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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Accknowledgement I would like to express my great appreciation to Ar. Rajshree Mathur for guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and her support in completing the dissertation. She inspired me greatly to work in this research. Her willingness to motivate, contributed tremendously to my project. I would also like to thank her for showing me some example that related to the topic of my research. I would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation my Disseratation Coordinators Dr. Ila Gupta and Professor Ar. J. B. Khadkivala for their support and for giving me a good guideline for this research throughout numerous consultations. I would aslo like to extend my sincere thanks to the head libarian of MBS School of Planning and Architecture, Mrs. Sonia Kthakur for their constant help. This dissertation would not be complete without the accknowledgement of the support and encouragement of my batch mates. Finally, I would like to thank everyone, closely or remotely associated in this study for supporting and encouraging me in the exploration of my research.

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Table of Contents Abstract Acknowledgements List ofI llustrations List of Contents

1. Introduction

2.

1.1 Aim 1.2 Problem and scope of study 1.3 Objective 1.4 Key Questions 1.5 Methodology 1.6 Expected Outcome 1.7 Limitations

Placemaking: The idea

2.1 Case Study

3.

Public Spaces

3.1 How public places makes city work 3.2 types of public places 3.3 key qualities of a good public place 3.4 Place diagram 3.5 Case Study

4.

From Space to Place: Characteristics of Good Piblic Spaces

4.1 What makes a good public place 4.2 Principles for Successful public spaces 4.3 Elements 4.4 Case Study

i ii iii ix 1-3 1 2 2 2 3 3 3

4-9 9

10-20 13 16 18 19 20

21-29 22 24 27 29

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

5.

Public Spaces of India: The Problem

30-35 32 35

6.

Taking New Steps: Simple Solutions

36-40 39

7.

CASE STUDIES

41-45 41 43

6.

CONCLUSIONS AND DESIGN GUILDLINES

5.1 Why public places fail 5.2 Case Study

6.1 Banglore, taking a new step

7.1 DLF Cyber Hub, Gurgaon 7.2 Kankaria lakefront, Ahemdabad

Reference

46

x

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

List of Illustrations Figure 1: Times Square source:www.pps.org Figure 2: Superkilen, Copenhagen source: http://www.designmagazin.cz/architektura Figure 3: Nehru Place, Delhi source: Author Figure 4: Cloud gate, Chicago source:www.google.com Figure 5: Baba Kharak Singh Marg , Delhi source: Author Figure 6: Streets of Portugal source:www.google.com Figure 7: Surat source:www.google.com Figure 8: George Street, Sydney, Australia source: Project for Public Spaces, 2008, Streets as Places Figure 9: Granville Island source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 10: Melbourne, Australia source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 11: source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 12: Trafalgar Square, London source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 13: Bryant Park, New York, NY source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 14:Campus Martius Park, Detroit, Michigan source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 15: New York Street source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 16: New York Street source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 17: New Orleans source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 18: source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 19: source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 20: source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 21: source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 22: source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 23: Streets of Los Angeles source: www.google.com Figure 24: Crown Fountain, Chicago source: http://www.trendingcity.org/north-america/2013/3/11/interactive-installationsand-public-spaces

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Figure 25: Parley Park, Manhattan source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 26: Bryant Park, New York source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 27: Pioneer Courthouse Square, Portland source: www.google.com Figure 28: Arts District at Bay Street, Bellingham, WA source: www.google.com Figure 29: Times Square, New York source: www.google.com Figure 30: Times Square, New York source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 31: Rockefeller Center, New York source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 32: Plaza Santa Ana, Madrid source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 33: Sunset Triangle Plaza, Los Angeles source: www.google.com Figure 34: Benefits of Public Places source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 35: Sunset Triangle Plaza, Los Angeles source: www.google.com Figure 36: Waterfront Academy, Norway source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 37: Trafalgar Square, London source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 38: source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 39: Central Park, New York source: www.google.com Figure 40: Prado Pedestrian Boulevard, Cuba source: www.google.com Figure 41: Bishop Square, London source: www.google.com Figure 42: Pioneer Courthouse Square Portland

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/

Figure 43: Kungstradgarden, Stockholm, Sweden source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 44: Luxembourg Gardens, Paris source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 45: Jackson Square, Los Angeles source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 46: Place Daigram source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 47: moveable chairs and tables source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 48: waterfall at Parley Park source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 49: people enjoying the enviornment of waterfall

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/

Figure 50: a sense of quiet and privacy source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 51: Main Plaza, San Antonio source: www.google.com Figure 52: Main Plaza, San Antonio source: www.google.com

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Figure 53:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Public-space

Figure 54:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Public-space

Figure 55:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Public-space

Figure 56:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Public-space

Figure 57:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Public-space

Figure 58:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Figure 59:

source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/uol/master-plan/View-Master-Plan/master-plan-2014/master-plan/Key-focuses/public-spaces/

Public-space

Public-space

Figure 60: Public Fountain source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 61: fountain with sitting source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 62: Circular benches at Rockfeller Center, New York source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 63: Flexible use of space source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 64: Seasonal festival source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 65: Walkway with side cafes source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 66: Portsmouth Square, San Francisco

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/

Figure 67: People maintaining garden source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 68: coloured walkway source:photography.nationalgeographic.com/ Figure 66: Street light design source: www.google.com Figure 67: A public art at public place source: www.google.com Figure 68: interactive sitting on walkway source: www.google.com Figure 69: Urban screen Installation at a public place

source: source: http://www.trendingcity.org/north-

america/2013/3/11/interactive-installations-and-public-spaces

Figure 70: Trashcans as Interactive Element

source: www.google.com

Figure 71: Portsmouth Square source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 72: People interacting at square source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/ Figure 73: Eldererly People sitting source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Figure 74: Informal market in a public space at Chandni chowk source: Author Figure 75: People interacting around their houses, sitting on a raised platform outside their house source: Sejpal. S, 1987, Theory and City Form: Cas e of Ahmedabad Figure 76: Birder feeder in residential streetssource: Sejpal. S, 1987, Theory and City Form: Cas e of Ahmedabad Figure 77: Pols of Ahemdabad having interaction spaces source: Sejpal. S, 1987, Theory and City Form: Cas e of Ahmedabad

Figure 78: UN Plaza, San Francisco source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2 Figure 79: Astor Place, New York

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2

Figure 80: Bryant park earlier entrance

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2

Figure 82: waterfront park, Barcelon source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2 Figure 83: Place de la Concorde, Paris Figure 84: Dead wall

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2

Figure 85: Bad location of transit stops Figure 86: Khan Market , New Delhi

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/list?type_id=2

source: Author

Figure 87: Walkway without any elements source: Author Figure 88: parking at public space source: Author Figure 89: No good spaces to sit source: Author Figure 90: Third Street Promenade, California source: Project for Public Spaces, 2008, Streets as Places Figure 91: Graslei, BelgiumFigure source: www.google.com Figure 92: Cathedral Square Market,Miwaukee

source: http://www.pps.org/great_public_spaces/

Figure 93: Denver Art Museum,Denver source: www.google.com Figure 94: source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 95: 10 things to do in a public place source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 96: The team source: Swamy, C. (2014),Fun Aesthetic combo in space below Anand Rao flyover, Banglore Mirror Figure 97: Before intiative source: www.google.com Figure 98: hand book market under the Avenida Fuerzas Armadas, Caracas, Venezuela source: www.google.com

Figure 99: Community space under Hackney Wick flyover, London source: www.google.com Figure 100: Painted Columns of Flyover source: Swamy, C. (2014),Fun Aesthetic combo in space below Anand Rao flyover, Banglore Mirror

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Figure 101: Planters under the flyover which grow in shade source: Swamy, C. (2014),Fun Aesthetic combo in space below Anand Rao flyover, Banglore Mirror

Figure 102: Dump area converted to childern area source: Swamy, C. (2014),Fun Aesthetic combo in space below Anand Rao flyover, Banglore Mirror

Figure 103: Aerial view of DLF Cyberhub source: www.dlfcyberhub.com Figure 104: Street elements source: Author Figure 105: Night view source: www.dlfcyberhub.com Figure 106: Cyberhub during day time source: Author Figure 107: Different levels source: Author Figure 108: OAT for events and sitting source: Author Figure 109: Plan Of Kankariya Lakefront source: www.google.com Figure 110: Night view source: www.google.com Figure 111: Toy train running around the cicumfrence source: Author Figure 112: Water games and water rides for public source: Author Figure 113: Kids play area source: Author Figure 114: Sitting around Lake ressembles to marine drive source: Author Figure 115: Kankariya Lake during Carnival source: www.google.com Figure 116: Butterfly park source: Author Figure 117: Segways for movement around the lake source: Author Figure 118: Sitting for public source: Author Figure 119: People Playing in a public place source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 120: source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 121: People taking photos source: www.google.com Figure 122: source: http://www.pps.org/ Figure 123: source: Author

