Aquaculture times Vol-1

Page 1

Globalization of SPF White Shrimp




Prof. K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao Editor-in-Chief

Dr.S.Ayyappan Director-General Indian Council of Agricultural Research New Delhi India ADVISORY BOARD Dr.Jim Wyban Consultant at H2A2 Prawns Ltd, USA Dr. W.S.Lakra Director Central Institute of Fisheries Education Mumbai India

Mr. V.Siva Prasad Managing Editor Dr. P.Jaganmohan Rao Executive Editor Dr.A.Devivaraprasad Reddy Assistant Editor

Prof.S.V.Sharma Vijayawada

Dr. P. Jayasankar Director Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture Bhubaneswar India

Dr.K.Veeraiah Guntur

Dr. Iddya Karunasagar Senior Fishery Industry Officer Food and Agricultural Organisation Rome Italy

Dr.K.Sumanth Kumar Guntur

Dr. J. K. Jena Director National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow India

Dr.N.Gopala Rao Guntur

Dr. A. K .Singh Director Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research Nainital India

Dr.P.Padmavathi Guntur

Dr.K.K.Vijayan Director Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture Chennai India

Dr.K.Sunita Guntur

Dr.P.V.Krishna Guntur

Dr.V.Venkata Ratnamma Guntur

Prof.P.Hari Babu Nellore

Dr.G.Simhachalam Guntur

Dr.M.Jagadesh Naik Guntur

ISSN: 2394-398X Vol. 1 Issue 1 JULY - AUGUST 2015

SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES of SPF White Shrimp 32 06 Globalization Jim Wyban


Aquaculture and Marine Biotechnology: A Future for India Arun S. Ninawe Cold water Fisheries in India :

14 Issues and challenges A.K.Singh and S.Ali

35 37

Diversification of Freshwater

19 Aquaculture- Propagation of Tilapia Culture in Andhra Pradesh P.Ram Mohan and T.V. Bharathi


Ornamental Fish Farming for Entrepreneurship Development P.Jayasankar and S.K.Swain


Role and the Way 24 Multidimensional 41 Forward for Aquaculture in National Development S.Felix and P.Antony Jesu Prabhu Anti-Viral Properties of 27 Potential Phytochemicals against Shrimp


30 Farmers Guide

POPULAR ARTICLES Husbandry Practices in Trout Culture Salman Rauoof Chalkoo Cautions in using Organic Raw Manures in Fresh water Fish Culture: Effective and Cost Effective usage of Mature Organic Manures in Aquaculture Jalagum Krishna Prasad Feeds and Feeding in Aquaculture P.V. Rangacharyulu and Ramesh Rathod Probiotics A Boon for Aquaculture A. Balasubramanian and T. Suguna


Ammonia in Culture Pond water its Formation and Impact on Culture Organisms S.V. Sharma

45 48 57

Career in Aquaculture

Diseases DSD Suman Joshi and A Krishna Satya Sudden Drop in Ground water Levels Leading to increased Calcium P. Jaganmohan rao, Aruna Kumari and Latha kumari


News Expert Reviews

Aquaculture plays an important role in providing food and income to many developing countries, either as a stand-alone activity or as an integrated farming activity. Aquaculture going to face many challenges over the next decade, notably, combating diseases and epizootics, broodstock improvement and domestication, development of appropriate feeds and feeding mechanisms, hatchery and grow-out technology, as well as water-quality management. Biotechnology encompass a wide range of approaches that can improve subsistence and commercial aquaculture production and management. Present day aquaculture is being eroded each day due to unending anthropogenic stress. Thus there is a dire need for proper investigation and documentation of imprint genes with an innovative scientific molecular biology based techniques for the development of aquaculture. Aquaculture genetics shows immense potential for enhancing the production in a way that meets aquaculture development goals for the new millennium. In present scenario, apart from the morphological studies, novel genetic and molecular studies have gained immense value in identifying the aquatic animal diseases and also protect the genomic imprints of the aquatic animals. Molecular techniques can create a pioneering focus on the cultivation of high-yield and stress-resistant varieties, detecting and preventing diseases as well as the development of new types of breeding for embryonic development and epigenetic modifications of DNA occur through various processes and are assumed to facilitate differentiation into specific cell types. Once widespread, this system will revolutionize as biological information to get familiarized with the species diversity. Aquatic species that are endangered, need identification for evolving a strategy for their conservation. This imprint technology may help the farmers and traders to improve the quality of aquatic animals with free of diseases with native genes.

Aquaculture developments can have profound influence on human health due to the increased prevalence new diseases. Aquaculture can make efficient use of scarce resources, however conflicts may arise between different water users. It is consequently important to balance the positive and negative effects when establishing new technology and aquaculture systems. The main objective of Aquaculture Times magazine, is to address the problems of aqua farmers globally and disseminate the scientific and farm based knowledge.

K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao


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Globalization of SPF White Shrimp Jim Wyban H2A2 Prawns Ltd., Hong Kong and Hawaii

Production results in SPF ponds were significantly better than in non-SPF ponds in all three regions. A typical result is illustrated by data in Table 2 comparing SPF and non-SPF

Development of SPF White Shrimp in the US in the early 1990s resulted in a doubling of US industry production. Subsequent introduction of SPF White Shrimp to Asia in the late 1990s, produced dramatic increase in shrimp production and rapid spread through Asia. White Shrimp’s widespread adoption in Asia tripled global shrimp production between 2000 and 2010. By 2010, White Shrimp production accounted for 80% of total world production and was the dominant species farmed in China, Thailand, and Indonesia – the world’s three leading production countries at that time. Recently, India has adopted White Shrimp for farming that has resulted in a boom in production.

Domestication of SPF White Shrimp In the late 1980s, US shrimp farmers were suffering a variety of serious disease problems. Our research group at Oceanic Institute set out to develop a disease-free shrimp to alleviate these problems. Our SPF program was based on developing

shrimp that were certifiably free of “listed pathogens” which are disease-causing microbes that can be diagnosed and can be physically excluded from a facility. The listed pathogens used in SPF certification are shown in Table 1. It is interesting that the listed shrimp pathogens in 1990 were limited and didn’t include White Spot, Yellow Head, Taura or IMN viruses. At that time, there were no PCR systems available for shrimp diagnostics. All diagnostics to establish the first SPF stocks were done by histopathology.

Impact of SPF White Shrimp in the U.S. Industry Commercial production trials comparing SPF and non-SPF stocks were undertaken by the US industry. In 1991, 2000 SPF broodstock were shipped from Hawaii to shrimp hatcheries in Hawaii, Florida, Texas and South Carolina. Biosecurity protocols were developed to prevent disease introduction and produce SPF postlarvae. More than 50 million SPF postlarvae were produced and stocked into commercial U.S.

Table 1. SPF Listed Pathogens – then and now. Pathogens used to establish the first SPF shrimp stock are marked (•) under column 1990. Listed SPF pathogens used in 2010 are marked under column 2010. PATHOGEN TYPE

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ponds for field trials of the SPF shrimp. SPF ponds were run side by side with non-SPF ponds in all three farming regions.






IHHNV - Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus


WSSV – White Spot Syndrome Virus


YHV, GAV, LOV – Yellow Head Virus



TSV – Taura Syndrome Virus




Metazoan Parasites

MBV, MBR, BMN, IMNV Microsporidians, Haplosporidians Gregarines Larval nematodes, trematodes, cestodes

1990 2010

shrimp in an intensive commercial pond in Hawaii. Harvest weight, size uniformity (CV), feed conversion (FCR), total crop and crop value were all greater in from crop value in both trials, the SPF crop was more than twice as profitable as the non-SPF crop. Based on the excellent results of pond trials in 1991, more than 5000 SPF broodstock were produced in Kona Hawaii in 1992 and supplied to US hatcheries. More than 200 million SPF postlarvae were produced from the SPF broodstock and stocked into commercial ponds in the three shrimp culture regions of the U.S. Virtually all shrimp ponds in the US were stocked with SPF PL in 1992. Total production of the US industry doubled as a direct result of this innovation. NON-SPF


Stocking Density (PL/m )



Duration (days)



Survival (%)



Mean Weight(g)



CV (%)










Crop less feed costs



• •

• • • • •

Crop Value

Total Crop (kg)

Globalization of SPF White Shrimp SPF White Shrimp broodstock were first shipped to Taiwan in 1996. By 1997, the hatchery was producing substantial quantities of PL and distributing them throughout Taiwan. By August, farmers who stocked White ShrimpPL had great harvests – they made lots of money and news of the White Shrimp jackpot reached the front page of the national newspaper. Urgent demands for White Shrimp broodstock deluged Hawaii shrimp farmers. The Taiwan White Shrimp craze continued at a fevered pitch through the winter and spring of ‘98. It was widely agreed that introduction and success with SPF White Shrimp was the most exciting news in Taiwan shrimp farming since the collapse of their P. monodon industry in 1989 (Liao, pers. com.).

Fig1. L.vannamei broodstock


In addition to increased production, use of SPF shrimp reduced incidence of shrimp disease. There was unanimous opinion among U.S. farmers that the tremendous profitability experienced in 1992 was due to use of SPF stocks!

Thailand’s Shrimp Revolution Thailand starting farming shrimp in the 1970s, using locally available P. monodon broodstock captured from the sea to produce PL in land-based hatcheries for pond stocking. By the early 1990s, Thailand emerged as the world’s leading farmed shrimp producer and exporter based on P. monodon production. In the 1990s, disease problems increased risks and slowed industry expansion. Yellow head and white spot viruses severely impacted production. Government-sponsored research and extension helped the industry adjust and manage around these diseases. These viruses were most often introduced through the wild broodstock supply. Despite these problems, the Thai industry maintained its position as the number 1 shrimp producer. In 2001, Thailand’s P. monodon production peaked at 280,000 MT.

Table 2. Comparison of SPF vs non-SPF shrimp in a commercial intensive system in Hawaii (1991).

Fig.2 Annual shrimp production in Thailand comparing Black Tiger and White Shrimp.

These dramatic gains in production from use of SPF shrimp were experienced in all three shrimp production regions of the U.S. in many different environments and using a variety of technologies and stocking densities. Use of SPF shrimp in commercial farms increased production and survival, improved FCR and narrowed harvest size distribution. Each of these improvements contributed to increased profitability.

By 2001, Thai farmers faced a new disease called Monodon Slow Growth Syndrome (MSGS), characterized by slow growth leading to smaller harvest size and lower prices. The cause of MSGS is still unknown. This slow growth problem with P. monodon set the stage for SPF White Shrimp introduction. Farmers were looking for a lower risk, more reliable way to make money farming shrimp.


