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Negotiated Study How can new models of urban streetscape planting contribute to suburban main street renewal projects?

Streetscape

Naima Aroj 1337127

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Contents: Acknowledgement Abstract and Research Question Research proposal Literary review Case studies Site location History Site issues GIS Maps Proposed Project at Stoddard Road Stoddard Road Urban models Plants suggested Cross sections Concept development Final Design Planting Plan Plants selections Drainage Plan Perspectives Cross sections Future design plans Reflection Reference

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Acknowledgement First of all I would like to acknowledge appreciation of the Bachelor program senior staff member Penny Cliffin, Peter Whiting Senior Principal & Landscape Architect Boffa Miskell School , Kathryn Holyoake Landscape Architect from soul environments and finally Megan Wraight plus Katie Costain from Wraight +associates limited. Who provided me with the support I needed. I would also like to thank the guidance and support provided throughout this study by my friends, especially Di Haung. She helped me with her precious time and good advices that have kept me focused and guided me in the right direction leading me to complete my project. Without her guidance I would not have completed the project. Secondly, I would like to thank, all the lectures in the Department of Landscape Architecture at Unitec, who have provided me the background knowledge during the course work. Their experience and knowledge have helped and empowered me to the level where I was able to understand this study to a further level. I would also like to thank all the classmates in Department of Landscape Architecture, who have supported me directly and indirectly throughout my studies at unitec. Finally, I would like to appreciate and thank my family members who have facilitated and provided me this opportunity and supported me during this project as well as other requirements to fulfill my Landscape Architecture degree.

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Abstract Auckland is very fast growing city with its roughly a third population of New Zealand lives in it. My project will contribute with the development of this city. Population The city vision in 2030 will be pedestrian’s friendly and green infrastructure. Stoddard Road is a one of the town centres at Mt. Roskill suburb. Currently Stoddard Road is having a problem of green infrastructure. It is lacking the connections from one point to another, including the cyclist lanes. The issues commonly are raised includes pedestrians safety, unfriendly pedestrians access and environment, storm water treatment on the site plus the Oakley creek, and emerging new Auckland City Council proposed plan for Stoddard Road. The purpose of this project is to find how New Zealand urban streetscape models could contribute to suburban main streets of Auckland. My project is about how can new urban models of streetscape planting contributing to suburban main streets renewal projects. It looks to investigate techniques for redesigning a suburban centre to become an urban mixed used development and creating public space. This project is interesting, because Auckland is attracting people vision to accommodate growth. The scope of the project is to find out whether urban models can amplify to suburban by using different plants. My hypothesis was to look at the new models urban streetscape and compare and contrast them while applying the design on the site. I also looked at how my site design can be part of Auckland city urban corridor. I research through literature to find some designs that would modify or sketched through site. Those designs provided me with some assessed, according to strict principles of validity design. Designs were based on practical contacts and observation of facts. They provided me an understanding of how the site is connected from suburb area to urban city area, how can planting be part of the site and linking from one end to another of the city? Those designs also showed me that how small areas could connect with the large part of the city of Auckland through planting. Moreover in this project planting and new urban model designs were measured and analysed on the site. The study was carried in three parts: stage one working with the existing site conditions and making them more pedestrians friendly and easy accessible within the next five years plan. Stage two working with the proposed Auckland city council plan for the site with the next 10 years plan. Third stage is the final design, which includes the impact of stage one and two. The main focus of this research was to analysis whether the existing site with new planting designs and new proposed plan from Auckland city council with new way of planting design of streetscape works and completes the requirement of the site. The results (stage three) obtained the conclusion of stage one and two showing the design performance of how streetscape design made friendlier place, more open and easy accessible road. The design shows effects of two different research design stages just from using different style of plants.

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Image and Liture Review Research proposal: Streetscape How can new models of urban streetscape planting contribute to suburban main street renewal projects? The term Streetscape refer to the visual elements of a street including, the road, bordering buildings, street furniture, trees and open spaces that combine to form the streets character (Wiktionary, 2011). Streetscape is not a place where only cars can move; its design supports their role as public space and in addition to vehicular lanes, there are sidewalks, street trees, curbs and swale, street lighting, and other elements that collectively make up the public streetscape. (Duany et al., 2010) Trees play a significant role in the urban environment and have many important meanings to urban residents. However, trees may not meet the fully benefits that needed, but broader perspective is needed, one that takes into consideration the deep psychological ties between people and urban trees and forests (Dwyer, et al, 1991). Urban trees are powerful symbols, like words, they can be organized to create poetry Arnold, H. F. 1993). Trees in urban places are living, breathing organisms with which people feel a strong relationship, Dwyer says throughout our planning and management we shouldn’t consider them as air conditioner, shade providers and ornaments in the urban systems (Dwyer, Et al, 1991). Streetscape is important because it is a place where people interact in many ways for many activities. Streetscapes are an important part of the public spaces, which help, define a community’s aesthetic quality, identity, economic activity, health, social structure and opportunity (Streetscape Improvements, 2012). Methodology I will need to use range of different information in order for my investigation to proceed. I will be using graphic information for my site such as: mapping, layering, analysis, models and GIS maps. Further the investigation of the site will include process like: theories, models, case studies, critique, apply to site investing, mapping models and design. Using this information will give the potential of site and limitations will expose through the investigation. History of the site will also be explored in-order to know how the site will and can function within the context of the suburb. Experiential design is about creating sensory experiences to increase variety of design; small scale spatial design, site observation and investigation. This gives a sensation of large place into a small space, like renovating urban street into streetscape but on small scale basis. The challenge of the project will be that how do I create the experiential design space for people in the busiest street? The research is based on theory and practical projects that deals with urban intervention. The information will be used from Case studies such as: New Lynn T. O. D. (Transit Oriented Development)- the project was designed by Henry Crothers and the purpose of the project was... “Rerouting of traffic, the most significant change to the adjoining streets is the imminent transformation of Totara Ave into much-vaunted buzzword of current urban design a shared space “(New Lynn TOD Programme, 2012). The site was historically important and is valued for it. “….. It is approximately 2 kms of full road reconstruction on main arterial roads, feeder roads, walkways and rain gardeners, and storm water management surrounding the New Lynn train station” (Dempsey Wood Civil Contractors Limited, n.d.). Garden Place, Hamilton a project for activity-promoting by design and with the focus on resourcefulness, economy and re-use. The project is designed by the Reset Urban Design. The purpose of this project was to improve convenience and safety, city identity, public and private transport provision, event management, employment creation and retail vitality (Barrett, M, 2011). Wynyard Quarter is designed by Taylor Cullity Lethlean, and Wraight. This is a waterfront project in Auckland. The idea of this community was providing major, social and economic opportunities such as the provision of a water edge park, a strong legible public space network and the provision of public access along the foreshore. Wynyard Quarter was seen as the last chance to establish a significant area of

Figure 2

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coastal public open space within the Auckland CBD (Barrett, M. 2011). Possible Site: Stoddard Road, New Windsor Auckland. I chose this place because; this site has many issues to be addressed particularly: how shops operating, pedestrian linkage, motorway conjunction, car parking, connecting people, culture, sustainability, ecology, accessible environment, and storm water management.