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Abstract There was a time in our cities and towns when getting from here to there was a pleasant and often enriching experience. Streets and open spaces were places where people liked to be, to walk, to shop, to meet, to play, and even just to people-watch. the urban spaces were like a stage where the community came together and performed a variety show of activities. Then, as the automobile encroached upon our communities, people and the places were shunted aside. Walking from here to there became risky business, and the friendly quality of streets began to disappear. . What once was the essence of community got lost in the hustle of traffic. The last half of the last century was all about the car, the mall, the business park, the new town. But now people want to connect to something that feels more authentic. They want a casual, healthy and fun environment on to the streets. They want to connect to other people and interact with the community. This is what placemaking is all about, giving streets and spaces back to the people. It takes a place to make a community and a community to make a place. The 20th century was about getting around but the 21st century will be about staying in a place worth staying in. Placemaking is a concept and a method of improving the comfort, safety, attractiveness and vitality of streets and other public spaces so that everyone can use and enjoy them. This concept of placemaking has been used in the west to improve their public places. They western cities are known for their respect for public places which we lack here in India. This reasearch paper covers the factors of great public palces. This research paper also covers the social and economical importance of public spaces and how public spaces make a city work. This research paper is to invetigate what are the problems and major issues in indian public places which discourages people from using it and why previous attempts of making a place failed. The research has been done to study what are the barrier against a good public place. A breif study of the historical background of public place has been done to understand the importance of those place. Also and attempt has been made made to find simple solutions for Indian public places can be considered as liveable, hospitable and socializing places and how can we transform a space to a place. Also a study of elements and principless which makes a normal public place to a great public place. Case studies have been done on western public places and Indian public spaces to study the negative and positive points of Indian public places and the various factors that are resposible for it. Further design proposals will be provided that can be used as design guidelines for public places making them a pedestrianized zone and encourage social interaction.

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

1

Introduction Much of our experience of a city depends on its public spaces. Cities are fundamentally about people, and where people go and where people meet are at the core of what makes a city work. So even more important than buildings in a city are the public spaces in between them. What people feel about a city depends on their experience of its public spaces. Are the streets safe? Are they fun to walk down? Are there lots of things to do, apart from eating in sidewalk cafes? And yes, where will the children play? Public space can change how you live in a city, how you feel about a city, whether you choose one city over another, and public space is one of the most important reasons why you stay in a city.

1.1 Aim: The aim of this dissertation is to research and examine how we can make healthy, productive and enjoyable public spaces by studying the case studies of the western and European countries. This dissertation will also raise questions on its implication in Indian cities. Figure 1: Times Square

Figure 2: Superkilen, Copenhagen

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

1.2 Problem And Scope of Study: In this modern India where quality of life is the top most priority of the citizens, lacks hospitable open public spaces. As India is a developing country where 65% of population is youth and the population would perhaps will increase will time and so their lifestyle. So India lacks good hospitable, interactive public spaces which eventually lead to a productive and healthy environment. Modern India's private spaces are better than its public spaces - there are interior spaces tastefully cultivated by rich and poor citizens alike; but our modern public spaces are mediocre.

Figure 3: Nehru Place, Delhi

1.3 Objective: The objective of this dissertation will be: To study what’s there in west: their streets and interactive public spaces and could it be done in Indian context or not. What are the problem with Indian public spaces and how could we can transform them into vibrant public places

1.4 Key questions:

Figure 4: Cloud gate, Chicago

how public spaces makes city work? Why we lack vibrant public spaces? How can we create a productive environment through public spaces?

Figure 5: Baba Kharak Singh Marg , Delhi

Figure 6: Streets of Portugal

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Figure 7: Surat

1.5 Methodology: 1. Studying the elements of western public spaces 2. Case studies 3.Surveys

1.6 Expected outcome: Methods to make vibrant public streets and public spaces. Simple solutions for the public spaces so that it could be applied on existing public.

1.7 Limitations: Case studies will done secondary methods due to absence of projects in country thisdissertation will cover only open and public spaces and streets.

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Placemaking

2

The Idea

The last half of the last century was all about the car, the mall, the business park, the new town.but now people want to connect to something that feels more authentic. They want to rediscover the local, neighbourhood, connection, community. “The 20th century was about getting around. The 21st century will be about staying in a place worth staying in.” (Kunstler, J.H., 2004) Placemaking is the making of a place that defines a community. The people who live and work in a given area are left without a place to interact in a casual, comfortable environment, and the people who visit or pass through miss out on the opportunity to experience the unique sense of place that would come to the fore had the community Figure 8: George Street, Sydney, Australia been more involved. Eachlifeless, underutilized place is a missed opportunity to challenge and delight, and more importantly, to inspire people with a passion for place that they might carry back to their own neighborhoods. Placemaking is the making of a place that defines a community. The people who live and work in a given area are left without a place to interact in a casual, comfortable environment, and the people who visit or pass through miss out on the opportunity to experience the unique sense of place that would come to the fore had the community been more involved. Eachlifeless, underutilized place is a missed opportunity to challenge and delight, and more importantly, to inspire people with a passion for place that they might carry back to their own neighborhoods. ‘Placemaking’ is both an overarching idea and a hands-on tool for improving a neighborhood, city or region. It has the potential to be one of the most transformative ideas of this century. (Project for Public Spaces)

The placemaking approach is based on a belief that it is not enough to simply to plan and develop design ideas and elements to revitalize a public space. A public involvement process that defines and responds to a space is one of the most critical factors in designing a successful public space.Placemaking is how people collectively shape their public realm to maximize shared value. Placemaking involves the planning, design, management and programming of public spaces. More than just creating better urban design of public spaces, placemaking facilitates creative patterns of activities and connections (cultural, economic, social, ecological) that define a place and support its ongoing evolution. Placemaking is how people are more collectively and intentionally shaping their world. 4


Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Placemaking is a strategy that reimagines public spaces as the heart of every community, in every city. It’s a transformative approach that inspires people to create and improve their public places. Placemaking strengthens the connection between people and the places they share. Placemaking is how people collectively shape their public realm to maximize shared value. Placemaking involves the Figure 9: Granville Island planning, design, management and programming of public spaces. More than just creating better urban design of public spaces, placemaking facilitates creative patterns of activities and connections (cultural, economic, social, ecological) that define a place and support its ongoing evolution. Placemaking is how people are more collectively and intentionally shaping their world. Placemaking is a turning a neighborhood, town or city from a place one can’t wait to get through to one which a person never wants to leave. Placemaking is the process by which people transform the locations they inhabit …… into the places they live. Through placemaking cities and public spaces can be transformed to harness the power of public space for the common good. By recognizing and developing the positive potential of public spaces, cities can enhance safety and security, create economic opportunity, improve public health, create diverse public environments, and build democracy. (Project for Public Spaces)

Figure 10: Melbourne, Australia

Placemaking is based on the assets and skills of a community, rather than on relying solely on professional “experts.” It takes a place to create a community and a community to create a place. (Project for Public Spaces) It focus on the strong local partnerships that are essential to the process of creating a dynamic, healthy spaces that serve a city’s people. In simple words placemaking approach is that when it comes to public spaces, “the community is the expert”. An effective placemaking process capitalizes on a local community’s assets, inspiration, and potential, ultimately creating good public spaces that promote people’s health, happiness, and well being.

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Place-making is an incredibly complex art. When people talk about sustainable communities, there are very few people that can actually make that happen because it requires a lot of effort, it requires a lot of learning, it requires a lot of experience. ( Charles.P, 2012 ) Placemaking is not a new idea The concepts behind placemaking got traction in the 1960s, when visionaries like jane jacobs and william h. Whyte (who was jacobs’ fortune magazine editor that got her to write death and life of great american cities) offered groundbreaking ideas about designing cities that catered to people, not just to cars and shopping centers. Their work focused on the importance of lively neighborhoods and inviting public spaces. Jane jacobs advocated citizen ownership of streets through the nowfamous idea of “eyes on the street.” Holly whyte emphasized essential elements for creating social life in public spaces. (Project for Public Spaces) Placemaking principles are generally a lot like common sense, because they’re based on the things we like and need. This can be explained by a simple example.

