on its communities, people and environment — the First Air team is proud to help bring people together to have those important conversations and share ideas with scientists and experts and their peers, by providing key travel supports to important knowledge forums such as ArcticNet’s Arctic Change Conference, held in Ottawa this past December.

Dedicated to being first in service — and our commitment to the communities and people we serve! Like us!

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Book online at firstair.ca or call 1 800 267 1247


Jobie Tukkiapik / JW bexW4

Brock Friesen / XÇ4 K‰n8

Dear Guest, Happy New Year to you! From all of us at First Air, we wish you a healthy, successful and prosperous 2015 with many happy landings on-board our aircraft. As we enter a new year, we celebrate our accomplishments and successes of 2014. As your largest scheduled northern airline, we carried a record number of passengers and cargo volumes last year. Over 1,000 First Air employees have dealt with the daily challenges of harsh weather conditions and a limited air transport infrastructure to deliver safe, reliable and friendly service to 33 cities and communities in the North. The start of our partnership with Cargojet and the transition of our B767 freighter aircraft in 2014 have proven to be an efficient means to provide more valuable and reliable services to our customers. In seeking new solutions to generate revenue and reduce our costs, we continue to explore new business relationships and opportunities. In evaluating all scheduled operations and examining opportunities in regards to passengers, cargo, aircraft type and the utilization of crew and aircraft, we determined a more cost effective solution. For some of our scheduled flying in the West, we will provide services together with our new partner airline Summit. This enables us to maximize the use of aircraft for passenger and cargo transportation and utilize our resources much more efficiently. As we continue to assess key business factors and options we were pleased to identify that Igloolik passenger and cargo volumes are higher than originally forecasted. Hence, in November we added an additional flight every Sunday allowing connecting traffic to and from Ottawa. This increase in frequency will accommodate the higher cargo volumes and provide more options to passengers for travel to and from Igloolik. In line with exploring new opportunities, First Air secured the seasonal airport handling contracts for both Sunwing and Air Transat at our Ottawa base. For those of you connecting in Ottawa to your leisure destination, you will be in the same trusted hands of our Ottawa colleagues when you transit. This new contract amounts to approximately 26 flights per week, in addition to our own regular scheduled flights and the Air North two weekly departures to Yellowknife and Whitehorse. Looking forward, the year 2015 will be a year in which we will continue to deliver safe, reliable and friendly air transportation services, compete aggressively in our ever changing markets and identify opportunities for growth and efficiency to continue to provide tangible benefits to the constituents in the markets we serve. We value your support and thank you for making First Air, the airline of the North!

Brock Friesen First Air President & CEO

ᑐᕌᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓄᑦ,

ᕼᐋᐱ ᓂᐅ ᓂᐊᔨᐊ! ᑕᒪᑦᑕᐅᓪᓗᑕ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᖏᓂᑦ, ᓈᒻᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᑑᓗᓯ, ᐃᓅᓯᑦᓯᓐᓂ ᓯᕗᒻᒧᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᑦᓯᐊᖅᑑᓗᓯ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔪᖖᒋᓕᕆᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᖁᓇᖅᐳᓯ 2015 ᐅᑭᐅᖓ ᐊᑐᓕᕆᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᒥᓱᐃᖅᑕᕐᓗᓯᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᕙᒃᑎᓪᓗᓯ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᒥᑦᓯᐊᖃᑦᑕᖁᓐᓇᖅᐳᓯ.

ᓄᑖᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᖅ ᐊᑐᓕᕆᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᑎᒍ, ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᑦᑎᐊᖅᓯᒪᔭᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓚᐅᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ 2014 ᐅᑭᐅᖓᓂ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒍᑎᖃᖅᐳᒍᑦ. ᐊᖏᓂᖅᐸᐅᓪᓗᑕ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑕ ᐅᓯᔨᐅᕙᒃᖢᑕ ᐃᓄᓐᓂᒃ. ᐅᑭᐅᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐊᒥᓲᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᖃᖅᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᒍ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ. ᐅᖓᑖᓄᑦ 1,000-ᖑᔪᑦ ᕘᔅᑦ ᑎᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᖏᑦ ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓇᖅᑑᕙᒃᖢᑎᒃ ᓯᓚ ᓂᒡᓚᓱᓗᐊᕋᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒥᒐᕋᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᑦᑎᐊᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᑎᒃ, ᖁᓚᕐᓇᖅᑑᓇᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑐᖖᒐᓇᖅᑑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᐸᖕᓂᕐᒥᓐᓂ 33-ᖑᔪᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᐸᐅᔭᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ. ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᒌᒃᖢᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑎᖃᓕᕐᓂᕗᑦ ᑳᒃᑰᔨᐊᑦᑯᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑕ B767 ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᔾᔪᑎᐅᔪᑉ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᓂᖓᑕ 2014-ᒥ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᔾᔪᑎᐅᓚᐅᕐᒪᑎᒃ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᑎᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑑᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᓚᕐᓇᖖᒋᑦᑑᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᕐᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᓄᑖᓂᒃ ᐋᖅᑭᒋᐊᕈᑎᔅᓴᐅᓇᔭᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᑕᖃᓕᕆᐊᕈᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐊᒥᓱᖖᒍᕆᐊᖅᓯᒪᓕᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐅᑎᖅᑐᒃᓴᖁᑎᒋᕙᒃᑕᕗᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᑭᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᒥᒃᖠᒋᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᕿᓂᖅᑎᓪᓗᑕ, ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᕗᒍᑦ ᓄᑖᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑎᒋᓕᕈᖕᓇᕋᔭᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᓕᕈᓐᓇᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᐃᓂᖃᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ. ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐊᖅᑕᐅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑕᒪᕐᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲ ᑎᑭᕝᕕᒃᓴᕆᕙᒃᑕᖏᓄᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᐃᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᒋᓕᕈᖕᓇᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑎᓐᓂ, ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᓂᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ, ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑑᓂᕆᕙᒃᑕᖏᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃᓗ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ, ᐃᓱᒪᓕᐅᖅᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᕋᑦᑕ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᖅᑐᓗᐊᖏᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓗᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᕆᔪᓐᓇᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᐃᓚᖏᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦ ᑎᑭᕝᕕᒃᓴᕆᕙᒃᑕᖏᑦ ᐅᐊᓕᓂᕐᒥᐅᓂ, ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᓕᕐᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒋᓕᕐᓗᑎᒍ ᓄᑖᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᖏᑦ ᓴᒥᑦ. ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓇ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕆᔭᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᔾᔪᑎᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᖖᒍᕆᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐊᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᖁᑎᒋᔭᕗᑦ ᓈᒻᒪᖕᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᒍᖕᓇᖅᓯᓗᑎᒃ. ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐊᕐᓂᑦᑎᒍᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕈᑎᒻᒪᕆᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓯᐊᒍᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᓯᒪᓕᕈᑎᒋᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᕗᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᒍᑦ ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕆᐊᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᒡᓗᓕᖕᒥᑦ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃᓗ ᐅᓯᕙᖕᓂᕗᑦ ᐊᖏᓪᓕᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᓂᖏᑦ ᖁᕝᕙᓯᖕᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓐᓂᐊᕋᓱᒋᔭᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᑦ. ᑕᐃᒪᓕ, ᓄᕕᐱᕆᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕗᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦᑕᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᐳᖅ ᓴᓇᑦᑕᐃᓕᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᓯᐊᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒧᑦ ᐃᑭᕝᕕᒋᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑕᒥᓐᓄᑦ ᐋᑐᕙᓕᐊᖅᑐᒧᑦ ᐋᑐᕙᓕᐊᖅᑐᒥᓪᓗ ᐃᖢᐊᖅᓯᑎᑕᐅᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᓕᕐᖢᑎᒃ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᖃᖓᑕᕙᓐᓂᑦᑕ ᐊᑯᓚᐃᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᒋᐊᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐊᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᒥᓱᑲᓪᓚᐅᕙᒃᖢᑎᒃ ᐱᖁᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᐃᕙᓐᓂᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᒡᓗᓕᖕᒥᑦ ᐃᒡᓗᓕᖕᒧᓪᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᖅᓱᕈᖕᓇᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᐊᕐᖢᑎᒃ ᖃᖓ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒧᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓐᓇᕐᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᒥᓐᓄᑦ. ᐃᓚᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᓄᑖᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᓕᕐᕕᒃᓴᐅᓇᔭᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᐃᓂᕐᒥᓐᓂ, ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐅᑭᐅᑉ ᐃᓚᖓᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᖕᒥ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖅᑎᖃᕐᓂᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᑕᒪᒃᑭᑯᓐᓂᒃ ᓴᓐᕕᖕᑯᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᐊᕐ ᑐᕌᓐᓵᑦᑯᓐᓂᒃ ᐋᑐᕙᐅᑉ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕝᕕᐊᓂ. ᐃᓕᑦᓯᓐᓄᑦ ᐋᑐᕙᒥ ᐊᓯᐊᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒧᑦ ᐃᑭᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ, ᑖᒃᑯᓂᖓᑦᓴᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᐋᑐᕙᒥ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᓚᐅᖅᑕᑦᓯᓐᓂᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᓕᖅᐳᓯ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᒋᓚᖅᑕᑦᓯᓐᓂᒃ ᑎᑭᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᓯ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᓄᑖᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑳᓐᑐᕌᑎᒍᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕈᑎᐅᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᑐᑭᖃᖅᐳᑦ 26-ᖑᔪᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓂᒃ ᑎᑭᑦᑐᖃᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᐃᓚᖃᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑕ ᑎᑭᕝᕕᒃᓴᒥᓐᓂ ᑎᑭᑉᐸᖕᓂᖏᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᐊᕐ ᓄᐊᔅᑯᑦ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᖅ ᒪᕐᕈᐃᕐᓗᒍ ᔭᓗᓇᐃᓕᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᓕᕐᖢᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕙᐃᑦᕼᐅᐊᔅᒧᑦ. ᓯᕗᓂᕆᓂᐊᖅᑕᕗᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᓗᒍ, ᐅᑭᐅᖓ 2015-ᒥ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓗᑎᒃ, ᖁᓚᕐᓇᖅᑑᓇᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑐᖖᒐᓇᖅᑑᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ, ᐱᓯᒪᓕᖔᕆᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᓗᑕᓗ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᖏᓐᓇᐅᔭᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᓂᐅᕝᕈᑎᖃᖃᑦᑕᕈᑎᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᒋᐊᖅᓗᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕐᕕᐅᓕᕈᖕᓇᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᕈᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᑦᑎᐊᖁᓪᓗᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔪᖖᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑑᓗᑕ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓂᖃᓕᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᕈᑎᒋᔭᐅᕙᑦᑐᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᕐᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᕗᑦ. ᐊᒃᓱᐊᓗᒃ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᓯᓂᓯ ᖁᔭᒋᒐᑦᑎᒍ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖓᓂ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕆᔭᐅᔪᒥ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅᐸᐅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᒐᑦᓯ!

