Issuu on Google+

REINFORCEMENT HANDBOOK YOUR GUIDE TO STEEL REINFORCEMENT

R


This document is issued by The Australian Steel Company (Operations) Pty Ltd ABN 89 069 426 955 trading as The Australian Reinforcing Company (‘ARC’). ARC National Office 518 Ballarat Road Sunshine VIC 3020 Australia Copyright © ARC 2008 First published Second Edition Third Edition Fourth Edition Fifth Edition

1991 2001 2004 2007 2008

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of ARC. Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright but in some cases this has not been possible. The publishers apologise for any accidental infringements and would welcome any information to redress the situation. The information and illustrations in this publication are provided as a general guide only. The publication is not intended as a substitute for professional advice which should be sought before applying any of the information to particular projects or circumstances. In the event of purchase of goods to which this publication relates, the publication does not form part of the contractual arrangements with ARC. The purchase of any goods is subject to the ARC Conditions of Sale. ARC reserves the right to alter the design or discontinue any of its goods or services without notice. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information and illustrations in this publication, a policy of continual research and development necessitates changes and refinements which may not be reflected in this publication. If in doubt please contact your nearest ARC sales office.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Preamble This handbook is the latest of many publications, since the 1920s, from ARC. It has the continuing objective of providing engineering details and properties of reinforcement available throughout Australia, together with an interpretation of the requirements of Australian Standards within the context of practical solutions. The information is considered to be of value to all who work in the structural design and construction industry – in a design office, on a construction site or a student preparing to enter the industry. There is considerable emphasis on the requirements of many Australian Standards. Standards are changing continuously to ensure that the latest practices are included. It is hoped that this publication will retain its relevance for several years, given that the major standards for reinforcing steel and reinforced concrete design have been recently released.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Contents 1.0

Introduction...........................................................................................................1

2.0

Australian Codes, Standards and References...................................................2

3.0

Glossary of Terms.................................................................................................3

3.1

General Reinforcement .................................................................................................................................3

3.2

Reinforcement Production Terms............................................................................................................4

3.3

Reinforcement Material Property Terms............................................................................................5

4.0

ARC Product Range............................................................................................11

5.0

Reinforcing Bar Processing...............................................................................13

5.1

Cutting Bars to Length................................................................................................................................14

5.2

Bending Reinforcement to Shape......................................................................................................16

5.3

Welding Reinforcement...............................................................................................................................19

5.4

Mechanical Splices..........................................................................................................................................19

6.0

Rust and Protective Coatings........................................................................... 21

7.0

Quality Assurance and Quality Control............................................................ 24

8.0

Tolerance on Bar Manufacture......................................................................... 26

9.0

Information from AS3600-2001....................................................................... 27

9.1

Clause 1.1.2 Application.............................................................................................................................27

9.2

Clause 1.4 Information on Drawings................................................................................................27

9.3

Cover to Reinforcing Steel........................................................................................................................28

9.4

Section 4 Cover for Durability................................................................................................................29

9.5

Section 5 Cover for Fire Resistance................................................................................................30

9.6

Clause 6.2 Properties of Reinforcement......................................................................................31

9.7

Clause 7.6.8.3 Class L Reinforcement............................................................................................32

9.8

Clause 19.2 Material and Construction Requirements for Reinforcing Steel...............32

9.9

Clause 19.5.3 Tolerance on Position of Reinforcement..................................................34

10.0

Reinforcing Bar.................................................................................................. 35

10.1

Bar General Information..............................................................................................................................35

10.2

Bar Tension Lap Length and Anchorage......................................................................................39

10.3

Bar Compression Lap Length and Anchorage........................................................................ 47

10.4

Additional Information On Lap Splices...........................................................................................49

10.5

Bar Hooks and Cogs.....................................................................................................................................51

11.0

Reinforcing Mesh............................................................................................... 53

11.1

Mesh General Information.........................................................................................................................53

11.2

Cross-Sectional Area of ARC Mesh................................................................................................54

11.3

Physical Dimensions of ARC Mesh..................................................................................................55

11.4

Wire and Fabric Development Length............................................................................................56

11.5

Mesh Detailing.................................................................................................................................................... 57

11.6

Special Fabric Design Information.....................................................................................................58

Appendix A

Area Comparison Table Grade D500L Mesh and D500N Bar.................................59

Appendix B

ARC Bar Bending Shapes........................................................................................................................60

Appendix C

Refurbishment of Buildings......................................................................................................................64

Appendix D

Metric and Imperial Bars and Fabric................................................................................................ 67

Appendix E

Reinforcement Bar Chairs and Spacers........................................................................................69


Page D

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


1.0

Introduction The Reinforcement Handbook provides information about the use of steel reinforcement when embedded in ‘plain’ concrete, in normal reinforced concrete or in prestressed concrete. Other information includes guidance on some applicable Australian Standards, design and construction tolerances, fabrication of reinforcement and tabulated data on fabric and bars. The major source of information is AS3600-2001, the Concrete Structures Standard. To design and detail concrete structures correctly, the reader will need access to several other books and reference manuals. Some suggestions are given in the following pages. Recycling and restoration of older buildings is becoming more and more economical so that modern design techniques, combined with knowledge of the condition of the building, enable the existing reinforced concrete to be used with only minor modifications. For this reason, historical data is given in Appendix C, Refurbishment of Buildings.

Figure 1: Reinforcement cut, bent and bundled for delivery to site

Figure 2: Reinforcement being tied on site

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 1


2.0

Australian Codes, Standards and References Standards Australia is responsible for preparing and publishing those standards that relate to building materials and design. In the preparation of this handbook, it has been assumed that the user will have access to a copy of the relevant standards. All building construction within each state and territory is controlled by its relevant building regulations. Cross-references to other Australian Standards incorporates them into the regulations. The Building Code of Australia, first published in 1988, was originally intended to provide uniformity of design and construction throughout Australia. Because each state and territory can incorporate its own special rules, designs prepared outside your state may require checking because of differing interpretations. Other national bodies such as the Steel Reinforcement Institute of Australia (SRIA), the Cement and Concrete Association (C&CA) and Austroads prepare information helpful to the design of reinforced and prestressed concrete. Further information may be obtained from the appropriate organisation in each state.

Ref. No. AS3600 AS3600 Supp1 AS/NZS 4671 AS3679.1 AS1391 AS1554.3 AS4680 AS/NZS 4534 ASTM A775M ASTM A934M AS2783 AS2870 AS3850 AS/NZS 1100.501 AS3610 AS/NZS9001 AS5100

Title of Standard Concrete Structures Standard Supplement No. 1 Commentary on AS3600 (being revised) Steel Reinforcing for Concrete Hot-Rolled Structural Steel Bars and Sections Methods for Tensile Testing of Metals Structural Steel Welding Code - Welding of Reinforcing Hot-Dipped Galvanised (Zinc) Coatings on Fabricated Ferrious Articles Zinc and Zinc/Aluminium-Alloy Coatings on Steel Wire Epoxy Coated Steel Reinforcing Bars, ASTM, Philadelphia, USA Epoxy Coated Steel Prefabricated Reinforcing Bars, ASTM, Philadelphia, USA Concrete Swimming Pools Code Residential Slabs and Footings - Construction Tilt-Up Concrete Construction Technical Drawing - Structural Engineering Drawing Formwork for Concrete Quality Management Systems Bridge Design Specification

Reference Date (2001) (1994) (2001) (1996) (2007) (2008) (2006) (2006) (2001) (2001) (1992) (2003) (2003) (2002) (1995) (2000) (2004)

Table 1: Australian Standards relevant to steel reinforcement (as at November 2008)

1.

"Reinforcement Detailing Handbook”, Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney, 1988

2.

“Concrete Design Handbook”, Cement and Concrete Association of Australia, Sydney, 1989

3.

“Design and Analysis of Concrete Structures”, Fairhurst and Attard, McGraw-Hill, 1990

4.

“Concrete Structures”, Warner, Rangan, Hall and Faulkes, Longman, 1998

5.

“After-Fabrication Hot Dip Galvanizing”, Galavanizers Association of Australia, Melbourne, Australia, 1999

6.

“Two Hundred Years of Concrete in Australia”, Concrete Institute of Australia, Sydney, 1988

7.

“Guidelines for Economical Assembly of Reinforcement”, SRIA, Sydney, 1988 (TPN2)

8.

“Effect of Rust and Scale on the Bond Characteristics of Deformed Reinforcing Bars”, Kemp, Brenzy and Unterspan, ACI Jrnl Proc. Vol 65, No 9, Sept 1968, pp 743-756

9.

“Effect of Rust on Bond of Welded Wire Fabric”, Rejab and Kesler, Technical Bulletin No 265, American Road Builders Association, Washington DC, 1968

10. “The Effect of Initial Rusting on Bond Performance of Reinforcement”, CIRIA report No 71, 1977 11. “Precast Concrete Handbook”, NPCAA, 2002 Table 2: Technical references Page 2

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


3.0

Glossary of Terms

3.1

General Reinforcement Reinforcement Reinforcement is a general term used in AS3600-2001 (Concrete Structures Standard) and by designers, reinforcement processors and building contractors. Reinforcement includes deformed bars, plain bars, wire, fabric and steel products, all of which increase the tensile and compressive stress carrying properties of concrete. Steel reinforcement is also the essential contributor towards crack control of concrete structures.

Figure 3: Coiled bar

Reinforcing Bar A bar is a finished product rolled to close tolerances. Generally regarded as being supplied in straight lengths, it is also manufactured in coiled form. Australian Standard AS/NZS 4671 is a performance standard for reinforcing bars. There is no distinction between: • methods of manufacture such as coiled-bar or straight-rolled bar. • methods of production such as quench and self temper steels and micro-alloy steels. • hot rolled and cold worked reinforcement. Mill-produced lengths of straight bars range from 6 to 18 metres. Availability of lengths varies across Australia. For local availability contact ARC. Figure 4: Straight rolled bar

Reinforcing Mesh Mesh is manufactured in flat sheets with bars up to 12 mm diameter, or rolls for fabric with bars up to 5 mm diameter. The sheets are typically 6 metres by 2.4 metres. The fabric consists of reinforcing bar welded in either a square or rectangular grid. Automatic welding machines ensure that the grid of bars has consistent spacing to provide a defined cross-sectional area for designers. The bars are welded electronically using fusion combined with pressure. This fuses the intersecting bars into a homogeneous section without loss of strength or cross sectional area.

Figure 5: Mesh sheets

Most reinforcing fabrics available in Australia are produced from deformed cold rolled bar of grade D500L reinforcement. One of the advantages of cold rolling is that the applied force required to drag the bar through the rolling cassettes provides an automatic check of the bar tensile strength in addition to the quality testing required by AS/NZS 4671.

Figure 6: Mesh production ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 3


Glossary of Terms

3.2

Reinforcement Production Terms Hot Rolled Steel A product rolled to final shape and tolerances at a temperature of about 1150ºC. The strength properties at room temperatures are obtained by chemistry or by rolling techniques. The finished surface may be plain or deformed.

Micro-Alloyed Deformed Bar and Coil This is a low carbon, micro–alloyed high strength hot rolled reinforcing bar. Its strength comes from a small controlled addition of Vanadium, or similar alloying element, to the steel composition during smelting. ARC processes N12 and N16 coils and N40 and D450N50 mill bars as micro-alloyed bars. Micro-alloyed bars have constant metallurgical properties across their section which gives superior welding characteristics to quench and self tempered bars.

Figure 7: Hot rolled bar

The N12 and N16 coils are a continuous length of finished low carbon steel, coiled hot as the final part of the rolling process from a billet. The current maximum size of deformed bar available in Australia in coil form is 16 mm, although 20 mm is available overseas. Coiled bar may be straightened and then cut to length, or straightened and bent to shape in one operation. The surface finish and physical properties allow it to be used in its ‘as rolled’ condition. The coil mass is typically two tonnes. Coils of up to five tonnes are produced.

Quench and Self Tempered Deformed Bar (QST) This is a low carbon, hot rolled steel which obtains its high strength from a mill heat treatment and tempering process. After the bar is rolled to size and shape, it passes through a water cooling line where the surface layers are quenched to form martensite while the core remains austenitic. The bar leaves the cooling line with a temperature gradient through its cross-section. The natural heat within the core flows from the centre to the surface resulting in self tempering of the martensite. The core is still austenitic. Finally, the austenitic core transforms to ferrite and pearlite during the slow cooling of the bar on the cooling bed. The product therefore exhibits a variation in mircostructure in its cross-section with a tough tempered martensite as the surface layer, and a ductile ferrite-pearlite core. Figure 8: Hot rolled coil

Hard Drawn and Cold Rolled Bar A continuous length of finished material produced from coiled rod having a very low carbon content and a yield stress of approximately 300MPa. The hot rolled rod is subjected to two or more cold rolling operations which produces a circular or triangular cross-section. An additional pass through a set of deforming rollers produces the required surface pattern. Bar, whether hard drawn or cold rolled, is covered by AS/NZS 4671. Previous codes referred to hard drawn and cold rolled products as wire. Production can be by rolling under intense pressure, or by drawing the rod through a ‘die’ having a diameter smaller than the rod, or both. Rolling followed by drawing provides a smooth surface. During rolling or drawing, the diameter of the rod is reduced to approximately 88% of its original value. This gives a reduction in area of approximately 20-25% with a consequent increase in length. The mass of the original rod and the final wire coil is not changed. The cold work process raises the yield stress of the finished bar to above 500MPa. Australian metric sizes for cold rolled bars are given in Table 28 in section 11.6.