Figure 11

In the picture, if we enter a café we would prefer to sit at a place which feels safer, back to the wall, no one can sneak up on us, entrance door is in the font and we can see the things coming and going. How we feel in a space relates to our most basic and most human instincts, e.g. To be social but also to be safe. The first and the basic step of placemaking is listening to best experts in the field—the people who live, work and play in a place.the community is the best expert. The people living and working in a place know what needs to be done and how to do it in best possible way.(Project for Public Spaces,2008)

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

By looking at how people are using or not using public spaces and finding out what they like and don’t like about them, it is possible to assess what makes them work or not work. Through these observations, it will be clear what kinds of activities are missing and what might be incorporated. And when the spaces are built, continuing to observe them will teach even more about how to evolve and manage them over time.

Figure 12: Trafalgar Square, London

Placemaking is not just the act of building or fixing up a space; it is a process that fosters the creation of vital public destinations – the kind of places where people feel a strong stake in their communities and commitment to making things better. Placemaking capitalizes on a local community’s assets, inspiration and potential, creating good public spaces that promote people’s health, happiness, and economic well-being. (Project for Public Spaces,2010) In simpler words….placemaking is all about people….making places that are owned and loved by the people. Placmaking is making people feel welcome and at home. The success of a particular public space is not solely in the hands of the architect, urban designer or town planner; it relies also on people adopting, using and managing the space – people make places, more than places make people.

Figure 13: Bryant Park, New York, NY

Figure 14:Campus Martius Park, Detroit, Michigan

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

The aim of placemaking is to create a place, not a design. If the goal is to create a place, a design will not be enough to make it a good place. Physical elements must be introduced that would make people welcome and comfortable, such as seating, landscaping and by developing more effective relationships between the surrounding retail and the activities going on in the public spaces. The goal is to create a place that has both a strong sense of community and a comfortable image, as well as a setting and activities and uses that collectively add up to something more than the sum of its often simple parts. Placemaking is not just about designers or planners designing a public space with some fountain in the center. Everyone has a role to play in placemaking

Figure 15: New York Street

Businesses Private investment and small-scale entrepreneurial activities, such as public markets plays a major role in placemkaing as it encourages people involvement. A good market is never vaccant.

Figure 16: New York Street

Community In placemaking, the bess experts in the field are the people who live, work and play in a place. One of the basic principle of placemaking is people attracting people. It take a place to create a community and a community to create a place.

Figure 17: New Orleans

Council The best places are ones that people return to time and time again. The only way to achieve this is through a management plan that understands and promotes ways of keeping the square safe and lively. A good managing council create a feeling of comfort and safety in a square, fixing and maintaining it so that people feel assured that someone is in charge.

Figure 18

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

2.1 Case Study Times Square, New York Times Square is also called the heart of New York, America’s town square, and the crossroads of the world. Times Square is all of these things. At no other place will one see a greater cross-section of human beings than right here along Broadway. The dozens of Broadway shows, hotels, abundant restaurants and shopping opportunities, even up-to-theFigure 19 minute news all combine to make it a constant hub of activity. Yet the single greatest attraction is Times Square itself. With its hyper-designed oversized billboards and countless shining lights, most people come simply to bear witness to the sheer extravagance of it. Key Point for Times Square

1

Access And Linkages-Thirteen different subway lines can be accessed from Times Square. Numerous city buses intersect this area. Factor in the walkability of Manhattan, and Times Square is probably the easiest place in New York City to get to and explore.

2

Comfort And Image-While not always known for its sparkling image, Times Square has seen a real turnaround in recent years. At the turn of the 21st century, it is substantially cleaner and safer than it has been in decades. It is not a place to relax, though. It is place of extreme excitement, designed to overwhelm the senses.

3

Uses And Activities-Time Square is virtually never vacant. Approximately 26 million tourists visiting annually as many activities happen in Times Square. And people can experience a whole new adventure.

Figure 20

Figure 21

4

Sociability- Timed Square is one the most diversified Square in the world as people from all over the world come and experience Times Square. Figure 22

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3

PUBLIC SPACES In the simplest way Public spaces can be described as the common ground where people come together as friends, neighbors and citizens. Places which people share together—parks, streets, sidewalks, squares, trails, markets, waterfronts, beaches, museums, community gardens, public buildings and more—are the primary sites for human interaction, upon which the communities, economy, democracy and society depend.

Figure 23: Streets of Los Angeles

A public space is a gathering spot, part of neighbourhood, waterfront or other area that helps to promote social interaction and a sense of community. Public spaces include such spaces as plazas, town squares, parks, marketplaces, public commons and malls, public greens, piers, special areas within convention centers or grounds, sites within public buildings, lobbies, concourses, or public spaces within private buildings.

Figure 24: Crown Fountain, Chicago

Figure 25: Parley Park, Manhattan

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Public spaces are favorite places to meet, talk, sit, relax, stroll, read, sun and feel part of a broader whole. They are the starting point for all community, commerce and democracy. Indeed, on an evolutionary level, the future of the human race depends on public spaces. It’s where young women meet and court with young men—an essential act for the propagation of the species. Numerous studies in fields ranging from social psychology to magazine cover design have proved that nothing grabs people’s attention more than other people, especially other people’s faces. We are hard-wired with a desire for congenial places to gather. That’s why it’s particularly surprising how much we overlook the importance of public places today. (Walljasper. J, 2012) Public space is all around us, a vital part of everyday urban life: the streets we pass through on the way to school or work, the places where children play, or where we encounter nature and wildlife; the local parks in which we enjoy sports, walk the dog and sit at lunchtime; or simply somewhere quiet to get away for a moment from the bustle of a busy daily life. In other words, public space is our open-air living room, our outdoor leisure centre. People can use these spaces creatively and spontaneously and thus establish their own identity and territorial rights on them.

Figure 26: Bryant Park, New York

The most successful neighborhood parks are those in which the users take active interest in the park usage and maintainace. Participation and involvement offers the best solution for community spaces and strengthens social ties as well. (Project for Public Spaces)

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Public spaces should support activities and uses that brings people together as communities and provide opportunities for social interaction, cultural enrichment and recreation. The neighbourhood parks are not just a green spaces for trees to grow in and to combat crowding and pollution. It is a space where residents of the block- youg, aged, women, new and old residents feel secure and comfortable and for which they feel a sense of ownership.The open spaces of markets and office blocks are again not just there, they have the potential to be highly visible activity centers A public space provides a joy of seeing as one can see and experience different type of activities going around the place. The activities within that space create a environment which communicates with the people. And eventually a space becomes a place after people act on them and those places are loved and owned by the people. These places act as self motivating places to encourage interactions and create a stage for public life. Public space benefits cities economically contributing significantly to the land use value of a city. Public spaces with visual and aesthetic appeal might fail for lack of good places to sit, lack of play grounds, vending karts, where no existing activities are occurring the functional and physical characteristic of public setting are potential to influence the social life and vitality of public space the favorable functional and physical conditions of public spaces are those that encourages interaction, people’s climatic comfort and security that encourages recreational activities to occur and in general those will enhance the quality life of plazas visibility within the plaza is an important factor for attaing security. Also the presence of mixed uses around public spaces encourages continuous activities and presence of people thus allowing this natural surveillance to occur.

Figure 27: Pioneer Courthouse Square, Portland

Figure 28: Arts District at Bay Street, Bellingham, WA

A secure street is one that proposes a clear delimitation between public and private space, with people and constant movement, as well as small blocks that generate numerous corners and intersections, where the buildings look to the curb so that many eyes keep watch over it. (Jacob. J, 1962)

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3.1 How public places make a city work Cities are fundamentally about people, and where people go and where people meet are at the core of what makes a city work. So even more important than buildings in a city are the public spaces in between them. Enjoyable public spaces are the key to planning a great city. They are what make it come alive. It's not just the number of people using them; it's the even greater number of people who feel better about their city just knowing that they are there. Public space can change how you live in a city, how you feel about a city, whether you choose one city over another, and public space is one of the most important reasons why you stay in a city. Successful city is like a fabulous party. People stay because they are having a great time. (Burden. A, 2013)

Figure 29: Times Square, New York

Social importance of public spaces Public spaces have a significant effect on our overall well-being. Be it green parks, open plazas or shaded atriums, or even the streets that people use every day. Public spaces provide us relief from the dense urban environment. As social venues, public spaces also help to strengthen social identity, as well as offer opportunities for community bonding and building inter-cultural understanding. At the same time, public spaces help to humanize the urban environment by promoting life outside of buildings. They bring economic benefits not only by drawing in more customers for nearby businesses, but also by making a city a more attractive city to live, work and play in.