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White Shrimp Advantages A key issue in understanding the rapid spread of White Shrimp through Asia is to understand the specific advantages White Shrimp enjoys compared to Black Tiger in shrimp farming. Several important factors of biology that strongly favor White Shrimp for farming include: White Shrimp nutritional requirements are less expensive to satisfy. Lower protein feed can be used with White Shrimp. Further, White Shrimp greatly benefits from pond ecosystem- generated food. While not well understood, White Shrimp’s feeding behavior and waste metabolism generates a healthy “nutritious” ecosystem that actually supplements White Shrimp growth. A second key factor is White Shrimp is amenable to high stocking densities. This is some what dependent on the ecosystem factor but is also a result of White Shrimp’s behavior. Domestication has played an important role in this behavior. Recent trials in super-intensive culture in the US have successfully reared White Shrimp at stocking densities over 800 PL/m2.

Shrimp Farming Eras

Limited SPF White Shrimp broodstock imports were first tested in 2001. Results were impressive with stable, consistent results; high survivals and fast growth to 20 g in 100 days with uniform size distribution at harvest (2-3 size classes). The SPF shrimp were tolerant to higher densities than P. monodon – up to 2.5 kg/m2 and there were lower incidences of mass mortalities. The industry lobbied to allow more broodstock imports in 2002. More farm trials followed and 2002 also saw tests of “homegrown” or “F1 broodstock”. Farmers soon found that most growth and production advantages of true SPF White Shrimp were lost using “home grown or F1” broodstock. Slower growth and large size variation and more disease events were typically experienced with F1 stocks. White Shrimp production in 2002 jumped to 20,000 MT. Figure 4 illustrates the rapid increase in White Shrimp production (white bars) between 2002 and 2006 while P. monodon production (black bars) rapidly declined. By 2009, White Shrimp represented over 98% of total production and total production reached 600,000 MT more than double the previous peak in Black Tiger production. Progressive Thai farmers were producing 20-30 MT/Ha/ crop using SPF White Shrimp. Table 3 compares the relative production numbers and profits between species in Thai shrimp farms. These data clearly show the driving force of Thailand’s change from farming Black Tiger to White Shrimp is the superior production economics with White Shrimp. Crop value and profits ($/ha) with White Shrimp are 2-3 times greater than with Black Tiger. Reliability of production (avoidance of disease) is also higher with SPF White Shrimp.

Shrimp farming’s long and colorful history can be divided into three distinct eras (Table 4 and Figure 5). During the “Wild PL Era” nearly all stocking material was wild PL gathered from the sea. In each hemisphere, shrimp farming was based on use of native species. In Asia, the industry was dominated by Black Tiger while in the West, the industry used White Shrimp. During this era, annual production increased rapidly (~100%/year). Growth was driven by very strong market acceptance and demand for farmed shrimp product and a relative absence of disease which allowed simple pond culture methods to succeed. The second Era in shrimp farming is the “Hatchery PL Era” (1988-96). In this phase, post larvae were produced in landbased hatcheries. While cultured, these PL were genetically

Fig.4 Annual production of L.vannamei (in MT) wild animals because the parents were wildcaught brood stock gathered from the sea. During this era, shrimp farming in each hemisphere continued to use native species. The West was dominated by White Shrimp while Asian shrimp farming was based on Black Tigers. Asian shrimp production was at least five times greater than Western production throughout this era so global production statistics in this era were dominated by P. monodon. During the Hatchery PL Era, total world production only increased from 604 to


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Table 3. Shrimp Farming Eras ANNUAL PRODUCTION (000 MT)


Era Name






Wild PL






Hatchery PL






SPF White Shrimp












The fourth Era is “EMS Era”. This vibrio-caused disease has reeked havoc throughout the Asian industry with heavy Fig.5 L.vannamei Larvae losses in Vietnam, China and Thailand. While SPF stocks are 693 thousand MT resulting in an average annual gain of just part of the solution to the EMS problem, system biosecurity 2%/yr. Thus there was very little industry growth during and husbandry systems need to be upgraded to overcome this era compared to the Start-up Era. The main obstacle to this problem. growth in this era was widespread shrimp disease. These Economic Impact and the Future diseases were largely spread through the industry with the hatchery- produced PL because the hatcheries paid little or Widespread adoption of SPF White Shrimp has significantly no attention to animal biosecurity. Diseases carried by wild improved the economics and reliability of shrimp farming. sourced broodstock were passed to the PL offspring in the The driving force in Asia’s switch to White Shrimp was based on the much higher profit achieved with White Shrimp hatcheries and then transferred to the farms with the PL. compared to Black Tigers (Table 3). The other obstacle to growth in this era was the continued use of wild animals. Shrimp farming production during the Domestication, breeding and globalization of White Shrimp Hatchery PL Era reached a “carrying capacity” for use of wild, added tremendous value to the world shrimp industry. In non-domesticated, non-SPF animals. While farmers tried the mid-90s, annual shrimp production was 700,000 MT per increasing stocking densities to increase yields and profits, year with a total crop value of about $3.5 billion based on an their use of wild animals precluded these attempts and average price of $5/kg. Current crop value is worth more than $12 billion with 3.5 MMT at $3.50/kg. This is more than 3-fold prevented industry growth. increase in industry value resulting from the domestication, The third era of shrimp farming is the “SPF White Shrimp breeding and widespread use of White Shrimp. This industry Era”. From 1996 to 2010, industry production grew from transformation is driven by White Shrimp’s lower production about 700,000 MT to 3.5 MMT with sustained annual costs which derive from advancing domestication coupled growth of more than 20% per year. This rapid growth was with White Shrimp’s natural growth traits. White Shrimp primarily driven by the domestication, breeding and rapid profitability and reliability advantages will bring more and adoption of White Shrimp in Asia. China, Indonesia, Vietnam more farmers to use it with a goal of lowering production and India are the four leading shrimp farming nations of the costs and increasing reliability. The biggest opportunity to world. Thailand’s dramatic shift from Black Tigers to White lower costs in shrimp farming is through the use of top quality, Shrimp may best illustrate this Asian transformation. It is disease free (SPF) postlarvae carrying high performance characterized by the use of domesticated White Shrimp bred genetics cultured under optimum conditions to maximize for faster growth and disease resistance. As domesticated their growth potential. animals they are far more accommodated to culture systems. The single biggest factor contributing to the rapid increase in production is the domestication, breeding and widespread use of White Shrimp as species of choice for farming.


Aquaculture and Marine Bio-Technology: A Future for India Arun S. Ninawe Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, New Delhi-110003, India

It is considered that life has originated from the sea and almost 70% of our planet Earth is covered with oceanic water body. Ocean is a unique and diverse ecosystem offering almost all living phylogenic groups comprising most ancient and diverse life creatures. This extreme biological diversity is the result of highly variable ocean ecosystems comprising wide thermal range (hot hydrothermal vents and cold Antarctica), pressure ranges (1-1000 atm), nutrient variation, light availability, varying degrees of depth, bottom sediment texture variability, wave actions etc. These extremities offer possible presence of novel organisms which can be used for developing new processes and products to meet demanding needs in the sectors such as, food, medicine, energy. Recent developments in the Marine biology and oceanography reveals that there is immense potential for marine living resources to be used as a source for food protein, energy source and source of new drugs. As the human population increases and the land resources diminish, our next focus will be on these unexplored marine treasures. In future ocean will be the source for food, energy and drugs. Marine biotechnology is a recent area of science which is gaining momentum in Europe, Asia and America. However marine biotechnology is still in the infant stage when compared to other fields of biotechnology. The unutilized and unexplored marine resources are the important biological sources which beneficial for industrial sectors. In Europe, bio-economy was established which utilize a biological resource and it estimates around 22 million employee yields a market size of over €1.5 trillion. To enhance the visualization of India as a knowledge-based economy in the sectors of marine-foods and products over the innovation driven culture demands supports from the state of encouragement and expands research activity. The focus of marine biotechnology was diversified with different funding agencies such as ICAR, MOES, DRDO etc., whereas the Department of Biotechnology is promoting this sector encompasses a sustainable food production system and also to develop new products and processes from marine living resources. It is an interdisciplinary area of science

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which comprises oceanography, marine biology, fisheries and aquaculture, microbiology, cell and molecular biology, genetics, recombinant technology, immunology, chemistry, bioinformatics and engineering. Marine biotechnology adopts techniques in all these disciplines for the faster growth as an emerging area of science.

Aquaculture Breed Improvement With the intensification of population density the land based protein resources are getting depleted. The next focus will be on aquatic resources. The demand for fishery resources and products also will increase in future. As a result it leads to the decline of capture fisheries. Many major fish stocks are showing declining trend in productivity due to over fishing. This situation needs technologies to increase productions as well as replenishing or increase the wiled fish stocks. To attain this it is necessary to develop technologies to increase fish production. In this context aquaculture can contribute much to the increased production of fish protein. During last decades aquaculture has grown from traditional pond based farming into a large industry contributing to world wide production of fisheries products. To meet efficient aquaculture production modern aquaculture need of efficient aquaculture production systems with high yielding and disease resistant varieties of fishes, high health brood stock, better disease management, and diagnostics for aquatic pathogens, water quality management, diversification of cultured species, efficient aquaculture nutrition. In these directions aquaculture biotechnology can contribute a lot to the industry. Towards increasing production and productivity availability of high health and high yielding varieties of fishes are required. This can be achieved through new biotechnologies such as transgenics, chromosome engineering (sex reversal and polyploidy) and breeding. The generation of transgenic fishes has been successfully done from 1980 onwards. In many countries by using recombinant technology researches are underway to develop genetically modified organisms having useful traits such as fast growth, better feed conversion ability, resistance to pathogen and temperature salinity tolerance etc. Growth hormone transgenic has been successfully developed for many cold water fish species. Recently there are more attention on marker assisted selection and breeding to develop superior traits. Molecular markers such as QTL (Quantitative trait loci), SNP’s (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism), RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism), Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Micro satellite markers and (ESTs) Expressed Sequence Tags have been developed for many traits in both fishes and shellfishes. Chromosome sex manipulation techniques to induce polyploidy (triploidy and tetraploidy) and uniparental chromosome inheritance (gynogenesis and androgenesis) have been applied extensively in cultured fish species. There were many success stories on sex manipulation from culture species of fishes. Fore induced breeding of fish gonadotropin releasing hormone and its structural analogues are widely used.

Health Management

Water Quality Management

Disease is the major constraint to intensive aquaculture. Aquaculture continues to grow with the problems of disease out-breaks. Day by day the number of diseases that casing serious threat to both cultivated species of fin fishes and shell fishes are increasing. Major diseases of finfishes and shellfishes are of viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic and environmental etiology. This situation requires effective disease management strategies that include use of precise diagnostic techniques. Biotechnological tools are effectively used in molecular diagnostics, development of vaccines, immunostimulants and therapeutics and these are gaining popularity for improving the disease resistance in fish and shellfish species world over. Presently molecular diagnostic techniques such as Gene Probes, PCR (Polymerase chain reaction), LAMP (Loop mediated Isothermal Amplification) and immunodiagnostic techniques have developed for major species of finfishes and shellfishes. For finfishes subunit vaccines and DNA vaccines were developed for major diseases. However vaccine development for shell fish diseases is still remaining unachieved. Recently various immunostimulants such as beta glucans, levamisole and other herbal products have developed for evoking non specific immunity in fishes and shellfishes. Use of antibiotics in aquaculture is restricted in aquaculture in many countries. This has lead to use of probiotics for disease management in aquaculture. Recently probiotics are widely used for health management and environment management. Marine ecosystem is a potential source of beneficial micro organisms which can be used as probiotics.