ᐸᕌᒃ ᕗᕇᓴᓐ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᖓᔪᖅᑳᖅ & ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ

President, Makivik Corporation & Chairman, First Air xzJ6√6, mr=F4 fxS‰nzk5 x7m w4y?sb6, {5 wsf8k5 Président, Société Makivik et président du conseil, First Air

Chers invités, Bonne année! De la part de nous tous, chez First Air, nous vous souhaitons beaucoup de santé, de succès et de prospérité en 2015, et d’excellents vols à bord de nos aéronefs. Au début de cette nouvelle année, nous célébrons nos réalisations et nos succès de 2014. À titre de la plus importante ligne aérienne régulière du Nord, nous avons transporté un nombre record de passagers et de fret l’an dernier. Plus de 1000 employés de First Air ont relevé des défis quotidiens liés aux conditions météorologiques extrêmes et à une infrastructure de transport aérien limitée pour assurer des services sécuritaires, fiables et amicaux à 33 villes et collectivités du Nord. Le début de notre partenariat avec Cargojet et la transformation de notre avion de fret B767 en 2014 se sont avérés un moyen efficace de fournir des services plus efficaces et plus fiables à notre clientèle. En recherchant de nouvelles solutions pour générer des recettes et réduire nos coûts, nous continuons à explorer de nouvelles relations et occasions d’affaires. Nous avons trouvé une solution plus rentable grâce à l’évaluation de toutes les activités régulières et à l’examen des possibilités relatives aux passagers, au fret, aux types d’aéronefs, ainsi que de l’utilisation des équipages et des aéronefs. Pour certains de nos vols réguliers dans l’Ouest, nous fournirons des services en collaboration avec notre nouveau partenaire, la ligne aérienne Summit. Ainsi, nous pourrons maximiser l’utilisation des aéronefs pour le transport des passagers et du fret et utiliser nos ressources de manière bien plus efficace. Au moment où nous continuons d’évaluer les options et les facteurs opérationnels clés, nous sommes heureux d’avoir déterminé que le nombre de passagers et le volume de fret d’Igloolik sont plus élevés que prévu. Nous avons donc ajouté un nouveau vol chaque dimanche en novembre à destination ou en provenance d’Ottawa. Cette augmentation de fréquence tient compte du volume plus élevé de fret et offre des options supplémentaires aux passagers à destination ou en provenance d’Igloolik. Dans le cadre de la recherche de nouveaux débouchés, First Air a obtenu des marchés saisonniers de manutention aéroportuaire avec Sunwing et Air Transat à notre base aérienne d’Ottawa. Les personnes qui passeront par Ottawa pour se rendre à une destination touristique seront desservies par nos collègues d’Ottawa lors du transit. Ce nouveau marché équivaut à environ 26 vols par semaine, en plus de nos vols réguliers et des deux départs hebdomadaires d’Air North à destination de Yellowknife et de Whitehorse. En ce qui concerne l’avenir, pour l’année 2015, nous continuerons de fournir des services de transport aérien sécuritaires, fiables et amicaux, d’être un concurrent agressif dans nos marchés en évolution constante et de cerner des occasions de croissance et d’efficacité afin de continuer d’offrir des avantages tangibles à notre clientèle dans les marchés que nous desservons. Nous apprécions votre appui et vous remercions de faire en sorte que First Air soit la Ligne aérienne du Nord!

Brock Friesen Président-directeur général de First Air

W7mEst5bK5 wvJ6gw•5 x7ml d/8N¨4 {tx srs6b6g3u4 czb˙oEp7mEst4vFs4. We value your support and thank you for making First Air The Airline of the North. Nous apprécions votre soutien et vous remercions de votre appui à First Air la ligne aérienne du Nord. Like us!

/firstair

Book online at firstair.ca or call 1 800 267 1247


In the News Warm Hearts Behind the Warm Hands Network Each year, Ottawa’s “Warm Hands Network,” corporate sponsors and communities in the North, partner with avid crocheters and knitters volunteering to create warm and delightfully colourful hats, scarves, mittens and more for children living in Canada’s coldest, most remote communities. This year, children in Cape Dorset and Igloolik, Nunavut, will be all the warmer and enjoying their long winter a whole lot more because of the Warm Hands Network’s “Gathering Warm Knitting for Cold Places” initiative. First Air is proud to be a partner to the Warm Hands Network and all those who contribute of their time and efforts to deliver the true gifts of warmth and caring to young children living in the communities we serve. For information on how you might help, go to: www.warmhandsnetwork.org.

Supporting Northern Enterprises Reaching out to meet the all-sector challenges and expanding opportunities flowing from northern Canada’s changing political, social and economic landscapes, First Air, the North’s largest air carrier, has selected Inuit-owned, Atiigo Media of Iqaluit, Nunavut, to handle the airline’s northern policy development, public relations, and social media outreach needs. Atiigo Media is a youthfully dynamic and innovative full service firm that combines a strong northern cultural relevancy with modern and broad-based cutting-edge expertise in media communications technologies that include: graphic design, film, the arts, and web and social media development. An active northern investor and dedicated supporter of community-based social and economic initiatives for close to 70 years, First Air, The Airline of the North, remains deeply committed to tangibly and materially supporting social programs, the arts, education, training and jobs creation in the North, while continuing to grow its support for healthy social and economic development of the communities it serves.

Like Us? Of course you do. Who doesn’t like polar bears. But there’s more, a whole lot more to the North and First Air too, than mere polar bears. And to keeping northerners connected. So why not visit us at: www.facebook.com/firstair to discover just what we mean. Or visit: www.firstair.ca and click on our Facebook widget. Check in on what’s new, what’s fun, or take advantage of the chance to grab and share First Air Facebook scoops on special travel deals, contests, community initiatives and what’s new and exciting, here, there and everywhere. Discover First Air on Facebook — a great way to stay virtually connected with what’s going on. And while you’re there, why not join the thousands who’ve already committed to a “we like you too” thumbs up while you check in on what all your friends in the North are up to.

Onboard and Online: What’s In Store? Did you know passengers onboard select jet flights can now purchase First Air gear? Absolutely! Perfect to keep you looking good, or to bring back as gifts or a memory from your trip North. It’s never been easier. All you need to do is ask your helpful First Air flight attendant about what items are onboard and available for purchase that day. And just in case you might have missed your chance, not to worry — you can always Gear Up with First Air by visiting our online e-store to check out the newest still to be expanded offerings at: www.firstair.ca

Like us!

/firstair

Book online at firstair.ca or call 1 800 267 1247


From the Flight Deck Walking the Arctic Sunrise Flying above the rolling barrens, or passing by sheer mountain faces that dive thousands of feet into glacier-etched fjords, from the brightest warmth of summer through to the darkest cold of winter, Canada’s North is a land of stark and dramatic contrasts. As a pilot, what I am able to see from the flight deck of my ATR aircraft continues to perpetuate my wonderment and real appreciation for flying in the Arctic. Even during the coldest, darkest part of the year, we pilots often enjoy spectacular displays of Aurora Borealis setting the night sky aglow. With flight deck lighting kept low during night flying, we can spend hours in cruise, awed by the kaleidoscope of colours that dance across an infinite panorama of space. In transition from 24 hours of darkness to the advent of spring’s welcome birth of light, the rising sun will sometimes create a scattering of sparkles in the ice crystal-laden air. When flight times coincide, we lift off in total darkness only to experience the sun’s 10 to 15 minute skyward march above a gently glowing horizon that we pilots like to term, “walking the sunrise”.

No two days are ever the same — the views often unique. Whether it is flying on approach into Pangnirtung, Nunavut, along the famed “Pang Pass,” or setting our ATR down on the landing strip at Pond Inlet, a setting best described as being postcard picturesque. On other days, we could be flying high over icebergs of all shapes and sizes floating in the sea, watching a pod of whales feeding in the seas below, or marvelling at the migrating caribou herd that dots the white landscape below. There is no shortage of breathtaking scenery the Arctic shares with us on the flight deck, and with our passengers too. On more than one occasion, I’ve caught my reflection in the ATR’s windscreen and notice my face is sporting an impulsive, satisfied grin. All airplane seats aren’t created equal, I guess. Or are they? For years the window versus aisle seat conversation amongst those who fly remains. That’s one discussion I need not enter into. On the job at First Air, my spot on the ATR’s flight deck is, hands down, the best window seat in the house. Captain Aaron Speer Chief ATR Pilot First Air

Dedicated to being first in service — and our commitment to the communities and people we serve!

www.firstair.ca


A B O V E & B E Y O N D – C A N A D A’ S A R C T I C J O U R N A L

2015 | 01 • $5.95

Charting Baffin’s West Side J.T.E. Lavoie’s Expeditions

Hidden Treasures of the Arctic Ocean

2 Visions. 1 Voice.

Destination Northwest Territories The Rise of Cultural Tourism

PM40050872

o www.arcticjournal.ca

OUTFITTER BRUCE KENNy AND GUEST, MARTy ANN BAyHA, ENJOy THE EVENING ICE-FISHING ON GREAT BEAR LAKE, NWT. © PATRICK KANE

Publisher & Editor Tom Koelbel

Advertising Doris Ohlmann (Ottawa) 613-257-4999 Circulation Patt Hunter

Design Robert Hoselton, Beat Studios

email: editor@arcticjournal.ca Toll Free: 1 • 877 • 2ARCTIC Cover Price $5.95

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION RATES Canada 6 issues $30.00

(Includes applicable taxes)

US/Foreign 6 issues $45.00

Above&Beyond online: Canada’s Arctic Journal

www.twitter.com/arcticjournal Read online:

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PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40050872 RETURN UNDELIVERABLE CANADIAN ADDRESSES TO: CIRCULATION/ABOVE&BEYOND P.O. BOX 683 MAHONE BAY, NS B0J 2E0 Email: info@arcticjournal.ca

Contents 10 26

31

37

Features

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2 Visions. 1 Voice.

Donna Harris and Lee Narraway share their visions of the Arctic in this photographic exhibit. — Season Osborne

26

Destination Northwest Territories

In Deline, Northwest Territories, a bold new model of tourism based on aboriginal culture and lifestyle is on the rise. — Patrick Kane

31

Charting Baffin’s West Side

Most of Baffin Island’s west coast was an unknown dotted line on Arctic maps until J.T.E. Lavoie made an impressive sledding expedition in 1911. — Season Osborne

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Hidden Treasures of the Arctic Ocean

Some fascinating fishes are found in the Arctic environment — from sharks and rays, to deepwater residents, to rarely seen species that look like science fiction monsters, and some that even glow in the dark.— Noel Alfonso

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Arctic Change — above&beyond Circumpolar Women of Vision — Patrick Kane Living Above&Beyond Resources Community Nunavut Community Aquatic Monitoring Program — Sarah Arnold Arts, Culture & Education Bern Will Brown’s Final Legacy — A Review Essay by David F. Pelly Science Giant Virus — Nicholas Choi and David Smith Bookshelf Arctic Tracks — Trent Walthers Inuit Forum — Terry Audla 7


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2015 | 01


ARCTIC CHANGE

Arctic Change

Welcome to our first issue of 2015. We’ve made some changes and applied a few tweaks to the

format, content and style of the magazine you’ve come to know and enjoy over the amazing, unquestionably dynamic two and a half decades we’ve shared news and stories of Canada’s North with our readers. More changes to this magazine are sure to follow this year and we hope that you will notice and approve as we roll them out.

According to early science supported by clearly identifiable markers already present, the next

two decades in the Arctic will see an evolution of change so accelerated that it will challenge all

facets of life in the Arctic: its coastal communities, the polar eco-system, the economic future of entire regions, our national sovereignty, and, most importantly, the scope for greater human development.

Amidst what is predicted to now be inevitable, above&beyond’s primary objective to produce

and share a down-to-earth, entertaining window on the North, honouring the great diversity of

the Arctic and near-Arctic regions of our country’s vast northern expanse all the way to the North Pole — will remain.

We hope you enjoy this issue of Canada’s Arctic Journal, above&beyond.

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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2 V I S I O N S . 1 V O I C E . By Season Osborne

The poster of the blue iceberg against a pink

sky hinted of the incredible images to see at

EarthLore’s 2 Visions. 1 Voice. photographic

exhibit. It did not disappoint.