Page 4

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Glossary of Terms As a generalisation, cold working rod by drawing or rolling has the following effects on steel: • The yield stress is increased: eg, from 300 MPa to 500 MPa. • The tensile strength is increased above the original hot rolled value: eg, from 500 MPa to 600 MPa. • The Agt is reduced: eg, from 20% to 1.5%. • The strain ageing properties become worse. • The effect of rebending may be severe. • Galvanising bent material can increase brittleness.

Figure 9: Cold rolled bar

Bar produced by cold rolling has the following characteristics: • Close control of quality since the operation is largely automatic. • Deformations can be added during the rolling process. • The cross-section is almost circular allowing good control and thus improved bending accuracy. • The surface appearance is rougher than hard drawn material, but this is of little consequence for reinforcement after it is encased in concrete. Surface roughness improves anchorage in the concrete. • Alternately rolling followed by drawing can provide a smooth surface finish. • Cold rolled wire does not require a lubricant during manufacture, as does drawn wire. Although this lubricant may postpone for a few days the advent of rusting, the fine film of rust which appears on rolled wire soon after exposure to weather is more likely to improve the bond than to reduce it. See technical references 8, 9 and 10 in Table 2.

Indented Wire Here the outer shape is formed firstly by drawing hot rolled rod through a die of circular cross-section, and then a pattern is indented into the surface. This product is common in Europe, but not in Australia or USA.

Cold Worked Bars (1957-1983) Cold working is a process by which the final properties of a steel are provided by rolling, twisting, drawing or tensioning a hot rolled steel, or by a combination of two or more of these processes. Between 1957 and 1983, the only high strength steels in common use were cold worked. Before twisting, the Grade 230 bars were either of square section (1957 to 1963) or deformed (1963 to 1983). After twisting, the yield stress (at 0.2% proof stress) was 410MPa for design calculations and they were designated as Grade 410C bars. Cold worked bars are no longer produced by ARC and are not included in AS/NZS 4671.

3.3

Reinforcement Material Property Terms Deformations Deformations appear as a raised pattern on the surface of the bar. The overall cross-section should be as circular as possible to facilitate uniform straightening and bending. Deforming the surface is the final rolling operation. The surface pattern consists of transverse deformations and longitudinal ribs. Only the deformation contributes to the anchorage of a bar. The deformation pattern allows considerable scope for steel makers to use additional ribs for product and mill identification.

Figure 10: A vertical rib used as a mill mark ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

When considering the cross-sectional area or the mass per metre of a bar or wire, the deformation is regarded as a redistribution of the material and not as an appendage. Page 5


Glossary of Terms Modulus of Elasticity This is often called ‘Young’s Modulus’ and is denoted by the notation Es. It is a measure of the constant relationship between stress and strain up to the elastic limit. For all reinforcement steels Es has a value of 200,000 MPa. The Modulus of Elasticity is the slope of the stress-strain graph prior to yielding of the steel.

Stress and Strain in reinforcing steel Stress is a term that allows comparison between the strength of different sizes of the same material. Stress measures the force applied to a unit of area and is stated in megapascals (MPa). Example 1 • If a force of 60 kilonewtons (kN) is applied to an N16 bar of area 200 mm2, the stress in that bar is: = 60,000/200 = 300 newtons per mm2, 300 megapascals or 300 MPa • If the same force is applied to an N32 bar of area 800 mm2, the stress is = 60,000/800 = 75 MPa, a lower value because of the larger area

Figure 11: Stress-strain curve

• Conversely, for the same stress of 300 MPa, the N32 bar would be carrying a load = 300 x 800 newtons = 240 kN Strain is a measure of the amount by which a tensile force will stretch the bar. Strain is expressed in the units of ‘mm/mm’, or ‘percentage strain’ based on the original gauge length. Example 2 Using our N16 example from above, the relationship between stress and strain is: • Strain = the stress divided by Young’s Modulus = 300/200,000 = 0.0015 mm/mm = 0.15% of the gauge length Using the N16 example again with a gauge length of 5 bar diameters, we have: • Extension under load = 0.0015 x 5 x16 mm = 0.12 mm at a stress of 300 MPa Example 3 For the same N32 bar at a stress of 75 MPa: • Strain = 75/200,000 = 0.0004 mm/mm A lower stress in the bar means smaller strain and thus narrower crack widths in the reinforced concrete element, if they occur.

Page 6

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Glossary of Terms Yield Stress of Steel This is the property which determines the maximum usable strength of a reinforced concrete member. The yield stress of steel is determined by stretching a sample (approximately 600 mm long) in a tensile-testing machine. When a steel is tensioned, the amount by which the length increases (called ‘strain’) is directly proportional to the load (or ‘stress’) applied to the bar in the elastic range. The ‘yield point’ of the steel is reached when strain is no longer directly proportional to the stress applied to the bar. Beyond the yield point the bar behaves plastically and is permanently deformed.

Figure 12: Yield stress

With hot rolled bars, the ‘yield point’ is quite visible on the stress–strain curve. Once the yield point is reached, the strain increases rapidly for a minor increase in the applied load. The stress level at yield is called the yield stress and the steel is said to have ‘yielded’. After yield, the strength of the bar increases due to strain hardening until the tensile strength is reached. After maximum tensile strength has been reached, the capacity of the bar reduces and necking is visible. Eventually the bar breaks. In fact, if the bar is unloaded part way through the test, below the yield point, the bar will return to its original length. This is why it is called elastic behaviour. The yield stress measured with a second test will be at least as high as it was during the first test. The characteristic yield stress specified in Australian Standards determines the Grade of the steel. Grade D500N bars must have a characteristic yield stress not less than 500 MPa; Grade D250N and R250N bars must have a characteristic yield stress not less than 250 MPa. To illustrate the connection between stress, strain and yield stress, there is also a ‘yield strain’ calculated as follows:

Yield Strain of Bars = yield stress/modulus of elasticity = 500/200,000 = 0.0025 mm/mm = 0.250% of the gauge length There are three properties that relate to each other in the elastic range: Stress = Strain x Young’s Modulus 1. Young’s Modulus = 200,000 MPa for all steels 2. Yield stress for Grade D500N = 500 MPa, and the calculated yield strain is = 0.0025 mm/mm = 0.250% of the gauge length 3. Yield stress for Grade R250N and D250N = 250 MPa, and the calculated yield strain is = 0.00125 mm/mm = 0.125% of the gauge length

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 7


Glossary of Terms Yield Stress of Cold Rolled Bar Cold rolled bar does not exhibit a true yield point; there is no point during a stress-strain test where true yielding is visible. AS/NZS 4671 allows the 0.2% proof stress to be used as the yield stress when there is no observable yield point.

Tensile Strength of Steel This is the maximum stress which the steel can carry. In the past, this strength was called the ‘ultimate tensile strength’. It is not used directly in reinforced concrete design, however the ratio of tensile strength to yield stress is important to ensure a ductile failure mechanism.

Stress and Strain in Reinforced Concrete

Figure 13: Cold rolled bar stress-strain curve

Up to the point where the concrete starts to crack, the strains in the steel and concrete are equal but the stresses are not. The steel carries a much higher proportion of the applied load at a much higher stress – because it has a higher modulus of elasticity. AS3600 is based on steel strengths of up to 500 MPa. This determines all the ‘deemed to comply’ rules such as cog lengths, transverse-wire overlaps for fabric, and the requirements for minimum areas of reinforcement. Plastic and drying shrinkage are two other causes of stress in concrete. For Australian concretes, the shrinkage strain ranges from 0.0005 mm/mm to 0.0012 mm/mm. This range is close to the yield strain of Grade 250 bars (0.00125 mm/mm). AS3600-2001 contains rules for control of cracks caused by shrinkage and flexure for bars and fabric up to Grade 500 (yield strain 0.0025 mm/mm).

Ductility Ductility is the ability of a structure to undergo large deformations and deflections when overloaded. If a structure cannot withstand large deformations and deflections when overloaded, then it is subject to brittle failure. AS/NZS 4671 has introduced three ductility grades for reinforcing steel and two ductility measures. AS3600-2001 has also retained the ductility control of a reduced strength reduction factor for bending members with a ku > 0.4, that is for bending members with excessive tensile steel. The three ductility grades are Low (L), Normal (N) and Earthquake/Seismic (E). The measures for ductility are Uniform Elongation and the Tensile Strength / Yield Stress Ratio. E Grade material is specifically for use in New Zealand and is not available in Australia. The Uniform Elongation provides a measure of the ability of the reinforcement to deform, both elastically and plastically, before reaching its maximum strength. The Tensile Strength / Yield Stress Ratio is a measure of the reinforcement’s ability to work harden when undergoing plastic deformation. This means the strength of the steel increases when it is loaded beyond its yield strength.

Page 8

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Glossary of Terms Uniform Elongation (Agt)

Figure 14: Uniform elongation

Uniform elongation is a strain measure. It is a measure of the maximum amount by which a steel sample will stretch before it reaches maximum stress. For strains up to 1% elongation, an extensometer is used. Elongations greater than 1% are measured from the crossheads of the tension testing machine. Uniform elongation can be measured manually by marking a bar at 1 mm intervals prior to tensioning. The bar is then loaded in tension until failure. An elongation measurement (L) is obtained by measuring the length of the bar at a distance of 50 mm from the break for a length between 100 marks (that is, 100 mm length prior to tensioning). The uniform elongation for manual testing is obtained from the formula:

The first part of the equation measures the plastic deformation of the bar away from the zone affected by necking. The second term measures the elastic deformation. At failure the bar shortens as elastic strain is relaxed, hence the elastic deformation must be added back onto the permanent plastic deformation to obtain the total elongation at maximum stress. Uniform elongation is a measure of the ductility of the steel. A steel with high uniform elongation (greater than 5%) is considered ductile; low ductility (under 5%) is considered to be a sign of brittleness.

Figure 15: Reserve strength of steel

Uniform elongation is not required directly for design purposes, however, its value is important when specifying and checking the properties of a steel. Design methods requiring high rotation, such as moment redistribution and plastic hinge design, should not use low ductility steels. AS/NZS 4671 gives minimum values for the Uniform Elongation (Agt) for the different reinforcing steels.

Agt

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

250N

500L

500N

5%

1.5%

5%

Page 9


Glossary of Terms Strain Ageing When normal mill steels such as plate, wire, and plain or deformed bars are bent or otherwise reshaped, the steel becomes less ductile with time. There are many reasons, but the main cause seems to be change in crystal structure and the effects of the chemical composition. Strain ageing causes problems when: • the steel is bent around a small pin • bent material is galvanised • a weld is located close to (within 3 db) or at the bend.

Chemical Composition The selection of the correct chemistry for any steel product is extremely important because it can have a marked effect on the use of the final product. The most important elements in the composition of reinforcing steel are Iron (Fe) Carbon (C) and Manganese (Mn). AS/NZS 4671 allows both a cast analysis and a product analysis.

Carbon Carbon turns iron into steel. The Carbon content of steel is limited because as the carbon content increases, the ductility of the steel decreases.

Other Elements • Manganese increases the strength of steel up to a certain point • Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Silicon and Sulphur can be deleterious • Micro-alloying and grain-refining elements, such as Aluminium, Niobium, Titanium and Vanadium, can be used to increase the strength but they can affect other properties, sometimes not to the best advantage of the steel.

Figure 16: Carbon equivalence versus yield strength

• Residual elements such as Copper, Nickel, Chromium and Molybdenum can occur in steel if they are present in any scrap used in steel making. Up to a certain limit they may be considered as incidental and not detrimental to the product.

Carbon Equivalence (CE) This term is regarded as a measure of the weldability of a steel. It is derived from a formula that allows for the influence of Carbon, Manganese, Chromium, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Nickel and Copper. The Australian formula for CE is: C+Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu) / 15 When the CE exceeds 0.45, the steel cannot be welded (see Figure 16).

Page 10

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


4.0

ARC Product Range

Table 3: Reinforcing steel product range

The Concrete Structures Standard, AS3600, and the Reinforcing Steel Standard, AS/NZS 4671, must be regarded as interrelated performance standards. However, although a particular reinforcing steel may comply with, or even exceed, some of the minimum requirements of its Standard, that steel must not be used above the maximum stress limits set down in AS3600.

Figure 17: D500N straight stress-strain curve

Figure 18: D500N coil stress-strain curve

Figure 19: D500L stress-strain curve

Figure 20: D250N stress-strain curve

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 11


ARC Product Range Grade R250N Plain Rod in Coils This is a continuous length of semi-finished, low carbon steel, coiled hot as the final part of the rolling process. Rod provides feed for material with finer tolerances (eg, mesh bars), or is manufactured directly into fitments. Rod diameters are not the same as bar sizes: rod is available in 0.5 mm increments in the range 4 mm to 14 mm. Only selected sizes are used for reinforcement as fitments.

Figure 21: D500L deformations

Grade D500L Deformed Bar and Coil This is a low carbon, deformed 500 MPa steel. The steel is produced in coils by cold rolling, which is straightened to produce bars. D500L bar and coil are available in sizes from 4 mm to 11.9 mm.