Water quality is the key to the success of any aquaculture production system. To enhance the production and productivity high stocking in aquaculture is adopted which results in deterioration of water quality and production of organic matter. Toxic substances such are ammonia, nitrite, H2S and CO2 are produced. For effective water quality management, technologies such as recirculation aquaculture system and bio remediation are adopted. Recently bioremediators for ammonia and nitrite reduction and organic matter reduction in aquaculture have been developed. The Department of Biotechnology has supported the R&D innovation at Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, for the development of Bioreactor: A technology of nitrifying bioreactor for the aquaculture system which reduces the metabolite load. The bioreactors for nitrifying water in closed system hatcheries of penaeids and nonpenaeid prawns is being commercially used as a novel re-circulation system for organic shrimp and prawn seed production. The technology facilitates conversion of the conventional open systems to closed ones with re-circulation and has been transferred to industry for commercialization.

Fish Nutrition and Feeding Nutrition and feeding play an essential role in the sustained development of aquaculture and, therefore, fertilizers and feed resources continue to dominate aquaculture needs. Further large expansion of semi-intensive, small-scale pond aquaculture and industrial farming required quality feed as per the feed preference of fish species. Aquatic


animal nutrition and feeding are critical issues for sustainable aquaculture production in both industrialized and developing countries, e.g. nutrient requirements of fish and their supply under practical farming conditions, availability and supply of feed resources and their implication on development of aqua feeds, forecasting of demand and supply of marine resources, and maintenance of environmental quality and sustainability of aquaculture systems. It is also important to understand the contribution of naturally available food in semi-intensive aquaculture and its role on the development of onfarm feed management strategy in addition to the studies on nutritional effects on immune competence and disease resistance of fish, understanding of brood-stock and larval nutrition, role of nutrition on fish quality, and development of regional nutritional databases for aquaculture development. Fish nutrition being an important area of biotechnological importance, need to be addressed for understanding larval feeding and nutrition of the larval fishes. Development of new live feed organisms and improving its nutritional value and other qualities for larval rearing is also important.

Diversification of Species Aquaculture is the fastest growing primary production sector. Asia dominates aquaculture production of the world, and currently contributes 87% to the global cultured finfish production. India is a major maritime state and an important aquaculture country in the world. Being home for more than 10% of global fish biodiversity, India is ranking third in the world in total fish production. While marine sector is almost constituted by capture fisheries, aquaculture has been the principal contributor in inland fisheries sector, with a share of 77%. With the increase in demand for aquaculture foods, there is need for more efficient production systems. Though the country is rich in aquatic resources, the index of biodiversity utilized for aquaculture is of the order of 0.13 (~85% from Indian major carps; ~ 5% air-breathing fishes; ~10% rest all species together). Hence, for the sustainability of aquaculture, more species need to be brought into the culture system. Mariculture can greatly supplement marine fisheries and given the wide spectrum of cultivable species and technologies available, the long coastline and the favorable climate, mariculture is likely to generate considerable interest amongst the coastal population. One of the milestones in the seed production of marine finfishes was the development of hatchery technology for commercial seed production of sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Protocols for captive brood-stock development, induced maturation, breeding and larval rearing have been standardized. Technologies for a couple of another species are presently available in the country. There is an urgent need for developing a package of practices for several more commercially important species (e.g. grouper, cobia, sea bream and pearl spot). The challenges aspects like changing climatic conditions and sustainability of fishery due to vulnerability, adaptation

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and mitigation needs to be addressed. Research issues on water budgeting is critically being looked in to and open sea cage farming of fishes and lobsters, hatchery production and pond production of shrimp and Asian Seabass are being demonstrated at several centres of East and West Coasts of India. The feed challenges are again being examined for different life stages of carps, shrimp and seabass and transferred to private entrepreneurs for commercial production. Introducing new species of fishes for culture is therefore a challenge in aquaculture. For this biotechnology tools to develop wild species of fishes into cultivable species is high priority. In this context the genetic management and conservation of natural fish stocks and gene pools through biotechnological tools will be of great importance.

Pharmaceuticals, Nutraceuticals & Cosmetics Over half of the pharmaceuticals which are being used today are derived from natural products or its derivatives. More than 2000 years ago the extracts from marine organisms were used as medicines. The genetic diversity of marine ecosystems is unmatchable and could be used for benefit of humans. The diversity of chemicals produced by marine organisms is large and is yet to be explored. These chemicals are naturally produced by organisms and are used to defend against predators, communicate with their neighbors, or prevent algae and other encrusting species from growing on top of them. Presently marine biotechnology is greatly focusing on natural products identification, and around more than 30000 compounds has been identified during last 40 years and this number is still increasing. Many compounds having anti cancer, antiviral, anti parasitic, anti malarial, Anti inflammatory properties were isolated from marine biota. Most of these precious bio molecules are obtained from either micro organisms or marine invertebrates and plants. Marine invertebrates such as corals, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, bryozoans, tunicates are found to be excellent source of biologically important molecules. Some commercially available drugs derived from marine organisms include antibiotic cephalosporine and cytostatic


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cytarabine from sponges, kanic acid an insecticide from red algae, analgesic zincototide etc. Ara-A (Anti Herpes virus) and Ara-C (Anti tumor) are two commercial products from sponges which are being used as pharmaceuticals. Many products such as anticancer Yondelis from sea squirt, pain killer Zinconotide from conus snail, anti cancer Dolastatin from sea slug, anti cancer Bryostatin from Bryozoa, and anti cancer Squalamine from shark are various under clinical phases. The list is being growing and new products are added every year. This shows the potential of marine organisms as a source of pharmaceutical products.

compound Biopterin glucose a pigment isolated from a marine planktonic cyanobacterium protects the skin from the adverse effects of the UV-A radiation. This compound is used in the formulation of sun screen cosmetics. Tocopherol, a lipid-soluble compound, is an effective component for skin protection. Fucoidan isolated from marine algae shown to have anti aging, skin protecting and anti oxidant activities. These evidences show that marine organisms provide an excellent source for pharmasuitical, neutracuitical and cosmetic products. However, it needs to be explored further to find new and promising compounds from marine organisms.

Marine organisms are unique source of novel nutraceuiticals. Various polysachrides, poly unsaturated fatty acids, anti oxidants, vitamins, and sterols are the main compounds used as nutraceuiticals derived from marine organisms. The marine poly sachrides which are used as nutracuiticals include glycans (Cellulose, starch, glycogen, dextran, laminaren etc), fructans (inulin, levans, mannans and xylans), galectonurans (pectin), alginates and chitin. Instead of nutracuitical potential compounds such as sulfated polysachrides and chitin shows anticoagulant, anti tumor and blood purifying activities. In addition Sulfated polysachrides provide immune enhancement and some poses anti HIV property also. Marine algae and microbes are the majour source of these marine polysachrides. Poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in n-3 and n-6 series such as icosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA) are some poly unsaturated fatty acids with parasitical as well as nutraceuitical significance. These compounds have positive effects on cardiac diseases, hypertension. They are also been used to treat skin diseases and chronic inflammation. Marine fishes are rich source of these compounds. Other than marine fishes algae and microbes also can produce these compounds. Marine organisms are rich source of anti oxidants and several anti oxidants have been isolated from marine organisms. These are carotenoids, astaxanthines, mycosporins and dimethyle sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and other phenolic substances. Marine organisms contain other nutrceuiticaly important compounds such as vitamins (vitamin B12), sterols (clionasterol, fucosterol). These marine derived nutracuticals also show hypocholesteromic, cardiovascular protective, adipogenisis inhibitory, and inhibitor of fat absorption, anti cancer, anti viral, anti bacterial and anti inflammatory properties.

Development of HRD in Interdisciplinary Science

Marine ecosystems provide varieties of compounds with cosmetic application. These compounds show anti aging, skin protecting, anti oxidant and anti bacterial properties that make them to be used in cosmetics. Products from marine macro and micro algae and marine minerals were widely used in cosmetics. Algae are richest source of vitamins and minerals having anti aging property. Group of compounds from a gorgonian sponge with anti-inflammatory property known as pseudopterosins is used as an additive to prevent irritation caused by exposure to the sun. these compounds are included in an anti wrinkling cream. UV protecting compounds such as mycosporin isolated from mycosporeans could be used against erythema. Another UV protecting

One of the major reasons associated with slow growth of marine biotechnology sector is the availability of the marine organisms and also the difficulties in maintaining them under laboratory condition. Unlike other areas of biotechnology Marine biotechnology is a subject of highly interdisciplinary nature. Marine systems offer highly diverse and tough environments such as high pressure Deep Ocean, super cool Antarctic and Artic regions, and highly hot hydrothermal vents. To collect and maintain organisms from these environments there requires a good knowledge in oceanography and requires special equipments. Good knowledge in engineering science is required to develop culture systems and to develop exploration equipments for field studies. To explore marine systems to collect samples and to conduct experiments an understanding on the oceanographic and meteorological parameters is necessary. This will help in planning when, where, and how to collect samples and conduct experiments in marine environment This will also help in locating the sampling site and also to make future studies much easier. A good knowledge on biology and culturing of marine organisms are therefore required for conducting laboratory experiments using marine organisms. The area needs promotion for the development of HRD through inter-disciplinary science to boost the aquaculture and marine biotechnology sector.

Conclusion Aquaculture & Marine Biotechnology is modern and fast growing area of science in recent years. Major part of the globe is ocean which offers highly diverse environment, rich in biodiversity that is still remaining unexplored. It offers a huge opportunity for developing new products and processes. Marine biotechnologists explore ocean for finding new drugs, new source of energy, biomaterials, industrial products etc. Recently many promising results are coming from this field in the form of new candidate drugs, industrial products, source of new food, energy and other products. The sector need to be considered a high priority area addressing basic knowledge in the areas such as oceanography, marine biology, ecology, fisheries and aquaculture, microbiology, cell and molecular biology, genetics, recombinant technology, immunology, chemistry, bioinformatics and engineering and need to be promoted as an inter disciplinary science through development of trained skilled manpower.


Coldwater Fisheries in India: Issues and Challenges

A.K.Singh and S.Ali Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, Bhimtal-236136 (Nainital), India Abstract The diverse natural resource-base, wide climatic diversity of the cold water sector harbour plentiful gene pool which are conducive to conservation and rearing for developing domestic market, aquaculture and growing interest of people in eco-tourism including angling. However, emerging anthropogenic pressure and climate change are affecting Coldwater resources and their fisheries adversely on flow regimes of streams, aquatic temperature of water bodies, food chain, micro habitats and overall productivity. Nevertheless, technology developed for the culture, breeding and management of the economically viable cold water fish species has a positive impact on the employment generation and sustainable management of the aquatic resources and their piscine fauna.