O

n the long orange wall that stretches the length of the room, hang 24 brilliant colour photographs, which capture various aspects of the

Arctic — people, animals and scenery. A textual description of the images

divides the photos in half, and offers the context for the exhibit. is is the single voice of 2 Visions. 1 Voice. Two photographers, each with a different vision of the Arctic, have taken these stunning pictures. Twelve of the photographs are by Donna Harris on her first-ever trip to the North. e other 12 are by veteran Arctic photographer, Lee Narraway, who has been to the Arctic almost 100 times. At the end of July, Donna Harris and her partner, Don Runge, flew to Qikiqtarjuaq, on Baffin Island, to hike the 100-kilometre Akshayuk Pass in Auyuitttuq National Park. It was Donna’s first trip to the Arctic, and she was awestruck by it. Her photographs of Auyuitttuq not only focus on the grander mountains of the pass, but also on the tiny plants that inhabit it. The photographic exhibit 2 Visions. 1 Voice., which opened in Ottawa, Ontario, November 6, 2014, was attended by 150 people. The photos remain on display until the end of January 2015 at EarthLore Communications, Suite 201, 1960 Scott Street, Ottawa, 613-722-1584.

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Since 1999, Lee Narraway has been to the Arctic 97 times, photographing as much of it as she can capture on film, and, more recently, in pixels. She says she loves the Arctic, the people, the scenery, the wildlife, and being out on the land. e photos exhibited in 2 Visions are pulled from a collection of her photographs taken over the past 14 years.

2015 | 01


Top: Narraway was travelling with Students on Ice, heading north up the coast of Baffin Island amongst a lot of icebergs. In the distance, a massive iceberg looked like a castle. It had flipped over not long before and had beautiful shiny grooves and caves cut into it. Narraway says, “The ice was so big, I couldn’t take a photo of the iceberg and get the bear in it. I had to pull in just on the bear. It’s a big, fat, healthy bear. He was just sleeping there and when we came by, he got up and looked around.” © LEE NARRAWAy

Bottom left: The couple had more success hiking into the park from Pangnirtung. Harris says there were only a few days when they didn’t catch a glimpse of Mount Thor, Auyuittuq’s mighty peak that at 1,250 metres is the world’s greatest vertical drop. Two nights were spent beneath Mount Thor. Harris says, “The sun never set when we were there, but it did go behind the mountains. In the morning, the sun kept disappearing behind the clouds and its changing light changed how everything looked.” © DONNA HARRIS

A B OV E & B E yO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

Bottom right: Harris and Runge had to cross the glacial fed rivers at 2:00 in the morning when they are lowest. By afternoon, the warmth of the sun melts the glaciers enough that the velocity and depth of the rivers flowing from them make it dangerous to cross. “This was taken as we left our campsite at Windy River. In the morning, we packed up camp and were walking away. I just turned around and the Weasel River was golden. Don said ‘take a photo of that,” says Harris. “The river is actually incredibly wide here, but you don’t get a sense of that from the picture. you also don’t get a sense of how fast it was or how deep it was, only how beautiful.” © DONNA HARRIS

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Top: Late one summer Narraway was staying in Pond Inlet. She says, “I just headed out of town to go for a hike — with my camera, of course — and I saw the sunset and I really liked the fingers of God’s light coming in. It really added a lot of drama.” © LEE NARRAWAy

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Bottom left: For a number of years, Narraway was the race timer on the Nunavut Quest dog race. On this particular race, prior to the dogsleds arriving, helpers arrived to set up camp and put up tents. The father of these children had set up the tent and the three were sitting on a mattress covered with caribou skins. “The tent was open because it was a beautiful day, and the kids were just sitting there and the light on their faces just made me want to take a photo,” Narraway says. “I started chatting with them and took the picture.” © LEE NARRAWAy

Bottom right: Harris and Runge started their hike at the north end of Auyuitttuq National Park. They spent a few days traipsing through the braids in attempts to find a place to cross the first river, but couldn’t get across the raging water. “There was Arctic cotton everywhere. This was taken on one of our first days in the northern half of Akshayuk Pass,” says Harris. “It was overcast the whole time. The clouds were so low in the mountains, they almost touched the ground.” © DONNA HARRIS

2015 | 01


Left: “These caribou antlers were lying near the shore of Bathurst Inlet in the stunning light of the midnight sun. An irresistible scene to a photographer.” © LEE NARRAWAy

Top right: Harris and Runge headed back to Qikiqtarjuaq to fly south to Pangnirtung to attempt hiking Akshayuk Pass from the southern entrance. “Billy Arnaquq, the outfitter in Qikiqtarjuaq, took us out to see the sunset,” says Harris. “We got in the boat and the sunset disappeared behind the clouds. This iceberg was stunning, though. And I just wanted to take photos of it from every angle.” © DONNA HARRIS

Middle right: On another Students on Ice trip, Narraway was standing on deck as the ship was going into Pangnirtung Fjord where it would anchor. Then the students were going to take zodiacs to the land. “We were just very slowly cruising up the fiord. It was late afternoon because we were camping overnight, so we could get up really early to hike in to the Arctic Circle,” says Narraway. The perfect reflection of the sky, clouds and mountains is reflected in the absolute stillness of the water. © LEE NARRAWAy Bottom right: Lee Narraway (left) and Donna Harris (right)

A B OV E & B E yO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Women of Vision

Text and photos by Patrick Kane

Meet the North’s established and emerging women leaders from the first-ever Indigenous Circumpolar Women’s Gathering.

T

his past November, indigenous women from across Northern Canada and Alaska met in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, to attend the first-ever Indigenous

Circumpolar Women’s Gathering (ICWG). e three-day gathering was partly a conference, partly a mentorship program and entirely a celebration of indigenous women created by Dene Nahjo, a group of young leaders and community builders whose vision, “Land, Language and Culture Forever,” helps develop indigenous leadership and strengthening relationships in the North. Speakers included Nobel Peace Prize nominee Sheila Watt-Cloutier and Mary Simon, past president of Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, the National Inuit Organization, among many other panellists. “is Gathering was instrumental in opening a dialogue on issues facing indigenous women in the Northern territories,” says Nina Larsson, project lead of the ICWG Steering Committee. “ere was much discussion on commonalities facing indigenous women in the North, including discourse on the meaning of leadership and empowerment in cultural revitalization, governance, economic development, land and resource conservation, education and the arts.” Looking to the future and empowering a new generation of women involved in all facets of Northern life, was an important theme of the Gathering. We met with respected elders and emerging leaders and asked them each, “What are your hopes for Northern indigenous women in the next 50 years?” Here are their responses. A B OV E & B E yO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Stephanie Papik

Aboriginal Youth Internship coordinator

“My hope is that indigenous women can find a collective voice and use it to reclaim our identity, for our children and our children’s children.”

Chantal Rondeau

Documentary Filmmaker, Journalist “My hope is that we return to our culture and upli our women to the positions of respect we once had.”

Shirley Adamson

Businesswoman, Journalist, Yukon First Nations Activist

“I hope that the indigenous women of the future never have to live a life where they need to love themselves again.”

16

2015 | 01


Meeka Kilabuk

Educator, Elder

“I want us to keep doing what we are doing: to be involved, keep our traditions alive, be involved as leaders and keep pushing ahead.”

Ethel Lamothe Elder

“My hope for the future is that we become fully emerged in culture and accept new leadership roles. I want my granddaughters to embrace the responsibilities of being traditional Dene women in a healthy and pure land.”

Angela Hovak Johnston

Singer/Songwriter

“My hope is that our women become and remain confident and proud of who we are.”

A B OV E & B E yO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Kali Spitzer

Photographer, Artist

“In my lifetime, I would like to see our women honoured, respected and uplied in our communities.”

Rosemarie Kuptana

Journalist, Inuit Rights Activist “I hope indigenous women gain respect and equal status as other humans in the world.”

Rassi Nashalik Journalist, Elder

“I would like more of our young women to take on leadership roles in our communities and politics, and to learn our rich culture and heritage.”

Tania Larsson and Nina Larsson

Dene Nahjo members, Activists

“We need better education for Northerners, especially On e Land and cultural experiences. If we had a cultural centre in the North, elders could pass on knowledge to the next generation and set the standard for indigenous artists. It is also important for our young women to become involved in politics, technology and innovation.” 18

2015 | 01


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2015 | 01


LIVING ABOVE & BEyOND

IMO adopts new global code

The International Maritime Organization (IMO)

has announced the adoption of a mandatory

global code for ships operating in polar waters

and related amendments to the international Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). The Polar Code highlights the potential haz-

ards of operating in Polar Regions, including ice, remoteness, and severe and rapidly changing

weather conditions. It provides goals and require-

ments related to ship design, construction,

equipment, operations, training, and search and rescue for ships operating in Arctic and

Antarctic waters and also includes requirements for ships to avoid marine mammals such as whales and walruses.

The new code is expected to come into

© FRED CATTROLL/ARCTICNET

force January 1, 2017.

FOXY wins top honour at the Arctic Inspiration Prize ceremony, hosted by ArcticNet.

Healthy teamwork project wins annual award

Educating Northern youth about sexual health concerns and how to develop leadership skills and

make healthy life choices will be a lot easier in the future thanks to an influx of monies from the Arctic Inspiration Prize team. FOXy (Fostering Open eXpression among youth) received the $1 Million prize at the Awards Ceremony held in December.

The prize is awarded each year to those working in Canada’s Arctic in education, health, social-

cultural issues, environment and the economy to recognize excellence and encourage teamwork in

bringing these issues forward for the benefit of northerners and Canada. FOXy’s community-based

research project working with women and men across all three territories exemplifies the team-based approach with a health program that is accessible to all for the common good.

FOXy also received a sculpture by renowned artist Mattiusi Iyaituk from Ivujivik.

A B OV E & B E yO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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LIVING ABOVE & BEyOND

New video features traditional hunting

Zacharias Kunuk’s new documentary, titled, Coming Home, will be released early in January 2015.

It’s an instructional video about traditional hunting practices, specifically the harvesting, skinning, butchering and caching of walrus meat.

In the video, elder Peter Awa explains the process of carving walrus meat so none is wasted,

how to wrap it in skins to form logs and how to bury it to age.

Filmed on the tiny island of Qaisut, about 40 miles from Igloolik, it was a perfect spot to

re-create a successful hunt as this island has been frequented by Inuit for centuries, contains

ancient foot paths and artefacts, including walrus bones from previous walrus hunts.

The half-hour educational film was paid for through a $60,000 grant procured by Nunavut

Tunngavik Inc. through the Department of Fisheries and Oceans. Kunuk hopes to have the DVDs

distributed to the communities and will also upload it to his IsumaTV website for public streaming. This video will ensure that traditional hunting practices will be preserved for future generations.

Quebec investing in the North

Quebec’s commitment to the North has been highlighted recently with a number of announcements:

• Northern Quebec wants investors for its Plan Nord project to develop northern Quebec’s vast

potential. Plan Nord will be developed with local communities so they receive the benefits and to ensure the territory’s environment and distinctive biodiversity is protected. Quebec

will invest in new roads, railways and ports and develop new sources of renewable energy.

• The creation of a new Quebec-based research institution, the Institut Nordique du Québec.

• In collaboration with Laval University and the Nordic Council of Ministers, the International Symposium on Northern Development will be held in Quebec City from February 25 to 27.

Key themes include the North as a living environment, a physical territory, a hub of economic development, and a hub of knowledge, training and research.

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http://plannord.gouv.qc.ca/symposium.php

2015 | 01

© KINGULLIIT PRODUCTIONS

Crews move walrus meat during a scene in the upcoming documentary Coming Home.