History of Trees in Cities In the eighteenth to nineteenth century the arrival of rich people in Britain that led to the development of city squares. The real estate developers understood values that the people would like to have trees through their windows while living in cities. However the best place for the trees was in a central square, where everyone can enjoy trees in the open space. Nevertheless the squares and parks were not the only places where the trees were being planted. The trees were planted when the streets were wide enough with pavements. Wherever new roads were made mostly the grand avenues were constructed. And wherever the land was owned privately that land were developed as they wanted to, but if the land was owned by city council for large new civic developments, space was almost always provided for trees. People were only able to enjoy the open and public spaces, which provided by the rich people. The houses were closely made in order to use the maximum of the land, and developers, trying their best to removing as much as houses as possible from each acre in order to make public spaces. There was no room provide for the trees in cities unless the cities themselves began to buy land openly for public parks. Early twentieth century the arguments between haves and the have-nots of the trees and open space in the cities were come to an end. People understood that trees and open space should be an important part of the cities. Ebenezer Howard, who came up with an idea of having the garden city, Cities were changed since then due to Howard realized that the industrial worker requires a better living environment. The green element became an important part of everyone expectation. Now the mixture of every experience in the past made the wealth of species and higher standards of living. This means that urban trees and landscapes are better than ever before (Bradshaw, A. Hunt, B. and Walmsley, T. 1995). Early 18th and 19th century the need for the open spaces and parks was not introduced. Ebenezer Howard who came with an idea of bringing garden in the cities, which made people experience with new species and higher standard of living in the city. Why have trees in urban environment? Think like a tree. Trees are living organisms. They require water, nutrients in the soil, oxygen, natural light for tree growth, right temperature, and right plant and right place. Urban sites sometime are not successful in providing compulsory resources for a tree growth. Trees are mostly put into landscape built for pedestrians, cars, and buildings. The values of trees are: air purification, produce oxygen, temperature reduction/ shade, storm water absorption. Before planting any plant in cities there are things that should be considered earlier. - Is there water available on the site? Is the water too much or too less, or none at all? Does the water get drained or stay in the soil for long time? - The soil pH, in many urban sites can vary significantly due to the construction or industry soil. - Every part of the plants requires respiration just like any animals. The oxygen will not get to the roots if the soil pores are filled with water. Lack of oxygen can kill the plant immediately. - Sunlight is natural resource with it the photosynthesis of plants work. Being the tallest plant in landscape, the tree requires full sunlight in order to grow taller. The tree function within urban environment with temperature modification, wind, noise, pollution, plants create space, erosion, runoff, and recreation/habitat. Plants in urban spaces provide essential habitat. Also urban spaces are the places where many of us humans stay in-touch with the natural world, and because of this critical habitat with it people interact with animals through nature. Cities with trees avenues, parks, and open spaces are always as desirable places to live by. The properties are considered high values when there are green spaces designed. The trees make an essential connection to the natural world. It makes seasonal changes and enduring human need to be connected with nature. The sense of the place with its visual impression, and its appeal to one’s sense of sound, smell, and touch insert an additional dimension to the design of urban space (Rubenstein, H. M.1992). Planting trees in the city is not because they look good, but because they are sense of the city, they make the identity of the place, just like we have “One Tree Hill� (Trowbridge, P. J. and Bassuk, N. L. 2004). Street trees are there to protect pedestrians. They provide a sense of enclosed space to the streetscape. They also maintains the temperature, absorbs storm water and airborne pollutants in the street. Streets should be designed as a place of gathering. In order for the pedestrian to become engage with the street, the street needs to provide slower speed with travel lanes, bicycle facilities, on street parking, trees, sidewalks, street furniture and lighting. These things slow down the speed for the pedestrian to feel safe to be in the street. Street should be designed as narrower when pedestrian are involved, but if it needs to slow down the traffic on existing street then having speed breakers are very useful. Street car parking is very functional thing in many ways: it slowdowns the traffic, it provides parking on site and decreasing the amount of parking lot pavement, it makes people walk on street, the parking actually protects the pedestrian from on-going traffic on the road (Duany, A. Speck, J. & Lydon, M. 2010). Melbourne streetscape: a critical review The essay talks about the renovation of streetscape in cites, written by Julian Raxworthy. This article reviews the streetscape outcomes of the City of Melbourne in relation to their policy framework as a case study, and questions whether this connection is rhetorical, and consequently whether the framework guarantees a quality outcome.

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Also, the article discussed whether such methods represent an attempt to defer responsibility for public vision in public space, away from municipal authorities, to private industry. “Competition is increasing for the modern footloose sectors of the economy and those expanding internationally oriented activities whose decisions about where to operate are no longer constrained by traditional factors such as access to raw materials, but by high quality infrastructure and quality of life” What he means by that is the assumption of ‘where to operate’ is not some dockland, outer suburban business park, or inner city corporate villa, but rather the interior of the city itself, within the Hoddle grid. (The Hoddle Grid is the layout of the streets in the centre of the central business district of Melbourne). In other words, there is significant because the streets’ recreational value now becomes part of an industrial resource, constituting a ‘high quality infrastructure’ to be moved through with ease, as well as a contributor to ‘quality of life’. This attitude puts a responsibility on the street to operate in two ways that are, if not actually contradictory, and then are at least practically difficult. On the other, when operating as a contributor to ‘quality of life’, its constitution as a recreational space is central. The quality of life of streetscape is: “safety conditions improved, environmental quality, values put into economic, and principles of art of urban spaces.” (Raxworthy, J. 2000). Trees are living building materials in cities, which are used to establish spatial boundaries. Trees are used as walls, and ceilings. The structure and texture of trees give urban spaces a sense of scale. However the trees are used for creating isolated spaces, trees is used to connect and extend the geometry, rhythms, and scale of buildings into the landscape.” (Arnold, 2004) The use of the trees in today’s cities is less balanced compared to what it was in seventeenth century in France. The trees in Egyptians were used as regular symmetrical way that they built their temples with it. The Assyrians planted their trees in rows to create the world’s first famous park. However all these cities provided history to us with an example of how trees were planted and how their organizations of the trees were managed in cities? Most famous place’s trees were arranged in rows, planted as significantly and scattered in unsystematic arrangements giving an expression of nature. (Arnold, 2004). The urban design was begun to manipulate trees for many centuries ago by Europeans. Europeans created patterns that were woven into the fabric of the city, like welldesigned buildings. Their streets, squares, and parks were often linked together by a complex ceiling of tree branches. There are some examples of how the trees were used earlier like in Houston, Texas: Main Street has the most luxurious tree lined in streets. The street is filled with four continuous rows of sculptural Oak trees. Regular tree grouping can great an influential motion in urban open spaces. However designing pair of trees is also element in the landscape. Trees define the space and impose a rhythm. (Wöhrle, R. E. Wöhrle, H. J. (2008). Nevertheless Paris in seventeenth century use of trees in cities reached its full appearance, due to the development of the Tuileries Garden. The Garden was designed by Andre Le Notre who illustrates the great spatial value of trees in urban design in large scale. The network of tree-lined boulevards and avenues, which were connected to parks and square, joined the city of Paris. The Paris city was globally admired with its open space system and highly organized rows of trees, even today. The Central Park, New York, the Largest Park in America with thousands of trees planted as in urban design. The central park trees are planted with given spaced both lengthwise and crosswise, and some trees were planted closely enough to develop the up-right high-branched trunks. But even though the park is still facing issues like: durability, accessibility, and clarity are required for the Park layout.

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Case studies •

Wynyard quarter

Wynyard quarter is an Auckland waterfront shared space. Wynyard Quarter is located to the West of Viaduct Harbour and North of Victoria Park in an area that has been known to many Aucklanders’ as the Western Reclamation or the Tank Farm. Taylor Cullity Lethlean with Wraight designed this shared space. They designed from Quay Street to Silo Park with concrete terminus on the watery cusp of West Haven. They also designed Jellicoe Street and the waterside North Warf Promenade, as well as Jellicoe Plaza within Wynyard quarter. Karanga is a place where people gather for hence the gigantic movable loungers and this address the imbalance in scale proposed by the event centres. The designer’s aim was to provide a functioning for marine industry, which provides the opportunity to get up there and be part of the gantry landscape. The most important part of the project was that the Wynyard quarter is given its own identity by the designers. Like: the tidal steps define as they drop down into the water framed on one side by vertical edge of the timber and concrete that indicate the line of the sea wall that runs under the precinct. The water is there which creates a visual connection but those steps create the physical connection with the water. Another connection of water is that people can connect from waterside. Wynyard quarter connect with the big picture and is connecting into the bigger network of the city. Jellicoe Plaza is a connection space at the junction of the three lager spaces. It is designed to be a central meeting point and for that thing includes within the design are: abundant seating and a boon. North Figure 3 Wynyard Quarter Jellicot Street Wharf is exposed on the harbour edge due to free from planting, studded with industrial strength furniture, where Jellicoe is more of protected with green and fertile. Its landscape is dotted with the pockets of mixed plantings. It’s a lush vegetated environment not so much of the shared space but highly pedestrianisms strip. Gardens in Jellicoe Street are Bio-retention they collect and filter storm water. This case study makes it unique with the site divisions into many different activities. Also the site is not only designed for public but for retail, waterfront, boats, where almost anyone take part. The planting used to reduce the flooding system. The rain gardens, which help, collect the rainwater. It provides good sittings, retails and amusement of water. The planting seems successful on the site. However the Western Edge is very amazing corner to be but it doesn’t seems successful with car park being right up there. And the floor should have been mix rather than all grey basil. The floor can be divided into different styles: like different colours.

Figure 5 Wynyard Quarter Jellicot Street

Figure 7 Wynyard Quarter

Figure 8 Wynyard Quarter Plan View

Figure 4 Wynyard Quarter North Wharf

Figure 6 Wynyard Quarter Jellicot Street from Cafe side

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Fort Street, Auckland Fort Street is a streetscape project under-development. The upgrade of this project aims to create a livelihood in Auckland CBD. The street areas are being transformed into a high quality attractive destination as part of Auckland City Council’s CBD. The area will reflect rich culture and geographic history for people. The streets around Fort Street for upgrade are: Fort Lane, Jean Batten Place, Gore Street, Commerce streets and Shortland Street. The street design includes areas of shared space in Fort Street west, Jean Batten Place and Fort Lane. The streets will be an open public space where pedestrians and vehicles come together. Having Auckland city’s street as shared space, which will be more pedestrian-friendly and will support many activities and businesses. The project of shared space at Fort street is very different compare what others projects are in Auckland. Fort street project is designed with hard surface mostly. The hard surface gives more of runoff water. However in this case there should be rain gardens, swales, or retention systems to control the runoff water of Fort Street. The successful things in there is the way the plants are being planted. However it is possible when these trees grow their canopy grow bigger and wider, which can disturb the ground floor. Moreover in this case, even the canopy grow wider it will only be providing more shade in summer and will reduce the temperature. (Auckland Council, 2012) And (Localist Limited, 2012) Figure 9 - looking West of Fort Street