Figure 30: Times Square, New York

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Public spaces offer many benefits: the ‘feel-good’ buzz from being part of a busy street scene; the therapeutic benefits of quiet time spent on a park bench; places where people can display their culture and identities and learn awareness of diversity and difference; opportunities for children and young people to meet, play or simply ‘hang out’. All have important benefits and help to create local attachments, which are at the heart of a sense of community. The social value of public space is wide ranging and lies in the contribution it makes to ‘people’s attachment to their locality and opportunities for mixing with others, and in people’s memory of places. Places can provide opportunities for social interaction, social mixing and social inclusion, and can facilitate the development of community ties. (Rowntree. J, 2010 )

Figure 31: Rockefeller Center, New York

At their best, public spaces act like a self-organising public service; just as hospitals and schools provide a shared resource to improve people’s quality of life, public spaces form a shared spatial resource from which experiences and value are created in ways that are not possible in our private lives alone. “The street, the square, the park, the market, the playground are the river of life,” explains Kathleen Madden, one of the directors of the New York-based Project for Public Spaces, which works with citizens around the world to improve their communities.

Figure 32: Plaza Santa Ana, Madrid

Figure 33: Sunset Triangle Plaza, Los Angeles

A high-quality public environment can have a significant impact on the economic life of urban centres big or small, and is therefore an essential part of any successful regeneration strategy. As towns increasingly compete with one another to attract investment, the presence of good parks, squares, gardens and other public spaces becomes a vital business and marketing tool: companies are attracted to locations that offer well-designed, well-managed public places and these in turn attract customers, employees and services. In town centers, a pleasant and well-maintained environment increases the number of people visiting retail areas, otherwise known as ‘footfall’. 14


Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Public spaces are open to all, regardless of ethnic origin, age or gender, and as such they represent a democratic forum for citizens and society. When properly designed and cared for, they bring communities together, provide meeting places and foster social ties of a kind that have been disappearing in many urban areas. These spaces shape the cultural identity of an area, are part of its unique character and provide a sense of place for local communities. (Walljasper. J,2012) `

Figure 34: Benefits of Public Places

The exchange of goods and services – such as food and household goods – are still important determinants of what creates vibrant public spaces. But transactions can also take a social form, for example through education and play or sharing ideas. In allotments people trade produce, and they also share tips on how to grow their vegetables. The public realm also provides a forum for people of different backgrounds to mingle and develop awareness of others who are different from themselves.

Figure 35: Sunset Triangle Plaza, Los Angeles

Figure 36: Waterfront Academy, Norway

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3.2 Public spaces type

1

Open squares- An open square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza, plaza, and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, music concerts, political rallies, and other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are usually surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, and clothing stores. At their center is often a fountain, well, monument, or statue. Gardens, sitting out areas, children's play spaces or other areas of a specialist nature, including nature conservation areas are some of the elements of a public square.

Figure 37: Trafalgar Square, London

2

Enclosed or covered spaces- An enclosed public place means the inside of a building or structure to which the public has access, including retail shops, indoor shopping malls, restaurants, bars, places of entertainment, casinos and billiard halls. Designated Smoking Rooms are also a part of enclosed public spaces. Providing for court games, children’s play, sitting out areas and nature conservation areas. Figure 38

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3

Pockets, parks and green spaces- pocket parks: Small areas of open space that provide natural surfaces and shaded areas for informal play and passive recreation that sometimes have seating and play equipment. District Parks: Large areas of open space that provide a landscape setting with a variety of natural features providing a wide range of activities, including outdoor sports facilities and playing fields, children's play for different age groups and informal recreation pursuits. Figure 39: Central Park, New York

A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park primarily intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities.

4

Boulevard and linear open spaceBoulevards: It is a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the centre, and with roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, with landscaping and scenery. Linear open spaces: Open spaces and towpaths alongside the Thames, canals and other waterways; paths, disused railways; nature conservation areas; and other routes that provide opportunities for informal recreation. Often characterised by features or attractive areas which are not fully accessible to the public but contribute to the enjoyment of the space.

Figure 40: Prado Pedestrian Boulevard, Cuba

5

Gathering places around buildingsThese are raised platforms around buildings like cultural centers, museums. They are large open areas and acts as a recreational space for the public. It has different recreational activities, retail shops, eating joints and a huge space for public art, public installations.

Figure 41: Bishop Square, London

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3.3 Key qualities/ Attributes of a good place •

Access and linkage

Access concerns how well a place is connected to its surroundings both visually and physically. A successful public space is visible, easy to get to and around. Physical elements can affect access (a continuous row of shops along a street is more interesting and generally safer to walk by than a blank wall or empty lot), as can perceptions (the ability to see a public space from a distance). Accessible public places have a high turnover in parking and, ideally, convenient public transit. •

Figure 42: Pioneer Courthouse Square Portland

Activities and usage

Activities that occur in a place—friendly social interactions, free public concerts, community art shows, and more—are its basic building blocks: they are the reasons why people come in the first place and why they return. Activities also make a place special or unique, which, in turn, may help generate community pride. Figure 43: Kungstradgarden, Stockholm, Sweden

Comfort and image

Comfort and image are key to whether a place will be used. Perceptions about safety and cleanliness, the context of adjacent buildings, and a place’s character or charm are often foremost in people’s minds—as are more tangible issues such as having a comfortable place to sit. The importance of people having the choice to sit where they want is generally underestimated. Figure 44: : Luxembourg Gardens, Paris

Sociability

This is a difficult but unmistakable quality for a place to achieve. When people see friends, meet and greet their neighbors, and feel comfortable interacting with strangers, they tend to feel a stronger sense of place or attachment to their community—and to the place that fosters these types of social activities.

Figure 45: Jackson Square, Los Angeles

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3.4 Place diagram In evaluating thousands of public spaces around the world, PPS has found successful places have four key qualities in common: they are accessible; people are engaged in activities there; the space is comfortable and has a good image; and, finally, it is a sociable place—one where people meet each other and take people when they come to visit. PPS developed the Place Diagram as a tool to help people in judging any place, good or bad: (Project for Public spaces)

Figure 46: Place Daigram

Imagine the center circle on the diagram is a specific place that you know: a street corner, playground, or plaza outside a building. You can evaluate that place according to four criteria in the orange ring. In the green ring are a number of intuitive or qualitative aspects by which to judge a place; the blue area shows the quantitative aspects that can be measured by statistics or research.

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3.5 Case Study Paley Park 53rd Street between Madison and Fifth Avenues, New York A small vest pocket park in midtown Manhattan, the park was developed (and every detail considered) by the person who paid for it, William Paley, former Chairman of CBS. Mr. Paley was involved in all aspects of planning the park from its conception to the selection of just the right hot dog (which is still served at a reasonable price). Featured in William H. Whyte’s film The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, the park is a success for several reasons.

Figure 47: moveable chairs and tables

For one, it is located directly on the street so that people are attracted to look in and enter. It has good, reasonably priced food, as well as moveable chairs and tables that let people be comfortable and have some control over where they sit. A waterfall provides a dramatic focal point and a reason to enter the park; its noise blocks out the sounds of the city and creates a sense of quiet and privacy. There's adequate shade in the summer from the trees, though they allow a beautiful Figure 48: waterfall at Parley Park dappled light to pass through their leaves. Park is a quite heavily used place, but the movable chairs allow people the freedom to sit where they choose. It is also very noisy - but the noise is white noise from the waterfall.

Figure 49: people enjoying the enviornment of waterfall

Figure 50: a sense of quiet and privacy

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4

From Space to place characteristics of good public spaces Public space are the common ground where people come together as friends, neighbors and citizens. Places we share together—parks, streets, sidewalks, squares, trails, markets, waterfronts, beaches, museums, community gardens, public buildings and more—are the primary sites for human exchange, upon which our communities, economy, democracy and society depend. Public spaces are favorite places to meet, talk, sit, relax, stroll, read, and feel part of a broader whole. They are the starting point for all community, commerce and democracy. Indeed, on an evolutionary level, the future of the human race depends on public spaces. It’s where young women meet and court with young men—an essential act for the propagation of the species.

Characteristics of a Great Public Space include: (American Planning Association)

1.

Promotes human contact and social activities.

2.

Is safe, welcoming, and accommodating for all users.

3.

Has design and architectural features that are visually interesting.

4.

Promotes community involvement.

5.

Reflects the local culture or history.

6.

Relates well to bordering uses.

7.

Is well maintaine.

8.

Has a unique or special character

Figure 51: Main Plaza, San Antonio

Figure 52: Main Plaza, San Antonio

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4.1 What Makes a Good Public Place (Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore, 2014)

The qualities that set a good public space apart from others are encapsulated in the acronym PLACES.

Figure 53

People + programming Successful public spaces are those that are well used and loved by many people. While good design enhances the appeal of a place, regular programming actively draws in new and repeat users by giving people reasons to visit.

Figure 54

Lush Landscaping

Figure 55

The plans to create or enhance public spaces have always included bringing nature into urban areas and providing shade. Wherever possible, lush greenery and attractive waterbodies are also integrated to create exceptional destinations.