Grade D500L Mesh Most automatically welded reinforcing fabrics in Australia are made of deformed grade D500L bars. The bar diameters for the fabrics typically range from 4 mm to 11.9 mm. D500L fabric is produced in standard 2.4 by 6.0 metre sheets, however purpose built sheets are available. Figure 22: D250N deformations

Grade R500N Mesh This is a low carbon, round 500 MPa steel of Ductility Class N. The bar diameters for the fabrics typically range from 6 mm to 12 mm. R500N mesh is produced as purpose built sheets to suit project requirements.

Grade R250N Plain and D250N Deformed Bars Plain round bars and deformed bars, both of Grade 250, are also manufactured as low carbon, hot rolled steels in straight lengths.

Figure 23: D500N coil bar deformations

D250N bar is available ex-stock in 12 mm only, being primarily supplied for construction of swimming pools. The D250N12 bar is designated as S12 reinforcement.

Grade D500N Deformed Bar Grade D500N bar is produced as low carbon, hot rolled deformed bar in straight lengths and in coils. Straight lengths are available from 12 mm to 40 mm diameter. 12 mm and 16 mm diameter D500N bar typically are supplied from coils.

Grade D450N Deformed Bar OBVERSE

50 mm straight bar is manufactured as low carbon, hot rolled micro-alloyed steel with a 450 MPa characteristic yield stress.Grade R500N.

Grade R500N Plain Rod in Coils Available only in 10 mm.

REVERSE Figure 24: D500N straight bar deformations Page 12

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


5.0

Reinforcing Bar Processing Introduction The Australian reinforcement industry involves a very short supply chain from steel maker to consumer. There is one producer of reinforcing steel in Australia. Next in the chain are the reinforcement processors/suppliers, the largest of which is ARC. There are 37 ARC branches in all states and territories ranging from large plants, which manufacture mesh and process steel bar for major projects, down to small centres situated in metropolitan and country areas to service local needs quickly. These ARC outlets sell to the public as well as to building contractors. There is also a well established reseller network which maintain stocks of fabric and other materials. Reinforcement Processing The term “processing”, as used in the reinforcement industry, includes the complete range of operations that translate information on an engineering drawing into usable pieces of steel delivered to the building site. The summary that follows applies to the processing of reinforcing bar: The bar and mesh schedule A document giving details for manufacture, delivery and fixing prepared by a “Scheduler”. The Scheduler reads the engineering and architectural drawings to determine the number, size, length and shape of reinforcement required. The schedule contains most of the instructions that enable the following processes to be carried out. Cutting to length Bar reinforcement is manufactured in stock lengths as straight bars, or in coils for sizes 16 mm and below. One or two stock lengths are held for each bar size. As the dimensions of concrete members rarely match these lengths, the bars must be cut to the required length.

Figure 25: Reinforcement cut, bent, bundled and tagged

Bending to shape After cutting, reinforcement may need to be bent to shape. The required shape is determined by the shape of the concrete outline. The shape is defined by a dimensioned sketch on the schedule and tag. Bundling and tagging Following bending and/or cutting, bars of similar size and shape are grouped and tied together. A tag identifying the location of the steel in the structure is tied to each bundle. This location, or label, corresponds with the membernumbering system shown on the structural drawings. If the structural drawings show insufficient detail to identify the reinforcement location, a marking drawing may be required. Delivery instructions

Figure 26: Trailer loaded with reinforcement ready to be delivered to site ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Transport from the ARC factory to the job may be by truck or rail, and in each case requires an identifying tag and associated delivery instructions such as address and customer. Page 13


Reinforcing Bar Processing Invoicing After delivery, the normal commercial procedures of invoicing for each delivery take place. Depending on the contractual arrangements before the commencement of the job, supply may be on the basis of a schedule of rates per tonne, or as a lump sum cost for the total project. It is normal practice for an agreed rise-and-fall or escalation clause to be included.

5.1

Cutting Bars to Length For bars, the following cutting methods are available: Guillotine shear This is a large machine suitable only for factory cutting. Up to 20 smaller diameter bars can be cut at once. Although rough, the ends are suitable for welding, where specified, but not for end-bearing splices. Diamond-tipped or similar saw Factory mounted, this can produce an accurate neat end for an end-bearing splice. Friction saw A portable saw of this type can be used on site. Oxy-acetylene torch For trimming or removing steel. The heat generated during cutting extends only a short way along the bar and, as such, does not affect either the strength or anchorage of a bar end. Take care to avoid spatter on to adjacent steel during cutting. Bars cut using heat are not suitable for end-butt welding.

Manufacturing Tolerances To enable building materials to fit together, an allowance is required to permit minor variations from the exact value specified. This allowance is called a tolerance. Tolerances on reinforcement are given in AS/NZS 4671, Section 7, and AS3600, Section 19.

Figure 27: Guillotine shear cutting reinforcement Page 14

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar Processing Economics of Cutting Steel to Length The need to cut scheduled lengths of steel from stock lengths has already been mentioned in this handbook. Where possible, an order for one scheduled length will be cut from one particular stock length. However, the economics of steel cutting require that minimum scrap is generated. For maximum steel utilisation then, different scheduled lengths are grouped together to be cut from the most economic stock length. Example A

i.

Required 20 x 6000

Cut from stock 20 x 6000

Scrap 0m

ii.

20 x 6000

10 x 12000

0m

iii.

20 x 6100

20 x 9000

20 x 2900 mm

iv.

20 x 6100 + 20 x 9000

20 x 100 mm

20 x 2800 •

In cases (i) and (ii), different stock lengths allow alternative solutions.

In case (iii), a slight change in length causes an unacceptable scrap length.

Intercutting between two orders, in case (iv), reduces scrap and utilises one stock length for two scheduled lengths.

Example B

i.

Required 20 x 6100

ii.

20 x 6100 + 20 x 2800

iii.

Cut from stock 20 x 9000

Slab S1 20 x 9000

20 x 6100 + 20 x 2800

Job Slab S1 Wall W3 to job #23

20 x 9000

to job #41

In case (i), all bars from one bundle go to the same site for one particular slab marked S1.

In case (ii), the two bundles go to the same site, but one bundle is used for slab and the remainder for wall which may not be poured for another week.

• In case (iii), because of the advantages of inter-cutting between different orders, totally different sites would be using steel from the one heat. These examples illustrate how widely the material from one heat can be spread and why traceability after processing has been replaced by a quality assurance programme, with better results at a realistic cost.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 15


Reinforcing Bar Processing

5.2

Bending Reinforcement to Shape Bar Shapes There are several reasons for bending bars: • Where anchorage cannot be provided to a straight length within the available concrete shape or size, it may be necessary to bend a 180° hook or 90° cog on the end. Hooks and cogs are never scheduled unless they are shown on the engineer’s drawings. • Where continuity of strength is required between two intersecting concrete members, the bar will be bent to allow this stress transfer. Such bends are never scheduled unless they are shown on the engineer’s drawings. • Where ties, stirrups, ligatures or spirals (called ‘fitments’ by the industry) enclose longitudinal bars in a beam or a column, the fitment will be scheduled to match the shape of the surrounding concrete. Mostly the shape is defined by the concrete surface and the specified cover. The actual shape is defined by the scheduler, provided the designer’s intentions are given in the drawings. The designer must indicate if cogged or hooked ends are required. • Where intersecting reinforcement is likely to clash, or where parallel bars require lapping, the scheduler will decide whether or not to provide small offsets.

Standardised Bar-Bending Shapes The standard shapes used by ARC are based on a combination of Australian and American standards to utilise the best features of each system. ARC's shapes are not subject to copyright. Appendix B contains ARC's standard shape library.

AS3600-2001 Addresses Bending of Reinforcement The pin diameters given in Clause 19.2.3 of AS3600-2001 have been selected for very good reasons. Steel is an elastic material, which means that when it is stretched it will return to its original length after the load is released. This is true up to the ‘yield point’. When stretched in tension beyond the yield point, the increase in length of the bar becomes permanent. The bar’s tensile strength has not been reduced however. If this ‘stretched’ bar is stretched again it may, under some circumstances, recover its elastic properties and possibly also have a new yield point. When straight steel is bent a very limited amount, it will spring back to straight. This is because it is still in the elastic range. When a bar is bent to shape during processing, the steel again has been strained beyond its yield point; if it had not, it would have straightened out! Thus all steel bending changes the material from its original state and any investigation of its properties must allow for this.

Page 16

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar Processing A similar situation exists with bars straightened from a coil. In this case the final properties may differ from those it would have had if it had been supplied straight, but they are the properties of the steel when used in concrete and they must comply with the relevant standards. Excessive bending can be classified as having a pin diameter at or below the bend-test diameter. This can change the metallurgical structure of the steel and can also crush the deformations thus initiating a zone of weakness.

Figure 28: Automatic bending machine for coil reinforcement

The diameter of a bend should not be so large that the hook cannot fit inside the concrete or that it will pull out rather than act as a hook. Nor should it be so small that the pressure between the bend and the concrete will crush the concrete. A compromise value of 5db for general bending has worldwide acceptance. One of the quality control requirements for a reinforcing steel is that it will pass a bend test. For bars, this test is described in AS/NZS 4671. Despite claims made about the degree of bending which can be sustained by some steels in a laboratory, treatment on a building site can be much more severe. For this reason AS3600 prohibits the use of small diameter pins at or below the bend test sizes. Cold weather bending and the occasional on-site ‘adjustment’ also require larger pin sizes. Coated bars are bent about larger pins than uncoated bars. The minimum pin diameters specified for galvanised or epoxy-coated bars are based on three requirements: (i) Firstly, particularly with epoxy-coated bars, damage to the coating is more likely with small pins because of the greater pressure between bar and pin. (ii) Secondly, with galvanised bars, a small bending diameter is more likely to break the zinc surface coating.

Figure 29: Manual bending machine for straight reinforcement

(iii) Thirdly, the pickling process during hot dip galvanising can lead to hydrogen embrittlement of the reinforcement. The greater the cold working of the steel, the more susceptible it is to hydrogen embrittlement. The larger pin diameter for galvanised bars and for bars to be galvanised reduces the cold working of the reinforcement. Where there is a problem of fitting a hooked bar into a thin concrete section, it must not be solved by using a smaller pin diameter. Instead, the bar must be rotated, possibly up to 90Âş, to ensure adequate cover.

Cutting and Bending Bars from a Coil Bar 16 mm and smaller is available in coil form, each coil being about 2 tonnes (approximately 2200 metres of N12 bar). Bars are cut from a coil, either singly or in pairs, after passing through a straightener. Handling is the main limit on available length. The straightener often leaves a series of marks on the bar surface, but this does not affect the anchorage properties. An alternative machine permits a coiled steel to be straightened and then bent in a continuous operation, after which the bent piece is cut from the coil. The shape and dimensions can be programmed.

Bending Bars Cut from Stock Lengths After cutting, a separate operation is used to produce the required shape. Again, depending on bar diameter, one to six bars can be bent at once.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 17


Reinforcing Bar Processing Cutting and Bending Mesh Reinforcement mesh can be cut to size in the factory using a guillotine or cut on-site using bolt cutters. Site cutting is slow and very labour intensive. The reinforcing fabric can be bent to suit the concrete profile. The mesh is bent to the required shape using equipment specifically designed to ensure that the bends on each wire are accurate and within construction tolerances.

Heating and Bending

Figure 30: Reinforcing bar being bent about a forming pin

Hot bending is not a normal factory operation. It is more likely to be done on-site, generally with poor supervision and inadequate quality control. Since the strength of the steel will be reduced, uncontrolled hot bending is a dangerous practice. As a general rule, heating Grade D500N bars of any type must be avoided at all times. AS3600-2001 Clause 19.2.3.1 (b) gives a maximum temperature for reinforcement as 600° C. At 600° C the bar is only just starting to change colour. If any colour change is observed whilst heating, the reinforcement should be discarded. If the bar is heated over 450º C, the steel is softened due to changes in the crystalline structure of the metal. Once heated over 450º C the yield strength of the bar is reduced to 250 MPa. The only practical method of monitoring heat in the bar is the use of heat crayons. Galvanised bars should not be hot bent.

Using Bars after Heating Overheating beyond 600°C will alter the structure of the steel. 450°C has been found to be a realistic limit because above this temperature the yield stress, while under load, reduces to 250 MPa. See Clause 5.9 of AS3600 for material strengths during a fire.

On-Site Rebending Rebending or straightening bars is a common practice on-site. Instructions on a suitable procedure should be given in the structural drawings, even if it is known that such bending will not be needed. A tolerance on straightness should also be provided; an axial deviation of the centre line of one bar diameter along with a directional change of 5° is considered acceptable. Any on-site cold bending should only be done with a proper bar bending tool. Pulling the bar against the edge of the concrete, hitting the bar with a sledge hammer or using a length of pipe damages the surface of the reinforcement, reduces its ductility, can cause breakage of the steel and may cause premature failure of the concrete element. When reinforcement is bent about a curve smaller than the recommended minimum pin diameter, or bent against an edge, the steel is excessively strained on the compression and tension faces. An attempt to straighten a bar bent too tightly may lead to bar failure.