Figure 10 - looking East of Fort Street

Figure 11 - Fort Street Upgrade Plan View

Figure 12 - Fort Street

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Totara Avenue

Auckland Transport created a shared space in Totara Avenue. New Lynn now has Totara Avenue one of Auckland’s newest shared space streets. The redevelopment of Totara Avenue is an important contributor to creating the Merchant Quarter area, as the remaining historic high street in New Lynn. The High street character of Totara Avenue is different compare to other streets in New Lynn. It has an existing fine-grained built fabric that has the potential for sensitive in-fill and increases in height without compromising the existing character of the street. Although no historic heritage buildings exist in this area, there are key buildings that form recognizable architectural features in New Lynn, which should be enhanced and protected in future development. The reserve had a small gently sloping which aprons one side of the Community Centre structure. There were two specimen trees set in a grass amphitheatre with informal seating areas. There was sense of separation from road and rail corridor achieved by low bluestone wall, which effectively defines the reserve’s boundary without impacting on internal or external views and open quality. (New Lynn Reserves Management Plan, 2004). However the new design of Totara Avenue includes measures to priorities pedestrian movement; slow traffic speeds and provides short-term parking and generous road crossings. This includes changes to landscaping, street widths, parking layouts, and road ‘gateway’ entry design and covers sidewalks. There are changes, which include: • Reducing the road width and increasing the pedestrian sidewalk to allow for slower traffic speeds and space for edge tree planting within the parallel parking spaces • Redirecting traffic to the new proposed intersection on Great North Road, while maintaining the existing Totara Avenue stretch of road to maintain the visual axis along the street and to provide an active street edge for adjacent buildings. • Closing the service/parking access way in front of the community centre and redirecting it further along Totara Avenue to combine with an exit lane from the parking building. This provides a better public space in front of the community building • Providing a pedestrian crossing from the community square that links to the Merchant lanes and square. • Utilizing as much of the existing Totara Avenue Park in the new design of the park. However, the nature of this open space changes dramatically with the new roading alignment and the resultant park is potentially isolated and unused. Therefore a proposed water feature is designed into the space that functions as a visual amenity as opposed to a physical park amenity. (New Lynn City Council, 2008). There is a balance of Pervious and impervious surfaces. The Pervious is used for people movement but mostly for cars movement through the street. There are rain gardens in the street, which controls the run off water of the Totara Ave.

Figure 14 Perspective view of TODD Triangle and Totara Avenue

Figure 16 Totara Ave Plan View

Figure 15 Totara Avenue View Figure 13 Top View

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Osborne street, Newmarket

Osborne Street, Newmarket one of the Auckland CBD streetscape located where mostly cars are used. Designer provides the public with Osborne Street as bringing added depth to Newmarket’s retail edge. Osborne Street is a lane way where pedestrians take priority over cars. Landscape architect Tim Fitzpatrick describes Osborne Street, Newmarket as a shared space. This is because the street is designed to be a pedestrian friendly. The site experience is like having freedom on Lane way Street, where pedestrians step out in front of traffic and they sit down on Osborne Street’s eggs. They play a part of an Art being in the street but at the same time a playful artwork which make people come out for a while. The narrowed street keeps the traffic slow, which empower the pedestrians to come down the street. There are plenty public seating and lighting in the street. The relationship between organic and linear forms explores the eggs in the street. It’s brightly coloured forms lift the mainly grey palette of the surfaces of the urban environment. The Idea behind this design was to developed a hierarchy for the streets within the wider CBD area which include a Public Realm Design Guide with specific treatments for kerbs, paving, vegetation and street furniture. (http://www.isthmus.co.nz/?action=project-detail&id=49 ) The streetscape designer doesn’t talk about how the design is laid out but why it is laid out this way. He talks about the street’s character, art, and features. The way designer think what makes the public more connected the barriers of kerbs or no kerbs in the street. The things he think what makes people be part of. He describes the colour, texture, access and kerbs which make people feel empower in the street. Osborne Street is built on hard surface. Where ever the planter box are placed this is where people sits. The plants seems less shady and are not evergreen. I think planter should have been more bigger in scale and the sitting should be made at the edge of the planter box. Also planter box should be small in lengthwise.

Figure 18 Osborne Street Plants

Figure 17 Osborne Street

Figure 19 Entering Osborne street

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Taradale town centre Taradale town centre is located in Napier. Taradale is known for a strong landscape context and sense of place. The plan of taradale includes redevelopment of green and pedestrian friendly space with providing clear structure, safe pedestrian routes, improved lighting, new seating, and tree and shrubs plants. Gloucester Street was one of the redevelopment in the design plan. The street was designed with street trees down each site and new lighting poles placed asymmetrically down the eastern side. The traffic of the street was controlled by visually narrow of the street with trees and by the broad, raised pedestrian crossings. The street is fully rebuilt with new granite kerbs, high quality street lighting and storm water. The street has a distinctive character and sense of place expressed through paving materials, planting, lighting and street furniture. The taradale town centers have a creative walkable, a well-connected network of streets and pedestrian lanes.

Figure 20 Lights, retention ponds, seatings and plants

Figure 22 Plan View

Figure 21 Seat and lights

Figure 23 Street View

Figure 24 Pedestrians movements

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Greys Ave, Auckland, New Zealand Greys Ave one of the Auckland’s Streetscape Model. It is designed with Avenue trees of large liquid amber, they are found throughout Auckland streets. The street tree shows the age of the model design. This design was planned in history. I choose this project as one of my case studies because this is an old streetscape Avenue Tree well established. Also it is located with apartments and business buildings. The bad side of this project is that this project doesn’t have as many people as accepted to be engaged on streetscape. There is no Food markets or places and there is no office park where people come and enjoy outdoor living.

Figure 26 Greys Ave, in summer

Figure 25 Greys Ave, Aerial Map

Figure 27 Greys Ave, in Winter

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Victoria Street, Hamilton

- transformation of large scale street into small scale with rain gardens and parking. making the Road pedestrian friendly and enhacning the place with landsacape.

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Coronation Road, Mangere Bridge - An existing streetscape in Auckland in Suburban street, also located around the residential area. - The streetscape design shows how successful the site has been used, especially the plants, and the understory plants. - The plants attract the people in nice sunny day by giving them shadow.

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Grand Boulevard Avenue, Barcelona

The Grand Boulevard has three lanes of heavy traffic. Where trees are planted in four rows. The street is completely unfriendly to pedestrians. The street-level retail is dried up. There is pedestrian crossing, shops, car parking, apartment buildings and some people on road, but still this place seems dangerous for pedestrians. Having looked at the apartment buildings, it seems the people should out there almost every minute to enjoy the gatherings of public. The heavy traffic movement is enormous here; maybe it is because of the heavy traffic lanes. Maioro Street is not being a perfect example of streetscape, but it shows some of the results after four lanes have been put up. Before the four-lane road there were two lanes. The traffic movement was slow not because the car parking on the street, but because there was not any sign of motorway. Grand Boulevard is very huge road with many things happening on it. The road is divided into eight lanes. Each lane is for different transport like: first lane for bus second for taxi and others for private cars. Between lanes there is a strip going through which is designed for pedestrian, where people walk, sit under trees. The road is like first retails place, footpath, two lanes, pedestrian lane, three lanes, pedestrian lane, again two lanes, parking on the side, footpath again and then retails. And between those lanes there are four rows of trees planted and lights almost every lane. Grand Boulevard, Barcelona, seems like a shared space, where people, vehicles, trees, lights and open environment for pedestrian are available but compare to Fort Street, Auckland, Boulevard traffic seems faster than a train. The speed of the vehicles is not slow as Fort Street. But wide footpaths pedestrians crossings has given the priorities to pedestrians rather than the traffic. Maioro Street, Avondale, Auckland is like a highway yet the signs say the speed of 50. The movement of people in the street has gone very low. If there wasn’t any school public will hardly come out on the street I guess. The goal of the avenue is to have the eco friendly environment for people, in between the high traffic flow. The trees raise the quality of life standards and their contribution to wild life conservation. It improves the air quality. Trees are also planted as avenues because they create safer walk, and convert streets, parking and walls into more visually pleasing environments. It provides connection to nature and the human senses. People come out there and connect with nature. Characteristic of avenue is: having trees with different shapes, style. They change colour in every seasons. The avenues trees are mostly planted with straight or small branches, because they east to manage. Strengths and weakness of avenues are: trees are not very low to the ground because they can create a hiding place, where the security is required for safety. Trees create a wall in streets for people. Indigenous trees are identity of the street or place. Trees with falling leaves can be very massy in seasons. For avenues need to plant the right tree because large trees can disturb the roads and their canopy gets very big that it cover most of the Figure 28 Grand Bolevard space for sun light to come there.