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of upland waters, comparatively slow growth rate in almost all fish species, low fecundity in fishes and poor landing and marketing facility. The Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research (DCFR) being a nodal agency is working since last three decades to overcome many such problems and have achieved manifold success in the management of fish genetic diversity and establishment of aquaculture in the hill regions of India.

Himalayan Ecology The Indian Himalayan region spreading between 210 57’ – 370 5’ N latitudes and 720 40’ – 970 25’ E longitudes with 250-300 km across stretches over 2,500 km from Jammu & Kashmir in the west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. These mountainous region covering partially or fully twelve states of India, viz., Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, Meghalaya and hills of Assam & West Bengal. The region has a total geographical area of about 5,33,604 km2 being inhabited by 3,96,28,311 people, representing about 16.2% of total area and 3.86% of total population of India, respectively. The region is vast, uneven and versatile inhabiting rich biological floral and faunal diversity. These areas are broadly divided into eastern Himalaya, central Himalaya and western Himalaya, each of these having different physiography and faunal diversity. Topographically from South to North Himalayas is divided into four parallel & longitudinal mountain belts (Table 1).

Aquatic Resources The agro-climatic zones in the Indian Himalayan region is based on the altitudinal gradient, which are broadly classified as warm sub-tropical (<800m) to arctic zone (> 3,600m). Table: 1. Major division of the Himalayan region

Keywords: Coldwater, resources, ecology, fish diversity, management

Introduction The country has significant Coldwater/ hill fishery resources in terms of gene pool and some of them being suitable for food, sport and ornamental value extending from north western to north-eastern Himalayan region and some parts of Western Ghats, encompassing about ten states. The Coldwater natural resources includes around 8,243 km long streams and rivers, 20,500 ha natural lakes, 50,000 ha of reservoirs both natural and man made and 2,500 ha brackish water lakes at high altitude. This diverse natural resource-base, wide climatic diversity vis-à-vis altitude are conducive to conserve and rear different fish species, developing domestic market for high value fish and growing interest of people in eco-tourism including angling within and outside the country. The present exploitation of fishery resources in upland regions comes mainly from capture fisheries, though fish production through culture practices is gaining momentum. At present the total fish production from upland areas contributes about 3% of total inland fish production of India. The low contribution to the total fish production is attributable to several constraints such as low productivity

The Greater Himalayas (Himadri)

Longest and continuous, mostly north part of Nepal and parts of Sikkim. Average altitude of about 6100 m (20,000 ft) asl.

Lesser Himalayas (Himanchal)

In the south and north of Siwalik. Average altitude ranging from 3700m (12,000) - 4500m (15,000 ft) asl.

Siwalik (Outer Himalaya)

Siwalik is the lowest and narrowest section of Himalaya. Average altitude about 900m (3000ft) to 1200m (4000 feet) asl.


Stretches across Himalaya from West to East for about 1,000 km. Average altitude varies from 4500 to 6600 m asl.

The Indian Himalayan region has vast fresh water resources primarily in its streams, rivers, lakes and glaciers. The region yields about 500 cm3 water every year. Fluctuations in snow and ice cover are responsible for climate and hydrological variation to a great extent. The Himalayan


region is drained by 19 major rivers. The main river systems draining the Himalayan region are the Indus, the Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. The Indus and the Brahmaputra are the longest, each having a mountain catchment of about 160,000 km2. Five belong to the Indus system, of which the Beas and the Sutlej have a total catchment area of 80,000 km2;Nine (Ganga, Yamuna, Ram Ganga, Kali-Sharda, Karnali, Rapti, Gandak, Bhagmati, Kosi) belong to the Ganga system, draining nearly 150,000 km2; and three (Tista, Raidak, Manas) belong to the Brahmaputra system, draining another 110,000 km2. Most of these rivers flow in deep valleys until they exit the mountains (Sehgal, 1999).

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Mountain Fisheries

On a global level, mountains are the world’s largest repositories of biological diversity. Mountain regions are characterized by the presence of cold waters, many of which harbour fish and support largely subsistence fisheries. The farming or husbandry of trout has a relatively long history in Europe and North America. In the Indian Sub-continent two main types of trouts viz. brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)) were transplanted from Europe by British settlers around the beginning of the last century primarily to meet their needs for sport fishing or recreational angling. The transplantation There are numbers of lakes situated in the mid and high of brown and rainbow trout was attempted independently altitudes of Himalayan regions. These lakes have diverse in the Himalayan and in the non-Himalayan States. In origin such as retreat of glaciers, landslides and tectonic the Himalayan States the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario movements. The sizes of these lakes also vary as some are of large area while others have small. In the Great Himalayan Important Coldwater Fishes and Trans-Himalayan region lakes are present at high altitude, Snow trout Barils/ Exotic trouts with the highest lake situated at 5297m a.s.l. Jana (1998) Minnows/ Onchorhynchus lists 13 lakes situated from 3400m to 5297 m, some of them Schizothorax Catfishes/ mykiss being brackish or saline. Freshwater lakes in Kashmir Valley richardsonni Loaches are believed to have originated as oxbow lakes of the Jhelum Schizothoraichthys Salmo trutta fario Salvelinus fontinalis River (Raina, 1999). Large lakes having 15,300 ha of surface curvifrons Barilius area are located at middle altitude (1537 to 1587 m) in the S. longipinnis bendelisis State of Jammu and Kashmir while Kumaon lakes situated S. esocinus Other Exotics B. bakeri (1237 to 1930m asl) in the state of Uttarakhand are much S. niger B. vagra Cyprinus carpio var. smaller, with the largest only 72 ha. In Himachal Pradesh S. plannifrons B. barila specularis Coldwater lakes are situated between 1306 and 4815 m asl. S. micropogon Raimas bola C. carpio var. All these lakes inhabit diverse fish fauna. S. progastus Danio divario communis S. nasus Fish Biodiversity C. Carpio Var. nudus Botia birdi S. hugelli The water bodies of the Himalayan region inhabit diverse Glyptothorax Tinca tinca kind of fish fauna. Out of total fish fauna available in India Lepidopygopsis pectinopterus Carrasius carrasius 17% fishes were documented from the mountain ecosystem typus G. conirostre Minor carps establishing the status of the area as a center of origin and Mahseer conirostre Labeo dyocheilus evolution of biotic forms (Ghosh, 1997). About 36 species of Tor putitora Labeo dero freshwater fishes (out of 1,300) are endemic to the Himalayan T. tor Crossocheilus latius region (Ghosh, 1997). For the whole Himalayas, 218 species T. khudree latius are listed (Menon, 1962).The distribution of fish species in T. malabaricus Gara gotyla the Himalayan streams depends on the flow rate, nature of Neolissochilus G. hughi substratum, water temperature and the availability of food. hexagonolepis The species distribution in the upper reaches of the stream/ Puntius ophicephalus river where water has a torrential flow is different from the mid and lower reaches of the stream where flow is moderate Linnaeus) was first brought in Kashmir through the private and water current is soft. A number of fish species such as efforts of F.J. Mitchell in 1899. These introductions in the Noemacheilus gracilis, N. stoliczkae, Glyptosternum reticulatum, hill states could be considered as the formal beginning of Diptychus maculates, Noemacheilus spp., Schizothoraichthys Coldwater fisheries or mountain fisheries development in esocinus, S. progastus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Schizopygopsis India. For many decades the mere intention remained to stoliczkae, Schizothorax longipinnis, S. planifrons, S. micropogon, develop recreational fisheries to satisfy the needs of anglers Garra gotyla, Crossocheilus diplochilus, Labeo dero and L. for sports. Later on, these species were started being cultured dyocheilus are found distributed in the different reaches of for food and hatcheries were setup for the production of seed. the river. The eastern Himalaya drained by the Brahmaputra The development of hill fisheries thus started in the selected has a greater diversity of Coldwater fish than the western locations particularly in the Kashmir valley and some parts of Himalayan drainage. Among all these species a few supports the peninsular India. The breeding and culture techniques for the capture fishery while some are being cultivated in the farm the rainbow and brown trouts were standardized and now condition at different altitudes based on their temperature being practiced with greater success and accuracy. tolerances.


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There is a vast scope and potential in improving fish production in hills by bringing natural Himalayan lakes located at different altitudes, under scientific management for fishery enhancement. This would actually reduce the gap between actual fish yield and production potentials. Through application of modern techniques, significant scope exists for promoting trout farming, which in long run, will have both domestic and export demand. There is also a great potential for sport fishery development and ecotourism in hill regions. Use of modern techniques such as molecular and biotechnological intervention, selective breeding programme for improvement of strains both of exotic and indigenous species, coldwater fish health management for the containment of diseases have now become imperative. Providing decision support system using GIS and remote sensing would be helpful not only for resource assessment but also for aquaculture development in the hills. Ornamental fish culture for small scale enterprises in the hills can provide an alternative source of employment. Presently DCFR has different available technologies for the hill aquaculture, resource management and conservation. Three ponged fish farming has been standardized and also disseminated to the farmers of different hill states of the country. Chinese carp based polyculture technology has been popularized and also adopted by farmers in Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Uttarakhand. Trout farming and seed production technology has also been introduced in the state of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Aquaculture diversification is the key of fish production enhancement in the hill states and also one of the most important needs of the hour. DCFR has already initiated programmes in this direction with the culture and breeding of Semiplotus semiplotus and Neolissochilus hexagonolepis. To augment fish production from hilly areas two improved strains of Common carp from Hungary has been imported and introduced into the culture system. Aquaculture potential site selection using geoinformatics has been developed for sustainable utilization of available resources. For the rehabilitation and stock enhancement of Himalayan mahseer, conservation programme such as breeding and subsequent ranching of seed has already been taken up.