Access To sustain usage, convenient access by public transport must be provided. Getting around should be easy in any weather, even for the less mobile. Creating car-free zones is a effective way to create people-friendly spaces. Ann Siang Road, Club Street and Haji Lane in Singapore, are some of the most vibrant streets where the roads are turned to public spaces without having to worry about cars. Figure 56

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Comfort Public spaces need to be safe and comfortable enough for people to linger. Having ample shade, sufficient seating, good lighting and universal design eventually leads to a comfortable place. Where appropriate, developers will be required to contribute public space as part of their developments. Figure 57

Excellence in design + Eye for detail + Engaging Small or seemingly insignificant details can make a difference between an ordinary space and a remarkable one. By placing greater emphasis on design and details, a public space becomes more engaging for everyone.

Figure 58

Sense of delight + sharing of spaces Good public spaces are those that evoke a sense of delight. It could be a scenic view revealed, a humorous sculpture, an enthralling display of people enjoying themselves, or a boulevard of trees. Good public spaces also allow people to share the space, watch out for each other, and just enjoy being there with other people.

Figure 59

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4.2 Principles for Successful public spaces (Project for Public Spaces)

The ten principles below are based on the hundreds of public spaces –the good and the bad– that have been analyzed and observed. What stands out most is that design is only a small fraction of what goes into making a great public space. To really succeed, a square must take into account a host of factors that extend beyond its physical dimensions.

1

Image and Identity: Historically, public spaces were the center of communities, and they traditionally helped shape the identity of entire cities. Sometimes a fountain was used to give the square a strong image: For exmaple Trevi Fountain in Rome or the Swann Fountain in Philadelphia’s Logan Circle. The image of many squares was closely tied to the great civic buildings located nearby, such as cathedrals, city halls, or libraries. Today, creating a square that becomes the most significant place in a city–that gives identity to whole communities–is a huge challenge, but meeting this challenge is absolutely necessary if great civic squares are to return.

Figure 60: Public Fountain

2

Attractions and Destinations: Any great square has a variety of smaller places within it to appeal to various people. These can include outdoor cafés, fountains, sculpture, or a bandshell for performances. These attractions could be small but eventually they make the square a successful place. Some of the best civic squares have numerous small attractions such as a vendor cart or playground that, when put together, draw people throughout the day. Figure 61: fountain with sitting

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3

Amenities: Circular benches provide a comfortable place to sit in Rockefeller Center, New YorkCity. A square should feature amenities that make it comfortable for people to use. A bench or waste receptacle in just the right location can make a big difference in how people choose to use a place. Lighting can strengthen a square’s identity while highlighting specific activities, entrances, or pathways. Public art can be a great magnet for children of all ages to come together. Whether temporary or permanent, a good amenity will help establish a convivial setting for social interaction.

Figure 62: Circular benches at Rockfeller Center, New York

4

Flexible Design: The use of a public spaces changes during the course of the day, week, and year. To respond to these natural fluctuations, flexibility needs to be built in. Instead of a permanent stage, for example, a retractable or temporary stage could be used. Likewise, it is important to have onsite storage for movable chairs, tables, umbrellas, and games so they can be used at a moment’s notice. Figure 63: Flexible use of space

5

Seasonal Stratergy: A successful public place can’t flourish with just one design or management strategy. Great squares such as Bryant Park, the plazas of Rockefeller Center, and Detroit’s new Campus Martius change with the seasons. Skating rinks, outdoor cafés, markets, horticulture displays, art and sculpture help adapt our use of the space from one season to the next. Figure 64: Seasonal festival

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

6

Access: To be successful, a square needs to be easy to get to. The best squares are always easily accessible by foot: Surrounding streets are narrow; crosswalks are well marked; lights are timed for pedestrians, not vehicles; traffic moves slowly; and transit stops are located nearby. A square surrounded by lanes of fast-moving traffic will be cut off from pedestrians and deprived of its most essential element: people. Figure 65: Walkway with side cafes

7

Reaching out like an octopus: Just as important as the edge of a square is the way that streets, sidewalks and ground floors of adjacent buildings lead into it. Like the tentacles of an octopus extending into the surrounding neighborhood, the influence of a good square (such as Union Square in New York) starts at least a block away. Vehicles slow down, walking becomes more enjoyable, and pedestrian traffic increases. Elements within the square are visible from a distance, and the ground floor activity of buildings entices pedestrians to move toward the square.

Figure 66: Portsmouth Square, San Francisco

8

Central role of management: The best places are ones that people return to time and time again. The only way to achieve this is through a management plan that understands and promotes ways of keeping the square safe and lively. For example, a good manager understands existing and potential users and gears events to both types of people. Good managers become so familiar with the patterns of how people use the park that waste receptacles get emptied at just the right time and refreshment stands are open when people most want them. Good managers create a feeling of comfort and safety in a square, fixing and maintaining it so that people feel assured.

Figure 67: People maintaining garden

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4.3 Elements of a Great Public Place

1

Walkways or sidewalks: A sidewalk is a path along the side of a road. A sidewalk is normally separated from the vehicular section by a curb. The best places for walking combine many design elements to create streets that “feel right” to people on foot. Street trees, separation from traffic, seating areas, pavement design, lighting, and many other factors should be considered in locations where pedestrian travel is accommodated and encouraged. Figure 68: coloured walkway

2

Street furniture: Street furniture is a collective term used for objects and pieces of equipment installed on streets and roads for various purposes. It includes benches, traffic barriers, bollards, post boxes, phone boxes, streetlamps, traffic lights, traffic signs, bus stops, tram stops, taxi stands, public lavatories, fountains, watering troughs, memorials and waste receptacles. All these can be designed in such a manner that they don’t just play their respective function but also acts an appealing feature of that place.

Figure 66: Street light design

3

Lighting: It illuminates dark corners and facilitates the safe passage of pedestrians. It highlights architecturally significant structures, defines space and can transform background buildings into canvases for shadow, colour and motion. It also allows public spaces to be enjoyed at night, altering our landscapes to allow for new and unique evening experiences. Similarly, light serves as a wayfinding tool, reinforcing neighbourhood boundaries and identities, and influencing how we perceive and move through space. Lighting creates a sense of drama in a public space.

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4

Public art: Public art is not an art “form.” Its size can be huge or small. . Its shape can be abstract or realistic (or both). It can be site-specific or stand in contrast to its surroundings. What distinguishes public art is the unique association of how it is made, where it is, and what it means. Public art can express community values, enhance our environment, transform a landscape, heighten our awareness. Placed in public sites, this art is there for everyone, a form of collective community expression. Some forms of public art are designed to encourage audience participation in a hands-on way.

Figure 67: A public art at public place

5

Sitting: Seating that is accessible, comfortable, wellmaintained, and located in the right places is critical to successful placemaking. A good place provides different types of seating options such as ledges, steps, benches, moveable chairs as well as different places or locations within the same area, such as in the sun, in the shade, in groups, alone, close to activity, or somewhat removed from activity. And sometimes sitting are designed in such a manner they attract people to sit on it and promotes social interaction.

Figure 68: interactive sitting on walkway

6

Interactive installations or public instations: Interactive art is a form of art that involves the spectator in a way that allows the art to achieve its purpose. Some interactive art installations achieve this by letting the observer or visitor “walk” in, on, and around them; some others ask the artist to become part of the artwork. Urban Screens: Urban Screens are defined as various kinds of dynamic digital displays in urban space that are used in consideration of a well balanced, sustainable urban society – screens that support the idea of public space as space for creation and exchange of culture, or the formation of a public sphere through criticism and reflection. Their digital and networked nature makes these screening platforms an experimental visualization zone on the threshold of virtual and urban public space.

Figure 69: Urban screen Installation at a public place

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

7

Amenities: Public amenities are resources, conveniences, facilities or benefits continuously offered to the general public for their use and/or enjoyment, with or without charge (e.g., restrooms, information displays, public telephones, rain shelters, drinking fountains, etc.). As such, public amenities are expected to function around the clock, in adverse conditions such as inclement weather, high noise environments and in varying degrees of light and heat. Consequently, there are several key attributes that should be integrated into all public amenities to ensure universal usability.

Figure 70: Trashcans as Interactive Element

4.4 Case Study Portsmouth Square Chinatown, San Francisco San Francisco’s Chinese community has taken this western-designed square and adapted it for its own uses. Portsmouth and Washington Squares in Chinatown and North Beach, respectively, are only six blocks apart, each a wonderful reflection of its surrounding community. Just sitting and observing for a few hours in each of them, you can discover the rhythms Figure 71: Portsmouth Square that make each neighborhood so unique. While the design of Portsmouth Square is western in origin, the Chinese community has adapted it for its own purpose. There are spaces for Chinese games, for children to play, for women to gather and for the elderly to take it all in. On Saturday night there is a night market that brings major activity to Chinatown.