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Shared space

Shared space is a place where cars, trees, furniture, pedestrians and retails can be part of it. Shared space is slow-speed streets where pedestrians have the right over vehicles and vehicles give way to pedestrians. The Kerbs are removed to create a single level of paving across the full width of the street to encourage outdoor dining, street activities and events. Fort Street, Auckland The site was divided into two different levels: one is the road and the other is the footpath. The street is very busy with cars moving all over the space. The shops are compacted and people movement of pedestrian is only seen those who walking to the shops. Standing on the footpath makes the space look tall inside the street. There are few trees planted side of the street. The activities and movement of people was very low. It was all about retails. The new proposed design looks very open. The use of different material or texture made the street very open and wide looking space. The use of the trees makes the space more ecofriendly. Before there was a restriction of using the street: footpath, street furniture, shops tables, pedestrians, trees, streetlight and cars. Now everything and everyone are joined in one place. There is no division of footpath and roads. People start using the street more than before. The speed of the cars has been put down. Enough trees to be shared and able to sit by and there is more and safe sittings. Benefit of shared space is to retail people whose business get increased, and people who involve in open space. The access around shared is much easier than before even at night. There is more safety in shared space and because of this people have used the space more than ever before. The trees functions to the site are proving shade and cool temperature in sunny days. The trees bring more people to the street rather than the other facilities of the street. In busiest city in busy days trees brings calmness to humans. The good thing about this is that the retail owners get the benefits of having more people around that area. Also having hard surface brings more run-off water. Having seasonal trees in street can make a lot mass time to time. The trees with their season lose leaves and flowers as well, which end up making street massy.

Figure 29 - Existing Fort Street

Figure 30 - Fort Street

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Gardenesque T. O. D(Transit Oriented Development) Triangle Reserve, New Lynn The Gardenesque is located at Totara Ave, New Lynn. The Tod Triangle Reserve has been upgraded as part of the shared space development of Totara Avenue. It is classified as a town centre park, Tod Triangle is one of a network of open green space areas in the inner city and commercial zone of New Lynn. It is designed to accommodate passive amenity, this function is now at odds with the reserve’s location at the fork of a significant traffic intersection. Open gathering area with raised landscape planting, fixed street furniture and established trees. Todd Triangle has local landmark status afforded by: - Its main feature -the clock tower. - Its high visibility location – alongside major traffic arterials. - Established feature from New Lynn’s earliest days. Triangle reserve was a linkage between Great North Road and Totara Avenue. The traffic movement was more than the people. The planting was not much to relax or sit by. The retail system was crowded with vehicles rather than people. The new Design that cover the triangle reserve and Totara Ave. The design is a shared space in New Lynn. The design is pedestrian friendly, and cars are allowed but with a slow speed. There are rain gardens and plants planted on street making the environment of the site eco-friendly. There are different types of plants planted that change the atmosphere of sittings places. Goal of the Gardenesque style is to have different types of plants for visualising, retention ponds and shades. Created the place where people and cars interact at the same time (Totara Ave). The triangles has been lifted up with walls around it. It gives protections from Cars and water being lifted on people sitting in park. Compare to Grand Boulevard the site is very small and have two lanes of road. The feeling of a small place with many activities going on makes most of us stress-free. Being on the site was like much safe compare to Grand Boulevard, because there was grass, sittings, walls of triangle, benches, parking, and small open space for people’s use. They all are covered within small place. Gardensque is very similar to Grand Boulevard. They both are located in between roads. They have plants beside and inside them, functioning to as to raise the quality of life standards and their contribution to wild life protection. It improves the air quality. Trees also create safer walk and sitting places for people. There are more than 3 different types of trees like: palm trees as evergreen, oi oi for rain garden, and liquid amber which is seasonal tree and later will provide shade with its canopy for sitting areas. Where Boulevard have only one type of tree and they seems seasonal. There are many rain gardens designed in Totara Ave, which covers the rain run-off water from the street. Where in boulevard there hardly any rain gardens collecting run off water.

Figure 32 Totara Ave Plants

Figure 33 Totara Ave View

Figure 31 Totara Ave View

18


Large-scale native rain garden

Goal of this project was to collect and clean the rain runoff water and the rain gardens helps with the storm water to be slow and released againto river. Rain gardens also reduces accessibilities and speed. The run off water of the road goes to retention pond. The designing of rain garden and planter boxes have sitting plan with it as well. People sit beside the retention ponds and planter box under the tree. The trees are seasonal and shady but control the air and pollution of the road. There are seatings apart from planter box, beside the planter boxunder the tree. On the busy road this design seems to work due to it is not doing much to the road but it is providing facilities to the people off the road.

http://www.aucklandtransport.govt.nz/SiteCollectionImages/L4ImgImpTrans/gnr_future_large.jpg Figure 34 Cross section of Great North Road

19


Site Location Auckland Map

Site Location: Stoddard Road & Richardson Road

Site Boundary Map

Auckland & Mt. Roskil

20


Historic Maps This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.

´

Map Title

Scale @ A4 1:2500

Created: Tuesday, 3 July 2012,12:24:14 p.m.

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no

1 9 5 9

1 9 4 0

Map Title

´

2 0 0 6

Scale 1:2500 @ A4 Size

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.

Scale @ A4 1:2500

Created: Tuesday, 3 July 2012,12:21:16 p.m.

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no

´

Map Title

Map Title

´

2 0 0 8

1 9 9 6

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no liability for any error, omission or use of the information. Height datum: Auckland 1946.

Map Title

2 0 0 1 0

´

21

Scale @ A4 1:2500

Created: Tuesday, 3 July 2012,12:19:58 p.m.

This map/plan is illustrative only and all information should be independently verified on site before taking any action.Copyright Auckland Council. Boundary information from LINZ (Crown Copyright Reserved). Whilst due care has been taken, Auckland Council gives no warranty as to the accuracy and completeness of any information on this map/plan and accepts no

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Map Title


22


Walmsley is a small community of 3684 people. The charts are compared with the overall Auckland population. The charts shows the ethnic groups living in that community. It shows the education and income per household, which indicates the business around the stoddard Road and community gathering.

23


Stoddard Road and Richardson Road intersection divided into three different zones - This map was focus on this point because to see where the most use of the site is and where it is stopping as commercial. Also locating and looking at the connection of the Oakley creek to the site.

24


25


26

GIS Maps


Land use Map

Âą

0

65

130

260

390

520 Meters

27


Cyclist Route Âą

0

37.5

75

150

225

300 Meters

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Soil Map

Âą

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130

260

390

520 Meters

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Hydrology Map Âą

0

37.5

75

150

225

300 Meters

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Elevation Map

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Layered Map

Âą

0

65

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390

520 Meters

32


keeping through traffic off local streets and providing more reliable travel times to the airport.

Waterview Connection Project Map

The Waterview Connection Project is a combined Surface and tunnel proposal to complete the western Ring Route, keeping through traffic off local streets providing more reliable travel times to the airport. The completed Western Ring Route will create a viable alternative to State Highway 1 for Auckland through-traffic. Not only this enhance safety and journey time reliability throughout the region, it will reduce the burden on the Auckland Harbour Bridge, which currently supports up to 200,000 vehicles per day.

33


Site location

Waterview Connection Project in Mt Roskill

http://www.nzta.govt.nz/projects/waterviewconnection/img/motorway-to-tunnel.jpg

The Waterview Connection project will integrate road bridges, cycle ways and pedestrian bridges within a suite of urban design, landscaping and environmental enhancements. The inclusion of these elements will be complemented by ongoing community involvement, as the NZTA commits to delivering its biggest project with maximum benefit and minimum disruption to the local community. Urban and suburban The word “Urban” comes from the Latin “Urbs” which of itself means a city. The word “city” is connected with the Latin “civis” which means citizen. In this root sense civilization it means the art of living in cities: but should we look at this equivalent Greek term for a “city” a “city stake” “polis” we discover the scene idea. Politics is the art of living in cities. Therefore cities are more than an aggregation of people. Cities are a political system as, on whatever scale, and Athens in the 5th BC had some 15,000-voting citizen, all male, that a city require laws and a governmental structure. Other ways of defining a city include looking at the development of the city “through time”, through geographical extent, political status density population, as a mechanism for centralizing and redistribution of wealth drawn from the city’s hinter land, in terms of the services provided its citizens, of a reflection of a country’s wealth, and as a place offering a certain kind of lifestyle. Although the word “urban” means “city”, every age and every individual has had a different use of what a city is, how it functions, and what it means. It is therefore hard to define the concept of a city in a way with which everyone agrees. However, according to Lowis Mumford, who approaches the problem from the point of view of a student of literature, history and culture a city is not just a matter of physical design and economic function, but a place where the human spirit may thrive. A city must exist in a fruitful relationship with natural environment. The fantasy that is Auckland partly drives from the city’s vital relationship with nature, one of the criteria that Mumford insists upon if a city is to retain its soul. (T. Richard, 2000). However suburban is different than urban. It is a district lying immediately outside a city or town, especially a smaller residential community”. (Dictionary, 2012). Suburban areas normally relate to residential districts. Suburb shows the areas of residential of a bigger city. It also has a lower population density. Suburban is what is surrounding the city. (Difference Between, 2012).