The vast mountain fishery resources of India inhabits around 258 fish species distributed in the Himalayan and peninsular region of the country of which indigenous mahseer, snow trout, exotic trout and common carp are commercially important. The present exploitation of fishery resources in upland regions comes mainly from capture fisheries, though fish production through culture practices is gaining momentum. Several constraints such as low productivity of upland waters, comparatively slow growth rate in almost all fish species, low fecundity in fishes and poor landing and marketing facility have been seen as major obstacles in the rapid development

and expansion of coldwater fish production. The major issues concerning the development of coldwater sector in India are: • • • • • • •

Low level of production Lack of infrastructure for aquaculture Availability of seed for production Introduction of new candidate species for aquaculture Habitat destruction • Wanton destruction Aquatic pollution • Conservation policy Management policy • Climate change

Climate Change The climate change is a worldwide phenomenon. It refers to any significant change in climate through temperature and rainfall pattern etc. for an extended period of decades or longer, as a result of natural processes and anthropogenic activities. As global warming continues to increase the atmospheric temperature, it will lead to a continuous shift of zero temperature line (snow line) towards higher altitudes. Climate change is affecting Coldwater resources and their fisheries through its impact on flow regimes of streams, aquatic temperature of water bodies, food chain, micro habitats and overall productivity. The changed eco-climatic conditions would deteriorate the pristine feeding and breeding grounds of the native coldwater fish species their population, maturity condition and spawning and related vital life cycle phenomenon. Thus, it would lead to migration


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and death of stenothermal and ecologically sensitive fish by themselves or to sell on cheaper prices at far. Being species. a perishable item transportation of the fresh fish is very difficult. There is a need of introduction of value addition Management Strategies techniques to their catches/ production in order to get higher Major occupation in the mountain region of the country is returns. These would not only preserve their products but agriculture based activities. The land holding in the hill area also would increase the net profit. is smaller (700-900m2) as compared to the national average In the upland waters, the Indian major carps do not grow (1370 m2). The farmers in the hill region have integrated type well, due to the low thermal regime. Therefore, Chinese of farming pattern. Fish can serve as an additional source carps found suitable for the Mid-Himalayan region as the of income if integrated with the water conservation and candidate species for polyculture. The culture of Chinese harvesting programme. Keeping in view the squeezing land carps were introduced in the Poly/Irrigation Tanks in the and burgeoning human ratio, mountain fish resource base is mid altitude regions. The technology provides opportunities of great relevance and development of such areas. Keeping for conservation of water for irrigation and fish culture. The in view these facts different technological approach and use of polytanks has shown enhanced growth of fish. Around support services are needed for the fishery development of 50 farmers in the Champawat district of Uttarakhand have mountain areas. already adopted the technology. There is a need of introduction of large scale farming to bring Common carp is a major candidate species for polyculture the country on international scenario. Coldwater fisheries in mid hills. The common carp presently grown in India for livelihood and industry are the two modern concepts. The originated from two introductions, in 1939 (German strain) aim of these is to provide protein locally at cheaper price and and 1957 (Bangkok strain). These have become mixed over to export the fish and fishery products to gain the foreign many generations to give the current stock. This stock of currency. The aim is very honest and clear to the researchers, common carp is characterized by early sexual maturation and extension workers and development authorities to make the slow growth rate. This is considered as a serious problem in strategies accordingly in order to achieve the target within the culture of this species in uplands. For faster growth and the time frame. The linkage of public and private sector is successful aquaculture of this species in coldwater system, mandatory in order to develop the coldwater fisheries. it is required to replace the stock with improved strain. Two Resource assessment in the hill region is a challenge due to improved strains Ropsha scaly and Felsosomogy mirror carp its kaleidoscopic topography. Information available on water were imported from Hungary, at DCFR, Bhimtal. The strains resources are old and are based on the maps prepared by were reared and successfully bred at Champawat farm of Survey of India. For effective planning of the resources, there DCFR. Hungarian strain gave 47% more growth rate over the is a need of updating the information on fisheries resources existing strain in polyculture system. The improved strains of in the hills is expected through Geoinformatics. This database Hungarian scale carp and mirror carp are released as Champa will be repository for the country and will be very much 1 and Champa 2 respectively by DCFR. The parent stock is needed to develop scientific management action plan for maintained at Champawat field Centre of DCFR. The strains fishery development. were supplied to different hill states particularly Dept. of Technology developed for the culture, breeding and Fisheries of Himachal Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim management of the economically viable fishes suitable for mid and ICAR Research Complex for NE region, Barapani for Himalayan region has a positive impact on the employment culture mainly to evaluate the performance in different ecogeneration in these regions since the technology was taken as climatic condition for later dissemination to fish farmers. hot cake among the farmers in some areas of the hills. There Conclusion is great scope for disseminating these promising technologies The aquatic resources in hills are quite valuable for the in sub to mid Himalayan belt in order to upgrade the sociodevelopment of fishery both for food, sport, recreation and economic conditions of the inhabitants. employment but scientific management of these resources To replenish the fish diversity, the directorate has taken is necessary to achieve the objectives. In order to manage programmes on priority by ranching seed in the selected these ecosystems, so that they can contribute to fishery water bodies. Artificial propagation & seed production from development in remote hilly regions on a sustainable basis, the stocks raised in the farm conditions are standardized. the following issues need attention: But the current level of aquaculture technology needs to be refined for raising commercial stocks of indigenous fish Resource mapping of the fishery resources in mountain/ species in hills. Sustained efforts are required in the areas hill region needs to be taken up on priority basis for the of nutrition, growth enhancement and genetic improvement integrated development of the coldwater sector. using modern biotechnology tools. Fish sale in the fresh condition is also a bottleneck in development of coldwater fisheries, since the many ponds are not approachable to the market. In these circumstances the farmers either forced to consume the production

In order to develop the riverine and lacustrine fisheries it is necessary to go for stock enhancement programme through ranching. A legal framework should be formulated to stop all types of destructive fishing method.


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The breeding grounds of the fish need special protection by References declaring them as ‘No-fishing Zone’ or ‘Protected Area’. FAO (2003). Mountain Fisheries in Developing Countries. Ed. A balanced strategy for lakes, for tourism and fishery Petr, T. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. 74 p. development is required. Ghosh, A.K. (1997). Himalayan fauna with special reference to Development of sport/recreational fishery for tourism and endangered and endemic species. In: Himalayan Biodiversity: Action plan (ed. U. Dhar). GB Pant Institute of Himalayan employment generation. Environment & Development, Kosi- Katarmal, Almora, pp. Education, training and extension support to the hill 53-59. communities for resource conservation and utilization. Hasnain, S.I. (1999). Himalayan glaciers – Hydrology and Promotion of mountain-specific policy formulation and hydrochemistry. Allied Publishers, New Delhi, pp 234. legislation. Jana, B.B. (1998). State-of-the-art of lakes in India: an Promoting sustainable use of mountain natural resources overview. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 121/1, Monogr. Stud., and conservation of biological diversity and mountain p.1-89. ecosystems. Jhingran, V.G. and Sehgal K.L., (1978). Coldwater fisheries of The mountain fish resources are of great relevance and India. Inland Fish. Soc. India., 239 pp development of such area has become subject of national concern which needs different technological approach and Joshi, C.B., (1988). Induced breeding of golden mahseer, Tor support services. Such resources have to be properly utilized putitora (Ham). J. Inland Fish. Soc. India., 20(1): 66-67. for increasing fish production for national basket and rural Menon, A.G.K. (1962). A distributional list of fishes of the development in hills. For the sustainable development of Himalayas. J. Zool. Soc. India, 14(1 and 2): 23-32. this sector, impact assessment and mitigation options of environmental stress is required at certain levels: Nandy, S.N, Dhyani, P.P and Samal, P.K. (2006). Resource information database of the Indian Himalayas. ENVIS The rapid overall development and ever-increasing population Monograph 3, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment lead to anthropogenic activities resulted in disturbing the and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almorah. 123 p. fragile aquatic ecosystems and fish fauna. Impact assessment is required to know the effect of these activities on the fish Raina, H.S and Petr,T. (1999). Coldwater fish and fisheries biodiversity and wild stock. in the Indian Himalayas: lakes and reservoirs. In: Fish and fisheries at higher altitudes: Asia. FAO Fisheries technical Effect of climate change should be studied as a pilot project paper no. 385 (Ed. Petr, T.) FAO, Rome. pp 64-88. to determine its adverse effects on the fish biodiversity. Coldwater Fish species are very sensitive to changes in water Sehgal K.L. (1999). Coldwater fish and fisheries in the Indian temperature and other water qualities. They are important Himalayas: rivers and streams. In: Fish and fisheries at higher ecological indicators for impact assessment of climate altitudes: Asia. FAO Fisheries technical paper no. 385 (Ed. change. Petr, T.) FAO, Rome. pp 41-63. There is great scope for disseminating promising technologies Singh, B.N. (2002). Status of coldwater fisheries development in sub to mid Himalayan belt in order to upgrade the socio- in India. In: Highland fisheries & aquatic resource management economic conditions of the inhabitants. Positive impact may (ed. Vass, K.K and Raina, H.S.) NRCCWF. 57-66 pp. be assessed to know the improvement in their livelihood.


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Diversification of Freshwater Aquaculture - Propagation of Tilapia Culture in Andhra Pradesh P.Ram Mohn Rao and T.V.Bharathi State Institute of Fisheries Technology, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India The new state of Andhra Pradesh has about 78 reservoirs in an extent of 2 lakh ha, 2.80 lakh ha of seasonal and perennial tanks and about 1 lakh ha freshwater aquaculture area . Carp culture is the dominant activity in the state where most of the inland ponds are almost reached full utilization. Yet, many of the inland open water bodies are still left under-utilised and un-utilized. There is vast scope to utilize these water bodies by promoting culture fish in cages that will definitely help in boosting up production, livelihood, food security and employment to teeming rural people. The fisheries sector in Andhra Pradesh has been identified as ‘growth engine’ for economic development based on an evaluation of potentials of sectors to build on accumulated strength to make significant impact on Gross State Domestic Product. The total fish production of 7.69 lakh tones during the year 2004-05 in Andhra Pradesh has been increased to 17.68 lakh tones in 2013- 14, which is about 2.30 times increase within a span of 10 years.

export potential. The developments in tilapia farming taking place in neighbouring countries because of the introduction of GIFT tilapia and as no adverse effect on indigenous fish species and on the environment is noticed, it is desirable that this species can be promoted as an alternate species to augment fish production from derelict water bodies as well as reservoirs. This species has its advantages due to its suitability for farming in a wide array of culture environments and culture systems, ranging from extensive pond culture to intensive recirculating systems.