Page 18

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar Processing On-Site Bending of Reinforcing Mesh Site bending of mesh is usually done by poking a bar through the opening in the mesh, then rolling the bar over to bend the mesh about a cross wire. This is then repeated every two or three openings for the width of the mesh. This practice is not recommended as it bends the reinforcement about an effective pin size of one bar diameter, with the cross wire acting as the bending pin. This is well below the three diameter pin size required for Ductility Class L bars or the four diameter pin size required for Ductility Class N bars in AS3600-2001, Clause 19.2.3.2. On-site bending of reinforcement also tends to be very variable and inaccurate, usually outside construction tolerances.

Final Advice on Mistreatment of Steel It cannot be stated enough that steel cannot be expected to perform its proper function if it has been mistreated by excessive tight bending or by overheating. Site bending, welding or heating of bars should only be permitted under very strict and competent supervision. A detailed job procedure and quality control system should be employed for site bending, welding or heating of bars.

5.3

Welding Reinforcement Welding of reinforcement must comply with AS1554.3, Structural Steel Welding, Part 3: Welding of Reinforcing Steel. In general, preheat is not required for welding reinforcing steel. The heat input should be controlled to avoid changing the metallurgical properties of the steel and hydrogen controlled electrodes should be used. Tack welds require a minimum 4 mm throat and a minimum length equal to the diameter of the smaller bar being welded. AS3600-2001 Clause 13.2.1 (f) prohibits welds within 3 db from any part of the reinforcement that has been bent and re-straightened. AS1554.3 Clause 1.7.3 (b) restricts straightening or bending of a bar within 75 mm of a weld location. Special care is required when welding galvanised reinforcement. Welding galvanised reinforcement should be avoided.

Figure 31: Welded reinforcement

5.4

Mechanical Splices Mechanical splices to reinforcing bars are usually achieved using any one of the wide-range of coupling systems available on the Australian market. The most common types of couplers are Ancon Bartec, Erico Lenton and Reidbar. AS3600-2001 does not have any rules governing the adequacy of mechanical splices. Factors that should be considered when selecting a coupler are:

Figure 32: Bartec thread

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

• Slip – Most international codes limit the slip in the coupler to 0.1 mm at 70% of the yield load. This is to restrict the width of cracking at the coupler location. Typically cracks in concrete are limited to 0.3 mm width. If the coupler slips 0.1 mm under load, then the crack at the surface of the concrete will be greater than 0.1 mm. Shrinkage, creep and flexural cracking will add to the crack width that has resulted from slip within the coupler.

Page 19


Reinforcing Bar Processing • Uniform Elongation – To maintain the ductility of the structure, the coupling system must also be ductile. Although a uniform elongation greater than 5% would be desirable very few coupling systems can achieve this. The ISO standard is a minimum uniform elongation of 3.5% for mechanical splices. Care should be taken when locating couplers to ensure the ductility of the structure is not reduced below the design requirements. • Minimum Yield Stress – The coupler system should be strong enough to develop the characteristic yield stress of the reinforcement, typically 500 MPa. Be aware that actual yield stresses for D500N reinforcement can range from 500 MPa to 650 MPa.

Figure 33: Lenton thread

• Tensile Strength / Yield Stress Ratio – To maintain the ductility of the structure, the Tensile Strength / Yield Stress Ratio of the coupler system should not be less than 1.08, measured for actual stresses across the full range of yield stresses (500 MPa to 650 MPa for a D500N bar). • Dynamic Capacity – In areas subjected to dynamic loads, a coupler system that has been tested for cyclic loading and fatigue should be used. The ISO and ICBO codes have good cyclic and fatigue testing programs. When selecting the grade of reinforcement, whether it is L or N, assumptions are made about the design method and the structure’s performance. It is important that the designer ensures the coupler system selected is able to perform in a manner that is consistent with the reinforcement design.

Figure 34: Reidbar bar and coupler

Page 20

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


6.0

Rust and Protective Coatings Rust and Reinforcement Accepting or rejecting a bar or fabric with visible rust is a decision often facing site engineers and superintendents. The criteria for acceptance or rejection is usually not known by the decision maker. When does the reinforcement have excessive rust that is detrimental to its performance? A moderate coating of rust is not detrimental to the reinforcement and can actually improve its bond strength. The improved bond due to moderate rusting is well documented and is included in the commentary to AS3600. Rust usually appears first at the bends of reinforcement, where the steel has undergone some cold working. Rust is only excessive if the cross-sectional area of the steel is reduced below the minimum tolerance permitted for a bar or wire. To check the area, take a rusty piece of steel, wire brush it to remove the rust, measure its length and then weigh it. The area is calculated taking the density of steel as 7850 kg/m3. Rust due to exposure to salt water can be detrimental to the reinforcement. The chloride ions in the salt water cause pitting of the steel, and this reinforcement should not be used without rigorous testing of yield stress, uniform elongation, tensile strength and cross-sectional properties. Even reinforcement that has only had mild exposure to salt water should be washed prior to use to remove any salt from the steel surface. Reinforcement that has been fixed for some time before concrete placement may, after rain, show lines of iron oxide (rust) on the forms. If the forms are not cleaned and the staining removed prior to pouring the concrete a rusty looking line will be visible on the concrete soffit. This is an aesthetic problem, not a structural or durability problem.

Mill Scale Mill scale on hot rolled products, in the levels found on Australian produced reinforcement, is not detrimental to the reinforcement. Wire and fabric are free of mill scale.

Types of Coating The two principal protective coatings are hot dipped galvanising and fusionbonded epoxy coating. The former is generally available in most major centres, although there may be a physical limit to the size of the zinc bath in some localities. Fusion bonded epoxy coating in Australia is not easily obtainable. The note to AS3600 Clause 4.3.1 General, says, “a protective surface coating (to the concrete) may be taken into account in the assessment of the exposure classification�. AS3600 does not allow any reduction on cover when a protective coating is added to the reinforcement.

Hot Dip Galvanising of Reinforcement Galvanising of reinforcement is to AS4680 and AS4534. AS3600-2001 requires galvanised bars to be bent about a 5 db pin if 16 mm diameter or less and an 8 db pin for larger bars. This is regardless of whether the bar is to be galvanised before or after bending. ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 21


Rust and Protective Coatings The Galvanising Process 1. Preparation – Mill scale, rust, oil and dirt are removed from the reinforcement. It is then placed in a pickling bath of hydrochloric acid. After pickling the reinforcement is rinsed. 2. Fluxing – The pickled reinforcement is immersed in a solution of zinc ammonia chloride at about 65° C. 3. Galvanising – The reinforcement is immersed into a molten zinc bath at 445° C to 465° C. The molten zinc reacts with the steel to form layers of zinc – iron alloys. The galvanised coating of zinc improves the reinforcement’s corrosion resistance. The zinc forms a sacrificial coating about the reinforcement. Minor breaks in the coating, such as may be caused by bending of the reinforcement, are not detrimental to the corrosion protection offered by the galvanising. Embrittlement of reinforcement is rare in steels below 1000 MPa, however it must be considered when galvanising reinforcement. The major factors affecting embrittlement of reinforcement are the length of time the steel is in the pickling bath, the heat of the galvanising process and the presence of cold working, particularly at bend locations. A detailed explanation of this is given in the May 1994 edition of Corrosion Management, “Designing for Galvanizing – Avoiding Embrittlement”. Galvanised reinforcement should not be in contact with stainless steel, aluminium or copper and their alloys as the zinc corrodes preferentially to these metals. More detailed information regarding hot dip galvanising can be obtained from the Galvanizers Association of Australia. Their publication, “After-Fabrication Hot Dip Galvanizing”, provides an excellent overview of this subject.

Galvanising of Reinforcement – AS/NZS4680:2006 AS/NZS4680, Hot-Dipped Galvanised Coatings on Fabricated Ferrous Articles, includes provisions for galvanising wire, bar and fabric in Section 5 General Articles. As a general requirement for reinforcement, the minimum average coating is 600 grams per square metre, or approximately 0.085 mm thick. Limits for the molten metal and finished appearance are given, together with test requirements for coating mass and adherence. It should be noted that a smooth finish on reinforcing products cannot be expected. The deformation on the surface of bars does not allow a particularly pleasing appearance but this does not detract from the overall performance. The steel should be reasonably free of dags of surplus zinc. Appendix D of AS/NZS4680, Properties of the Steel to be Coated, which can affect or be affected by hot-dip galvanising, gives an excellent overview of steel embrittlement. Reinforcement that has been galvanised should not be bent on pin diameters smaller than those given in AS3600:2001, should not be heated or bent on site and should not be welded. Appendix E of AS/NZS4680, Renovation of Damaged or Uncoated Areas, states that exposed steel situated within 1 mm of a substantial zinc layer, should receive sacrificial protection. This implies that cut ends of pregalvanised bar or fabric should be repaired. Page 22

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Rust and Protective Coatings Galvanising of Welded Wire Fabric - AS/NZS4534:2006 AS/NZS4534, Zinc and Zinc/Aluminium-Alloy Coatings on Steel Wire addresses galvanising of welded wire fabric. As a general requirement for reinforcement fabric, the minimum average coating is 610 grams per square metre, or approximately 0.085 mm thick. Appendix C of AS/NZS4534 gives an overview of hydrogen embrittlement. Appendix F is a comprehensive guide to coating thickness selection for corrosion protection.

Epoxy Coating An excellent reference is ‘The Epoxy Coated Rebar CD-Rom’, produced by the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute, 9333 North Plum Tree Grove, Schaumber, IL, 60173, USA.

Figure 35: Galvanised reinforcement

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 23


7.0

Quality Assurance and Quality Control Applicable Standards AS/NZS ISO9001:2000 Quality Management Systems provides the basis for steel industry QA systems. Explanations of the application of these standards is beyond the scope of this handbook.

Quality Assurance for Steel and Wire In supplying reinforcement, there are two separate levels of quality assurance. Firstly, the quality of the raw material (steel bar and wire) is controlled during steel making and wire drawing. These materials are covered by test certificates or certificates of compliance with the appropriate standards. Each bundle or coil is tagged and identified by a serial number, from which the heat number, date of production and other details can be obtained. Delivery dockets show that the material is ‘deemed to comply’ with the relevant standard, indicating that the steel maker has a certified Quality Assurance programme in place. On arrival at the reinforcing steel supplier’s works the material is placed in racks from which it is withdrawn as needed. Quench and self tempered bars and micro alloy bars are not segregated because they are both Grade D500N to AS/NZS 4671. Secondly, accuracy of fabrication must be assured by the reinforcement supplier to comply with AS3600 as well as any relevant parts of AS/NZS 4671.

Figure 36: Testing the chemical and physical properties of the steel in the molten state

Methods of Demonstrating Compliance AS/NZS 4671 has an Appendix A which sets out the various methods by which a manufacturer can show compliance with the Standard. These methods are described in the Standard as: (a) Assessment by means of statistical sampling. (b) The use of a product certification scheme. (c) Assurance using the acceptability of the supplier’s quality system. (d) Other such means proposed by the manufacturer or supplier and acceptable to the customer.

Traceability of Heat Numbers for Bars Quality assurance procedures have removed the need for traceability to heat numbers. Whilst large structural steel sections and plate can be readily identified back to their heat, bar and wire cannot. The latter have one big advantage - if there is any doubt about quality, a sample length can be taken and tested very easily. Each heat of steel produces about 80 to 100 tonnes of steel, which is cast into billets of approximately 1.5 tonnes. The chemical composition of the heat is obtained by spectroscopic methods and is documented as a whole. Each billet is rolled to one size producing 1.5 tonnes so that if 4 tonne bundles are ordered, more than one billet is required. More than one heat may be involved, but this is unusual. After rolling, the finished bar is tensile and bend tested, and the results documented. Page 24

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Quality Assurance and Quality Control

Figure 37: Testing reinforcing steel in ARC’s NATA registered laboratory

Certificates of compliance with AS/NZS 4671 are received from the steel maker close to the time when each bundle of steel is delivered. These are cross-checked with the tag on the bundle which remains there until the bundle is opened and steel removed to the cutting bench. After cutting, an individual bar is no longer traceable back to its originating heat or bundle. Nevertheless, a bar on site can be related back to a group of bundles of stock material released to production on a specified date, but a direct link to a specific bundle is not available.

Traceability of Wire and Mesh In each step of the manufacturing process there are several test procedures which must be followed and each one applies to the product manufactured by that operation. Wire is drawn from coiled rod which in turn has been rolled from the original billet. Rather than attempt full traceability for wire production, the wire making process is covered by a certificate stating that the converted material complies with AS/NZS 4671. This certificate is issued by the wire maker. After welding the wire to make fabric, an additional assurance is given by the fabric manufacturer that the fabric complies with AS/NZS 4671. It can be seen that traceability of wires in a sheet of fabric is not practical. A standard 2.4 metre wide sheet contains up to 25 individual longitudinal wires and 30 transverse wires, each coming from a separate coil weighing a tonne or more.

Traceability of Material On-site traceability is the responsibility of the contractor. When performance assurance is given for the material, on-site traceability should not be required.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 25


8.0

Tolerance on Bar Manufacture Tolerances on Bar Manufacture (AS/NZS 4671) (a) Chemical composition A cast analysis and a product analysis is required. See AS/NZS 4671 Table 1.