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Western Ring Route Waterview Connection Future commercial Development For Stoddard Road

Figure C-9.49:

Richardson Road to Maioro Street – long term indicative concept

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Ecotone “The transition zone between two different plant communities, like between forest and prairie.” (Dictionary, 2012). This article is discussed and researched on the nesting preferences of birds using nest density in three habitat areas, forest, ecotone, and human residential. Ecotones area is located at the edge of the forest. In ecotones area it contains few trees with mostly dense shrubs. The forest area is where mostly trees are found and it has different types of trees from pines to deciduous. The suburban residential area has different sorts of trees on residents properties, also trees on street. And to attract bird on residential properties people have bird boxes placed on their properties, rather than bird making nests on the trees they use bird boxes. However the study shows that the ecotone area with mild human disturbance attracted the most nest sites. Birds may nest in the mildly affected ecotone area because of its location in relation to the forest. Edge habitats promote species diversity due to the varying level of coverage and forage associated with the area. Forest area is with low levels of human disturbance, because the forested area with low levels of human disturbance demonstrated the second highest nest abundance of the study. The forests are best for bird species that are able to build their nests in tall trees. And the residential area shows the study the lowest nest abundance when compared to the other areas. The absence of natural nest sites may account for this difference. The high level of human influence may also deter certain bird species from inhabiting the area. Birds that are unable to tolerate constant human disturbances will choose to build their nests in less disturbed areas. This article relates to my topic because my study area is suburban area which eventually going to develop to be an urban area in future. This article helps me understand the habitat of ecotone, forest, and residential areas. This article demonstrates how nest successes are an important factor but with that comes ecology as well. The site I am searching on is going to disturb and will disturb the habitat of any kind. However in urban places the birds are highly unlikely to consider living in urban places, unless they are provided with habitat and opportunities to live on. (Fink, E., Kostick, H., & Noe, J., n.d.) The article landscape and urban planning discusses and measure the oppressiveness of streetscapes, like environmental stress and high rise buildings. The purpose of this research found an equation which allows a person to calculate the estimation of oppressiveness of a building on the side of the street, when a person approaches a building the oppressiveness perception increases dramatically. The research shows that the experiment has replicated the real urban environment. They showed an experiment of different factors of oppressiveness streetscape, like trees, height, distance, and buildings. According to this article these things considered to make a better streetscape, in environmentally and socially. However trees are chosen mostly because of their appearance and their location. In view of the fact that the solid angle is directly related to the building mass in a streetscape, the higher the building rises, the larger the solid angle becomes. The height and diameter also affect oppressiveness, but to reduce the opressviness distance should be reasonable. It depends on building’s height and it’s location that what type of trees should be planted there. For example if I am to decide to have avenues of Norfolk Island pine tree on Stoddard road, I need to think the coincident of what this tree will become and what it will provide on the street, like the angle to the building, height of the tree, height of the building, distance between the trees and the buildings, diameter of the tree, and seasonal or evergreen trees. (Asgarzadeh M., Lusk A., Koga T., & Hirate K., 2012). Shared spaces Shared space is not designated space for bikes, pedestrians and cars; but Shared Space creates an environment equal to all, creating spaces that are safer, and more comfortable to be in. Creating uncertainty is an article from landscape architecture New Zealand, it talked about shared space of Auckland where pedestrians have the right of way. Shared space is not only thinking about an open environment but also there are other interests to be acknowledged, like building occupants, passersby, linkage and Citizens. The movement of economy and the people network make more economic opportunities but if through shared space design linking people with the urban areas will not only increase the use of the space also it will increase economic opportunities. For example the first assessment of queen street upgrade was one of the first successes ever. People did notice the difference and actually wanted more change around city streets. It was a challenging project in terms of transforming urban streets into shared space in CBD. Shared space is based on psychology and traffic engineers created clarity between where people and traffic should be. With shared space creating uncertainty it is about awareness, making eye contact with people, and linking citizens. Landscape Architecture New Zealand, 2011) & (Alfandre, J., 2012).

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My site is located at Richardson Road and Stoddard Road shops. The history of site shows that how from a crop land this place has become industrial. The site was open landscape where shops or houses were far-away to be seen. However it slowly grew to be market place and then grew bigger and bigger. But this is not only increased in market but also in population, culture, residential, activities, and connectivity. The fast growth of industrial became conjunction to the Mt Roskill Area. There are many dairy shops with different ethnic background. The facilities around the suburb are available from education to religion; therefore the connectivity of people has become friendlier than before. The site covers residential properties on one side of the Stoddard Road. The survey shows very rapid growth of Stoddard Road. It is possible the way the growths of Stoddard Road is increasing that it will remove the houses and build more of the trade marketing areas on the road. 2011 shows the busiest road ever from 8 O clock in morning and 5 o clock in the evening. It was impossible to get through. The new motorway of Maioro Street has shown the results. The 2012 traffic flows on local road has been reduced since then. Since there is less traffic on the road, it will increase pedestrian usage. Before the cars had the priorities over pedestrian and traffic jammed all the time. Now it will be different. The decrease of the traffic will increase pedestrians more on the street. Initially I choose this site because of streetscape. In Discipline of Landscape Architecture streetscape plays a leading role in large public spaces and private gardens projects. However public health, safety, and welfare require the direct involvement of landscape architects in regulatory programs. Streetscape however not only deals with plants, seatings, but the roads, controls traffic, mange pedestrians being on the road and their safety, and linkage of the street from one end to another. The site has an historic image, which shows the land rural. It became industrial place for people, population increased traffic increased. Traffic reduced people’s movement. Now there is going to be new Ring Route passing by the site. It will reduce the traffic on local roads. The new Water view Connection will make this place more conjunction. It will increase the use of the site. However the issues with the site are the way the traffic moves. The business is the core of the suburb, but it is not linked with people. The site is not pedestrian friendly and nor it going to be, I think. But as long the residents are there the pedestrian will be around. The type of design I thought for Stoddard road would be that: plants, seating areas, and upgrade of streetscape. Most of my case studies show the use of different types of plants like shady seasonal or evergreen. They can set the image in the street. Plants can bring people together. It is human’s things that calm people with nature and the colour green. However the plants reduce the pollutions and traffic on the road. As well as it provide nature to people on the road. The plants are not there for just display they control and clean the runoff storm water too. A street furniture welcome person to outdoor dining and it allows them to enjoy and be part of the atmosphere. The outcome of this design will be the focus on how the street can become functional for pedestrians. The Auckland Plan The map below on the left hand shows the development strategy of Auckland. The map show where growth will happen over the next 30 years in Auckland. At the larger scale the Auckland plan will compromise a network of centers connected by transport corridors, which will accommodate a sizable proportion of housing and employment growth. Auckland’s continued high population growth needs to be matched to a range of accessible, quality housing and employment choices. The emphasis is on growth in existing and compact urban areas which are served by efficient, safe public transport. Developing more compact urban neighborhoods supported by quality networked infrastructure offers opportunities to create healthy, stimulating, and beautiful urban environments. These in turn enhance social cohesion and interaction by attracting people across all demographic groups to a mix of cafes, restaurants, shops, services and well-designed public spaces. Such places provide a range of activities to meet the full range of people’s everyday needs, for work, for play, for shopping and for education. The map below on the right hand shows Auckland’s economy. Richardson Road and Stoddard Road are the local center area and it shows regional economic corridors through it. It shows the understanding of Auckland how it is expected to grow in future. The corridors highlight the flows of economic activity going through Auckland. However the Auckland as an international city relies on improved, balanced socio-economic development across Auckland, so that all residents share in its prosperity. It aims to improve economic performance by prioritizing innovation and the clustering of activities. (The Maps Auckland Council, 2012).

37


Council Vision Maps for Auckland and Stoddard Road

38


Relationship of local centres in walking distance map

Âą

KEY Ring buffer Distance 500 1000 0

0.175 0.35

0.7

1.05

1.4 Miles

Buildings footprint

39


Âą

Pedestrians and cyclist routes proposed and existing around walmsley area

KEY Roads Dedicated cycle lane Shared path or Pedesrian link Route on quieter roads Route with space for cyclists 0

0.225 0.45

0.9

1.35

1.8 Miles

walking and vehicle track

40


A

Stoddard Road

t Road, Exsiting site, Plan, cross section and Perspective

A

There are few model concepts on next page are based on the existing Stoddard Road designs.

Site Plan View

Persective and Cross section

41


Shared Space Concept One

This model is inspired by one of the case studies in New Zealand: Taradale center. The street was designed with street trees down each site and new lighting poles placed asymmetrically down the eastern side. The traffic of the street was controlled by visually narrow of the street with trees and by the broad, raised pedestrian crossings. The street is fully rebuilt with new granite kerbs, high quality street lighting and storm water. Model 1 has shared space on each side of the road, which allows pedestrians and vehicles use the space for parking, shopping, walking etc. In middle there are two lanes for high-speed vehicles, which allow vehicles to pass through like normal roads. However model one do not have easier access through the site apart from the traffic lights. Also this model has no seats to sit around the place. Seats allow people to sit and observe the place. The aim was to achieve easy access through site have public more freely across road. Have seats in order to attract people to site around the site and enjoy the environment. Also make the site pedestrian friendly space with providing clear structure, safe pedestrian routes, seating, and trees.

1

42


Tree Avenue Concept two This model is encouraged from case studies Greys Ave, Auckland, New Zealand. The street is planted with large Tree Avenues on both side of the road. The traffic is controlled by the visual and widens road length. Model 2 has a Tree Avenue in the middle of the road, which allows nature to the site. It helps reduce with noise, pollution and gives plants amenity. Model 2 have divisions between people, vehicles and plants on the road. This model has too much of the traffic on site, which needs to reduce and controlled. It needs to allow people move more freely on site compare to how it is right now. Seats are one of the streetscape elements, which bring people to the site for outdoor enjoyment. However the aim was to bring plant amenity to locals, and easy access to the site.