Nile Tilapia/GIFT is considered as an economically viable species. In case of Tilapia, males grow faster and more uniform in sizes than females. Generally mono sex culture of tilapia is more advantageous because of faster growth and uniform size of males. The farm ing of monosex populations of tilapias which is achieved by manual sexing or direct hormonal sex reversal or hybridization or genetic manipulation has been reported as solutions to the problem of early sexual maturation and unwanted reproduction. Monosex population Aquaculture in Andhra Pradesh has been the mainstay for (all male) can be produced with 17α Methyl testosterone many aqua farmers and the state has become the “Aqua being given through feed for about one month. Capital” of the country. With the increasing demand for fish, diversification of species in fresh water aquaculture for Tilapia culture can be taken up both for rural subsistence and increasing production has become imminent. Introduction for commercial scale intensive venture. Culture of tilapia in of tilapia in ponds/tanks/reservoir systems is definitely ponds is more economical. If monosex fish are stocked with advantageous. As tilapia is gaining popularity in other regular manuring and supplementary feeding, yields are countries because of its white muscle and no intra-muscular economically viable and successful. Tilapia is an omnivore/ bones, it can as well be tried in our state by enthusiastic herbivore and feeds on algae, bacteria, and detritus. It also famers and also as part of developing large water bodies consumes artificial feeds that are prepared with agriculture such as reservoirs. Tilapia is a good source of protein and by products. Polyculture of tilapia with other native fishes is also known as “Aquatic Chicken” or “Everybody’s fish”. It in freshwater ponds is also widely integrated with shrimp, is (Oreochromis niloticus) native to Africa and it is one of the poultry and cattle rearing as well as agriculture. most productive and internationally traded food fish in the Of late, cage culture of tilapia is being propagated as a most world. It is the second most important farmed fish globally successful option as it not only prevents excessive breeding, after carps. As per FAO reports, Tilapia is being farmed in but also management of cages is easier than management about 85 countries worldwide and about 98% of tilapia of ponds. This will help in opening up options for large scale produced in these countries are grown outside their original use of reservoirs that are under utilized in the state. Beyond habitats. It is suitable for culture due to its faster growth rate, doubt, Cage farming needs expansion throughout the state. amenable for culture in ponds, cages, pens, and wide market But it is important to ponder over certain issues in introducing acceptance. Since Tilapia is an exotic species, Government of tilapia cages viz. India has given permission to culture Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Time is ripe to develop and standardize technology for allniloticus) in Indian waters. male Tilapia seed production and grow out farming of GIFT Tilapia mossambica that was long back introduced into Indian Tilapia on commercial scale as the diversification of fresh waters has been proved to be a weed fish because of its prolific water aquaculture is the need of the hour. Rajiv Gandhi breeding activity and its rapid widespread in Indian waters. Centre for Aquaculture (RGCA), the R & D arm of the Marine But compared to T. mossambica, the GIFT tilapia, O.niloticus Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) is making is proved to be a superior strain with good growth and good all efforts to streamline the hatchery technology of tilapia


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and to pave way for the commercial production of tilapia for the sustained supply of genetically improved stocks for farming. The development of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) technology (Super Tilapia) is based on selective breeding to improve commercially important traits of farmed fish and RGCA deserves full appreciation for standardisation of technology for seed production and farming and for production of all male GIFT tilapia seeds. Several Asian countries like China, Vietnam, Malaysia Thailand and Taiwan have increased their national fish production by resorting to cage culture. Yet, cage culture in India is in its nascent stage. Now Government has recognized

the importance and potential for cage culture and making efforts to promote cage culture to increase the production of tilapia in coming years with utilization of large waterbodies. Government is taking steps to formulate a pilot project and setting up of a few GIFT hatcheries at selected points for supply of monosex seed to the farmers, for its farming. Establishment and operation of commercial tilapia hatcheries need substantial investment, and hence publicprivate partnerships will be encouraged. It is high time that all government institutes/organizations and interested NonGovernment Organizations (NGOs) need to join in hands to make tilapia farming a success.

Biological Role of Minerals TRACE MINERALS Iron




BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION Iron is essential for the production of haemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes and many other enzyme systems. Iron is one of the primary metals involved in lipid oxidatation.

DIETARY SOURCES Rich dietary sources of iron include; blood meal, kelp meal, coconut meal, meat and bone meal, sunflower seed meal, dried distiller soluble alfalfa meal, crab meal etc. Recommended Doses : 70mg/kg of feed

Metabolism of lipid, protein and carbohydrate. Actives in the synthesis and metabolism of nucleic acids (RNA) and proteins. Action of hormones and in wound healing. Reduced viral penetration inhabits proteases involved in viral capsid formation and increases antibody production.

chick hatchery meal, dried candida yeast, dehydrated fish soluble, dried distillers grains with soluble etc Recommended Doses : 90mg/kg of feed

Manganese functions as an enzyme activator; The manganeses is essential for bone formation, regeneration of red blood cells, carbohydrate metabolism, and the reproductive cycle. It repair and maintenance of epithelial tissues, bone formation, in urea synthesis, amino acid metabolism and glucose oxidation.

Kelp meal, rice bran, dehydrated poultry manure, palm kernel meal, crab meal, wheat bran etc., Recommended Doses: 45mg/kg of feed

Copper participates in hematopoiesis, copper dependent metalloenzymes responsible for oxidation reduction and in the absorption and metabolism of iron. Formation of the pigment melanin and skin pigmentation, bone formation nerve fiver

Fish soluble, corn distillers dried soluble, dehydrated sugar cane molasses corn gluten meal, linseed meal, soybean meal, dried brewers grains, wheat mill run, millet, etc., Recommended Doses: 9mg/kg of feed





Red blood cell formation and the maintenance of nerve tissue, and activating agent for various enzyme systerms. synthesis of vitamin B12

Copra meal, linseed meal, dried brewer’s yeast, fish meal, meat meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal etc., Recommended Doses : 0.9mg/kg of feed


lodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones important in regulating the metabolic rate of all body processes. It has roles in thermoregulation, Intermediary metabolism, reproduction, growth and development, hematopoiesis and circulation and neuromuscular functioning

All food stuffs of marine origin and in particular seaweed meal, marine fish and crustacean meal etc., Recommended Doses : 4.5mg/kg of feed


Protects cells from deleterious effects of peroxides. Selenium acts along with vitamin E to fuction as a biological antioxidant to protect polyunsaturated phospholipids in cellular and subcellular membranes from peroxidative damage. Zinc functions as a cofactor in several enzyme, make stress free

Dehydrated fish soluble, fish meal, dried brewer’s yeast, corn gluten meal, dried torula yeast, rapeseed meal etc., Recommended Doses:0.19mg/kg of feed


Chromium is associated with the glucose tolerance factor, and organometallic molecule that potentiates the action of insulin, important in carbohydrate metabolism.

Chick shell meal, shrimp tail meat, Artemia salina, dried brewer’s yeast, shelfish, liver etc., Recommended Doses : 0.7mg/kg of feed


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Ornamental Fish Farming for Entrepreneurship Development

There is ample scope for development of entrepreneurial activities for creation of income and employment by proper utilization of resources in Odisha. Low productivity of the resources like land and water can be enhanced through P. Jayasankar and S.K. Swain adoption of suitable technologies for augmenting production, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture employment and income generation for the farmers. With the advancement of research achievements, various suitable Kausalyagangar, Bhubaneswar –751 002, India technologies have been developed which is suitable for need based farming in different climatic conditions. Farmers in the development of the breeding technology is indentified as rural villages having limited resources are getting the benefit the critical and priority for sustainable development of the by adopting various scientific aquaculture practices in their sector. However the domestic trade depends on breeding ponds and backyards. Apart from livelihood generation this and farming of several commercial ornamental fishes starting has created scope for development of entrepreneurship and from cheaper guppies to high priced Flower horn species commercialization of production in large scale generating where large number of traders, hobbyist and farmers are involved in the process for income generation. Important profit for the traders. groups of egg-layers are barbs, rasboras, goldfish, tetras, The ornamental fish is a promising sector within aquaculture, danios, bettas and gouramis and the major livebearers are which envisaged being full of opportunities in terms of guppies, platies, mollies and swordtails. the growth, for generating income and employment to the large number of the skilled educated unemployed across Essential aspects of the Ornamental Fish Breeding the country side. At present a fraction of the domestic and Technology international potential is harvested. But, in the recent times, the sector has shown a faster growth upon concentrated The breeding technology involves both science and art with efforts of the farmers and entrepreneurs to take up the high degree of skill for successful operations. The technology ornamental fish as means of their business and livelihoods. gets refined at the entrepreneurs level with experience and A large number of the stakeholders’ i.e fishers, farmers, expertise as fines skills are learned by doing. The research breeders, traders, vendors, transporters and exporters are institutes have committed to give attentions to develop involved in the sector. The whole business of the ornamental these technologies. Below are few essential aspects of fish is based on the supply of the fishes from two primary the ornamental fish breeding as tips to the entrepreneurs sources i.e. wild collection and captive breeding. There is a interested in the breeding. wide apprehension on the environmental impact of the wild Sexing the Fish collection and it has a damaging effect on the threatened fish Determining the sex of a fish is an important aspect. Like all biodiversity in the country. Therefore, the captive breeding other animals of animal kingdom males are more colorful, is the foundation of the sustainable development of the larger, and have more elaborate finnage. Often, the only way enterprises. The breeding not only reduces the pressure from to distinguish between the sexes is the shape of the genital the nature to a considerable degree but, provide in-vivo means papilla, which is only visible during spawning period. In some of germplasm conservation through culture. Therefore, isomorphic species, the males are slightly larger and the


females are slightly oval in the belly

AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 22

should select a cool environment for the culture and breeding.

Selection of correct brooder Once the sexes have been distinguished, a suitable pair or spawning group can be • Breeding and rearing unit should be made near a constant selected. There are several important traits to seek in supply of water and electricity. choosing the brood fish. The fish that shows good markings • The selection of candidate species depends on the water and colour that would produce attractive young should be quality of that area. Therefore, water quality can be selected. It is better to use mature, healthy fish for spawning checked in any nearby water testing laboratory. because unhealthy fish, if they spawn, may produce unhealthy • Biofiltration unit is a prerequisite for smooth functioning of or deformed hatchlings. an ornamental fish culture and breeding unit.

Conditioning the Brooders

• The brood stock selected for breeding should be of superior Before placing the parent fish together for spawning, they quality, so that good quality fish seed could be produced. should be conditioned through best feeding strategies with • Brood stocks can be allowed to breed for not more than two a variety of live foods to get them in excellent matured years. Fresh stocks from different source may be added in condition for spawning. The live foods such as tubifex, blood every two years to the selected parent stocks to improve worm, mosquito larvae, zooplanktons etc. which not only the breeding efficiency and produce healthy offspring. gives the good growth but also triggers the spawning process. • The fish breeder should concentrate preferably on one Breeding Types species so that it helps the breeder to develop expertise on Some of the ornamental fish species readily spawn in the the particular species and a good variety of fishes can be aquarium or cement tanks, the eggs or hatchlings often do produced as per the market demand. not survive because of predatory nature of the parents. Sometimes the mortality occurs due to unfavorable, polluted • Constant availability of agro-based byproducts will facilitate preparation of pelleted diet for the fish. For water conditions. It is always better to breed the fish in a preparing a pelleted diet a mini pelletiser can be installed. separate spawning tank. • The breeding and rearing unit may be established a) Oviparous (Egg Layers): Most of the aquarium fishes preferably nearer to airport/railway station, bus stand etc. are egg-layers with external fertilization. Egg-layers can be for easy transportation for export and domestic market divided into five groups’ viz., egg-scatterers, egg-depositors, • The breeders should develop market relations with pet/ egg-burriers, mouth-brooders, and nest-builders. retail shops, potential farmers, vendors dealing with b) Ovo-Viviparous (Live Bearers): Livebearers are fish ornamental fish, marketing network, etc. to facilitate the that bear live young. They are ovoviviparous in nature, process of selling/ procuring new brood stocks. where the eggs form and hatch within the female before birth. Livebearers are often prolific, easily bred species. They • A committed entrepreneur should always ensure regular contact with the recent research developments in the field are mostly molly, platy, swordtail and platy. Development and attend training and exposure visits. of young ones takes place inside the female body and they released after about four weeks. • All new incoming fishes should be quarantined from resident stock. Movement of fishes should be restricted Salient aspects of Successful Production of from a suspected or unknown disease status area. Ornamental Fish The success of any entrepreneurs depends upon the project planning, siteselection and successful layout, design of the breeding or rearing unit. Once the unit is established in any site and later on found uneconomical due to unavailability of certain important facilities like water, power etc. cannot be rectified in latter stage. At present the variety of commercial enterprises producing ornamental fishes are as wide as the species produced. The degree of intensification and species farmed depends on following aspects. • Training on the subject is a prerequisite before starting an ornamental fish unit. • The minimum land requirement is 500-1000 square feet area for a small scale farming practice, whereas 1 acre and more for large scale farming in which few earthen ponds are to be excavated for some species like koi carps, gourami, barbs etc. • Site selection is one of the main criteria where the farmer