Figure 72: People interacting at square

Figure 73: Eldererly People sitting

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Public spaces of India

5

The Problem Much of our experience of a city depends on its public spaces. Yet in India, citizens seem unaware that they have a right to a hospitable city. No one will deny that much of what people feel about a city depends on their experience of its public spaces. Are the streets safe? Are they fun to walk down? Are there lots of things to do, apart from eating in sidewalk cafes (though that is a pleasure in itself)? And yes, where will the children play? (Burte. H, 2008) This concept of spaces for the people is not new. It’s been there in past too and it is carrying forward with the present. If we talk about old Indian cities like shahjahnabad (chandni chowk), there was spaces allocated for the public to have a formal or informal interaction and those spaces acted as a recreational spaces for the people. There was a place in chandni chowk which was wholly dedicated for the public use and it was in the shape of a moon crescent where all the informal activities used to take place and that’s how chandni chowk got its name. An informal market was also there for the public to buy the daily goods with some food vendors. People would felt much safer and happier there as they could experience a lot of activities going around them.

Figure 74: Informal market in a public space at Chandni chowk

In old cities, in the residential areas, there were spaces which were planned for the residents to have a social interaction with their neighbours and those spaces were not just open spaces, there were certain elements like Chabutras (raised platform with a tree as shade) in that space that brings people together and it would make them feel comfortable.

Figure 75: People interacting around their houses, sitting on a raised platform outside their house

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

The pols of Ahemdabad has the same story. The pols are the gated residential sectors of old Ahemdabad with a temple or mosque and around it a big open space for the public for ritual practices. Also a pol has a separate open space for residents for recreational activities. Children could play in that space, women could talk with each other because that space gives a sense of security and they all could feel a part of a single community. And these spaces had some elements like bird feeders and verandhas outside their house which promotes a healthy interaction. So the concept of place making is not new in India. It’s been there from the past but it has lost its value with the time. Metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Figure 76: Birder feeder in Delhi, Bangalore and Kolkata have public spaces residential streets which vary in detail or nuance. But the broad problems stay the same. Unlike many Western cities and suburbs, a lot is happening in our towns and cities. In the West, the city is often empty. In India, it is bursting with activity. But there is not enough of some things (good parks, playgrounds, even simple signage and street furniture), too much of others (private vehicles), and all flow together in extremely disorganized and inefficient ways. The reality is that public space in our cities is not hospitable. Part of the problem is that no one in our cities takes responsibility for the people’s experience of public spaces. Not the planners, not the architects and certainly not the municipal authorities find themselves barely able to stop the city from falling to pieces. As for the politicians, public space is only the setting for their political action. Meanwhile, ordinary citizens seem unaware that their streets and parks could actually be much better. Or that they have a right to a hospitable city. Figure 77: : Pols of Ahemdabad

having interaction spaces The problem is universal. Manhattan as we know it today is remarkably hospitable in its public space. However, at one time, it had less of the vibrant life of parks, playgrounds and “bonus plazas”. Famous destinations, such as Bryant Park, were viewed as unsafe. People hurried past them. Over the last two decades, after the incessant prodding of visionaries—such as the late William H. Whyte and the late Jane Jacobs, who wrote with passion and knowledge about the value of vibrant public space—the city has got its act together. “Indian cities already have great urban spaces. By putting in social amenities, urban services and, above all, a high degree of maintenance, we can once again reconnect these invaluable assets to the city without gentrifying them,” says K.T. Ravindran, professor and head of the department of urban design, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. (Burte. H, 2008)

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

5.1 Why public spaces fail William H. Whyte once said, “It is difficult to design a space that will not attract people – what is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished.” Today, many public spaces seem to be intentionally designed to be looked at but not touched. They are neat, clean, and empty – as if to say, “no people, no problem!” But to us, when a public space is empty, vandalized, or used chiefly by undesirables, this is generally an indication that something is very wrong with its design, or its management, or both. (Project for Public Spaces) The following are the most common problems of public spaces.

1

Lack of places to sit – Many public spaces in India don’t even provide a place to sit. So, in their protracted quest just to be comfortable, people are often forced to adapt to the situation in their own way. A lack of good places to sit is an equally important issue. For example, a choice of seats in sun or shade can make all the difference in a place’s success, depending on its climate and location. Allowing people to sit near a playground or within view of other activities is also crucial.

Figure 78: UN Plaza, San Francisco

2

Lack of gathering points – This includes features people want or need, such as playgrounds, or places where varying elements–bus stop, vending cart, outdoor seating– combine to create a gathering point. Food is often a critical component of a successful gathering point. Indian public spaces are not hospitable and lack certain elements which makes a person feel comfortable. Figure 79: Astor Place, New York

3

Poor entrances and visually inaccessible spaces – If a space is to be used, people need to see it and they need to be able to get to it. This is the most common reason for the fall of the public spaces in India because the spaces are not visible in people’s sight.

Figure 80: Bryant park earlier entrance

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4

Dysfunctional features-Oftentimes features are designed simply to punctuate the space, serving a use more visual than functional, instead of encouraging activity to occur around them. Public art and installations are some of the elements which are not seen in Indian public spaces.

5

Figure 82: waterfront park, Barcelon

Domination of a space by vehicles-There may be a lack of crosswalks, or streets that are too wide, or lacking sidewalks. A main street is not a highway. Also in India, the open spaces for the public converts into a parking space automatically which results in fall of public space as there is no difference in public and vehicular ways.

Figure 83: Place de la Concorde, Paris

6

Blank walls or dead zones around the edges of a place- The area around a space is as important to its success as the design and management of the space itself. The blank wall contributes nothing to the activity of the street. In fact, it doesn’t even seem real.

Figure 84: Dead wall

7

Inconveniently located transit stopsBus or train stops located in places where no one wants to use them are a good recipe for failure. A transit stop located in a busy, active place can not only make that place better, but also increase transit use.

Figure 85: Bad location of transit stops

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Likewise, the public areas of shopping centres have no community support and pay the price in their appearance. Garden maintenance, rather than being a market-wide project, has one sponsoring store that can spend as much, or as little, as it wants on the flowers, benches and gates. This results in rusted gates jagged with barbed wire, wilted plants and little seating area. Roads and parking lots are also in a bad shape because of lack of community response. One example of this is Khan Market, currently the single most expensive piece of real estate in India. Despite the market being a hot spot for top design stores, it still looks like a dingy alley. The cobblestones are broken; there are no public trash cans, so shoppers have to avoid the rubble and wrappers as they make their way from one high-end shop to the next; and the parking lot is a mess. A coalition of stores needs to push for an overhaul of the public space. There’s something to be said about individuality, but in a market that individuality does not need to extend all the way to the street.

Figure 86: Khan Market , New Delhi

Take garden fences. Perhaps there is merit in the abundance of fences in some cities, given the possibility of vandalism and crime. Doesn’t New York, too, have fences around parks and playgrounds? But does even a traffic island need a fence? Why not just pave it, plant a few trees and place a couple of benches (even the controversial ones that let you only perch, not sit)? That way, no one loses sleep over the fate of the exotic foliage planted to flatter a sponsor’s (or marketing manager’s) ego, rather than respecting pedestrians’ need for rest. This is important particularly in India, where the invisible and disempowered majority still relies on walking as a mode of transport. (Burte. H, 2008)

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

5.2 Case Study Baba Kharak Singh Margh, Connaught Place, New delhi. Baba kharak singh marg is one of the major road of central Delhi and along one side of the road is the Emporiums with open plaza around it. The Emporiums are quite attractive and attracts a lot of foreign tourist as those Emporiums have the essence of Indian Culture. This places has lot of potential of becoming a great public place of Delhi.

Figure 87: Walkway without any elements

The plaza around the Emporiums were built to give public an interactive place but the plaza around is not so happening because of this Emporiums have to face decrease in footfall. This plaza is only active at the time of events where people get a lot of activities around the plaza and can enjoy the outdoor setting. This is the major different between the usual days and event days. Reason For its Failure

1

One of the major is the parking. The open space left for public activities is converted in parking place which doesn’t give a possitive vibe to the public using that place. And a taxis stand is also developed in that place only leave no space for public activities.

Figure 88: parking at public space

2 3

There is also lack of public concern as there are no dedicated sit outs for public to enjoy the open space or any other elements or street furniture. Lack of good places to sit, lack of play grounds, vending karts, where no existing activities Figure 89: No good spaces to sit are occurring the functional and physical characteristic of public setting are potential to influence the social life and vitality of public space the favorable functional and physical conditions of public spaces are those that encourages interaction which is absent in this plaza. 