LIVING ABOVE & BEyOND

The 2015 Indspire Award recipients gather together. Jordan Konek (third from the left in bow tie), Gerald Anderson (fourth from the left), Madeleine Redfern (9th from the left), and Peter Irniq (10th from the left, in traditional wear).

Inuit to receive Indspire awards

At the 2015 Indspire Awards gala to be held in February in Calgary, four Inuit will be honoured.

Nunavut elder and Inuit cultural teacher Peter Irniq will receive a culture, heritage and

spirituality award for sharing Inuit culture with his workshops on traditional Inuit practices, for counselling Inuit inmates and for the inuksuit he has built around the world.

Harvesters to be paid more for seal skins

The Government of the Northwest Territories

recently announced it is increasing the price it

The public service award goes to former Iqaluit mayor Madeleine Redfern for her social

pays for sealskins under its Genuine Mackenzie

Arviat video journalist Jordan Konek, also from Nunavut, will receive the Inuit youth award

Beginning next season, the government will

advocacy and work with a number of organizations in Nunavut and across the country.

Valley Furs (GMVF) Hide Procurement Program.

for his work with his own production company and at international conferences on climate

pay harvesters $70 per skin, an increase of $15.

Gerald Anderson of Labrador won an environment and natural resources award for establishing

territory’s traditional economy and an effort to

change.

fisheries and marine education in the region.

A B OV E & B E yO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

The price increase is in part to protect the stimulate the supply of sealskins.

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© DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRY, TOURISM AND INVESTMENT, GOVERNMENT OF THE NORTHWEST TERRITORIES

© INDSPIRE

Sealskins are used in the production of unique northern arts and crafts, such as mittens.


LIVING ABOVE & BEyOND

Preserving Inuit history

Preserving and presenting Canada’s Inuit heritage will soon be a lot easier when the Inuit

Broadcasting Corporation (IBC) moves into its new building on Federal Road in Iqaluit in the new year, hopefully in March. The new Nunavut Media Arts Centre will also be the home for its Inuit

Film and Video Archive (IFVA) development project.

IBC’s videographers have been recording Inuit history from the Inuit perspective for over

30 years, with an estimated 9,000 hours of footage valued at approximately $60 million dollars.

They have captured the transition from dog teams to digital phones, the division of the territories,

the creation of key national Inuit organizations, the concept and signing of Inuit land claims,

the creation of Nunavut, and the evolution of a new political, socio-cultural environment.

IBC Baker Lake crew on an early traditional content shoot, with a younger Peter Tapatai, aka Super Shamou. This photo is part of the large volume of Inuit archival material IBC has accumulated over 30 years.

will be physically and electronically protected, managed by a trained archivist, promoted publicly, accessible and searchable through an Internet portal, and used for educational and other purposes. A search for an Inuit beneficiary/applicant to become the archivist will occur in the spring.

Visit www.sanavallianiq.ca and www.Building4Dreams.ca.

Let the negotiations begin

Nunavut’s devolution negotiation team has now been named.

Simon Awa, Nunavut’s former deputy minister of Family

Services, is chief negotiator for the Government of Nunavut.

Western Nunavut businessman Alex Buchan and long-term public servant Robert Carson are deputy negotiators.

Along with chief negotiator for Nunavut Tunngavik

Incorporated, Udloriak Hanson, and the Government of Canada’s chief negotiator Brian Dominique, consultations can begin to

try to reach a devolution agreement between all parties.

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Chief negotiator Simon Awa is the lead for the Government of Nunavut’s devolution team.

2015 | 01

© GOVERNMENT OF NUNAVUT

© IBC

The IFVA will preserve IBC’s collections and other Inuit film and video through digitization that


RESOURCES

Baffinland proposes shipping expansion

Baffinland wants to expand how it will ship ore

Geoscience funding received

The Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency and the Government of Nunavut have announced that they’ll spend

almost $7.1 million on 11 geological research projects in Nunavut over the next two years.

The funding will go towards bedrock mapping on southern

out for its Mary River project, which includes

Baffin Island and in the Elu basin in the western Arctic, geochemical

tonnes of ore from Milne Inlet for up to 10

petroleum resources, studies on industrial limestone on Southampton

allowing shipment of up to 12 million metric months each year. Any changes to the project

certificate that the Nunavut Impact Review

Board (NIRB) might impose would have to be

approved by the federal minister of Aboriginal

Affairs and Northern Development. If approved,

new terms and conditions would be added to

surveys on southern Baffin Island, studies in Baffin Bay to assess Island, mapping and evaluation of new carving stone on Baffin Island, satellite data aids to assist exploration and save exploration

costs, mapping of Frobisher Bay’s seabed, permafrost-infrastructure analysis, geoscience surveys

in western Hudson Bay, and updating Nunavut’s mineral showings database.

It is estimated that approximately 10,000 jobs are needed for these projects.

the project certificate.

Trail aids bulk-sampling operation

with the terms and conditions of its project

site starting at Iqaluit’s Road to Nowhere this winter and use it into the spring of 2015. The trail

Baffinland is complying, for the most part,

certificate, but the Nunavut Impact Review Board has issued them recommendations on

monitoring, waste management and language

requirements.

NUNAVIK

Peregrine Diamonds Ltd. will create a 170-kilometre long overland snow trail to its Chidliak project

will allow Peregrine to collect bulk samples it needs to prove that Chidliak has enough potential

for a possible diamond mine some time in the future. The company will draw samples from three kimberlite deposits, using a large-diameter drill rig.

Peregrine will also install a winter airstrip at the site to transport larger pieces of equipment

by air.

Nunavik says no to uranium

NWT

development of a uranium industry in their

When the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board recommended moving the

The consensus among Nunavik Inuit about the

region is not acceptable. So said the leaders of

Makivik and the Kativik Regional Government

who have both opposed uranium exploration,

exploitation and waste management in Nunavik.

“Our position is based on thorough analysis

of the current state of uranium development in

DeBeers Snap Lake project moving forward

DeBeers Snap Lake water license amendment to its final regulatory stage, the NWT government

approved it in less than two months. This shows that that the regulatory process is faster now

that the territorial government is more involved.

De Beers now needs the Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board to amend its license. The

Board has nine months to do that.

Nunavik and facts, as well as priorities in terms

of land use and harvesting activities,” said

Makivik President Jobie Tukkiapik. “Uranium

is radioactive and can harm wildlife. The risk of contamination would cut us off from our

traditional country foods.”

The Makivik Corporation has also released

the Nunavik Inuit Mining Policy to guide

conventional mining projects in the region. The policy aims to maximize social and economic benefits for Nunavik Inuit, and minimize negative environmental impacts.

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© CANADIAN NORTHERN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AGENCY

NUNAVUT

George Kuksuk, Minister of Economic Development and Transportation for the Government of Nunavut, and Minister Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency, at the announcement for Geoscience funding for Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.


The shore of Deline, on Great Bear Lake, is lined with backyard teepees used for cleaning and smoking fish and game.

Destination

Northwest Territories The Rise of Cultural Tourism Text and photos by Patrick Kane

In Deline, Northwest Territories, a bold new model of tourism based on aboriginal culture and lifestyle is on the rise. Is this the next big thing in travel to Canada’s North?

“Y

ou see? It’s nice and warm now,” says my guide, Bruce Kenny, smiling and stoking the woodstove in his

ice-fishing hut. I nod in agreement, open my parka and take a big sip of Labrador tea. I stand half-in and

half-out of the doorway and look up at a million stars against a deep blue, dusky evening sky. It’s beautifully quiet

too. No traffic noise, no television and certainly no Internet. e only sounds I hear are from a gentle breeze coming across the frozen lake and the fire cracking inside. I’m cut off from the rest of the world, and it is perfect. I’m in Deline (pronounced “day-li-neh”), Northwest Territories, a small and remote community located just below the Arctic Circle on the southwest shore of the eighth largest lake in the world, Great Bear Lake. e only road in or out is on the winter road, which opens in December and closes in April. e rest of the year, Deline is only accessible by plane or a small boat. “at’s what makes this place so special,” says Jason Knibbs, a tourism sales specialist I’m travelling with from the British Columbia-based marketing firm, e Hotkey Group. “I want people who’ve never heard of Deline, or

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Left: Local outfitter Bruce Kenny shows his guest, Marty Ann Bayha, the finer points of starting a fire. Right: Alfred and Jane Taniton make snowshoes and scrape moosehide in their home.

the Northwest Territories for that matter, to see how beautiful this untouched part of

us and look around’. You have to offer a unique product

the world is: the gorgeous landscapes, the incredible skies, the wildlife too, but most

and there is no better product than participating in the local

importantly the wonderful people who live here. at’s the key, the people,” he says.

customs and traditions of a far away place. e North is

e community, as remote as it is, is full of people like Bruce Kenny, who are perfectly

perfect for this kind of cultural, experiential travel,” he says.

happy to invite complete strangers to ice-fish and sip tea. With a population of roughly

According to the Canadian Tourism Commission, the

550 residents, the majority of which are aboriginal Sahtu Dene who speak North Slavey

numbers support Knibbs’ claims. In a survey commissioned

and English, it is one of the Northwest Territories’ most traditional settlements. Moose

by the CTC, specifically about Aboriginal Tourism in Canada,

and caribou antlers decorate homes, and the tops of several teepees poke high above

the report says, “Among prospective future Canadian visitors,

modest houses and cabins.

there is a very high level of interest in the opportunity to

Alfred and Jane Taniton invite us into their small home, decorated with family photos

participate in Aboriginal cultural experiences, celebrations

and Dene artwork. Both are respected elders and leaders in the community. Alfred is

and attractions while in Canada — 82 per cent among the

weaving his own snowshoe in the living room while Jane scrapes and soens moose hide with her ulu — a traditional knife with a rounded blade. “is is caribou sinew,” Alfred says in broken English. He is intensely focused on his work while we simply watch with curiosity. He is more than happy to give us a playby-play account of his method. “We use (the sinew) because it’s really strong and tough, so it doesn’t break when we’re out in the bush. We use all parts of the animals we hunt,” he continues. I turn my attention to Jane who is working just as hard, if not harder, than Alfred. She looks at me for a moment, nudges her head toward the moose hide and scrapes downward in a quick and strong rhythm, demonstrating her technique. I cannot speak Slavey but we manage to communicate by nodding, pointing and smiling. Scenes like this are commonplace in Deline, regular routines and a lifestyle that, to guests like myself, are incredibly fascinating. Add in the opportunity to mix and mingle with local residents of an otherwise exotic location, and you have a recipe for a fully engaging, immersive kind of travel experience. It is a type of tourism that places like Deline want to be part of. “Tourists in today’s market are showing a keen interest in experiential travel,” says Knibbs. “It’s not enough anymore for tourism agencies to simply say, ‘Hey, come visit A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

The "new" and "old" churches sit next to each other.

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An elder beads a pattern that will be sewn to a pair of moccassins.

children, and individuals have all embraced this endeavour. Occasionally there has been some trepidation, which is natural and to be expected when presented with new situations, but honest communication helps to alleviate some of that,” she says. Jess Fortner, the GNWT’s manager of Parks and Tourism for the Sahtu Region agrees with Hall that community buy-in is necessary for cultural tourism to work in the NWT. “From the GNWT perspective, the major challenge with this type of tourism initiative is finding communities who are ready and willing to set the goal and then develop and execute a plan,” he says. “In the case of Deline, there were almost two years of community consultations between community leadership and the GNWT, and French, 72 per cent among Germans and a solid 46 per cent

on-going community information sessions before the first tourists arrived under the

among UK travellers. is is extremely encouraging for the

Destination Deline banner. If the community is ready, willing and in agreement to

sector and confirms that it has the potential to become a

commit to the endeavour, then the rest of the challenges become manageable,” he says.

significant value added cultural product for Canada.”