2

43


Shared Space Concept Three

Model 3 is shared space. It allows everyone move within the site, including, cyclists, vehicles, and pedestrians. Shared space allows people to sit around the site and be part of the nature. However vehicles do not have the right of way over pedestrians. One of the case studies: Wynyard Quarter encouraged it. Wynyard quarter connect with the big picture and is connecting into the bigger network of the city. Jellicoe Plaza is a connection space at the junction of the three lager spaces. Gardens in Jellicoe Street are Bio-retention they collect and filter storm water and it is highly pedestrianism strip. Model 3 allow everyone to be part of the site. They’re no barriers between any lane and any divisions. It is open space and it is open to everyone. Shared space shows economy and economic growth in suburban areas. This model allows more pedestrians than the vehicles. However this model aim was to have everyone connected with the site, but have open space in suburban it is different than urban. Allowing more people will not solve anything due to it is main road, and it needs to be balanced with nature, pedestrians, and vehicles.

3

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Tree Avenue Concept Four

This model of concept is designed with Tree Avenue along the road. There are rain gardens under each tree functioning as storm water management around the site. The design gives parking space under the trees. Jellicoe Street designed in Wynyard Quarter, which is a grand axis with a pedestrian focus and rich, informal planting this boulevard. It establishes a new public space and promotes a civic presence with an indigenous character. This model has enough space on footpaths to sit and easily walk by the shops. The trees provide shade for parking and on the seats. The aim of the model was to provide landscape and facilities to the site. The weakness in this model is facing the coincidence of water filled in the rain garden. It is not possible to treat all water however once the rain gardens get filled they might create mess on site.

4

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Tree Avenue Concept Five

The model five is a Tree Avenue. The design shows Tree Avenue side of the road. In the middle of the road this is a cyclist’s lane. There are parking spaces available under the trees. The trees are planted in rain gardens planter box. It provides plants amenity as well as natural system to the place. The footpaths are wide enough for people to sit on seats and move easily by the shops. However the idea of having plants planted in rain gardens were adapted from Wynyard Quarter. Wynyard Quarter is one of the models that has street designed for pedestrians. Where rain gardens are designed on each side of the road, and parking is available between them. The weakness in this model is that the cyclist lane is in the middle. It seems that they are not protected, I mean by this that when the cyclist’s lane is on side of the road is felt much safer to ride, compare to being in the middle of the road. It seems is unsafe to ride bike. However this is a good thing about the cyclist lane being in the middle will make the drivers reduce their speed and slow down while passing this road. One of the good things about this model is that it treats storm water on the site, which is simple natural system of cleaning water. I think rain gardens are in some way an education to community. The aim of this model was to create place for everyone and provide facilities to everyone. Bring people outdoor and connect with enjoy the nature.

5

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Shared Space Concept Six

The model 6 shows shared space in the middle of the road and arterial road are beside them and beside them are footpaths. The shared space is designed in the middle of the road for people’s engagement and links. Grand Boulevard is also a shared space from where this model is inspired. Grand Boulevard is very huge road with many things happening on it. The road is divided into eight lanes. Each lane is for different transport like: first lane for bus second for taxi and others for private cars. Between lanes there is a strip going through which is designed for pedestrian, where people walk, sit under trees. The road is like first retails place, footpath, two lanes, pedestrian lane, three lanes, pedestrian lane, again two lanes, parking on the side, footpath again and then retails. And between those lanes there are four rows of trees planted and lights almost every lane. The weakness I found in this model is how pedestrians are divided into two different places. From left there is a footpath and in the middle there is shared space and again there is footpath on the right hand after the road. This seems, in order to bring people to the shared space, either it has to be spectacular and amazing to drag pedestrian there, because the local people will not engage as much as they are on footpaths. The aim was to create a space for everyone, to be engaged, to get in touch with. It is a place where people can feel connected with nature, site and people.

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Tree Avenue Seven Concept Seven The Tree Avenue model I designed with activities and facilities. This model has safe pedestrians walking and seating place. It provides safe cyclist lane. It has parking on one side of the road. It has road with arterial road lanes. It has rain gardens functioning as storm water management. It provides plants amenity and nature to the community. This idea is developed from overall function and connection of the site as well as from some of the case studies. The aim was to have something that brings people to use the site. It is a place where people can feel connected with nature, site and people.

7

48


Analysis of seven different concepts in relation to users and features

List of services and functions

List of used

The analysis of this table helps me choose which model is best.

List of Stakeholders Now and in Future

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Stoddard Road

European Trees - With pacific + asian understory Plants

liriodendron

Taro

Red Maple, Acer rubrum

Hibiscus plant

River Birch, Betula nigra

Shadblow, Amelanchier arborea

Thelypteris noveboracensis

claret ash tree

Rough Goldenrod, Solidago rugosa

Gray Birch, Betula populifolia

Virginia Mountain Mint, Pycnanthemum virginianum

White Ash, Fraxinus americana

Torrey’s Mountain Mint, Pycnanthemum verticillatum

Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Witch Hazel, Hamamelis virginiana tree

Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum

Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana

Interrupted Fern, Osmunda claytoniana

Red Oak, Quercus rubra American Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua

Wintergreen, Gaultheria procumbens

Dwarf Cornel, Cornus Canadensis

Pin Oak, Quercus palustris

Bushy Aster, Aster dumosus

Heath Aster, Aster ericoides

Tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica

Wild Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis

American Hophornbeam, Ostrya virginiana Tree

New England Aster, Aster novae-angliae

Swamp White Oak, Quercus bicolor

Tufted Hair Grass, Deschampsia cespitosa

Native Trees - With Native understory Plants

Cordyline australis ti kouka, cabbage tree

Coprosma acerosa sand coprosma

Corokia buddleioides korokio

Coprosma robusta / C. lucida karamu, shining karamu

Entelea arborescens whau

Leptospermum scoparium manuka

Hebe stricta koromiko

Pseudopanax crassifolius horoeka

Arthropodium cirratum renga renga, renga lily

kahikatea tree

Asplenium bulbiferum mouku, hen and chicken fern

Rimu Tree

Asplenium oblongifolium huruhuru whenua, shining

Karaka Tree

Astelia banksii kowharawhara, coastal astelia

Apodasmia similis (Oioi)

Plants Suggested Carex testacea sedge

Phormium tenax harakeke, fl ax

Libertia grandifl ora & L. ixioides mikoikoi, native iris

Dianella nigra turutu

Cortaderia fulvida toetoe

Native Trees - With Pacific +asian understory Plants

Cordyline australis ti kouka, cabbage tree

Corokia buddleioides korokio

Entelea arborescens whau

Leptospermum scoparium manuka

Pseudopanax crassifolius horoeka

kahikatea tree

Rimu Tree

Karaka Tree

Pacific + asian Trees - With Native understory Plants

Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana

Coprosma acerosa sand coprosma

Coprosma robusta / C. lucida karamu, shining karamu

Willow Oak Quercus phellos

Weeping Willow Salix babylonica/alba

Hebe stricta koromiko

melia indian beads tree

Japanese Cryptomeria Katsura Tree CerCryptomeria japonica cidiphyllum japonicum

Arthropodium cirratum renga renga, renga lily

Asplenium bulbiferum mouku, hen and chicken fern

Loblolly Pine Pinus taeda

Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor

Asplenium oblongifolium huruhuru whenua, shining

Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis

Astelia banksii kowharawhara, coastal astelia

Red Maple Acer rubrum

Apodasmia similis (Oioi)

Water Oak Quercus nigra

Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana

Carex testacea sedge

River Birch Betula nigra

Phormium tenax harakeke, fl ax

Black Gum Nyssa sylvatica

Libertia grandifl ora & L. ixioides mikoikoi, native iris

Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Dianella nigra turutu

Cortaderia fulvida toetoe

50


Cross sections

Existing Cross section

New Motorway and Richardson BridgeCross section

Future in next 10 years Cross section

51


Concept development

- Sustainability -Stream/hydrology -Green spaces -Motorway- waterview connection - Comermical -Pedestrians friendly place

52


Where is the water moving and how the water has been treated around this area. existing Stoddard Road

Proposed Stoddard Road

where can i walk safely and spend some time outdoor?

Wynyard QarterJellecoe Street

Development of the design was thought through the site. Figuring out which part of the site was used mostly. Which part was unsafe to walk. Which part was private and owned by councils. The residential and the commercial places. Zones of the site. And finally making connections through green corridors.