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

6

Taking a New Step Simple Solutions Placemaking is not rocket science that only experts can make a place better for living. Placemaking is for the people and by the people. Placemaking is a key ingredient of urban regeneration as it enhances the soul of a place. Effective placemaking works with existing infrastructure and local communities to create a sense of ownership and civic pride. These are the simple steps that can make a successful public place. (Project for Public Spaces) Applying these simple soluutions, we can also create or enhance our public spaces in India.

1

Improve Streets as Public Spaces-Streets are the fundamental public space in every city, but many are choked by traffic, so Placemaking encourages the planning of cities for people and places, not just cars. The ideal street will be able to sustain different modes of transportation, whether it be car, rail, tram, bicycle or pedestrian, and all will work parallel with each other. Planning out a hierarchy of corridors ranging from major boulevards to quiet neighborhood streets will also affect what develops on that street and create more appropriate street-building interactions. Creating more pedestrian-friendly streets in general will provide spaces for interpersonal interaction and foster a sense of community that is impossible in a primarily vehicular road.

Figure 90: Third Street Promenade, California

2

Create Squares and Parks as Multi-Use DestinationsIf public squares and parks are planned around major public destinations, they build local economies, civic pride, social connection and human happiness. These spaces serve as “safety valves” for a city, where people can find both breathing room and relaxation in a well-planned park space or fear and danger in a badly-planned one. The most successful public spaces are “multi-use destinations” with many attractions and activities, where citizens can find common ground and where ethnicity and economic tensions can go unnoticed.

Figure 91: Graslei, Belgium

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

3

Build Local Economies through Markets-Historically, the essential function of any urban center has been a crossroads where people have come together to exchange goods and ideas and public markets have been at the heart of most cities since ancient times. Markets are traditionally the most productive and dynamic places in our cities and towns, where the exchange of news, politics and gossip takes place and where people solidify the social ties that are essential to a healthy society. Markets do many things for cities, including but not limited Figure 92: Cathedral Square Market,Miwaukee to encouraging entrepreneurship, sustaining farmland around cities, strengthening ties between urban and rural areas and improving access to fresh food. Replacing the traditional market with a supermarket has proven to have no social value and has only deteriorated existing community ties.

4

Design Buildings to Support PlacesBuildings with interesting interiors may be architecturally successful to some but it is the architecture that permeates outwards beyond the facade and towards the street level where it engages the city fabric that is the most successful because it is built with the human scale in mind. It is especially important to invest in public institutions like museums, government buildings and libraries so that they engage their surrounding urban environment and foster more opportunities for interpersonal interaction.

Figure 93: Denver Art Museum,Denver

5

Reinvent Community Planning- When planning projects within an established community, it is very important to identify talents and resources in that community – people who can provide historical perspective, insights into how the area functions and an understanding of what is truly meaningful to local people. Planners should always partner with local institutions and involve them from start to finish because communities have a more holistic vision for their public space than the more limited outside professional and can act as valuable facilitators and resources. Good public spaces are flexible and respond to evolution of the urban environment, so keeping the community in long-term control ensures that the space will adapt to their changing needs. 37


Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Figure: 94

6

Power of 10- The principle of the Power of 10 is the importance of offering a variety of things to do in one location – making a place more than the sum of its parts. For example, a park should not only be a park, but a park with a fountain, playground, food vendor, nearby library, etc. If a neighborhood has 10 places that each have 10 different things to do, then that neighborhood is on the right track; but if that city then has 10 neighborhoods of this nature, all citizens will be guaranteed excellent public spaces within walking distance of their homes.

Figure 95: 10 things to do in a public place

7

Lighter, Quicker, Cheaper: Start Small, Experiment- On the other hand, big is not always better – or the only strategy. Small moves like creating places to sit, a sidewalk, a cafe, planning a community event, organizing a container garden or painting crosswalks all have positive effects on a community and its public space. Informal settlements in particular are already accustomed to lightweight, innovative strategies that can rethink their environment, so implementing small changes here and there can really add up. 38


Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

6.1 Banglore, taking a new step Anandrao Flyover project One of the good example in India is Anandrao Flyover project of innovating Public Space in Bangalore. The initiative- undertaken by New York based Columbia University’s SUI Lab’s Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation and Banglore based Shristi School of Art, Design and Technology took up the beautification work under the flyover. The result was revolutionary: from a dumping ground, the space under the flyover transformed into a bright and colourful space. The dumping yard has become a mini park with play zone for the children. Figure 96: The team

Figure 97: Before intiative

The project is inspired by ‘Folly for a flyover’- an amphitheatre made of recycled material under a motorway in London. Spaces under flyovers were being well utilized world over. They were being used as amphitheaters, cafeterias, exhibition centers, gardens and even homes in places such as Hong Kong, Singapore, Mumbai and Mexico.

Figure 98: hand book market under the Avenida Fuerzas Armadas, Caracas, Venezuela

Figure 99: Community space under Hackney Wick flyover, London

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

The idea of this project was to allow people to slow down in life in such places. People who worked around these areas could use this space for recreation during breaks and parents taking their children to and from school can make use of the play areas. The purpose of this project was to propose interventions for space beneath and around flyovers, provide safe space for pedestrian, use of recycled waste, provide activities like running, playing, sitting and temporary art galleries and crafts area, plants materials that grow in shade and need less watering and also ensures that the interventions are low cost, engaging people and attractive.

Figure 100: Painted Columns of Flyover

The work is done by using scrap from billboards was used to fabricate a series of metal frames and benches, while discarded pavers and gravel were reused to remake sitting areas. Sign boards and fences were combined into the design of the park. The concrete pillars were cleaned and painted in bright colours. Creepers and planters that grow in shade were planted around the pillar. 27

Of the Rs. 30 lakh allotted for the project, the team has spent 3 lakh only. (Swami. C, 2014)

Figure 101: Planters under the flyover which grow in shade

Figure 102: Dump area converted to childern area

This project could be an inspiration for other public spaces as these spaces don’t need heavy funds to initiate but some attractive elements. By just changing the environment of that place people starts feel safe and comfortable in that space and have become a major attraction for the people who pass by. The design intention was to create a place and not a design which results in transformation of a dump yard into a beautiful public place. 40


Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

7

Case Studies 1.

Cyber Hub

DLF Cyber Hub is a privatized public space which is located in the vicinity of DLF Cyber City in Gurgaon. This place is situated in the heart of Cyber City. Cyber Hub is unique concept in India. It is a socializing zone that has food at its core. However, it is the ambience that makes Cyber hub an unparallel experience. It is spread over 2 lakh sq ft. and is surrounded by multinational corporation buildings. And the daily average footfall at Cyber Hub area is around 20, 000. (DLF Cyberhub)

Figure 103: Aerial view of DLF Cyberhub

This uniquely designed plaza combines open and enclosed spaces, much in the same way as its many modern European and American counterparts. It has large walking space for the pedestrians and is based on the western street concept of side cafes with eating joints around the both sides of the shaded walkway and with outdoor sitting for the public which makes people feel welcome.

Figure 104: Street elements

Figure 105: Night view

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

As the place is surrounded by the western based company’s offices, the spaces are also designed according to that. The idea of Cyber hub was to create a place not a design which people can relate to. There is no vehicular movement in the stretch creating a pedestrian precinct. Focus is given on the street furniture and elements that makes Cyber hub a more attractive place. Open sitting for the cafes under the sky and can experience other activities around themselves results in slowing down people at that place and those spaces acts as a multifunctional spaces.

Figure 106: Cyberhub during day time

Cyber hub is built in 3 levels and each level has open and enclosed spaces creating a attractive place. Escalators have been used to reach different levels which give the aerial view of Cyber hub. Main focus is given on the lighting of Cyber hub as this place is more active in the evening. Different types of lighting have been used. Lighting sculptures like mushroom columns have been installed with height up to 10m and sitting around creating a attractive place.

Figure 107: Different levels

Another element of Cyber hub is the big amphitheater with greenscape on the sitting levels. A dual faced urban screen has been used for the amphitheater which servers the audience from two directions. This place acts a major attraction at the time of events as a big open space has been left around it for promotional activities. One of best thing at Cyberhub is the open air gallery at the back side. With a large walkway in front of it, any artist could display his work at that stretch which acts as a public art venue.

Figure 108: OAT for events and sitting

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

2.

Kankariya lake, Ahemdabad.