If maintaining cultural integrity is at the forefront of Destination Deline, then the

In Deline, that market is only just starting to be tapped.

residents and stakeholders will be happy to hear that travellers to Canada want authentic

is past August, the community welcomed its first-ever

interaction too. e CTC’s report on Aboriginal Tourism also says that visitors hope

tour group under a tourism initiative called Destination

that Canada’s Aboriginal cultural products would not disappoint them as other countries

Deline, a joint-venture between the Deline Land Corporation,

have, which is to say they do not want to be toured on a bus to a commercial area, see

e Grey Goose Lodge, e Hotkey Group and the Govern-

a scripted cultural performance and then be asked to purchase a mass-produced trinket.

ment of the Northwest Territories. e aim of Destination

“Ideally, our visitors to Deline would be culturally sensitive and open to learning

Deline is to establish a quality tourism industry within the

about foreign customs and traditions,” says Knibbs. With that in mind, the Hotkey

community, without compromising the cultural integrity of

Group reached out to Road Scholar — an agency that offers travel packages marketed

the experience.

at educated retirees with money to spend — to help promote and book the Destination

“is initiative would not be possible without the support of the community,” says Suzanne Hall, Deline’s Tourism

Deline tour. “It is quite expensive to get to Deline and the community only has the capacity to

Coordinator and manager of e Grey Goose Lodge. “It is

handle groups of eight to 10 people a few times a year,” says Knibbs. “By getting the

both community led and driven. Leaders, artists, elders,

right visitors here — visitors who will understand the costs involved and appreciate a

Below left: Unique ice formations of frozen waves dramatize the shoreline.

unique opportunity like this — is extremely important for us,” he says.

Below right: Bannock and Labrador tea are heated over a campfire.

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In return, the people of Deline see this is a great opportunity as well: income for the local economy, training and education for their youth, and the ability to share their culture with visitors from all over the world.

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Visitor Jason Knibbs enjoys a toboggan ride hitched to a snowmobile as Bruce Kenny and Verna Firth look on.

“Beyond the stimulated economic activity that tourism creates, there are intangible benefits as well,” says Fortner. “A sense of community and cultural pride, a desire to improve community landscaping and infrastructure, greater emphasis on producing works of art, and increased training and capacity building for young people and the individuals involved in the service delivery are positive offshoots from an initiative like this,” he says. Hall adds that recently one of her front office staff completed a First Host Trainer program and now has the skills to train the rest of her staff. “ere is another team member who has decided to go back to school, having recently graduated grade 12, and pursue a degree in Hospitality & Tourism Management,” she says. “It is my understanding

a respected leader (not to mention excellent fisher and

that before joining our team at the Lodge, he hadn't been aware of this option as a viable

hunter) sits down with me and pours a cup of coffee. “How

career,” she says.

are you enjoying yourself? Having fun and meeting lots of

Under a similar program called ACE, launched in Arviat, Nunavut, in 2012, the

people?” he asks. I reply that I am as he offers me a warm

community has experienced an economic and educational windfall as well. It has even

piece of homemade bannock. His questions and courtesies

garnered some well-deserved national accolades, including being named a finalist

extend to the people around us too, and soon several tables

in the Canadian national tourism awards in 2012 in the cultural product category. It

are sharing food and stories with each other. is isn’t a

was then selected by TIDES Canada as one of their Top 10 social change initiatives

tourist trick; nobody is trying to pitch a sale to the visitors.

that same year.

is is genuine Deline hospitality.

If Arviat is the poster-boy for cultural tourism in Nunavut, then Deline can be that

“Well, just thought I’d come say hello,” says Neyelle as he

for the Northwest Territories. “A tourism program like this brings our community

puts on his parka and heads out the door. en he pops back

together and it creates local employment in a culturally safe manner,” says Hall. “ere’s

in and looks in my direction. “ere’s supposed to be a nice

also a great opportunity for our residents to look at their own lives through a new lens,

sunrise tomorrow morning,” he says. “I’ll come find you and

that of the tourist. We get to see how amazing visitors think everyday life in Deline is.

we’ll have a coffee. en if it’s not too cold, I’ll take you to a

e cultural exchange goes both ways,” she says.

good little spot by the shore and you can get some pictures

Back at the dining area of the Grey Goose Lodge, the walls display stunning beaded tapestry made by local elders, taxidermy of musk ox and bears, along with a mount of

of the sun coming up over the lake,” he says. “Sounds perfect,” I say.

the largest freshwater fish caught in North America — an 85-pound Lake Trout hauled out of Great Bear Lake, one of the best destinations worldwide for sport fishing. At dinner, the Lodge fills up with people. It’s here where tourists rub elbows with elders, artists, community leaders, and just about everyone else in town. Morris Neyelle,

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

A stunning Northwest Territories sunrise contrasts the treeline.

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No date is given for this photograph of surveyor J.T.E. Lavoie aboard the Arctic, but it would have been prior to his face being burned in May 1911.

Charting Baffin’s West Side J. T. E . L AV O I E ’ S E X P E D I T I O N S By Season Osborne Most of Baffin Island’s west coast was an unknown dotted line on Arctic maps

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until J.T.E. Lavoie made an impressive sledding expedition in 1911.

Lavoie is listed as the meteorologist and geologist on Capt. Joseph-Elzéar

Bernier’s 1910-11 Canadian Government Arctic expedition. He was also the

expedition’s customs officer and surveyor. The initials C.E. after his name on his

The Dominion Government commissioned Capt. Joseph-Elzéar Bernier to raise the flag on islands in the Arctic Archipelago. He made three trips to the High Arctic – 1906-07, 1908-09, 1910-11 – and claimed the entire Arctic for Canada on July 1, 1909 at Winter Harbour on Melville Island.

maps indicate that Lavoie was also a civil engineer. For someone who played a

key role in the 1910-11 expedition, very little is known of him. He was from Baie des Chaleurs, in northern New Brunswick, south of Gaspe. But what his initials

J.T.E. stand for is not mentioned in the official Report on the Dominion Government

Expedition to the Northern Waters and Arctic Archipelago of the D.G.S. “Arctic” in 1910.

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Capt. Bernier (holding binoculars) with crewmembers aboard the Arctic in 1910.

e Dominion government hired Capt. Bernier in 1906 to establish Canada’s jurisdiction in the Arctic. He raised the flag on a number of islands in the archipelago in 1906-07, but on his second expedition in 1908-09, he made a sweeping claim of the entire Arctic on Melville Island in July 1909. Having annexed the islands for Canada, the only major accomplishment le was to make the Northwest Passage. In 1910, Bernier was given sailing orders to attempt the Passage via the most northerly route through McClure Strait. However, excessive ice made the Strait impassable and Bernier was forced to turn back. His ship Arctic was provisioned for two years, so he decided to over winter in the protective shelter of Arctic Bay on northwestern Baffin Island, anchoring there on September 10. e Arctic was frozen in by September 29, 1910. Lavoie erected a cement pillar on shore for scientific observation, and carried out daily meteorological duties. He installed two mercury and two spirit Fahrenheit thermometers, as well as two standard barometers above the Arctic’s bridge, 12 feet above sea level. e lowest temperature was 55.2°F below zero (-48.4°C). e warmest day was July 7, 1911, when the temperature was Map of surveying and exploratory expeditions made by J.T.E Lavoie in 1910 and 1911, when the Arctic over wintered in Arctic Bay. Until Lavoie travelled the west coast of Baffin Island, it was uncharted and remained a dotted line on maps.

53.4°F above (11.8°C). Lavoie recorded that the mercury froze in the thermometers nine times. He also measured the thickness of the ice and noted it was 32 inches (81 centimetres) by the end of January. e ice kept thickening even when the air temperature warmed in April, reaching its maximum thickness of 56 inches (142 centimetres) on May 20. Bernier organized a number of explorations around the region. Smaller prospecting parties returned with bags labelled with what minerals the ship’s prospector, Arthur English, assumed they contained — rocks flecked with bits of copper, gold, silver or quartz. However, there were no tools aboard the Arctic to accurately test the geological specimens, so 10 tons of the potentially

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valuable rock was loaded in the ship’s hold for transportation back to Ottawa for analysis by the

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Department of Mines. In the end, none of the rocks were identified as containing any mineral of note, and were only valuable as ballast. Lavoie’s surveying skills were put to good use. In October, he led a party with the goal of exploring Admiralty Inlet to its end, and then across the land to Cape Hallowell at Fury and Hecla Strait, which separates south-west Baffin from the mainland. He would then head north up the Baffin coast to Cape Kater. e party included First Officer Morin; Joseph Mathé (who is listed as assistant steward in the ship’s company but Lavoie refers to him as a geologist); and two Inuit guides, Monkashaw and Koudnou; a little boy; two sleds and 22 dogs. Mathé would assist Lavoie in making his surveys and observations and report on the geological formations en route.

As supplies and coal were consumed over the winter in Arctic Bay, the crew needed to load tonnes of rock into the Arctic’s hold in the spring of 1911 to act as ballast in order to keep it riding properly in the water.This photo is taken from the Report on the Dominion Government Expedition to the Northern Waters and Arctic Archipelago of the D.G.S. “Arctic” in 1910.

e men headed south down the east coast of Admiralty Inlet. At the end of the Inlet, Morin parted company and returned to the ship as instructed. Lavoie and Mathé’s small party crossed overland as far as Cape Hallowell, but ice prevented them continuing up the west coast of Baffin. ey retraced their steps, and arrived at the ship on November 17. In the 36 days they were away, they had covered 550 miles (885 kilometres). e most impressive sledding trip of the 1910-11 voyage was the second expedition carried © J.E. BERNIER

out by Lavoie the following spring. e plan was to complete the survey of the coast from Cape Kater, on the Brodeur Peninsula (named by Capt. Bernier in 1906 aer the Hon. Louis-Philippe Brodeur, Minister of Marine and Fisheries), down the Gulf of Boothia to Cape Hallowell. At 8:30 a.m. on March 15, 1911, Lavoie le the ship in the company of the Inuk guide Koudnou and another Inuit couple, Pioumictou and his wife. Two other Inuit men going on a bear hunting expedition joined them. is time, Lavoie and his companions sledded across the now frozen Admiralty Inlet, and headed overland across the Brodeur Peninsula to Prince Regent Inlet. e official 1910-11 government report of the voyage was compiled from Bernier’s log and life aboard ship, let alone life in the Arctic. ough it is written in the third person, the man’s biases and the prejudices of the day come through. However, Appendix 2 of the report, which contains Lavoie’s account is taken directly from his diary and told in his own unaffected, matter of fact way, giving an honest open impression of life on the land and the people he travelled with. He wrote:

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reports of the officers by Mr. W.W. Stumbles, a government civil servant with no experience of Two of the Arctic’s crew with dinghy in Arctic Bay, 1910.

“As I had acquired experience in my expedition of last fall, I had decided to run this LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA, PA-209060

one on an entirely different principle and adopted the Eskimo ways of travelling, clothing, sleeping, etc. Being used to this country they cannot but be more practical than we in these matters. erefore, on leaving the “Arctic” I had discarded all European clothes and dressed in a double skin suit…. Every night we built an igloo (snow hut) of blocks of snow. Although it took us an hour every night, it was preferable to pitching a tent, and more comfortable, as it kept the wind out…. I got used from the first to eat raw meat, either caribou, bear or seal; I got so used to it that I found as much delight as the natives in sitting on the ice immediately aer a seal had been killed, to eat its liver with blubber before it had lost its animal heat.” e British Naval expeditions that had explored much of the Arctic in their search for Sir John

Photo of the ship Arctic still frozen in Arctic Bay taken in July 1911 at 1:00 a.m.