Table 4: Carbon content of reinforcing steel

An upper limit is given for the cast analysis. This is made while the steel is in a liquid form and therefore while the composition of the steel can be adjusted. Due to changes during casting of billets and subsequent rolling into the finished product, slightly higher limits are allowed for the product analysis. (b) Drawing/Rolling tolerances Mass/unit length

± 4.5%

(c) On bar length (bars AS/NZS 4671) L ≤ 7 m + 0, - 40 mm L > 7 but < 12 m + 40, - 40 mm L ≥ 12 m + 60, - 40 mm (d) Straightness on length L, in units of L Bar sizes ≤16 mm L/50 Bar sizes ≥ 20 mm L/100 (e) Deformations There are no tolerances given for deformations. Values are maximum or minimum. See Clause 7.4 and Appendix C3 of AS/NZS 4671. (f) Manufacturer and mill identification The distance between the identifying marks (deformed bars), equals the circumference of the rolls which have the deformations cut into them. Identifiers are usually on one side only. They identify the steel maker and the rolling mill. (g) Mesh tolerance between adjacent wires Distance ±0.075 x pitch (h) Mesh sheet size Dimension Dimension

Page 26

≤ 6000 mm ±40 mm L > 6000 mm ±0.007 L

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


9.0

Information from AS3600-2001  xtracts from AS3600-2001 must be read in conjunction with the latest E approved edition of the complete Standard. They are reproduced here, in boxes, for the readerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s guidance purposes only. Although there are many clauses which refer to reinforcing steel, the following references are those most applicable to its supply and fabrication.

9.1

1.1.2

Application. Lists applicable reinforcing steels.

1.4

Information on Drawings. Lists the information expected to be given.

4.10

Requirements for cover to reinforcing steel and tendons. These values are for durability.

Section 5

Design for fire resistance. Additional cover may be required for this purpose.

6.2

Properties of reinforcement.

7.6.8.3

Approval for Class L reinforcement.

Section 13

Stress development and splicing of reinforcement and tendons. see sections 11 and 12.

19.2

Material and construction requirements for reinforcing steel.

19.5

Tolerances for structures and members.

Clause 1.1.2 Application

The Standard also applies to reinforcing steels complying with(a) AS1302, or having a yield strength (fsy) of 500 MPa and Ductility Class N in accordance with AS/NZS4671. These reinforcing materials may be used, without restriction, in all applications referred to in this Standard; and (b) AS1303 or AS1304, or having a yield strength (fsy) of 500 MPa and Ductility Class L in accordance with AS/NZS 4671. These reinforcing materials shall not be used in any situation where the reinforcement, or member, is expected to undergo large deformation under strength limit state conditions. NOTE: The use of Ductility Class L reinforcement is further limited by other clauses within this Standard.

AS1302, AS1303 and AS1304 have been withdrawn. Design methods such as Moment Redistribution and Plastic Hinge Design assume large deformations and as such should not be used with Ductility Class L reinforcement.

9.2

Clause 1.4 Information on Drawings The information listed in these extracts is required by all sections of the construction chain from the designing and checking engineers, draftsmen, quantity surveyors and reinforcement schedulers, through to steel fixers and site supervisors. Without these details quality assurance will break down. Poorly detailed drawings result in increased construction costs and site delays as time is lost determining the requirements for the structure.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 27


Information from AS3600-2001

Examples of preferred specifications in a drawing: SL92

The style of standard D500L fabric covering the whole area of a slab. There is no need to specify either the number of sheets required to provide full coverage or the lap dimension.

8-N28

The number (8) of 28 mm deformed bars of Grade D500N in a layer or cross-section.

20-N16-200

The number (20) of 16 mm deformed bars of Grade D500N spaced at 200 mm centres across the width of a slab.

6-R10-150-T1 The number (6) of 10 mm plain round bars of grade R250N used for fitments of shape T1 and spaced at 150 mm centres. ARCN102

9.3

R500N mesh with 10 mm nominal diameter wires at 200 mm centres each way covering the whole area of a slab. There is no need to specify either the number of sheets required to provide full coverage or the lap dimension.

Cover to Reinforcing Steel According to AS3600, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;cover is the distance between the outside of the reinforcing steel or tendons and the nearest permanent surface of the member, excluding any surface finish. Unless otherwise noted, the tolerances on position of reinforcement and tendons given in Clause 19.5.3 applyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The two primary purposes of cover are durability and fire resistance. As a general rule, cover is selected from an appropriate table but there are several cases where additional cross checks are required. A secondary reason for adequate cover is to ensure that the stresses in steel and concrete can be transferred, one to another, by bond. These actions are called stress development and anchorage. The cover required for these purposes is measured not to the nearest bar, but to the bar whose stress is being developed.

Page 28

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Information from AS3600-2001

9.4

Section 4 Cover for Durability In AS3600, durability of the structure is very much related to individual surfaces of a member and to the compressive strength of the concrete. For one member to have the same durability resistance as another member, AS3600 requires the same cover to the nearest reinforcement or tendon, but the method of selecting the exposure classification and the appropriate concrete strength requires a number of factors to be considered. The following information must be obtained before cover for corrosion protection is determined: (a) the most severe Exposure Classification for durability (A1 to U); (b) the characteristic compressive strength of the concrete Ć&#x2019;â&#x20AC;&#x2122;c for the most severe situation for use in strength, serviceability and durability design, allowing for abrasion and freeze/thaw conditions; (c) the degree of compaction; and (d) the type of formwork.

Cover for Concrete Placement Clause 4.10.2 limits the minimum cover, in the absence of a detailed analysis, to either the reinforcement bar diameter or the maximum nominal aggregate size, whichever is the larger. Combined Table from Clauses 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.10.3.2 and 4.10.3.3, for the selection of minimum cover for corrosion resistance of reinforcing and prestressing steel.

Table 5: Cover for corrosion resistance

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

The above table does not consider abrasion, freezing and thawing, rigid formwork or spun or rolled members.

Page 29


Information from AS3600-2001 9.5

Section 5 Cover for Fire Resistance During the course of a fire, temperatures in excess of about 200ยบC reduce the strength of both steel and concrete. Fortunately the insulation properties of concrete are greater than those of steel, and the concrete cover is the best and cheapest method of increasing the fire resistance of structures. The cover for fire resistance depends on: (a) the type of member; (b) how that member carries the loads imposed on it; (c) whether or not it is continuous (flexurally or structurally) with other members; and (d) the fire resistance period it provides. Concrete strength is not taken into account when selecting cover for fire resistance. Similarly, the effects of fire need only be considered for members which are required, by Building Regulations or through other Authorities, to attain a specified fire resistance level. In certain structures which have a high exposure classification, due to proximity with hazardous materials for example, resistance to fire may take precedence over all other factors.

Page 30

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Information from AS3600-2001 9.6

Clause 6.2 Properties of Reinforcement

6.2.1 Strength and Ductility The yield strength of reinforcement (fsy) shall be taken as not greater than the value specified in Table 6.2.1 for the appropriate type of reinforcement (see also Clause 19.2.1.1). The ductility of the reinforcement shall be characterized by its uniform strain (Esu) and tensile-to-yield stress ratio and designated as low (L) or normal (N) as given in Table 6.2.1. Values of these parameters for each ductility class shall comply with AS/NZS 4671. Reinforcement Type

Designation Grade

Yield Stress (fsy) Mpa

Ductility Class

Bar deformed toAS/NZS 4671

D500L (fitments only) D500N

500 500

L N

Welded wire mesh, plain, deformed and indented to AS/NZS 4671

D500L D500N

500 500

L N

NOTE: Reference should be made to AS/NZS 4671 for explanation to designations applying to 500 MPa steels. Plain round bars are manufactured in accordance with AS3679, however they are deemed to comply with AS/NZS 4671 and should be specified by this Standard.

6.2.2 Modulus of elasticity The modulus of elasticity of reinforcement (Es) for all stress values not greater than the yield strength (fsy) may be either: (a)

taken as equal to 200 x 103 MPa; or

(b)

determined by test.

6.2.3 Stress-strain curves A stress-strain curve for reinforcement may be either: (a)

assumed to be of a form defined by recognised simplified equations; or

(b)

determined from suitable test data.

6.2.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion The coefficient of thermal expansion of reinforcement may be either: (a)

taken as equal to 12 x 10-6/ยบC; or

(b)

determined from suitable test data.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 31


Information from AS3600-2001 9.7

Clause 7.6.8.3 Class L Reinforcement

7.6.8.3 Approval for Class L Reinforcement Where Ductility Class L reinforcement is used, moment redistribution shall not be permitted unless an analysis, as specified in Clause 7.6.8.1, is undertaken.  articular attention should be given to the final paragraph of Clause 7.6.8.1. P Special consideration shall be given to the detrimental effects that significant relative foundation movements can have on the strength of continuous beams and slabs incorporating Ductility Class L reinforcing steel (low ductility) as the main reinforcement. The designer should also consider other potentially detrimental effects such as differential shortening in columns of high rise buildings and differential deflections of adjacent beams.

9.8

Clause 19.2 Material and Construction Requirements for Reinforcing Steel

19.2.1 Materials 19.2.1.1 Reinforcement Reinforcement shall be deformed bars Class N bars, or Class L or Class N welded wire mesh (plain or deformed), with a yield stress of up to 500 MPa, except that fitments may be manufactured from Class L wire or bar, or plain Class N bar. All reinforcement shall comply with AS1302, As1303, AS1304 or AS/NZS 4671 as appropriate. Dowel bars for pavements are not specifically mentioned in AS3600-2001. They are generally cut from Grade R250N plain round bars. Designs using fibre reinforcement, either steel or plastic, is not covered by AS3600-2001. Class L reinforcement should not be used as the main reinforcement. If a designer wishes to use L grade main reinforcement, they must ensure the design does not require the reinforcement or the member to undergo large deformation or large rotation, a relatively non-ductile failure can be tolerated and there are no foreseeable causes of overload to the reinforcement or member, then Ductility Class L reinforcement will perform satisfactorily. Ductility of the bar is an issue after the bar has yielded and permanent plastic deformation of the bar has occurred.

19.2.1.2 Protective Coatings A protective coating may be applied to reinforcement provided that such coating does not reduce the properties of the reinforcement below those assumed in the design.

19.2.2 Fabrication (a) Reinforcement shall be fabricated to the shape and dimensions shown in the drawings and within the following tolerances (i) On any overall dimension for bars and mesh except where used as a fitment. (A) For lengths up to 600 mm......................................................................................................................................................................–25, +0 mm. (B) For lengths over 600 mm....................................................................................................................................................................... –40, +0 mm. (ii) On any overall dimension of bars or mesh used as a fitment. (A) For deformed bars and mesh...............................................................................................................................................................–15, +0 mm. (B) For plain round bars and wire............................................................................................................................................................– 10, +0 mm.

Page 32

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Information from AS3600-2001 (iii) On the overall offset dimension of a cranked column bar............................................................................................................. –0, +10 mm. (iv) For the sawn or machined end of a straight bar intended for use as an end-bearing splice, the angular deviation from square, measured in relation to the end 300 mm, shall be within......................................................................2º. (b) Bending of reinforcement shall comply with Clause 19.2.3. (c) Welding if required shall comply with AS 1554.3. Tack welding not complying with that Standard shall not be used.

19.2.3 Bending 19.2.3.1 General Reinforcement may be bent either: (a) Cold, by the application of a force around a pin of diameter complying with Clause 19.2.3.2, so as to avoid impact loading of the bar and mechanical damage to the surface of the bar; or (b) Hot, provided that:

(i)

The steel must be heated uniformly through and beyond the portion of be bent;

(ii) The temperature of the steel must not be allowed to exceed 600º C,

(iii) The bar must not be cooled by quenching, and

(iv) If during heating the temperature of the bar exceeds 450º C, the design yield strength of the steel after bending shall be taken as 250 MPa. The temperature can be controlled by thermal crayons, etc. Quenching would totally alter the crystal structure. Reinforcement which has been bent and subsequently straightened or bent in the reverse direction shall not be bent again within 20 bar diameters of the previous bend. This distance is intended to keep cold working from the original bending zone separated from additional bending. Reinforcement partially embedded in concrete may be field bent (ie, in situ) provided that the bending complies with items (a) or (b) above, and the bond of the embedded portion is not impaired thereby. The greatest need encountered with this bending is to control the bend curvature without notching the bar, and to prevent spalling of the concrete, particularly in thin members. It is very rare for a site bent bar to be bent correctly, with bars often being pulled out against the edge of the concrete or bent with a pipe. These methods of bending severely notch the bar and can cause bar breakage.

19.2.3.2 Internal diameter of bends or hooks The nominal internal diameter of a reinforcement bend or hook shall be taken as the external diameter of the pin around which the reinforcement is bent. The diameter of the pin shall be not less than the value determined from the following as appropriate: (A) For fitments of –

(i) Wire.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3db; (ii) Grade 250 bars.................................................................................................................................................................................................................3db; and (iii) Grade 400 and 500 bars..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4db. Clause 8.2.12.4 requires a 4 db pin be used for all beam ligatures

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 33


Information from AS3600-2001 (b) For reinforcement, other than specified in Items (c) and (d) below, of any grade......................................................................... 5db. (c) For reinforcement, in which the bend is intended to be subsequently straightened or rebent, of (i) 16 mm diameter or less........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4db;

(ii) 20 mm diameter or 24 mm..................................................................................................................................................................................... 5db; and

(iii) 28 mm diameter or greater ..............................................................................................................................................................................................6db.

Any such straightening or rebending shall be clearly specified or shown in the drawings.