Kankaria Lake is the biggest lake in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. It is located in the southern part of the city, in the Maninagar area. The 32 hectare, circular lake with another 32 hectare of land around it, built during the medieval Sultanat period of Gujarat, can today qualify as a premier world class reaction hub. A lakefront has been developed around the lake with large walkway all around it. The lakefront has been divided into different activity zones. List of major activities at kankaria lakefront: Kankaria Zoo Balvatika Amusement Park Kids City Toy Trains Balloon Safari Butterfly garden

Figure 109: Plan Of Kankariya Lakefront

The idea of kankariya lakefront was to create a complete recreation hub by bringing together distinct features that fall in international class. And the people naturally feel inspired by it. Kankaria lakefront acts a big public square which brings the people together to have fun and to have a wonderful experience.

Figure 110: Night view

Figure 111: Toy train running around the cicumfrence

Figure 112: Water games and water rides for public

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

The big hit for the children at the front is the Kids City. Kids City is a miniature world designed for kids. It is spread in 4240 sq.metre area. Here a child can spend the entire day in super enthusiasm while physically executing 18 different educationalcum-playful activities including banks, fire station, science lab, radio station, police station, court room and prison, dental as well as medical hospital, theatre, BRTS, heritage gallery, town governance, IT centre, News room, ice-cream factory, etc. Figure 113: Kids play area

Focus is also given on the street furniture such as signages and waste receptors which educates people in an interactive manner. A raised platform is made all around the lake for the sitting so that people can enjoy the lakeview and feel closer to the nature which resembles to sitting at marine drive. Kankaria also has Bungee ejection and artificial rock climbing activities apart from speed boating and a multicoloured laser show every evening that gives a stunning look to the place.

Figure 114: Sitting around Lake ressembles to marine drive

Figure 115: Kankariya Lake during Carnival

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Amongst the many features dotting the outer and inner periphery of the water body are four which are a first in India - the helium balloon which gives people a bird's eye view of Ahmedabad city, the Kids City that enables children of seven-to-14 age group to have a physical experience of 18 important human besides two toy trains run around the lake which connects the whole lake. The fourth feature is the upcoming and the country's biggest Stone Mural Park on the side walls of the circular lake in which sculptors are depicting in pink sand stone the history and rise of Gujarat.

Figure 116: Butterfly park

Segways are introduced for people for easy movement around lake. A mini golf course; Aqua Kart and other water sports; Vertical Swing, Paint Ball Shooting, Black Flash and rides, Sky Fly and other joyrides were introduced which gives new opportunities to people.

There are many activities at kankaria lakefront one can enjoy whole day but what is equally striking about the place is the cleanliness in spite of a record average daily footfall of 35,000 people that climbs to nearly 25 lakh people during the annual, one week Kankaria Carnival around Christmas time. There is scarcely any litter at the place as the train moves along the lake's 3 km-long outer radius taking people and as the crowd enjoys at the eateries located on the way. The reasons are two: Firstly, good management and supervision. Secondly, the cooperation of the people who feel inspired by the place to use the litter box.

Figure 117: Segways for movement around the lake

Figure 118: Sitting for public

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Conclusion and Design Guidlines

8

The first step is listening to best experts in the field—the people, who live, work and play in a place. Principles for Creating Great Community Places Effective public spaces are extremely difficult to accomplish, because their complexity is rarely understood. As William (Holly) Whyte said, “It’s hard to design a space that will not attract people. What is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished.” The key elements in transforming public spaces into vibrant community places, whether they’re parks, plazas, public squares, streets, sidewalks or the myriad other outdoor and indoor spaces that have public uses in common. These elements are:

1 2

The community is the expert- The people living and working in a place know what needs to be done and how to do it. As they share and use that place with people of different communities and acts a single community.

Create a place not a designIf your goal is to create a place (which we think it should be), a design will not be enough. To make an under-performing space into a vital “place,” physical elements must be introduced that would make people welcome and comfortable, such as seating and new landscaping, and also through “management” changes in the pedestrian circulation pattern and by developing more effective relationships between the Figure 119: People Playing in a public place surrounding retail and the activities going on in the public spaces. The goal is to create a place that has both a strong sense of community and a comfortable image, as well as a setting and activities and uses that collectively add up to something more than the sum of its often simple parts. This is easy to say, but difficult to accomplish.

3

You can see a lot by just observing- We can all learn a great deal from others’ successes and failures. By looking at how people are using (or not using) public spaces and finding out what they like and don’t like about them, it is possible to assess what makes them work or not work. Through these observations, it will be clear what kinds of activities are missing and what might be incorporated. And when the spaces are built, continuing to observe them will teach even more about how to evolve and manage them over time. 46


Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

4

Make people feel welcome and at home- The Objective of creating a public place should be to give people a comfortable enviornement. People should feel their teritorila rights on that public space.

5

Form supports functionIf we don’t take into account how people use a place in the beginning, we will have to deal with the consequences later as a place is formed by a community who use it.

6 7 8

Slow people down- More people, staying longer generates activity.

Figure 120

Create spaces that are Photo worthy- By installing public art and elements

Create Multi-functional spaces- Spaces which could be use in different ways by the people. Spaces which can be used for differenent purposes like performing, sitting etc.

9

Start with the petunias: lighter, quicker, cheaperThe complexity of public spaces is such that you cannot expect to do everything right initially. The best spaces experiment with short term improvements that can be tested and refined over many years! Elements such as seating, outdoor cafes, public art, striping of crosswalks and pedestrian havens, community gardens and murals are examples of improvements that can be accomplished in a short time.

Figure 121: People taking photos

10

Triangulate- A great place offers many things to do, all of which enhance each other and add up to more than the sum of the parts. Figure 122

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

What placemaking is–and what it isn’t placemaking is:

Placemaking is:

Placemaking isn’t:

• Community-driven

• Imposed from above

• Visionary

• Reactive

• Function before form

• Design-driven

• Adaptable

• A blanket solution

• Inclusive

• Exclusionary

• Focused on creating destinations

• Monolithic development

• Flexible

• Overly accommodating of the car

• Culturally aware

• One-size-fits-all

• Ever changing

• Static

• Trans-disciplinary

• Discipline-driven

• Context-led

• Privatized

• Transformative

• One-dimensional

• Inspiring

• Dependent on regulatory controls

• Collaborative

• A cost/benefit analysis

• Sociable

• Project-focused • A quick fix

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

All these stated things makes a public place lively and nice enough to generate people interest and keep the city spaces alive. Study of great public spaces of the west was done to figure out the problems with Indian Public spaces. The place should not look out of the place as well as architecture must match with the surroundings. Western public spaces also suffered with the same problems that Indian public spaces faces today but eventually western cities understood the importance of public spaces which lacks in Indian cities. The history states that what in the west ultimately comes to east. So the concepts of placemaking have to be understood to serve the public and to give them a better place to socialize. India lacks those public places but there are some examples as studied from the case studies but a proper study of public needs has to be done before taking a step. India also has great public spaces and the streets of India are much livelier than the western streets but maintaince issue is a major issue. Also citizens have to realize their responsibilities toward public spaces because to form a great public space, everyone has to contribute. From the case studies the final conclusion is public spaces with visual and aesthetic appeal might fail for lack of good places to sit, lack of play grounds, vending karts, where no existing activities are occurring the functional and physical characteristic of public setting are potential to influence the social life and vitality of public space the favorable functional and physical conditions of public spaces are those that encourages interaction, people’s climatic comfort and security that encourages recreational activities to occur and in general those will enhance the quality life of plazas visibility within the plaza is an important factor for attaining security. Also the presence of mixed uses around public spaces encourages continuous activities and presence of people thus allowing this natural surveillance to occur.

Creating new destinations

Towards a Liveable City Public Spaces

Rejuvenating existing spaces Involving the community in placemaking

Figure 123

Encouraging Collaboration

Using design as a trnasformative tool

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Placemaking: creating a place of sense and a sense of place

Refrences • American Planning Association, Great Places in America: Public Spaces, Characteristics and Guidelines of Great Public Spaces • Burden, A. (2013), Ted Talks • Burte, H. (2008), Open Spaces for the people, Urban Architecture India • Charles, P. Placemaking, Creating a city of future, PPS • Jacob, J. (1962), Death and Life of Great American Cities • Kunstler, J.H., 2004, Project for Public Spaces • Project for public spaces, placemaking 101, what is placemaking, www,pps. Org • Project for Public Spaces, 2008, Eleven Principles for Creating Great Community Places • Project for Public Spaces, 2010, A Guide to Neighbourhood placemaking in Chicago, www.pps.org • Rowntree, J. The Social Value of Public Spaces 2010 • Swamy, C. (2014),Fun Aesthetic combo in space below Anand Rao flyover, Banglore Mirror • Urban Redevelopment Authority, Singapore Govt, Master Plan: Public Spaces, What makes good public spaces • Walljasper,j.2012, Public spaces makes the world go round, www.shareable. net • www.dlfcyberhub.com

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Architectural Research Paper: Placemaking  
Architectural Research Paper: Placemaking  
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