Franklin’s lost expedition 50 years earlier had, to their detriment, refused to adapt the travel methods of the people who had lived there for centuries. However, as a result of Lavoie’s open-mindedness A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Ship’s historian, Fabien Vanasse, lights a fire for lunch while Joseph Eugene Mathé lounges in the background. Marcil Lake, near Arctic Bay, was a source of fresh water for the expedition.

to follow the example of his Inuit companions, his expedition covered more ground in a shorter period of time, and more comfortably. Several families joined Lavoie and his party on their journey. At one point the caravan they travelled in was made up of five qamutiit, fiy-six dogs, seven men, six women and three children. Lavoie’s account reads like an adventure book. He endured a number of deprivations, including snow blindness. ey depended on hunting seal and polar bears for sustenance, and consequently, when game was scarce, they went several days without food. One morning he awoke to find a six-inch-wide fissure running through the middle of their tent. ey had camped on the ice and it was moving. ey immediately broke camp and stuck closer to the shore aer that. A month into their trip they were literally buried in their igloo by a violent snowstorm with a 75-mile an hour wind. To get outside, they crawled out the top of their igloo, as the entrance, On August 16, 1910, a polar bear was shot off Devon Island. What wasn’t used for meat was fed to the dogs, which nearly made the crew deaf with their howling as the bear was being butchered.

qamutiit, and dog harnesses were buried under five feet of snow. ey had to dig out the dogs several times over the course of the storm, so they wouldn’t smother under the snow. Lavoie and his men were also stalked by polar bears. At one point, he was alone in the camp while his companions were out hunting. He was busy taking readings of the sun when he realized a bear, not 50 feet away, was watching him. e lame dog, le behind with him, charged at it and the bear fled to the safety of the jagged, broken hillocks on the sea ice. Lavoie was then keenly

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aware of the necessity of having a dog and a gun at hand. Lavoie succeeded in surveying the east coast of Prince Regent Inlet down to the Gulf of Boothia. He named 24 geographical locations along the way, nine aer his comrades on the Arctic: Morin Point, Van Koenig Point, McDonald Cape and Janes Cape. He named the large bay half way down the peninsula, Bernier Bay, in honour of his commander. Lavoie also named several minor landmarks aer his brothers, Lee and Arthur, and his sister Leah who had passed away. Easter Cape got its moniker because they were there at Easter time. And he named a low island

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at the entrance to Bernier Bay aer himself.

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On April 29, at Fury and Hecla Strait, he le a document of his progress in a cairn. Lavoie intended to continue his journey southward with Koudnou to survey Foxe Channel, then cross Baffin to Cumberland Sound where he would meet the Arctic at the Anglican missionary station at the end of the summer. Pioumictou would head back and let Capt. Bernier know Lavoie’s plans. However, Koudnou could not be persuaded to accompany him, as by the time he would return © J.E. BERNIER

to Arctic Bay, he would’ve been absent for a year, and he worried about his wife and child managing without him. So they headed north to the ship. On May 6, they camped in Moffet Bay at the bottom of Admiralty Inlet. at night, Lavoie noticed he hadn’t corked the tin of gasoline. Unthinkingly, he grabbed the can and put it between his knees to screw the lid on. e nearby stove ignited the fumes. e can blew up in his hands, sending shards of metal flying. Lavoie’s face and hands were severely burned. Fortunately, his caribou clothing protected his body or he would’ve burned to death. His suffering was intense. Lavoie later wrote, “Water was continually running from my sores, producing a burning itchy sensation. Large pieces of burnt skin and flesh fell from my face. I felt feverish and at times cold and unable to eat. I could not even swallow condensed milk.” Gilberte Tremblay in her book Bernier captaine à 17 ans, says that Pioumictou’s wife’s treatment

J.T.E. Lavoie and his party prepare to leave the ship on March 15, 1911, for a sledding expedition to Prince Regent Inlet where Lavoie charted the west coast of Baffin Island from Cape Kater to Cape Hallowell at Fury and Hecla Strait. This photo is taken from the Report on the Dominion Government Expedition to the Northern Waters and Arctic Archipelago of the D.G.S. “Arctic” in 1910.

saved Lavoie. She licked Lavoie’s eyes and eyelids, as an animal would lick its young, but her method was an incredible cure. It prevented his blindness. Apparently, there are cases of human saliva being a natural cure for conjunctivitis. Lavoie was unable to move for the next two days. On the eighth, they broke camp and headed back to the ship. Lavoie was well cared for by his companions. Every day Pioumictou’s wife fed him like a small child. ey gave him clothing and wrapped him in a blanket while travelling on the qamutiq. He could only see out of his le eye for a short distance. Beyond a hundred feet everything appeared triple. ey reached the Arctic at 3 a.m. on ursday, May 11. Lavoie’s burned face was so badly © LEE NARRAWAY

disfigured that the watchman failed to recognize him climbing the gangway. e doctor was awakened and immediately gave him medical attention. ird Officer Edward McDonald wrote in his journal, “Mr. Lavoie’s face is in a very bad state. His whiskers and moustache are all burned off and his face is one mass of scabs. I would not have known him when I seen him first if I had not heard he had arrived on board. He will carry many of the marks all the days of his life. It is a terrible situation to be placed in a hundred miles from the ship and thousands from civilization. But his faithful Esquimaux brought him through all right.” Capt. Bernier attended day and night for a week until Lavoie was able to get up and around as usual. Dr. Bolduc admitted that the Inuit woman’s treatment saved his life. e writer of the official report downplays these traumatic events, “Mr. Lavoie reported that

A rock cairn built by Capt. Bernier’s crew on a spit of land in Arctic Bay in 1910. The cairn held a cross until it was chopped down in the 1990s. J.T.E. Lavoie erected cairns like this on his sledding expeditions along Baffin Islands’ west coast in 1910 and 1911.

he had met with an accident through the explosion of a lamp and was slightly injured, causing him to return to the ship a few days earlier than he had intended.” Lavoie and his party were away 57 days and covered 940 miles (1,512 kilometres). He had mapped Baffin Island’s west coast, replacing the dotted line with detail. His had been an incredible odyssey. e ship was finally released from the ice of Arctic Bay on August 6, and made its way north to Albert Harbour near Pond Inlet. By then, Lavoie had recovered sufficiently enough to join an exploring party to Milne Inlet before the expedition finally headed south. e Arctic anchored at Quebec City on September 25, 1911. Lavoie disembarked onto the King’s wharf and vanished into history. He made a significant contribution to the knowledge of Baffin Island’s west coast, yet Lavoie remains an enigmatic character, joining the ranks of so many men who ventured North on expeditions known only by the name of the expedition commander.

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

Season Osborne has a passion for Arctic history, and is the author of In the Shadow of the Pole: An Early History of Arctic Expeditions, 1871-1912. She lives and writes in Ottawa, Ontario.

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Hidden Treasures of the Arctic Ocean By Noel Alfonso

C

anada’s national identity is firmly bound to the Arctic. Inuit and Inuvialuit have lived in the Arctic for millennia and later European exploration provokes ongoing and intense

ROGER BULL © CANADIAN MUSEUM OF NATURE (2)

interest. Canada also possesses the longest Arctic coastline in the world, with the Arctic Ocean having huge swings in environmental conditions. ese range from bone-chilling temperatures in the dark winter to almost 24-hour sun and, in the lengthening days of spring, an explosion of life above and below the water. My role as an ichthyologist (fish specialist) at the Canadian Museum of Nature is to understand and document the diversity of the fish that ply these Arctic waters. In fact, there are more than 217 species, a number that may surprise many whose knowledge of Arctic fish is limited to species such as Arctic Char and Greenland Halibut. Some fascinating fishes are found in the Arctic environment—from sharks and rays, to deepwater residents, to rarely seen species that look like science fiction monsters, and some that

Above: Specimens of Arctic fish from the Canadian Museum of Nature’s collection.

Top: Noel Alfonso examines a jar in the Canadian Museum of Nature’s fish collection that contains a Blackfin waryfish (Scopelosaurus lepidus), collected in Davis Strait, Nunavut.

even glow in the dark. eir diversity is amazing, especially given the unforgiving environment in which they live. Major groups include the aforementioned sharks and rays, as well as gulpers, herring, tube shoulders, salmonids (i.e. Arctic Char and Dolly Varden), dragonfishes, lanternfishes, sculpins, snailfishes, eelpouts, gunnels, wolffishes, sand lances and flatfishes. e classification and interrelationships of all these fishes fascinate me in my job at the museum, where I can draw upon the world’s single foremost collection of Arctic fishes developed over more than 50 years. I am one of the contributors to a new field guide, Arctic Marine Fishes of Canada, which is in development by the museum and will, for the first time, provide detailed information on all Canadian Arctic fish species. e majority of deep sea fishes are rarely seen by people unless they are lucky enough to be on scientific research cruises. ey include wonderful and bizarre species like gulpers, hatchetfishes and dragonfishes. ese tough and formidable creatures live year-round with their bodies chilled to near 0°C.

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Within these larger areas and located at either end of the country are two highly distinct areas for fishes and other marine life. ey differ in terms of temperature and salinity and, not surprisingly, have very distinct fish faunas. In the extreme extent of the Northwest Atlantic, for example, Davis Strait and Baffin Bay form a unique habitat due to warm ocean currents to the east, cold currents to the west and huge differences in depth, ranging from 100 to 2,300 X-ray of a Boa Dragonfish (Stomias boa) from the Canadian Museum of Nature’s collection. Dragonfish are small but fearsome-looking predators with a very large mouth. As with many piscivorous (fish-eating) fish species, their prey is swallowed whole. In the belly of this Boa Dragonfish is the entire body of its last meal.

metres. To the west, the Beaufort Sea borders the Arctic Archipelago.

Some of these species create light — what’s known as bioluminescence. ese fishes use bright lures to attract

A shallow shelf extends 80 to 200 kilometres offshore with

prey and patches of light on their bodies to signal to potential

average water depths of only 50 metres. e inshore consists

mates or to confuse predators. Tube shoulders, for example,

of lagoons, bays and estuaries which provide ideal habitat

are small (30 centimetres) fish that have large eyes to detect

for a variety of species that are almost completely different

any bits of light in the deep sea. Five of the 13 species in

from those in the Baffin Bay/Labrador Sea area. Because of

Canada are found in the Arctic and they get their common

wind-driven upwelling and plankton capture, the Beaufort

name from a unique feature — a gland that produces a

Sea is a highly productive shallow habitat for species such

luminescent green-blue fluid that is excreted backward from

as the Arctic Flounder, which is typically found in mud-

a pore on each shoulder, thus confusing predators that are

bottomed coastal waters and river mouths. Ideally, it would be fantastic to present portraits of all

attacking from behind. Fish species are usually adapted to specific environmental

217 species, but I will limit this overview to just four species

conditions, and the large area of the Arctic provides a number

that are either well known, important to people or of high

of distinct marine regions or ecozones. ere are several

ecological importance.

oceanographic areas — each with its distinct profile of water

Inuit and Inuvialuit peoples have eaten Arctic Char since

temperatures, ice cover and nutrient flow. ese range from

time immemorial. Other fish species are also eaten, but

the Eastern Arctic where the cold Labrador Current meets

to much less a degree. In the western Arctic Inuvialuit

warmer waters from the Gulf Stream and the St. Lawrence

community of Sachs Harbour, people catch Arctic Cod off

River, to the Arctic Archipelago, where the short summer

sea-ice in early summer, and set gill nets for Arctic Char,

season causes the ice to melt and partially break up. e

Arctic Cod and Least Cisco in late summer. In Cumberland

Arctic Basin is permanently frozen, and the ice cover rotates

Sound, Atlantic Cod and Greenland Halibut are also caught.

slowly around the North Pole in a counter-clockwise

Sculpins caught in tide pools have been eaten on occasion

fashion.

to avoid starvation.

Arctic Char © CANADIAN MUSEUM OF NATURE (4)

e Arctic char is really the poster child for Arctic fishes.