(d) For reinforcement that is epoxy-coated or galvanized, either before or after bending, of (i) 16 mm diameter or less ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5db;

(ii) 20 mm diameter or greater.................................................................................................................................................................................................8db.

19.2.4 Surface Condition At the time concrete is placed, the surface condition of reinforcement shall be such as not to impair its bond to the concrete or it’s performance in the member. The presence of millscale or surface rust shall not be cause for rejection of reinforcement under this clause. Rust and millscale, of themselves, do not adversely affect bond. Dirt and oil are much worse.

9.9

Clause 19.5.3 Tolerance on Position of Reinforcement AS3600 Clause 19.5.3, provides the basis for reinforcement placing tolerances. The position of reinforcement and tendons may differ from that specified as follows where a ‘+’ value indicates that the cover may be greater than specified and a ‘-’ indicates the cover may be less. (a) Where the position (mm) is controlled by the minimum design cover, eg, all round ties and stirrups, the cover at ends and from surfaces in walls and slabs. (i) Beam, slab, column, wall................................................................................-5, + 10 mm (ii) Slab on ground ................................................................................................ -10, + 20 mm (iii) Footing cast in ground................................................................................. -20, + 40 mm (b) Where the position is not controlled by the minimum design cover, for example on(i) The position of the ends of a main bar�����������������������������������������������������������50 mm (ii) The spacing of parallel bars in a slab or wall, or spacing of fitments 10% of specified spacing or 15 mm, whichever is greater

Page 34

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


10.0 Reinforcing Bar 10.1

Bar General Information Hot Rolled, High Strength Deformed Bars of Grade D500N Both quench and self tempered and micro-alloy reinforcing bars are classified as Grade D500N and no distinction is made between them for supply purposes. Each steel-maker identifies their rolling mill with its individual surface mark.

Table 6: Basic information about grade D500N deformed bars - AS/NZS 4671

Notes: 1. The calculated area of a deformed bar is calculated from the bar size, in mm, as if it was a circle. 2. The nominal area of a deformed bar is the calculated area, rounded to two significant places, and should be used in all design calculations and for routine testing for quality control. 3. The calculated mass is the calculated area multiplied by 0.0078 kg/ mm2/m (7850kg/m3) taken to four decimal places to assure accuracy for quantities measured by length but sold by the tonne. The actual area of a test bar (measured mass of a sample 0.00785) should be used only for fundamental research. 4. The nominal mass includes the rolling margin, based on the calculated mass, and is used for calculating the mass of material sold in all commercial transactions.

Cold Rolled, High Strength Deformed Bars of Grade D500L Cold rolled bars are typically Ductility Class L. D500L bars are used as fitments and in residential slabs on ground. AS2870 currently permits D500L main bars, however, this is currently under review.

Table 7: Basic information about grade D500L deformed bars - AS/NZS 4671

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 35


Reinforcing Bar

Table 8: Basic information about plain round grade R250N bars for use as fitments only - AS/NZS 4671

Notes: 1. Availability of these sizes can depend on local practice throughout Australia. They are produced from coiled rod of grade 250 MPa, or from coiled wire of grade 500 MPa. Specify your required strength. 2. All values given in the above table are for 6.5 mm and 10 mm coiled rods. 3. Plain round bars for dowel bars are available in larger sizes to AS3679, Grade 250. These sizes are: R12, R16, R20, R24, R27, R33 and R36, but the full range may not be available from stock at all times.

Page 36

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar

Table 9: Design cross-sectional area of deformed bars

Notes: 1. This table would generally be used for the design of beams, columns and narrow footings, etc. 2. Before selecting the number of bars in one layer of a beam or column, check that they can fit across the member width. The table below allows a quick assessment of spacing per bar. 3. Sizes N12 and N16 are available in as-rolled straight lengths, or as straightened lengths from coil. They may be either quench and self tempered steel or micro alloy steel. 4. Sizes N40 and D450N50 are micro alloy bars and are available to special order only.

Table 10: Estimation of member minimum width to allow placement of concrete, mm/bar

To estimate the minimum width, allow the space for each bar. Example:

A beam with 4-N32 main bars, 30 mm cover to L10 fitments Use a beam width of 4 x 100 = 400 mm

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 37


Reinforcing Bar

Table 11: Design cross-sectional area of deformed bars per metre width

Notes: 1. This table would generally be used for the design of slabs, walls and wide footings, etc. 2. Values for a centre-to-centre spacing of less than 4db is not provided because concrete is difficult to place and splitting can occur along this plane. Note also that to apply AS3600 Clause 13.1.2.2, development lengths to develop yield stress, the clear distance between bars must be not less than twice the cover to the bar being designed. 3. Sizes N12 and N16 are available in as-rolled straight lengths, or as straightened lengths from coil. They may be either quench and self tempered steel or micro alloy steel. 4. Sizes N40 and D450N50 are micro alloy bars and are available to special order only.

Page 38

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar

10.2

Bar Tension Lap and Anchorage The most important factor for successful detailing of concrete structures is ensuring that all stresses can be transferred from concrete to steel. The information in this ARC - Reinforcement Handbook must be read in conjunction with, and with a full understanding of, the principles of reinforced concrete design and detailing given in AS3600. In general, the parameters used to calculate the anchorage and lap lengths are given with the tables. Where there are differences between our ARC Reinforcement Handbook and values obtained from other sources, the user should check the parameters and recalculate as seen fit. Lengths are based only on full yield stress of the steel. It is most unwise to specify lap or anchorage lengths for a lower steel stress. For laps, this practice is not permitted in AS3600-2001.

Anchorage and Development Length of Deformed Bars in Tension, L sy.t The anchorage and lap length formula in AS3600, Clause 13.1.2, for a straight piece of deformed bar in tension is –

L sy.t =

Depth factor k1 x spacing factor k2 x bar yield stress fsy x bar area Ab [(smaller of twice actual cover or clear spacing 2a) + bar size db] x √ (concrete strength f’c)

This expression shows that: • When the yield stress of the bar increases, the anchorage length increases; • When the clear spacing between adjacent parallel bars increases, the anchorage length decreases; • When the actual cover to the bar increases, the anchorage length decreases; • When a higher grade of concrete is used, the anchorage length will decrease; and • When the size (and therefore cross-sectional area) increases, the anchorage length will also increase. Calculations will show a dramatic reduction in the anchorage length when cover or spacing is increased. To assist with anchorage you can use a standard hook to provide end anchorage of a bar where there is insufficient embedment for a straight length to develop its design stress. A hook or cog reduces the development length by 50%.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 39


Reinforcing Bar AS3600-2001 Clause 8. 2. 12.4 gives the requirements for fitment hooks. Whether or not a bar should be anchored by a hook is a design matter. It is not a scheduling decision, however the hook orientation must be such that it will stay within the concrete with adequate cover and also satisfy bending-pin requirements.

Figure 38: Bar embedment

Although hooked deformed bars can reduce the development length, the hook can cause congestion of steel in critical areas and are a primary source of rusting if they intrude into the cover concrete. Straight bars are much easier to fix and protect. If there is so little room available for stress development that hooks are required, it is probably a better solution to use more bars of a smaller size with a consequential smaller development length. A fully stressed hook or cog will create a lateral splitting force on the surrounding concrete, caused by the bearing stress between steel and concrete at the bend. Hooked bars should never be used in thin sections, say less than 12 bar diameters in the plane of the hook, or as top bars in slabs. A 90ยบ bend which is longer than 10db overall, gives the same anchorage as a 90ยบ cog.

Page 40

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Tension Lap Length and Anchorage K1=1.00 5 K2=1.7 Slab and wall bars with less than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar Clear spacing is not less than 150 mm

Table 12: Slab and wall tension lap ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 41


Tension Lap Length and Anchorage K1=1.25 K2=1.7 Slab and wall bars with more than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar Clear spacing is not less than 150 mm

Table 13: Slab and wall tension lap Page 42

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Tension Lap Length and Anchorage K1=1.00 K2=2.2 Beam and column longitudinal bars with fitments. Less than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar

Table 14: Beam and column bars with fitments ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 43


Tension Lap Length and Anchorage K1=1.25 K2=2.2 Beam and column longitudinal bars with fitments. More than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar.

Table 15: Beam and column bars with fitments Page 44

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Tension Lap Length and Anchorage K1=1.00 K2=2.4 All other longitudinal bars. Less than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar

Table 16: All other longitudinal bars ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 45


Tension Lap Length and Anchorage K1=1.25 K2=2.4 All other longitudinal bars. More than 300 mm of concrete cast below the bar

Table 17: All other longitudinal bars Page 46

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar

10.3

Bar Compression Lap Length and Anchorage The lengths below rationalise the values given in AS3600. If both tension and compression can act at different times on the same cross-section, anchorage must be designed for the worst case situation. If the factors given in Clause 13.1.4 for bundled bars are applied directly to the compression development length given in Clause 13.1.3, they become 24db and 26.6db respectively. Bundled bars in compression are not commonly used other than in the columns of very high buildings so that, for practical use, all development lengths have been rounded up to 30db. For practical use also, the lap splice for a single bar in compression is rounded up to 41db (Clause 13.2.4) and to 54db for a bundled bar (Clause 13.2.5). Lap splices are always based on full yield strength Ć&#x2019;sy. To permit other values would create uncertainty in the mind of fixers and inspectors, and would certainly require more work from detailers. AS3600-2001 Clause 13.2.4 does not allow reductions in compression lap lengths.

Table 18: Development and lengths for deformed bars

Compression Development Length for Single Bars, L sy.c (Clause 13.1.3) The formula for L sy.c given in Clause 13.1.3 is not dependent upon concrete strengths, steel strengths, or on the width or depth of the member. It is equal to 20db. Although it is not stated in Clause 13.1.3, the minimum cover and spacing rules still apply. Compression causes splitting of the cover in a different way to tensile forces. A realistic spacing is required to ensure concrete can be consolidated properly. Encircling ties may also be advisable in zones of heavy reinforcement. Compression bars must not be hooked.

Compression Lap Splices for Single Bars (Clause 13.2.4) For 500 MPa bars in a compression zone of the concrete, the lap length is 41db. This is twice the compressive stress development length. This value also applies to lap splice lengths for column bars. Compression bars must not be hooked. This is not restricted to columns and walls. It applies to all members. ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 47


Reinforcing Bar Where the concrete at the bottom of a beam over a column carries an excessively large compression load, extra bars lapped for compressive stress transfer will be required there.

Development Length of Bundled Bars in Compression (Clauses 8.1.8.8, 10.7.2, 13.1.3, 13.1.4) When two bars are tied together over their full length, to form a two-bar bundle, an increase in development length is not required. Three or four bars can be tied tightly together to form a bundle. Each bar of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;unitâ&#x20AC;? therefore presents a smaller surface in contact with the surrounding concrete. This requires an increased development length for bundled bars (Clauses 13.1.3, 13.1.4). In beams, the bar cut-off point of each bar in a bundle must be staggered by 40db (Clause 8.1.8.8).

Compression Lap Splices (Clauses 13.2.1, 13.2.5)

for

Bundled

Bars

Lap splicing of bundled bars is messy, complicated, uses excessive steel, and causes overcrowding of the column area. These lap splices must be avoided. Wherever possible bundled bars should be spliced by end bearing (no laps) or by mechanical splice because these give a simpler solution. The values in the table also apply to an extra splice bar added to a bundle which did not have a sawn-end preparation for an end-bearing splice. The splice bar must be at least twice the lap length given above, and located centrally about the section where the splice is.

Page 48

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar

10.4

Additional Information on Lap Splices Deemed to Comply Values for Lap Splices of Main Bars in Tension The table below provides tabulated values of development length and lap splices in flexural members, provided the following rules are observed: • The characteristic compressive strength of the concrete, f’c and the corresponding value of the cover, c, are not less than given in the table below. • For slabs and walls, the clear distance between adjacent parallel bars being designed, over the length in which they are considered to be developing stress or over the lap length, must not be less than 150 mm. This does not restrict the spacing to 150 mm over the remainder of the length. • For beams and columns, at least the minimum quantity of fitments (stirrups, ties etc) must surround the main bars being designed, and the clear distance between adjacent parallel bars must be at least twice the cover given in the table.

Table 19: Minimum tensile development lengths

The minimum cover is from the surface of the concrete to the bar being detailed. Intermediate values of Lsy.t must not be interpolated. Alternative combinations must be calculated from AS3600-2001. For bars with more than 300 mm of concrete cast below them, the above values must be increased by 25%.

Which Should be Used – A Tension Splice or a Compression Splice? The simple answer is that if a bar can be in tension under one loading condition, and change to compression under another (or vice versa), then the splice must carry the “worst case” load. As examples, the above situation can occur when the wind blows alternately from opposite directions, or when trucks move across a bridge. It is suggested that detailers incorporate only the values 20, 25, 30, 41 and 54db given in Table 18.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 49


Reinforcing Bar Lap Splices v Overlapped Bars and Cogs v 90° Bends There are obviously many situations where there is no need to transfer load, however bars need to be overlapped and tied together. In these cases the overlap may only need to be 100-150 mm for a small bar and up to 300 mm for a large bar. The overlap should be specified in the drawings, otherwise a full splice may be provided, or even worse, a short overlap provided where a full lap is essential. These overlaps can be tabulated in many cases to avoid repetitive notes. At the end of some bars, a 90º bend can be mistaken for a 90º hook. Without knowing the purpose of the bend, a clear distinction often cannot be made. Where the bar dimension appears to fit into the concrete, allowing for covers, a 90º bend would be assumed. Where it won’t fit, then the detail should be revised to avoid the bar-end from sticking out of the concrete. See T­ables 21 and 22.