53


Final Design 54


Plan View

Stoddard Road Streetscape Design Plan

1 8 10

2

A

7

C

C

1 2 3 4 5

B 3

9

4

12 Pedestrians Pathway

5

13 Pedestrian crossing areas (as well as speed breakers) 6

14 Parking on the Road 15 Road

Scale 1:1000

A

16 Roof gardens

2 2 2

16

14

3

14

13

15

Rain gardens Pick and drop area Courtyard Proposed Buildings-Mix use development

6 Maioro Street 7 Richardson Road Proposed bridge by Auckland City Council 8 Stoddard Road 9 Stoddard Road Proposed Train station by Auckland City Council 10 Waterview connection Project - Motorway 11 Cyclist lane

B

12

Proposed Roundabout of Stoddard Road

11

1

13

15

11

12 16

3

55


Drainage Plan

56


Plants

57


Leptospermum scoparium manuka

kahikatea tree Pseudopanax crassifolius horoeka

Rimu Tree

Arthropodium cirratum renga renga, renga lily

Karaka Tree Astelia banksii kowharawhara, coastal astelia

Asplenium bulbiferum mouku, hen and chicken fern

Apodasmia similis (Oioi)

Carex testacea sedge

Asplenium oblongifolium huruhuru whenua, shining

Planting Plan

58


Stoddard Road

European Trees - With pacific + asian understory Plants

liriodendron

Taro

Red Maple, Acer rubrum

Hibiscus plant

River Birch, Betula nigra

Shadblow, Amelanchier arborea

Thelypteris noveboracensis

claret ash tree

Rough Goldenrod, Solidago rugosa

Gray Birch, Betula populifolia

Virginia Mountain Mint, Pycnanthemum virginianum

White Ash, Fraxinus americana

Torrey’s Mountain Mint, Pycnanthemum verticillatum

Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Witch Hazel, Hamamelis virginiana tree

Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum

Red Cedar, Juniperus virginiana

Interrupted Fern, Osmunda claytoniana

Red Oak, Quercus rubra American Sweetgum, Liquidambar styraciflua

Wintergreen, Gaultheria procumbens

Dwarf Cornel, Cornus Canadensis

Pin Oak, Quercus palustris

Bushy Aster, Aster dumosus

Heath Aster, Aster ericoides

Tupelo, Nyssa sylvatica

Wild Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis

American Hophornbeam, Ostrya virginiana Tree

New England Aster, Aster novae-angliae

Swamp White Oak, Quercus bicolor

Tufted Hair Grass, Deschampsia cespitosa

Native Trees - With Native understory Plants

Cordyline australis ti kouka, cabbage tree

Coprosma acerosa sand coprosma

Cordyline australis ti kouka, cabbage tree

Corokia buddleioides korokio

Coprosma robusta / C. lucida karamu, shining karamu

Corokia buddleioides korokio

Entelea arborescens whau

Leptospermum scoparium manuka

Hebe stricta koromiko

Pseudopanax crassifolius horoeka

Arthropodium cirratum renga renga, renga lily

kahikatea tree

Asplenium bulbiferum mouku, hen and chicken fern

Rimu Tree

Asplenium oblongifolium huruhuru whenua, shining

Karaka Tree

Astelia banksii kowharawhara, coastal astelia

Apodasmia similis (Oioi)

Carex testacea sedge

Phormium tenax harakeke, fl ax

Native Trees - With Pacific +asian understory Plants

Entelea arborescens whau

Leptospermum scoparium manuka

Pseudopanax crassifolius horoeka

kahikatea tree

Rimu Tree

Libertia grandifl ora & L. ixioides mikoikoi, native iris

Dianella nigra turutu

Cortaderia fulvida toetoe

Plants

Karaka Tree

Pacific + asian Trees - With Native understory Plants

Yaupon Holly Ilex vomitoria Witch Hazel Hamamelis virginiana

Coprosma acerosa sand coprosma

Coprosma robusta / C. lucida karamu, shining karamu

Willow Oak Quercus phellos

Weeping Willow Salix babylonica/alba

Hebe stricta koromiko

melia indian beads tree

Japanese Cryptomeria Katsura Tree CerCryptomeria japonica cidiphyllum japonicum

Arthropodium cirratum renga renga, renga lily

Asplenium bulbiferum mouku, hen and chicken fern

Loblolly Pine Pinus taeda

Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor

Asplenium oblongifolium huruhuru whenua, shining

Eastern Redbud Cercis canadensis

Astelia banksii kowharawhara, coastal astelia

Red Maple Acer rubrum

Apodasmia similis (Oioi)

Water Oak Quercus nigra

Eastern Red Cedar Juniperus virginiana

Carex testacea sedge

River Birch Betula nigra

Phormium tenax harakeke, fl ax

Black Gum Nyssa sylvatica

Libertia grandifl ora & L. ixioides mikoikoi, native iris

Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Dianella nigra turutu

Cortaderia fulvida toetoe

59


Local street Conditions

Richardson Road grasses with Lancewood Rewarewa Kowhai

Hendon Avenue

O’D No Nell Avenue

Liquid amber

Kowhai

ficus elastica rubber tree

Yucca

Puka

Flax plants and shrubs

Palm Trees

Phutokawa,

Valonia Stree Maioror Street

Melia Tree

Netherton Street

Lemonwood

Melia Tree

Phutokawa, Pine,

Phutokawa,

Liquid amber

60


Vegetation

Vegetation grow on Lava flow Vitex lucens puriri Dysoxylum spectabile kohekohe Corynocarpus laevigatus karaka Alectryon excelsum titoki Melicytus ramiflorus mahoe Hedycarya arborea pigeonwood Pseudopanax lessonii houpara Myoporum laetum ngaio Macropiper excelsum kawakawa Brachyglottis repanda rangiora Coprosma cf. macrocarpa coastal karamu Collospermum hastatum Astelia solandri Peperomia Asplenium lamprophyllum Hymenophyllum dilatatum H flexuosum Metrosideros perforate white rata Earina autumnalis Litsea calicaris Griselinia Mangeao lucida puka Astelia banksii Astelia solandri Freycinetia banksii Kiekie (Cameron E.K 1999 Mt Eden Rock Forests Auckland City)

61


Streetscame vegetation

Streetscape vegetation around Stoddard road (plants Plus Shrubs)

Melia

Melia azedarach

India

Description

H 15m W 3m

It is highly adaptable and tolerates a wide range of conditions. Suitability

It is sun-loving tree.

Lancewood

Pseudopanax crassifolius

Knightia excelsa

Native Tree NZ

Description

H 8m W 3m

Rewarewa is found from throughout the country from the north cape to the northern south island. It also occurs from lowlands to lower montane forests and in open sits. Suitability

It like damp conditions and is also tolerate to dry conditions. It like better full sunlight.

Native Tree NZ

Description

H 6m W 2m

As a juvenile it stands tall and like a sculpture. The leaves forms after quite a while like a year if it is in good conditions sites. Suitability

Lancewood doesn’t like extreme moist but dry places and free drainage soil are very liked by it. It cannot be prune.

Yucca aloifolia Description

Rewarewa

American

H 6m W 4m

Sand dunes of the coast, occasionally up to 60 km inland, in pine forests. Also found on the margins of brackish marshes. Southeastern N. America - North Carolina to Florida, west to Louisiana. Naturalized in S. Europe Woodland Garden Sunny Edge, Cultivated Beds.

Liquid amber Liquidambar styraciflua Description

American

H 25m W 12m

Suitability

Bottomland hardwood and riparian (streamside) areas provide ideal habitat for sweetgum. Although it prefers moist soil, it is extremely adaptable and will grow in dryer areas.

Puka

Meryta sinclairii

Native Tree NZ

Description

H 5m W 3m

Naturally found on the three kings island. Suitability

It is dry condition lover and mostly found coastal cliffs. It requires free drainage soil.

Suitability

It is extremely drought tolerant once established (as most other Yucca’s) and is best grown in full sun, but will grow well in part shade. Soil should be well draining, light & sandy.

Palm Tree

Arecaceae (Palmae) Description

American

H 3m W 3m

Palms are evergreen plants. Flax

Phormium cookianum Description

Native Plant to NZ

H 1.5m W 1m

Suitability Grow in sandy soil.

Found throughout new Zealand in coastal, dumps, and places. Suitability

It likes to grow in very dry conditions and salt-laden winds. Require full sunlight.

62


Rain garden vegation Oi Oi Native grass to NZ H 1m Leptocarpus similus W 1m Description Grassy plant grown throughout new Zealand. It grows in sun or light shade and wet and dry conditions. This plant will tolerate both saline and fresh water situuations and wind and coastal exposure. Suitability Highly recommended for rain gardens

Karaka

rimu, red pine Dacrydium cupressinum

Kowhai Native Tree NZ H 3-7m W 3m Sophora microphylla Description It cannot live in waterlogged conditions. It mostly occurs near riverbanks to very sunny palaces. Coastal and cold conditions are all right with kowhai but its growth rate will slow it down. Kowhai moth caterpillar can defoliate.

Native Tree NZ

H 30m W 6m

Description

Rimu is wild moist tolerant and it can tolerate quite wet conditions when its roots has cool run. It cannot survive in conditions like too much drier but it can tolerate sunny places. Suitability

It requires full sun to shade to grow and rich moist soil when it is young.

Plants for sunny rain gardens Andropogon gerardii - Big Bluestem Asclepias incarnata - Pink or Swamp Milkweed Aster novae-angliae - New England Aster Aster puniceus - Purple-stemmed Aster Aster shortii - Short’s Aster Aster umbellatus - Flat-topped Aster Caltha palustris - Marsh Marigold Coreopsis tripteris - Tall Tickseed Elymus hystrix - Bottlebrush Grass Elymus virginicus - Wild Rye Eupatorium fistulosum - Joe-Pye Weed Eupatorium perfoliatum - Boneset Gentiana clausa - Bottle Gentian Helenium autumnale - Common Sneezeweed

Corynocarpus laevigatus Description

Native Tree NZ

H 5-10m W 3m

It likes to grow in full sun, in open sunny places. It can tolerate dry conditions but it will slow the growth rate. When the plant is established it is not a problem but it can get into stressed with wet situation. Suitability

It grows happily on the coast sites. It has a lot of fruits, which attract birds. It is not much of tolerant of wet conditions.