Noel Alfonso developed his fascination for fish from Canada’s North while working as a fishing guide on Great Bear Lake.

38

It is found throughout the Arctic, and not just in Canada. Important Arctic char subsistence fisheries are found all through their range, especially in the communities that border the Ungava and Hudson Bays, Baffin Island, Victoria and Banks Islands and the northern coast west of Hudson Bay and east of the Mackenzie Delta. In northern Quebec, Arctic char are second to caribou in the amount of country food eaten by Inuit. ey are beautiful fish, being bright silver in the ocean, with highly variable colouration of greens, blues and red or pink spots with edges on some fins.

2015 | 01


Greenland Shark e Arctic has its own unique shark, the Greenland shark, which is widely distributed in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. is impressive animal reaches 7.3 metres and up to 1,000 kilograms. Although it has been described as sluggish, it can be an active predator feeding upon seals and char. is shark also feeds on whales caught in nets, many bottom-dwelling fishes, jellyfishes, cephalopods, gastropods, crustaceans and sea birds. e Greenland shark is a scavenger that comes in to near shore areas and estuaries to feed upon carrion and offal discarded from whaling and fishing operations. It slowly and deliberately

A photograph of the Stoplight Loosejaw captured in Davis Strait in a survey of deepwater fishes contrasts with a line drawing of the same species.

takes large chunks of flesh from a whale carcass. A whole ere were commercial fisheries in Greenland until the early 20th century and these sharks were caught to extract liver oil for lamp and machine oil. In northwestern Greenland they are still caught to feed sled dogs, but this species is

© TIM SIFERD, DFO

caribou has even been found in a Greenland shark!

gill nets, trawls and long lines and sold as fresh-frozen fillets.

caught as bycatch by trawlers and long-liners. Dried or boiled flesh was used to feed dogs, as the flesh is toxic when fresh.

ey are also smoked and salted for local use. Limitations

e skin has been used for sandpaper and boots, the tanned

to commercial harvest in the Arctic are lack of suitable equipment and infrastructure as well as transportation issues.

skins for leather and the lower tooth row for knives or saws.

e occurrence of Greenland halibut in deeper waters (up to 2,000 metres) means that specialized gear is necessary to catch them. Longlines are preferred in this fishery, as gill nets tend to catch primarily large mature females. ere is also concern over the issue of bycatch of Greenland shark and the entanglement of marine mammals such as narwhals, bowhead whales and beluga. Lost gill nets can turn into “ghost” fishing nets, catching fishes and other species for years.

Arctic Cod and Greenland Halibut

Many more Arctic fish species, of course, have intriguing stories

e two most important fish species in the ecology of the

and these will be profiled in the

Arctic Ocean are the Arctic cod and Greenland halibut, the

upcoming Arctic Marine Fishes

former found all through the Arctic Ocean and the latter

of Canada guide.

keystone species because it provides the main link between phytoplankton and small crustaceans, and other fishes, seabirds, marine mammals, and terrestrial mammals. ese

Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, an innovative photo exhibit called X-Rays of Arctic

small fish are oen found in huge schools under the ice,

Fishes is on display until September 2015. Get an “inside-

where they feed among the lush algae and on the copepods

out” perspective of 16 species of Canadian Arctic fish

and amphipods.

through evocative and haunting images, and gain a sense

Greenland halibut is one of the top predators in the northwest Atlantic and the most abundant top predator

Noel Alfonso in the hold of the Paamiut, in Davis Strait, holding a Greenland Halibut.

For those able to visit the

© NOEL ALFONSO

mainly in the eastern Canadian Arctic. e Arctic cod is a

A stylized “posed” x-ray of Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) hunting Glacier Lanternfish (Benthosema glaciale). Humans prize the Greenland halibut for its rich flavour; it has long been a traditional fishery species.

of wonder for these marine inhabitants of Canada’s Arctic waters.

since the collapse of the Northern Cod. ey are caught in A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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40

2015 | 01


CommuNiTy

Setting our nets

Community-based fisheries monitoring in Nunavut

© N-CAMP (2)

“Ajungi, you got them first try! Right behind the brain, do you see them? The otoliths, the qarasautiik?”

Alex Flaherty (instructor), Greg Ningeocheak, Rachel Emiktowt, Jake Netser and Troy Netser sample an Arctic char from Quraluk during the Coral Harbour N-CAMP.

it sounded like conversation around an oper-

ating table, and it was. only, we were doing surgery on fish — 200 beautiful, healthy Arctic char that we had caught at Atikittuk, a lake two-

and-a-half hours by snowmobile from igloolik.

With occasional assistance from our train-

ing team, seven community members worked

together to carefully measure and record

information on each fish. Whenever someone

found the two otoliths — bones in the fish’s

middle ear that help it to balance and that can

Alex Flaherty (instructor), Linda Orman, Samueli Ammaq and Natalino Piugattuk record weather information at Atikittuk during the Igloolik N-CAMP.

be used by scientists to tell a fish’s age and life

by the Government of Nunavut’s Fisheries

group. Later, elders Amaq&ainnuk and Samueli

sampling for fisheries development and aquatic

history — there would be a cheer from the

demonstrated how to use other bones from a

and Sealing division to train Nunavummiut in

research projects. We work closely with com-

cooked fish head to create a graceful loon and

munities to define the research and the few

chance to taste fish eyes as we savoured the

data collection is performed on the land at the

Those two weeks in march were the first

fisheries or monitor water quality and fish health.

monitoring Program, or N-CAmP, developed

sharing knowledge — when you can directly

other animals or objects; and i had my first results of our hard work.

pilot for the Nunavut Community Aquatic

A B oV E & B E yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T i C J o u R N A L

days of preparatory classroom training. The

lakes where they want to develop commercial The five-day land camp is key to successfully

41


CommuNiTy Martha and John Ivarluk prepare to sample an Arctic char from the Coppermine River during the Kugluktuk N-CAMP.

show someone what you’re trying to teach

them, whether scientific techniques or Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit, differences in language and

culture melt away. So, although over the past

two years we have visited our pilot communities — igloolik, Coral Harbour and Kugluktuk —

multiple times to get input into the training

module and plan for the camps, 2014 was the real test as to whether we could make every-

one’s vision happen “out there” on the land.

numbers of fish, we were nevertheless

interested to see that we caught a greater

proportion of females and overall larger fish at

Quraluk than we had at Atikittuk, and we discussed some of the environmental changes

that Sallirmiut have observed, such as increasing numbers of parasites on fish in some lakes.

By the third day, our “nice igloos” (i.e. large,

domed sampling tents) had collapsed under 80

from Coral Harbour for our second camp under

huddling in a hunting cabin, listening to music,

snowmobiles and heavily-loaded qamutiit that

The group remained cheerful and participants

bright, sunny April skies — a long train of 15

km/hr winds and everyone had resorted to

playing cards and telling stories to pass the time.

round past jogging caribou through the moun-

were making plans to return and finish the

island. The beautiful canyon, however, proved

died down on our final day, we could still

tains to Quraluk, in the north of Southampton

42

jigging than with the nets! Despite the low

of course, nature was always going to be

one of the greatest challenges. We had set out

Whitefish piffi drying at the Kugluktuk N-CAMP.

in fact, we were catching fish faster by

problematic both for weather and for fishing,

funnelling the wind and creating deep lakes that made for slow fishing.

sampling at another time — so when the wind

declare the camp a success; and the most

important memo in my field notes was to pack more coffee for future camps!

2015 | 01


CommuNiTy John Pameolik shares his knowledge of fish head bones with Tamara Kolit during the Coral Harbour N-CAMP. This head bone represents a harpooned walrus towing a hunter in a qajaq.

Jokes, laughter and working together also

turned out to be hallmarks of our Kugluktuk camp in September. The early fall weather stayed

clear and calm, and far from having slow fishing,

we caught 88 fish in one net! With the pressure on to get them sampled, a production line

quickly developed. Austin, wearing his aviators, skilfully wielded the filleting knife crafted by his grandfather, while Helen laughingly recorded

whether the fish was “sex or female”. At the

next table, martha carefully prepared the sampled fish with her ulu, to make piffi that

John hung on an improvised rack outside, until a long row of Arctic char and whitefish gleamed

in the sun. Everyone enjoyed the piffi for a snack on our last day as we relaxed by the falls

at Kugluk while John told us stories of the day again, we shared knowledge, ideas, respect and fun through the N-CAmP.

build on the training to take the lead in caring

for and using their fish and water into the

A few days later, as i thanked and congrat-

future. As Amaq&ainnuk put it, “We are very

certificate, she slipped something into my

more information about N-CAmP can be

ulated martha, and presented her training hand — a beautifully sewn zipper pull with

miniature sealskin mittens. i will treasure that

gift to remind me of all i learned from our

N-CAmP participants, as we hope that they will

proud of this”.

© N-CAMP (4)

that he trapped, and lost, his first fox. once

found at www.ncamp.ca.

Sarah Arnold

Sarah Arnold is a Fisheries Sector Specialist in Rankin inlet with the Government of Nunavut.

A B oV E & B E yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T i C J o u R N A L

The Igloolik N-CAMP team celebrates sampling our 200th fish.

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2015 | 01


A R T S , C u LT u R E & E D u C AT i o N

Bern Will Brown, 1920-2014

His Final Legacy

A Review Essay by David F. Pelly

in addition to working as a missionary for the

Catholic Church, Bern Will Brown was also an

in this way, it is a very engaging read.

developer, dog-team musher, bush pilot, hunter

detail. For example, Brown’s description of

accomplished builder of churches, an economic and trapper, medic and dentist, writer, photo-

grapher and painter. He lived and worked among

End-of-Earth People The Arctic Sahtu Dene

Bern Will Brown 175 pages, illustrated Dundurn Press, 2014

“i have written an account of what i’ve seen

and experienced,” wrote Bern Will Brown in

the Preface to his recent book, End-of-Earth

night.” This is followed by no. 8: “Smoke the

then essentially lived the rest of his life there.

Very little has been written previously in a

popular vein about the Sahtu Dene. in preparing this book, which he calls an “unvarnished nar-

rative” and “a simple tale of a people i know,”

realize that Brown had already been in the North

for 30 years when i first arrived some 37 years

ago. We have lost one of the real old-timers.

Fortunately, just weeks before his death in

the summer of 2014, he received a copy of his

latest work, a book which looks back at all he

warm water and soak [the moose hide] over-

hide on both sides using fungi from old trees.”

And the details continue thus through the 22

steps of Dene tanning.

Like the man himself, Bern Will Brown’s

final legacy, as represented by this volume, is

Brown consciously set out to “balance the

authentic and insightful. The book might be

whose “descriptions … have not always been

and it does at times, but that is the realistic

centrism.” Setting the record straight in this

writes that “The history of the Sahtu Dene is

author: “if i had never met a Sahtu Dene but

trying to eke out a living in a very harsh environ-

picture” as previously painted by early writers,

manner is clearly of great significance to the

approach, but it is profoundly humbling to

the process step by step, including step no. 7:

the community was established in the early 1960s,

He founded the mission at Colville Lake when

people. you become a northerner yourself.” if i

it was an attempt to take much the same

how Dene women tan a moose hide highlights

“Add three tablespoons of brains to a tub of

complimentary, tainted as they are by Euro

reflect over my own northern career as a writer,

in fact, the book is richly laden with cultural

the Sahtu Dene in several different capacities.