Page 50

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Bar

10.5

Bar Hooks and Cogs Hooks are defined in AS3600 Clauses 8.2.12.4, 13.1.2.5 and 19.2.3.2. The length of steel needed to physically make each hook is given in Tables 20, 21 and 22. The length of steel in a bar with a hook is the overall length of the straight portion plus hook or cog length. AS3600-2001 requires a longer hook to provide end anchorage of a beam ligature than the standard hook defined in Clause 13.1.2.5. This is due to the change in Clause 8.2.12.4.

AS3600-1994 Clause 8.2.12.4 End anchorage of bars Bars used as shear reinforcement shall be anchored to develop the yield strength of the bar at mid-depth of the member. A fitment hook shall be deemed to develop 0.5fsy.f in accordance with Clause 13.1.2.5. A fitment hook which encloses a longitudinal bar shall be deemed to develop 0.67fsy.f Notwithstanding the above, fitment cogs shall not be used when the anchorage of the fitment is solely in the concrete cover of the beam. Fitment hooks shall be used in this case.

AS3600-2001 Clause 8.2.12.4 Anchorage of shear reinforcement The anchorage of shear reinforcement transverse to the longitudinal flexural reinforcement may be achieved by hooks, cogs, welding of the traverse bars or welded splices. NOTE: The type of anchorage used should not induce splitting or spalling of the concrete cover. Shear reinforcement shall be deemed to be adequately anchored provided the following requirements are met: a) Bends in bars used as fitments shall enclose a longitudinal bar with a diameter larger than the diameter of the fitment bar. The enclosed bar shall be in contact with the fitment bend. b) A fitment hook should be located preferably in the compression zone of the structural member, where anchorage conditions are most favourable. Such an anchorage is considered satisfactory, if the hook consists of a 135ยบ or 180ยบ bend with a nominal internal diameter of 4db plus a straight extension of 10db or 100 mm, whichever is the greater. c) Where a fitment hook is located in the tension zone, the anchorage described in Item (b) is deemed to be satisfactory provided the stirrup spacing calculated using Clause 8.2.10 is multiplied by 0.8 and the maximum spacing specified in Clause 8.2.12.2 is also multiplied by 0.8. d) Notwithstanding the above, fitment cogs shall not be used when the anchorage of the fitment is solely in the cover concrete of the beam. The straight extension of a fitment hook has been increased six bar diameters, from 4db to 10db. Fitment hooks in AS3600-2001 are not standard hooks, as they were for previous codes. These changes are due to the change in the requirement for development of the yield strength in the bar at mid height of the beam to development of yield strength in the bar at all points along the height of the beam stirrup. This is a departure from the traditional design theory that derived from Truss Analogy. The full height development and extra hook length for beam fitments is a requirement for earthquake detailing.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 51


Reinforcing Bar

Figure 39: Steel length to form a hook or cog

R6 Diameter of pin 4db Grade 250N beam fitments 145 4db Grade D500N beam fitments 5db All main bars 120 130 6db 140 8db

R10 170 250 265 300

Added length for a hook or a cog N12 N16 N20 N24 205 275 Not to be used 205 275 340 410 205 245 300 360 235 280 330 390 265 340 395 485

N28

N32

N36

480 420 485 595

550 480 545 620

615 540 570 730

Table 20: Length of steel required to bend a hook and cog

Notes: 1. See section 10.8 for background information from AS3600, including rebent and coated bars. 2. A pin size equal to or less than the quality-control bend test must never be used.

Figure 40: Overall dimension of a hook or cog

Diameter of pin 4db Grade 250N beam fitments 4db Grade D500N beam fitments 5db main bars, AS 3600 6db 8db

R6 40 -

R10 60 60 70 80 100

R6

R10

-

220 235 260

Overall Dimension, mm N12 N16 N20 N24 Not to be used 110 85 120 150 110 85 85 110 140 170 105 130 160 190 125 175 200 250

N28

N32

N36

175 200 235 305

195 225 265 315

200 250 290 375

Table 21: Approximate overall dimension of a 180ยบ hook

Diameter of pin 4db Grade 250 beam fitments 4db Grade D500N beam fitments 5db main bars, AS 3600 6db 8db

Overall Dimension, mm N12 N16 N20 N24 Not to beused Not to be used 170 200 245 295 200 230 270 320 220 280 320 400

N28

N32

N36

340 395 485

390 445 570

440 465 595

Table 22: Approximate overall dimension of a 90ยบ cog

In the above tables, no allowance has been made for spring-back after bending. All dimensions are therefore nominal. The real overall diameter of a deformed bar is approximately 112% of the nominal diameter. A 90ยบ bend longer than 10db overall gives the same anchorage as a 90ยบ cog. Page 52

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


11.0 Reinforcing Mesh 11.1

Mesh General Information Cold Rolled, High Strength Fabric of Grade R500N ARC produces a 500 MPa Ductility Grade N mesh to suit your project requirements. The DuctileMesh 500â&#x201E;˘ fabric sheets are a welded square or rectangular grid of R500N bars. Contact your local ARC branch to discuss your project requirements for Ductility Grade N mesh.

Cold Rolled, High Strength Deformed Fabric of Grade D500L ARC fabric is available in 2.4 x 6.0 metre sheets and in 2.4 metre wide rolls. It is also available in purpose made sheets to suit your project requirements. The mesh sheets are a welded square or rectangular grid of D500L bars. Welded fabric permits maximum construction speed and economies. The cost and time required to lay mesh sheets is much less than that required to place, space and tie together loose bars. Typically fabric also provides greater crack control than loose bars as the bars that make up the sheet are of smaller diameter and at closer spacings. ARC fabric is commonly available in sheet sizes ranging from SL42 to RL1218 and in trench mesh strips from L8TM3 to L12TM5.

Figure 41: Welded mesh intersection

Figure 42: Mesh production by automatic welding machines ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 53


Reinforcing Mesh

11.2

Cross-Sectional Area of ARC Mesh

Table 23: Design area of ARC mesh

Notes: 1. Trench mesh is normally specified by the number of wires used in either the top and/or bottom of the footing so that the design cross-sectional areas given above are not often referred to. Common trench mesh strip widths are 200 mm (3 wires), 300 mm (4 wires), and 400 mm (5 wires). See AS2870.1 2. The steel grade for standard fabric and trench mesh is D500L. 3. Fabric configurations are not limited to the standard fabrics shown above. Fabric main wire spacings are the most critical factor for special meshes, and detailers should check with ARC before finalising a design using any fabric not included in the list of standard fabrics. 4. Fabrics SL 63 and SL 53 have an internal mesh size of 300 mm x 300 mm. The sheet size is 6 m long by 2.3 m wide. The 100 mm closer wire spacings on the side reduce the minimum side lap to 100 mm, rather than 300 mm. They are not available in every state. 5. Although the fabrics listed above are generally available ex-stock, we recommend that designers and users check with their local ARC office if they have any questions about properties or availability. Page 54

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Mesh

11.3

Physical Dimensions of ARC Mesh

Table 24: ARC mesh details

Notes: 1. The mass of fabric per square metre is based on a piece cut from the interior of a full sheet which is one metre square with equal overhangs on opposite sides. 2. Common trench mesh strip widths are 200 mm (3 wires), 300 mm (4 wires) and 400 mm (5 wires). See AS2870.1, Residential Slabs and Footings Part 1- Construction, for applications. 3. Fabrics SL 63 and SL 53 have an internal mesh size of 300 mm x 300 mm. The sheet size is 6 m long by 2.3 m wide. The 100 mm closer wire spacings on the side reduce the minimum side lap to 100 mm, rather than 300 mm. They are not available in every state. 4. Although the fabrics listed above are generally available ex-stock, we recommend that designers and users check with their local ARC office if they have any questions about properties or availability. ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 55


Reinforcing Mesh

11.4

Wire and Fabric Development Length Development Length Lsy.t For Plain Wire AS3600 Clause 13.1.2.1 (c) allows a development length of 50 d for hard drawn wire. The D500L grade bars are cold rolled wires.

Table 25: Development length and laps for deformed wire fabric (AS/NZS 4671 and AS3600)

It is often not appreciated that the requirements of these Standards are closely inter related. AS/NZS 4671, Clause 7.2.5 gives the minimum welded connection shear force for mesh as 0.5 Rek.L As, that is, half the yield force of the largest bar at the weld. To develop the design stress of the wire (Rek.L As) at least two welded intersections must be embedded (2 x 0.5 (Rek.L As). To transfer this stress from one sheet to another, a minimum overlap of two welded intersections must be specified. These are the reasons for the requirements of Clause 13.2.3 of AS3600. Thus embedment of two cross wires by 25 mm or more, from where full strength is required can be assumed to develop the full design strength of the mesh wire. Each wire of welded wire fabric develops its stress by normal adhesive bond with concrete together with bearing, against the concrete, of cross wires welded transversly to it. Adhesive bond to the wire is usually neglected for cross-wire spacings up to 200 mm. No advantage is given to deformed wires. Most overseas Standards specify the minimum overlaps of 200 mm or more because the weld-shear strength is limited to 0.3fsy.wire. Thus at least three, and often four, wires must be overlapped leading to serious bunching.

Development Length for Mesh with an Overhang In certain circumstances, such as at a support, the bond of the overhanging wires can be utilised for stress development. Clause 13.1.2.1 ( c ) allows Lsy.t for wire to be 50 dwire. AS/NZS 4671 requires a weld strength of 0.5 Rek.L As. The following table shows the development strength of one cross wire plus an overhang of 25 dwire.

Figure 43: Mesh with an overhang

Table 26: Embedment length of one weld plus an overhang of 25 dwire + one weld + 25 mm

Note: Values are provided as a basis for an engineering judgement.

Page 56

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Reinforcing Mesh

11.5

Mesh Detailing Specify the Sheet Direction The most important requirement for structural safety of a slab is that the correct reinforcement is placed in the direction of the span which controls the strength characteristics.

Overlap at end of sheet with overhang, all fabric styles

Overlap at side of sheet, rectangular meshes, RL1218 to RL718, and square mesh SL81

In slabs supported on beams or walls, the controlling span is the SHORTER span – this is true whether the slab is supported on three sides or on all four sides. In slabs supported by columns, such as flat-slab floors and flat-plate floors, it is the LONGER of the two spans which control the strength. Because the reinforcement for these is complicated, well prepared detail drawings must be provided. However for minor structures, the reinforcement details are often not well documented and steel fixers must be given additional instructions on the sheet direction. All drawings should indicate the direction in which to place the longitudinal wires of fabric, and also illustrate how fabric sheets are to be lapped. Rectangular fabrics such a RL718 and RL818 require particular care when detailing them.

Overlap at side of sheet, square meshes edge side-lapping wires SL102 to SL52, SL63 and SL53

Where suspended slabs have a span less than 6 metres, it is unusual that fabric would need to be lapped at the end of a sheet. If end laps are required, the actual length of the overhang should be allowed for and specified, and a clear statement made on the drawings whether or not the overhang is included in the lap unless the following rules are observed: 1. Full width sheets are overlapped by the distance between the two outermost edge wires.

Additional lap-splice strip. The cross-wires are being spliced in this example, so the cross-sectional area (bar or wire sizes and spacing) must match.

2. When cut sheets are lapped, the outermost two wires are also overlapped, and the length of the overhang is neglected. Example of laps are given in Figure 44.

Specify the Fabric Position The next factor to be considered is to locate the fabric in the right position. Fabric in the bottom of a slab must be supported on bar chairs from the formwork.

This example shows an INCORRECT method of lapping. Only one mesh is overlapped here instead of two as required. The outermost wires of the lower sheet are spaced at 100 mm. The upper sheet has wires spaced at 200 mm. Figure 44: Mesh laps

Continuous bar chairs, such as the ARC “Goanna” chair, are the most suitable here because they can be set out on the forms before the fabric is placed and the weight of the fabric is evenly spread over many legs. Thus, there is no need to place chairs under the steel that fixers are standing on. Top reinforcement must be supported on high bar chairs, on high “Goannas” or on “Deckchairs”.

Mesh Laps These laps are based on AS3600 and on AS2870.1. The wires should be tied together to prevent slippage. For tying, the orientation of the sheets is not critical. That is, the lapped wires may be in the same layer or separated by the wires at right angles. Additional strips or finger mesh must be used when it is critical that the effective depth be maintained.