Suitability

It like wet or damp places to grow. It likes to grow in nice rich and free drainage soil.

Plants for shady rain gardens Caltha palustris - Marsh Marigold Chelone glabra - White Turtlehead Dryopteris marginalis - Marginal Wood Fern Geranium maculatum - Wild Geranium Helianthus decapetalus - Thin-leaved Sunflower Helianthus divaricatus - Woodland Sunflower Hydrophyllum canadense - Maple-leaved Waterleaf Iris versicolor - Northern Blue Flag Luzula acuminata - Hairy Woodrush Mertensia virginica - Virginia Bluebells Mimulus ringens - Monkey Flower Monarda clinopodia - Basil Balm Onoclea sensibilis - Sensitive Fern Phlox maculata - Meadow Phlox Phlox paniculata - Summer Phlox

63


Rain garden vegation Plants for Roof gardens Achillea millefolium Yarrow Actinidia arguta ‘Issai’ Hardy kiwi, Tara vine Actinidia chinensis ‘Hayward’ Kiwi, Chinese gooseberry Actinidia chinensis ‘Tomuri’ Kiwi, Chinese gooseberry Aegopodium podagraria ‘Variegatum’ Ground elder, Goutweed Agastache rugosa Korean mint Akebia quinata Chocolate vine Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard Allium ampeloprasum var. babbingtonii Babbington’s leek Allium cepa ‘Perutile’ Everlasting onion Allium fistulosum Welsh onion Allium sativum ophioscorodon Serpent garlic Allium schoenoprasum Common chives Allium triquetrum Three cornered leek Allium tuberosum Garlic chives Allium ursinum Wild garlic, Ramsons Aloe vera Aloe vera Aloysia triphylla Lemon verbena Althaea officinalis Marsh mallow Amelanchier canadensis June berry Amygdalus persica Peach Angelica archangelica Angelica Apios americana Ground nut, Indian potato Aralia cordata Udo Aralia racemosa American spikenard

64


1 Perspectives

2

65


3

66


A

A

B

B 67


C

C

68


Cycle Route Now

Âą

0

37.5

75

150

225

300 Meters

69


Cycle Route in Next Five Years

70


Cycle Route in Next Ten Years

71


Cycle Route in Next Ten Years

72


Reflection and Conclusion

New Models of urban planting (Megan Wraight and Kathryn Holyoake) have proven to offer design potential for the redevelopment of the suburban main street at Mt. Roskill. I have been inspired with the work they have provided designs of streetscape at the large scale. - How: 1- Provided green infrastructure - Rain garden 2-

Shared/ living spaces

3-

Safer pedestrian environment

4- Sense of place - plants selection -Community – markets

Further investigation will be: design lights and seats on Stoddard Road Connect cyclists lane with Owaraka Street Connect pedestrians with Oakley stream Mt Roskill train station courtyard as market place Mix use development building’s courtyards as: community gardens, office parks.

73


Reference Dempsey Wood Civil Contractors Limited. (n.d.) Retrieved From: http://www.dempseywood.co.nz/shared-space-and-streetscapes New Lynn TOD Programme. (2012). Landscape Architecutre New Zealand. Terieved From: http://laonline.co.nz/2011/04/new-lynn-tod-programme/ Barrett, M. (2011). Garden Place, Hamilton. Journal of Landscape Architecutre New Zealand. Wiktionary. (2011). Streetscape. Retrieved From: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/streetscape Duany, A. Speck, J Lydon, M. (2010). The smart Growth Manual. United States of America. John, F. Dwyer, Herbert W. Schroeder, and Paul, H. (1991). The significance of urban trees and forest: toward a deeper understanding of values. Journal of Arbori culture. Arnold, H. F. (1993). Trees in urban design second edition. New York, America. Streetscape Improvements. Enhancing Urban Roadway Design. (2012). Retrieved From: http://www.vtpi.org/tdm/tdm122.htm Barrett, M. (2011). Wynyard Quarter, Auckland CBD. Journal of Landscape Architecutre New Zealand. Bradshaw, A. Hunt, B. and Walmsley, T. (1995). Trees in the urban landscape principles and practice. London Spon. Trowbridge, P. J. and Bassuk, N. L. (2004). Trees in the urban landscape site assessment design and installation. Rubenstein, H. M. (1992). Pedestrian malls, streetscapes, and urban spaces. New York. Raxworthy, J. (2000). Melbourne streetscape: a critical review. Melbourne, Australia. Grid, H.(2012). Reterived from: www.reference.com/browse/Hoddle_Grid Duany, A. Speck, J. & Lydon, M. (2010). The smart growth manual. New York, America. Arnold, H. F. (2004). Trees in urban design. New York, America. Wรถhrle, R. E. Wรถhrle, H. J. (2008). Designing with plants. Hugeasscity (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://hugeasscity.com/2008/12/31/listen-the-final-word-on-the-viaduct/ Auckland city council. (n.d.)Retrieved from: http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/projects/fortstreet/default.asp Central & Islands: Fort St shared space opens. (n.d.). Retrieved from: http://www.localist.co.nz/central-islands/articles/fort-st-shared-space-opens New Lynn City Council (2008). Retrieved from: www.waitakere.govt.nz/.../newlynn.../1-new-lynn-urban-regen-cover... New Lynn Reserves Management Plan (2004). Retrieved from: http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/cnlser/pbr/plans/pdf/newlynn/part2-newlynn%20.pdf Auckland Council, (2012). Fort Street area upgrade. Auckland New Zealand. Localist Limited. (2012). Fort St shared space opens. Auckland, New Zealand Statistic of New Zealand. (2011). Retrieved at 18/04/2012 3:24pm from: http://www.statisphere.govt.nz/ Asgarzadeh M., Lusk A., Koga T., & Hirate K. (2012). Landscape and urban planning. Fink, E., Kostick, H. , & Noe, J. (n.d.). BIRD NEST ABUNDANCE IN RELATION TO VARYING LEVELS OF HUMAN DISTURBANCE. Journal of Ecological Research. Retrieved from: departments.juniata.edu/biology/eco/documents/ Fink_etal.pdf Dictionary, (2012). Retrieved from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ecotone?s=t&ld=1032 Auckland Council. (2012). The Auckland Plan. Retrieved from: http://theplan.theaucklandplan.govt.nz/development-strategy/ (Dictionary. (2012). Retrieved from: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/suburb T. Richard, (2000). The city reader. London, New York Difference Between. (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between-urban-and-suburban/ Landscape Architecture New Zealand. (2011). Creating Uncertainty. Auckland New Zealand. Alfandre, J. (2012). Shared Space: How to Make a Better Space for All. Retrieved from: http://granarydistrict.org/profiles/blogs/shared-space-how-to-make-a-be

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Figures: 1: Image from my camera 2: Image from my camera 3: Image from my camera 4: Image from my camera 5: Image from my camera 6: Image from my camera 7: Image from my camera 8: http://www.waterfrontauckland.co.nz/News/Archived-News/ 9: http://www.urbika.com/images/view/14469 10: http://www.urbika.com/images/view/14469 11: http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/council/projects/fortstreet/default.asp 12: http://www.urbika.com/projects/view/2724-fort-street-upgrade 13: http://www.aktnz.co.nz/2011/08/30/48927/ 14:http://www.aktnz.co.nz/2011/08/30/48927/ 15: http://www.idealog.co.nz/blog/2012/01/new-lynn-town-centre-gets-spruceup 16: http://transportblog.co.nz/2012/01/10/another-shared-street-for-new-lynn/ 17: Image from my camera 18: Image from my camera 19: Image from my camera 20: www.isthmus.co.nz/.../36eb8b257984cb0063db5c6167be5c7d33114 21: www.isthmus.co.nz/.../36eb8b257984cb0063db5c6167be5c7d33114 22: www.isthmus.co.nz/.../36eb8b257984cb0063db5c6167be5c7d33114 23: www.isthmus.co.nz/.../36eb8b257984cb0063db5c6167be5c7d33114 24: www.isthmus.co.nz/.../36eb8b257984cb0063db5c6167be5c7d33114 25: Google Image 26: Google Image 27: http://www.flickr.com/photos/michael_speedracer/6569365149/ 28: http://hugeasscity.com/images/grand-boulevard-barcelona.jpg 29: Image from my camera 30: http://www.urbika.com/projects/view/2724-fort-street-upgrade 31: http://www.idealog.co.nz/blog/2012/01/new-lynn-town-centre-gets-spruceup 32: Image from my camera 33: Image from my camera 34: http://www.aucklandtransport.govt.nz/SiteCollectionImages/L4ImgImpTrans/gnr_future_large.jpg 35: Google Image 36: Google Image 37: Google Image

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Negotiated study E-book  

Forth year's Project of Landscape Architecture -Topic - Streetscape

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