Ornamental Fish Units in Orissa Over 100 units have developed as a backyard activity, with an investment of Rs. 10,000-Rs. 80,000/-. As many as eight varieties of ornamental fishes are bred by the units managed by individual families, with a monthly income of Rs. 2,000-5,000/-. Under NAIP livelihood programme, CIFA has established 30 ornamental fish production units under public private partnership mode (PPP) at Keonjhar, Sambalpur and Mayurbhanj districts with on-farm demonstration among the tribal women SHGs. The Income has already generated and the women have initially getting an income of Rs 50,00060,000/unit/year from those units. As horizontal expansions of NAIP, there are three “ornamental fish villages” are being developed at Landijhari, Saruali and Nuagaon in Barkot block, Deogarah district of Orissa by the cooperation from State Fisheries Department and ATMA, Deogarah. About 76 smallscale backyard units have been developed by the farmers with the culture and breeding of livebearers besides making


of glass aquarium for livelihood enhancement. The marketing of the produce has been tied up with the local traders at Keonjhar, Deogarah and Rourkela. Many of them have earned an amount of Rs 10,000-15, 000/- in a year by investing Rs 4,000-6,000 only. More and more numbers of farmers are constructing their infrastructure day by day.

Ornamental Fish Farming for Livelihood and Trade The economic viability is the foundation of the any popular and successful enterprises. There is great scope for developing small scale units with an investment of about Rs. 2 lakhs for cement cisterns, fish seed, feed and other material. With backyard units comprising a few cement tanks with water facility, men as well as women farmers, unemployed youth, ex-servicemen, self-help groups (men and women) can adopt ornamental fish culture individually or in groups. In a limited area of 500-1,000 sq. feet, they can earn Rs 2,000 to 5,000 per month with an investment of about Rs. 1 lakh. On

Chronic Loose Shell Syndrome in L.vannamei Incidences of chronic loose shell syndrome and white gut syndrome has been reported some of the vannamei farms of Nellore (Dt.) , A.P., CLSS was observed in 30 days after stocking the seed in the ponds. Due to this problem, survival rate is decreasing in culture ponds. It is due to the presence of high amount of bluegreen algae in culture ponds.This bluegreen algae releasing the toxins by which this problem could arises in culture ponds. Using of microminarals and medicins increases the growth of algae and it increases the intensity of the disease. White gut or White feces is also a problem in vannamei culture. Due to this, the infected shrimp gut tissue spoiled and becomes white in colour. This condition is known as white gut disease and later stage, is called white feces. In this stage the affected shrimp hepatopancreas damaged and becomes white in colour, releases whitish fluide.

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a commercial scale, entrepreneurs have invested up to Rs. 10 lakhs, with a monthly return of Rs 10,000 to 30,000. The practice is often a family enterprise, with the members joining hands in different activities of breeding, tank fabrication and maintenance, feed preparation, transport and sale, etc. A successful economic enterprise requires lot of dedication, hard work, sincerity and timely marketing of the produce. So also in ornamental fish, the success depends on the investment, habitat management, species selection, demand, and proper marketing. Considering the proven success of involvement of women in development of backyard enterprise in farming of ornamental fish in West Bengal, Kerala and Odisha it is necessary that due encouragement is given for creation of women SHGs for such enterprise. More government support in marketing of such fishes along with financial support from the bank may lead to strengthen the farming and trade.

Fisheries Polytechnic College Funding from NABARD The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has released Rs. One crore from the Rural Infrastructure Development Fund to M.V.K.R. Fisheries

Polytechnic College at Bhavadevarapalli in Krishna district. India’s first fisheries polytechnic college is affiliated to Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University (SVVU). The fund, which was released in December 2014, will be spent on developing an information centre, soil and water testing labs apart from sea water treatment plant on the college premises, Principal Dr. K. S. Krishna Prasad said. The information centre would help aqua farmers understand changes in aquaculture. Central institutes such as Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture, Central Institute of Marine Fisheries Research Institute would be allowed to use the information centre to share their knowledge with the farmers and conduct of various programmes. A proposal to set up boarding facility for farmers was sent to SVVU. The facility will attract farmers from across the State to participate in various field activities planned by the college, Mr. Prasad said, adding that work on the project would begin by March 2015. It will be utilised for developing an information centre, soil and water testing labs and a sea water treatment plant


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 24

Multidimensional Role and the Way Forward for Aquaculture in National Development

S. Felix and P. Antony Jesu Prabhu Institute of Fisheries Technology, Tamil Nadu Fisheries University, Ponneri, Tamil Nadu, India Introduction

aquaculture and allied activates have proven to be suitable livelihood options, especially for women. Activities like backyard ornamental fish farming, seaweed farming, carp culture in community tanks and production of value added fishery products through self-help groups (SHGs) are a few proven initiatives to mention in this regard. In general rural development has various dimensions but it is particularly the development of the agricultural sector, which provides the main impetus not only for reducing poverty and hunger but also for ensuring food security for all.

Aquaculture is the husbandry and culture of aquatic animals or plants, under controlled or semi-controlled conditions. Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal food production sector and India stands second on the global scale in fish production next to China. Despite being one of the leading nations in fish production, it should be admitted that a large majority of our people lack awareness on the importance of aquaculture and its multidimensional role in the development of our nation. This article was aimed at summarising the importance of aquaculture in the overall development of Nutritional Security and Health through Aquaculture India to non-expert audience and the actions required for India is recognized as a rapidly developing world power a sustainable future development for those involved in with recent advancements in science and technology. aquaculture activity at different levels.

Economic Development through Aquaculture Aquaculture, although an agricultural activity, in most cases is considered and taxed as a commercial entity, this has started to change off-late. The history and evolution of fish farming activities in the districts of Krishna and Godavari in the Andhra Pradesh and the shrimp farming activities in the coastal states of the country stand evidence to the economic benefits of aquaculture. The gross domestic production (GDP) from fisheries and aquaculture has been increasing with an average annual growth rate of 13.9% over the period of five years from 2007-2012, accounting for about 0.8% and 4.5% to the total and agricultural GDP of the country, respectively. While the bulk of the country’s aquaculture production is consumed in the domestic market, outputs from the shrimp farming sector generates revenue through foreign exchange. According to FAO, the total fish production of the country valued to about 9 billion US dollars during 2010. The area under aquaculture has been growing steadily over the past couple of decades and this expansion of culture area in itself is an indication of the economic benefits realised through aquaculture.

Nevertheless, hunger and malnutrition prevail to be major public concern to the development of the nation. Besides the revolutionary achievements in crop production, aquaculture also holds the key to fight malnutrition of certain vital nutrients critical in enhancing public health and nutritional status. It is well known and widely recognized that fish are Social Development through Aquaculture the most efficient and cost effective sources of animal protein Besides economic development through commercial large- available for human consumption. scale activities, rural development, women empowerment Algae and fish are the only natural food sources of long chain and poverty alleviation are other aspects of high social value polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPA and DHA) that contribute in aquaculture. Aquaculture has demonstrated its potential towards health benefits of humans such as cardiac health, to empower the rural communities and women in India fetal brain development, vision etc. In this scenario, meeting through livelihood and income generating activities. Tribal the demand of EPA and DHA for a billion people is therefore communities and rural women are encouraged to build their possible only through fish. Eating small indigenous fish management, leadership and entrepreneurial skills through entirely improved contributed vitamin A, calcium and iron small-scale aquaculture and allied activities. Small-scale intakes of the low-income communities in Bangladesh. In


adequate supply and malnutrition of the aforesaid nutrients are commonly prevailing concerns in public health and nutrition in India, as well. Thereby, fish resources and farmraised fish in particular need to be tapped to their utmost potential to improve the health and nutritional status of the low-income population.

Aquaculture - Challenges and Way Forward According to FAO (2012), fish production in India has increased at an average annual growth rate of 7.49% over the past decade. Aquaculture production of India during 2010 stood at 4.65 million tonnes with the contribution of carps being 4.2 million tonnes and shrimps being 0.11 million tonnes FAO (2012). Radhakrishna and Reddy (2004) projected a demand of 10.8 million tonnes of meat and fish for household consumption in India by 2020. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research has projected that the national demand for fish will be about 16 million tonnes by 2030. With much less possibilities for expansion from capture fisheries due to dwindling natural stocks; aquaculture (predominantly freshwater aquaculture) is expected to shoulder these demands in the coming years, as mariculture is still in its infancy in India. Thus a production of 6.4 million tonnes is projected from aquaculture by 2020 (Giri et al. 2012), which is 36% more than the current output from aquaculture (4.65 million tonnes). The real challenge to the policy makers, scientific and farming community involved in aquaculture is not mere achievement of the targeted production, but the way in which it needs to be achieved and judicious allocation of the realized output to improve nutritional security of the undernourished. This would require approaches to increase food fish production, allow optimal utlisation of the available resources, be environmentally safe and ultimately educate the people on the benefits of eating fish. A few of the approaches which have been identified are as follows:

Optimal Resource Utilization As with any plant or animal based food production system, aquaculture also requires the use of resources such as land, water, nutrients and energy. Resource scarcity is expected to

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intensify and hence restriction in the allocation and utlisation of available resources is expected to stiffen in the future due to the growing population and associated anthropogenic activities. Traditionally, the pond based fish production systems use more land and water, less feed and energy resources when compared to the modern intensive fish culture systems. However, the scenario is slowly changing and the need to produce more fish from the limited resources available “more from less� is being recognized. This requires intensifying the production process to obtain maximum benefits per unit of resource being utilized, with due respect to environmental protection and long term sustainability. Raceway systems, RAS, lined ponds ,etc can be the useful additions in this respect.

Sustainable Intensification There always exists a trade-off between sustainability and intensification; not all intensive fish farming practices are sustainable and vice versa. However, it is possible to strike a balance in the utlisation of the different resources such that the environmental impact of the farming practice is reduced or maintained within the allowable limits. In a recent report from the world resource institute, environmental impacts of aquaculture varied by level of production intensity. Intensification led to decrease in the use of land and freshwater resources per unit of farmed fish produced. However, intensification has also led to an increase in the use of energy and fish-based feed ingredients, as well as an increase in water pollution for the same unit. Disease risks also rise in intensive systems. These tradeoffs suggest that sustainable intensification is easier said than done and that efforts to intensify aquaculture production should aim at mitigating the negative impacts of intensification.