People. The key to this process, he claims, was

straightforward: “you go and live with the

enhance all his descriptions, hundreds of them.

criticized for reading somewhat paternalistically, result of his experience and his era. When he one of a constant battle with the elements, of

formed my opinion from what i had found in

ment and with limited success … Stuck in a part

been far different from what it is after living

were forced by circumstance to make the best

print, my mental image of them would have

with them for most of my life.”

it is this immersion that lends great credibility

to the book. indeed, the writer knows his subject

in a multitude of ways and in great detail. He describes their character, their dwellings, their

of the world that could barely sustain them, they

of what they had” there is a hint of romance,

perhaps even a colonial perspective. But he

can be forgiven this. indeed, it is the fact that he writes of the time he does which makes this book so special. As Charles Arnold, former Director

learned about the Sahtu Dene during his life-

food, their way of life, their craftsmanship, their

of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage

well-positioned as Bern Will Brown to describe

and taboos, even their physiology: “The Sahtu

the cultural practices that Bern describes have

rate is the same as that of other peoples, but

forgotten, as they are reminders that Sahtu-

time among the people. “Few people are as

the changes to the northern way of life over

the past sixty years,” wrote Norman yakela, the

mLA representing the Sahtu riding of Tulita in the NWT legislature, in his Foreword.

Brown was born in 1920 in Rochester, New

york. He was ordained in 1948, joined the order

of the oblates of mary immaculate, and by the

end of that year was stationed in Fort Norman, now Tulita. His northern immersion had begun.

traditions and social practices, superstitions

Dene can withstand severe cold. Their heart

their extremities have a profusion of small

capillary veins that result in a much greater

Centre in yellowknife, said, “Although many of

become part of the past, they should not be got’ine cultural resiliency that contributed to

their survival over many millennia is also key

circulation of blood, which keeps them warmer.”

to their well-being today and in the future.”

pulling a fishnet in winter, and the barehanded

have been happy with that assessment, with

Similarly, he provides personal anecdotes to

he so loved.

By way of example he describes the process of

task of extracting fish from the frozen net.

A B oV E & B E yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T i C J o u R N A L

one can imagine that Bern Will Brown must

its optimistic view of the future for the people

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46

2015 | 01


SCiENCE

microbial mystery

Giant Virus Awakened from millennia-old Permafrost Remarkably, the French scientists were able

of the world,” and that “in the 20th century,

oldest virus ever to be awakened. it’s like stum-

has diminished by seven per cent.” They go on

steppes of the Arctic it

to revive Pithovirus in the lab, making it the

and alone. But big dis-

bling across a millennia-old pocket watch buried

is easy to feel small

coveries and ancient

in polar ice, giving it a shake, and finding that

mysteries are waiting

it still tells time. Fortunately, Pithovirus doesn’t

permanently frozen soils

called amoebae, which exist in almost all

to be unearthed in the

of these polar landscapes. Time and again,

infect humans. it attacks blob-like creatures

the researchers were able to find Pithovirus

sometimes, like out of a Frankenstein script,

it with amoebae, similar to using cheese to

these age-old creatures can be revived.

Recently, for example, a team of French

researchers isolated a gigantic virus from a

coax out a pesky mouse. When the amoebae

tomatoes and then took high-powered micro-

newly uncovered microbial mammoth was given

first giant virus to be discovered. other types

“pithos,” which refers to a large storage vessel

both which also infect amoebae — as if being a

to link everything back to the dinner table).

being bombarded with enormous viruses. Nor is

for wine, food, or olive oil (leave it to the French Pithovirus is about 1.5 microns long, which

Although the largest, Pithovirus is not the

include mega viruses and Pandora viruses, single-celled blob wasn’t bad enough without

Pithovirus the first creature to be revived from

sounds puny but makes it the Shaquille o’Neal

Arctic sediment. A few years ago, in a similar

(a big bragging right in the viral world). under

fertile plants from fruit tissue found within

of viruses, and even as large as some bacteria

the microscope, Pithovirus looks like a bloated

oval with a protruding cork at one end, which

has a beautiful hexagonal grid structure unlike

anything seen in a virus before. But for all its

size and magnificence, Pithovirus is surprisingly simple: it’s essentially just an oversized jug

more ancient permafrost layers.”

became infected, they sliced them up like

scopy images of the massive viruses inside.

the name Pithovirus, after the Greek word

the surface, but in increasingly deeper and

within the Siberian soil sample was by baiting

30,000-year-old sample of permafrost, collected

in the Kolyma Lowlands in eastern Siberia. This

to urge researchers to “examine which viruses

are expected to be encountered not only near

habitats on Earth. in fact, one of the ways that

scientists have turned up bizarre organisms trapped for millennia within permafrost. And

the permafrost in the Northern Hemisphere

CHANTAL ABERGEL. Copyright IGS, UMR7256 CNRS-AMU

in the vast, barren

study, Russian scientists regenerated whole

A Transition Electron Microscopy image of the virus Pithos sibericum.

it is important to keep in mind, however,

that we are exposed to thousands of different

types of virus each day, most of which are

30,000-year-old Siberian permafrost, proving

harmless to humans. Sinister microbes might

for ancient pre-existing life, some of which may

organisms that could benefit human health,

that the Arctic is a cryopreservation repository have vanished from the Earth long ago.

The discovery and resurrection of Pithovirus

has raised some troubling questions about

be hiding in the Arctic’s frozen depths, but micro

industry, or the environment might be down

there as well. This time it was an amoebae

infecting viral behemoth that was unearthed.

holding a relatively small piece of DNA, which

what other microbial relics might be lurking

The type of microbial mystery that will be

giant viruses. When the researchers deciphered

Arctic temperatures, mine excavation, or drilling

least a few scientists’ nightmare.

contains the instructions for building more the full DNA recipe for Pithovirus and compared

within permafrost. it is possible that rising for oil could expose potentially dangerous viruses

it to those of other viruses, they concluded

and bacteria from polar soils. The authors of

closely related to certain human pathogens,

Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences,

that Pithovirus is a new family of virus and

including Marseillevirus, which last year was shown to have infected an 11-month-old boy.

the Pithovirus study, which was published in

point out that “climate change in the Russian

Arctic is more evident than in many other regions

A B oV E & B E yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T i C J o u R N A L

aroused next time is anyone’s guess, and at

Nicholas Choi and David Smith

Nicholas Choi is a third-year undergraduate student studying medical Sciences at Western university. David Smith is an assistant professor in the Biology Department at Western university. you can find him online at www.arrogantgenome.com and @arrogantgenome.

47


BooKSHELF

inuit Kinship and Naming Customs

Edited by Pelagie owlijoot and Louise Flaherty Translated by Pelagie owlijoot inhabit media, April 2014

inuit do not call each other by their given names. instead, they refer to each other using a system of kinship and family terms, known

as tuq&urausiit (turk-thlo-raw-seet). Calling each other by kinship

terms is a way to show respect and foster closeness within families.

Children were named after their elders and ancestors. Inuit Kinship

and Naming Customs presents interviews with four inuit elders

from the Kivalliq Region in Nunavut about how names were chosen, the importance of using kinship terms, and how the practice of

in the Footsteps of Abraham ulrikab

France Rivet Polar Horizons inc August 2014

in September 1880, eight Labrador inuit,

tuq&urausiit has changed over the years. This book, presented

in English and inuktitut, helps to preserve the knowledge of this

tradition for younger generations, both inuit and non-inuit.

Polar Winds: A Century of Flying the North Danielle metcalfe-Chenail Dundurn Press, September 2014

Aviators have flown northern skies for over a hundred years. They are

including Abraham ulrikab, arrived in Europe

adventurers and pioneers, but also just men and women doing what is

Hagenbeck’s ethnographic shows. Four months

stories of these pilots and others to explore the greater history of air travel

to become the new exotic attraction in Carl

required to make a living north of the sixtieth parallel. Polar Winds uses the

later, decimated by smallpox, the group no

in the North, from the Klondike Gold Rush through to the end of the 20th century. it includes

deaths, In the Footsteps of Abraham Ulrikab

for residential schools, indigenous pilots performing mercy flights and routine supply runs that

remains.

through the experiences of northerners on the ground and in the sky.

longer existed. Finally, 133 years after their finally reveals the truth about the fate of their

48

exploration flights to the North Pole in airships, passenger travel in jet liners, flying school buses

make up daily life in the North. it captures the major moments in Northern aviation history told

2015 | 01


ArCTIC TrACkS

The Longest Night

Scary Bear Soundtrack and Avid Napper

The artistic talent in the North never ceases to amaze. Hard to say whether it’s

Cambridge Bay, Nunavut’s long spells of darkness that spark all this creativity,

but in reviewing The Longest Night, I say, “hey, bring it on and crank it up… please!”

The Longest Night is an enjoyable feel-good collaboration between the

“Nunavut-based, synth-pop girl band Scary Bear Soundtrack (Gloria Guns and

Christine Aye) and Indie artist Avid Napper (Charles Lynch). It’s the listener that wins by way of the synthesizer-driven allusion to a second sun rising to spread all its bonus sunshine along sound waves of happiness and healing.

Scary Bear’s lyrics are meant to reflect life in the North. If that’s the case,

there’s a lot of good way up North. The notes of community, of sharing and caring on this disc are adeptly transported on the ion-laden wings of rich synth

riffs and Euro techno jazz rhythms joining with the floating sparkle dust in the air at a high-end crystal ball dance lounge.

© COURTESY SCARY BEAR SOUNDTRACK

With Manic Pixie Dream Girl attending incognito as one of the tracks on

this CD I’m told, there’s now only one thing missing. Where do I find one of those

Mini LED Crystal Magic Disco Balls to light up the room? The tracks on this album

are a treat.

Trent Walthers

Traditional Inuit art captures the beauty, truth and spirit of Canada’s Arctic

“Bear Mother and Child” by Norman Quamautuq, Pangnirtung Nunavut.

northern images A Division of Arctic Co-operatives Ltd.

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49


iNuiT FoRum

The right to be included

Our earliest leaders fought for our right to have a voice in discussions that affect our lives. Leaders of today are still fighting to be included in decision-making processes.

in the history of our

relations with outsiders, inuit opinions have not

always been considered, and sometimes not

really even heard. We were governed from afar without a say in

the laws that determined where and how

we lived. ultimately, that’s what forced our earliest land claims negotiators into action.

under the shadow of residential schools and

the relocation of families by the government © ITK (2)

in the name of sovereignty, our leaders sought a fundamental reassertion and rebalancing of

our rights and responsibilities. This work gave

way to the completion of agreements governing our rights within a contiguous chain of land

stretching from one end of the Canadian Arctic to the other.

parts, but we still often do not have their time

our knowledge is of inherent value and repre-

So it was a pleasure to address the Senate

But there is an ever-increased research burden

or attention.

of Canada recently as part of a larger discussion

sents a research advantage in its own right.

placed on inuit by this growing Canadian research

Today’s public administrators have learned

on the Canadian High Arctic Research Station,

landscape. inuit, more than ever before, need

rights and that governments, in turn, have a

i spoke about our history with the research

aspects of research in order to become part of

from the past, and recognize that inuit have duty to consult us on all matters outlined in

our land claims agreements. We are widely

where our inclusion is still a work in progress.

process and how only recently inuit have assumed a more central role in the design and

represented on boards and advisory commit-

execution of major projects.

only after key decisions have been made.

platforms and methods of long-term, community-

and we are represented at every level of

Traditional knowledge provides cultural tools

We have the respect of our southern counter-

for year-round observation of Arctic ecosystems.

tees. But we are often brought to the table Though our land claims have been settled

government, we are still fighting for our rights.

improved capacity to become involved in all

the solution, for ourselves, Canadians, and the world.

We know what will happen if we’re not

We have a critical role to play in developing

involved — decisions will be made for us from

driven, and community-based monitoring.

voices and once and for all, in all aspects of our

uniquely suited to making precise observations

afar. may the New year strengthen our collective lives, allow us finally to be heard.

Terry Audla

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 75 Albert Street, Suite 1101 Ottawa, ON K1P 5E7 t. (613) 238.8181

50

2015 | 01


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Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2015 | 01  

Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2015 | 01