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 57


Reinforcing Mesh

11.6

Special Fabric Design Information

Table 27: Design cross-sectional area for reinforcing wire

Table 28: Nominal dimensions of reinforcing wire

Table 29: Cross-sectional areas of engineer designed fabric

Notes: 1. The longitudinal wire spacing should be restricted to between 100 mm and 200 mm, although a 300 mm spacing is acceptable provided the quantity of fabric can be manufactured economically for the project. 2. The longitudinal wire spacings given in Table 27 should be regarded as a practical manufacturing limitation to conserve costs. The size of the cross wire should be not less than approximately one-half the diameter of the longitudinal wire, and spaced at 200 mm or 300 mm centres. Cross wire size and spacing is determined by the design requirements. 3. Strip fabrics resemble trench mesh in that the sheets are narrow (usually restricted to eight wires as a maximum) but of a length calculated to fit the job dimensions. The controlling factor of the size of the sheet is its mass. Where possible each sheet should be capable of being carried and placed by one or two men. Figure 45: Project mesh simplifies mesh laps

Page 58

4. In all cases, please consult with your local ARC engineer before commencing a project using these fabrics. A simple variation of a standard fabric may prove the most economical. ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Appendix A-Area Comparison Table Grade D500L Mesh and D500N Bar

AS3600-2001 has restrictions on the use of D500L Reinforcing

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 59


Appendix B-ARC Bar Bending Shapes-Main Bars

Page 60

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Appendix B-ARC Bar Bending Shapes-Fitments

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 61


Appendix B-ARC Bar Bending Shapes-General Shapes

Page 62

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Appendix B-ARC Bar Bending Shapes-General Shapes

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 63


Appendix C-Refurbishment of Buildings The following tables summarise the design cross-sectional areas of fabric in imperial sizes manufactured by, or available from, the company since the early 1920s up to the introduction of metric measurement in 1973. The sources of the information are books published by the British Reinforced Engineering CO. Limited of Stafford, England (BRC) up to 1950, and ARC Engineering CO. Pty. Ltd. (ARC) thereafter to 1973. Fabrics manufactured by other Australian companies cannot be identified with certainty and are therefore not included. Whilst the information given here is believed to be accurate, it is one thing to identify the notation given on a drawing but it is an entirely different matter to be sure that the specified material was actually used. The design drawings are the only guide to the quality of steel and concrete intended to be used. It is always possible to test steel for yield stress, tensile strength, elongation, cross-sectional area (allowing for corrosion), etc. by removing a sample from the structure. If the original diameter is difficult to determine because of corrosion, it may be better not to proceed further. Table 30 summarises the design yield stress of reinforcing steels. This should be adequate for most purposes using present day analyses by limit state methods. Any attempt to compare the original working stress designs with AS3600 would require more information, probably not available, for little benefit in accuracy. In any case, to determine the current structural adequacy requires application of current loading conditions. The effective strength of steel does not decrease with time, however the contribution of the surrounding concrete can be quite different from the original design specifications.

Table 30: Design yield stress of reinforcing steel

Notes: 1. Prior to 1960, the specified minimum yield stress of fabric was given as 70 000 pounds per square inch. For refurbishment purposes, the tabulated value of 450 MPa is recommended. 2. Twisted bars can be identified by surface appearance. Remove untwisted ends (about 150 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 200 mm) before splicing by end-butt welding or mechanical methods. 3. Intermediate Grade was rare and probably used only for projects designed in USA or designed to ASTM standards for construction in Australia. Weldability is very doubtful and should not be considered. 4. Hard Grade was common in NSW, but unusual elsewhere. It is not weldable. 5. From 1988, AS3600 specified only a design yield stress of 400 MPa for deformed bars. This strength was not manufactured until 1991 when AS1302 was amended. Page 64

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Appendix C As can be seen from Table 31, the cross wires for early rectangular mesh fabrics were very thin and the spacing was much greater than AS/NZS 4671 types. Their purpose was simply to hold the sheets together. Unless transverse cracking is excessive, this will probably be of little consequence, but the fact should be noted. Of greater concern may be the quality of the concrete. Again, if there is little evidence of excessive deflection, spalling or rust, then the integrity of the structure is probably not in doubt for the loads it has carried in the past. It is not well known that, until publication of AS3600, the fire resistance requirements of prior Standards was determined from information available before 1949. This was before the introduction of cold worked bars in Australia yet the rules were assumed to be satisfactory without amendment. It is suggested that the provisions of AS3600-2001 be considered rather than using standards in vogue at the time of construction.

Table 31: Imperial standard wire gauges expressed as metric cross-sectional areas

Identification of 400Y and D500N Bar 410 mPa and 400 mPa deformed bars from 1983 to 2000 were identified by two longitudinal ribs and transverse deformations. For D500N Bar, two longitudinal half ribs were added to one side and one half rib to the other to provide a visual identification of the steel grade.

Figure 46: 400Y bar obverse and reverse

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Figure 47: D500N bar reverse

Figure 48: D500N bar obverse

Page 65


Appendix C

Table 32: Rectangular â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mesh Fabrics. Only main wire details can be identified with any degree of certainty

Table 33: Square â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mesh Fabrics. Main wire and cross wire sizes, spacing and areas are the same

Table 34: Cross wire size and spacings only

Page 66

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Appendix D - Metric and Imperial Bars and Fabric Deformed bar size and (area) Area in Sq mm

andArea (area) Wire sizeWire andSize (area) in Sq mm Area in sq mm

AS/NZS 4671 These bars are cold rolled deformed bars of Ductility Grade D500L

1995 to 2001 AS130 These bars are cold rolled deformed 500MPa bars

1973 to 1995 AS1303 These bars are cold rolled deformed 450 MPa bars

12.5 (122.7) 11.90 (111.2)

11.90 (111.2)

10.65 (89.1)

10.65 (89.1)

9.50 (70.9)

9.50 (70.9)

8.55 (57.4)

8.55 (57.4)

7.60 (45.4)

7.60 (45.4)

6.75 (35.8)

6.75 (35.8)

6.0 (28.3)

6.0 (28.3)

4.75 (17.7)

4.75 (17.7)

4.0 (12.6)

4.0 (12.6)

11.2 (98.5)

10.0 (78.5) 9.0 (63.6) 8.0 (50.3) 7.1 (39.6) 6.3 (31.2) 5.0 (19.6)

4.0 (12.6) 3.15 (7.8)

Cross reference table for metric and imperial reinforcing bars ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 67


Appendix D meshes Area in Sq mm SquareSquare meshes Area in sq mm From 2001

1995 to 2000

1973 to 1995

pre - 1973

AS1304 200X200

AS1304 200X200

150X150

Deformed 500 MPa mesh

Round 450 MPa mesh

Round 450 MPa mesh

AS/NZS 4671 200x200 Deformed 500 MPa Ductility Grade D500L mesh

F640 (532)

F81 (503) SL81 (454)

RF81 (454)

F630 (460) F620 (403)

F102 (393) SL102 (354)

RF102 (354)

F600 (349)

F92 (318) SL92 (287)

F601 (299)

RF92 (287)

F602 (253)

F82 (251) SL82 (227)

RF82 (227)

SL72 (179)

RF72 (179)

F603 (211)

F72 (198)

F604 (179) F62 (156)

SL62 (141)

RF62 (141)

SL41 (126)

RF41 (126)

SL63 (94)

RF63 (94)

SL52 (89)

RF52 (89)

SL42 (63)

RF42 (63)

SL53 (59)

RF53 (59)

F605 (149) F606 (123) ARC63 (104) F608 (85) ARC53 (63) F610 (54)

Rectangular Rectangular meshes Mainmeshes wire area in Sq mm Main wire area in sq mm

From 2001 AS/NZS 4671 100x200 Deformed 500 MPa Ductility Grade D500L mesh 227 sq mm cross wire area

1995 to 2000

1973 to 1995

AS1304 100X200

AS1304 100X200

Deformed 500 MPa mesh 227 sq mm cross wire area

Round 450 MPa mesh 251 sq mm cross wire area

F1218 (1227) RL1218 (1112)

RF1218 (1112)

pre - 1973 150X300 Round 450 MPa mesh Cross wire area is variable. Generally cross wire area is below 227 sq mm area F300 (1241) F301 (1064)

F1118 (985) RL1118 (891)

RF1118 (891)

F302 (920)

F1018 (785) RL1018 (709)

F303 (805)

RF1018 (709) F304 (698) F918 (636)

RL918 (574)

RF918 (574)

F305 (599) F818 (503)

RL818 (454)

F306 (507)

RF818 (454) F307 (422) F718 (396)

RL718 (358)

RF718 (358)

F308 (349) F309 (299) F310 (253)

Cross reference table for metric and imperial reinforcing fabric

Page 68

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Appendix E - Reinforcement Bar Chairs and Spacers Chairs and spacers are used to position steel reinforcement so that the durability, strength and serviceability of the structure is in accordance with the design specification. AS3600-2001 considers bar chairs and spacers as embedded items. They are covered by Clause 14.2. AS3600-2001 does not give any design guidelines for the type, spacing or arrangement of reinforcement supports.

1

2

3

Durability is the most common form of failure for bar chairs. This is particularly prevalent on the exposed underside of balconies. Wire bar chairs can cause rust spotting of the concrete surface if care is not taken during construction. The choice of bar chair also impacts on the durability of the concrete structure as it affects the cover to the reinforcement. For strength requirements, the bar chairs and spacers must hold the reinforcement in position until the concrete has achieved initial set. The loads that the chairs can incur include people walking over the reinforcement, stacked materials, mounded wet concrete and vibration during the concrete placement. The bar chairs must also hold these loads when subjected to heat. The forms can get as hot as 80ยบC in northern Australia. As bar chairs and spacers are placed against the form, they are usually visible upon close inspection of the concrete surface. Some bar chairs are more visible than others as they have a larger base area. Plastic bar chairs come in several colours, depending on the manufacturer and the available plastic. Typical colours are black or grey, however white, purple, green and many other colours are made.

Types of Bar Chairs

4

1. Slab on Ground Plastic Bar Chairs - Dual size plastic reinforcing spacers with a flat base to minimise penetration through the moisture barrier. These bar chairs are purpose built for supporting reinforcement in slabs that are cast against the ground or for slabs cast on plastic sheeting. They are available for 25, 40, 50, 65, 75, 85, 90 and 100 mm. 105, 110, 125, 130, 140 and 150 mm cover chairs are available on special order. 2. Trench Mesh Supports - Plastic bar chairs for supporting trench mesh in strip footings. These chairs provide 50 mm of cover. The trench mesh supports clip onto the trench mesh before lowering into the trench.

5

3. Fast Wheels - Plastic spacers for precast concrete and column applications. These spacers are ideal for column cages where the cage is assembled then lowered into position. Fastwheels are available in 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 75 mm covers. 4. Clipfast Plastic Bar Chairs - Plastic bar chairs that clip onto the reinforcement. They are available for bar and mesh reinforcement. Plastic bases are available for slab on ground applications. As these chairs clip onto the reinforcement, they can be used in vertical and top cover applications. They suit 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 65 and 75 mm covers.

6

7 ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

5. Plastic Tipped Wire Bar Chairs - These bar chairs are for suspended slab and beam reinforcement being cast on timber or metal forms. The chair is made of wire and each leg is plastic tipped. These are the most common bar chair used for suspended slabs. They suit a large range of covers and slab thicknesses. Plastic tipped wire bar chairs are available in 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 100, 110, 120, 125, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 240, 250, 260, 280, 300, 320, 340 and 360 mm covers from the underside of the bar to the bottom form. Metal bases are available for the plastic tipped wire bar chairs when used for slab on ground applications. Page 69


Appendix E-Reinforcement Bar Chairs and Spacers 6. Goanna Continuous Wire Bar Chairs - A continuous, 2 m long wire bar chair for use in suspended slabs. Each leg has a plastic tip for corrosion protection. They are available for 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 65 and 75 mm covers.

8a

8b

7. Plastic Continuous Bar Chairs - A continuous, 2 m long plastic bar chair for use in suspended slabs. They are available in 20, 30, 40 and 50 mm covers. 8. Plastic Deck Spacers - Plastic deck spacers are for suspended slabs and beams cast on timber or metal forms. They are available for 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 65, 75, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, 150, 160, 170, 180, 190 and 200 mm covers from the underside of the bar to the bottom form. Spacers 50 mm and less are as shown in 8a. Spacers 65 mm and taller are as shown in 8b. 9. Plastic Deck Chairs - Plastic deck chairs are ideal for suspended slabs. The design of the chair accommodates both the bottom reinforcement and the top reinforcement from the one chair. The base provides covers of 25, 30 and 40 mm cover to the bottom reinforcement. The top clip is available to suit covers from 90 to 220 mm in 10 mm increments from the underside of the bar to the bottom form. 10. Concrete Spacers - Concrete spacers are available for 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 75 and 100 mm cover.

9

11. Heavy Duty Clip-On Chairs - These chairs are made of plastic and are suitable for most formed applications. The chair can clip to N12 and N16 reinforcement. They are available for 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 mm cover when clipped to a N16 bar. The covers when clipped to N12 bars are 34, 39, 44, 49 and 54 mm. 12. Folded Mesh Spacers - Folded mesh in 2.4 metre lengths provides a fast and accurate method for spacing layers of reinforcement. Folded mesh spacers are suitable for separations between layers from 70 mm to 400 mm. Mesh is folded to order, hence the height is made to suit the project.

10

13. Truss Spacers - Truss spacers are used in suspended slabs and are made in lengths from 3 to 6 m. They are available in 80, 110, 150 and 190 mm heights.

11

12

13 Page 70

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


Notes

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook

Page 71


Notes

Page 72

ARC - Reinforcement Handbook


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Your local ARC Service Centre on 131 557 Main offices at : Pinkenba QLD Sunshine VIC Darwin NT Dry Creek SA arcreo.com.au

St Marys NSW Forrestfield WA Launceston TAS


ARC Reinforcement Handbook