Increasing Domestic Consumption Indian aquaculture is predominantly supported by farming of carps and shrimps. Shrimps are almost exclusively cultured targeting the foreign export market. Polyculture of carps, popularly known as the composite fish culture contributes to the bulk of fish production which is consumed domestically. Over the past decade, the culture of exotic carp species have declined and two species of Indian major carps, namely catla and rohu have dominated the production. This indicates that, the preference of the consumer plays the pivotal role in regulating the production process. Accordingly, to increase consumer acceptance and appeal, aquaculture of regionally favoured or preferred fish species, targeting the local markets for domestic consumption should be promoted. One of the main reasons for the exemplary growth of aquaculture in China is their domestic fish consumption. It is reported that, most aquaculture products are marketed in live form in China so as to meet consumer preference for live fish. It is estimated that only less than 5% of total aquaculture production is treated or processed for local or overseas markets. Having said this, the cultural and food habit of Indian population is far different from the Chinese. However, through proper marketing and awareness campaigns, great dividends can be realised in Indian aquaculture.


Additional Cultivable Species

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fishes provide about 0.2, 0.9 and 1.2 g n-3 PUFA/100 g edible muscle, respectively.

Its inevitable that India needs to diversify and introduce additional potential candidate species for aquaculture • At the present level of fish production and even by assuming that all the produce is consumed locally, only to various culture resources. For freshwater, the newly 30% of the approximated n-3 PUFA demand of the country introduced species ‘GIFT’ Tilapia and Pangas catfish could be met. The way forward: Recommendations aimed (Pangasius pangasius) can be the useful addition whose at catalyzing transformational change in the aquaculture cultivable potential have been established above board. sector, World Resources Institute Creating a sustainable For brackish water bodies, viable species viz. Pearl spot food future (Etroplus suratensis) and Milk fish Chan(os) are to be • Increase investment in technological innovation and considered for introduction. For marine ecosystem, India is transfer in the fields of breeding and genetics; disease yet introduce a species of commercial importance. Recent control; nutrition, feeds, feed management and low impact studies carried out by our University with CIBA & CMFRI has production systems. proved that cobia (Rachyacentron canadum) can be a potential marine species for marine environment for cage farming. • Use spatial planning and zoning to guide aquaculture growth at the landscape and seascape level. Concluding Remarks

• Shift incentives to reward improvements productivity and Having started as an art supplementary to agriculture and environmental performance. animal husbandry activities, aquaculture has grown into a well• Leverage the latest information technology to drive gains in established food production sector through developments productivity and environmental performance. in science and technology. Now that aquaculture is wellestablished, it is expected to play a substantial role in closing • Shift fish consumption toward low-trophic farmed species. the ‘food gap’ with regard to the growing demand for animal The way forward: Recommendations aimed at catalyzing protein. Therefore, action plans for aquaculture in the transformational change in the aquaculture sector, World future should duly consider and harness the collective role Resources Institute Creating a sustainable food future of aquaculture in national development and not merely as • Increase investment in technological innovation and an income generating activity. Economic benefits and social transfer in the fields of breeding and genetics; disease development through aquaculture control; nutrition, feeds, feed management and low impact • During the financial year 2013-14, exports of marine production systems. products reached an all-time high in quantity (9,83,756 • Use spatial planning and zoning to guide aquaculture MT), rupee value (Rs. 30,213.26 crores) which equaled to growth at the landscape and seascape level. more than US $ 5 billion. • Shift incentives to reward improvements in productivity • The contribution of cultured shrimp to the total shrimp and environmental performance. export was 73.31% in terms of value. • Leverage the latest information technology to drive gains in • Seaweed cultivation (Kappaphycus): about 1400 poor productivity and environmental performance. families in the coastal districts of southern Tamil Nadu • Shift fish consumption toward low-trophic farmed species. are cultivating Kappaphycus seaweed in Palk Bay and References Kanyakumari, earning up to Rs. 1000/day/family. • If seaweed cultivation is taken up as a major program in FAO (2005) Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. FAO report India, it is possible to rehabilitate at least 2,00,000 families of an expert consultation. 10-14 Nov. 2008. Geneva. No. 91. of coastal poor with a turnover of Rs.6000 crores per pp. 166. annum. Ghafoorunissa. (2001). Polyunsaturates fatty acids in health • Trade of hatchery bred marine ornamental fish can serve as a and nutrition. Bulletin of the Nutrition Foundation of India, livelihood option for coastal communities and as a means of 22 (2). p1-4. poverty alleviation in India. Nutritional security and health Proceedings of the global symposium, on “Aquatic resources aspects on the importance of promoting aquaculture. • More than 60 million children under age 5 are stunted in for eradicating hunger and malnutrition – Opportuinities and India, comprising almost half the children in this age group. Challenges. 3-6 Dec. 2012. AFSIB, Manglore, India. pp 190. • Creating awareness among women regarding the Roos N, Islam MM, Thilsted SH. (2003). Small indigenous fish importance of ‘fish in pre-natal nutrition’, for only healthy species in Bangladesh: contribution to vitamin A, calcium and iron intakes. The Journal of nutrition, 133: 4021S-4026S. mothers can help build a healthy nation. • The fisheries sector was allocated an outlay of Rs.200 crores in 2012-13’ under the scheme “National Mission for Protein Supplements” to increase fish production in the country. • Fish is a good source of n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA), low fat (<2%), moderate (2-5%) and high fat (>5%) containing

Waite, R. (2014). Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture. Working Paper, Installment 5 of Creating a Sustainable Food Future. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute. resources


Potential Anti-Viral Properties of Phytochemicals against Shrimp Diseases DSD. Suman Joshi and A. Krishna Satya Department of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar - 522510, India

At present, aquaculture is the world’s quickest growing food-production sector, providing an acceptable, protein rich supplement and substitute for wild, aquatic animals and plants. Shrimp is decapod crustaceans. A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption. Commercial shrimp farming began in the 1970s, and production grew steeply, significantly to match the market demands of the globe. Shrimp farming has modified from ancient, small-scale businesses in Southeast Asia into a global industry. About 75% of farmed shrimp is produced in Asia. Technological advances have led to growing shrimp at ever higher densities, and brood stock is shipped worldwide. Although there are thousands of species of shrimp worldwide, only about 20 of these species are commercially significant. The total global production of farmed shrimp reached more than 1.6 million tonnes in 2003, representing a value of nearly 9 billion U.S. dollars. As shrimp fishing methods industrialized, parallel changes were happening in the way shrimp were cultured and processed. Within the last many years, shrimp diseases have a devastating impact on world shrimp farming. Losses due to diseases are enormous and difficult to estimate. Diseases increase risk, deterring investment and commercial development. Most of these disease-associated problems are caused by viruses and microbes for many of which there are no therapeutic cures. Despite virally caused diseases being of such great concern in the industry, relatively little is known about the mechanisms behind viral infections in crustaceans. Viruses such as White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Yellow Head Virus (YHV), Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) are the foremost serious causes of illness in cultivation. WSSV infects a wide variety of cells from ectodermal and mesodermal origin and may cause 100% accumulative mortality within 2–10 days to farmed shrimp. Also bacterial disease caused by Vibrio species are serious threats to the well -being of cultured crustaceans.

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The terrestrial plants are well known for their anti- disease properties because of their secondary metabolites and phytochemical active bio compounds especially of Alkaloids, Glycoproteins, Flavonoids and Polyphenols. For instance aqueous extracts of Cynodon dactylon (terrestrial plant) and Ceriops tagal (mangrove) exhibited protective effects against WSSV in Penaeus monodon. The extract of Phyllanthus amarus and Psidium gugajava has shown antiviral activity against yellow head baculovirus in P. monodon. Other control measures that have been undertaken against the WSSV in the culture systems are oral administered with peptidoglycan, lipopolysacharides, �-1, 3 glucan, feeding with fucoidan extracted from Sargassm polycysticus and antiviral drug supplemented with Spirulina platensis. An aqueous extract of a composite mixture of 7 Indian medicinal plants (Aegle marmelos, Allium sativum, Curcuma longa, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Mimosa pudica, Ocimum sanctum) were developed, patented in 2002 and they concluded that the preparation was effective in controlling WSSV at the rate of 15 ppm (Achuthankutty et al, 2004). The herbal bio medicinal active principles that have the characteristics of antiviral properties, growth promoting ability, tonic to improve the immune system, anti-microbial capability, stimulating appetite and anti-stress characteristics playing a vital role in aquaculture of shrimp. Therefore, feeding the shrimp with bioactive constituents from plants can give nod to shrimp industry against crisis by increasing the quality of cultured shrimp, protection from disease, and also can increase the production to meet global demand for healthy and tasteful shrimp.

References Achuthankutty C, Desai U (2004) Treatment of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeid Shrimp aquaculture using plant extract. Proceedings of MBR 2004, National Seminar on New Frontiers in Marine Bioscience Research 63-67. Citarasu T. (2010). Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquacult Int. Vol 18, 403-414. Direkbusarakom S, Herunsalee A, Danayadol Y and Aekpanithanpong (1997). Effect of Phyllanthus spp. against yellow-head baculovirus infection in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Disease in Asian Aquaculture- II. Donald V. Lightner (1995). The Penaeid Shrimp Viral Pandemics due to IHHNV, WSSV, TSV and YHV. History in the Americas and Current status. 1-20. Ghosh U, Chakraborty S. (2013). Pharmaceutical and phytochemical evaluation of a novel anti- whie spot syndrome virus drug derived from terrestrial plants. Int J Nat pro res. Vol. 3 (4), 92-101. Wenlin Wu, Lei Wang and Xiaobo Zhang. (2005). Identification of

Lack of effective therapeutic or prophylactic measures have White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) envelop proteins involved in shrimp infection. Virology, 332, 578-583. aggravated the situation, necessitating the development of antiviral and antibacterial drugs with properties of natural availability, Eco-friendly, non-toxic and price effective. With this objective, the antiviral and anti-microbial activity of the Phytochemical constituents derived from terrestrial plants was studied extensively to shield the shrimp trade.


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Sudden Drop in Groundwater Levels Leading to increased Calcium P. Jaganmohan Rao, Aruna Kumari and Latha Kumari Matrix Aqua Laboratories, Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt. Ltd, Nellore-524003, India Introduction Each water quality parameter alone can directly affect the animal health. Exposure of shrimp and fish to improper levels of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite or hydrogen sulfide leads to stress and disease. However, in the complex and dynamic environment of aquaculture ponds, water quality parameters also influence each other. Unbalanced levels of temperature and pH can increase the toxicity of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Thus, maintaining balanced levels of water quality parameters is fundamental for both the health and growth of culture organisms. It is recommended to monitor and assess water quality parameters on a routine basis. As apart of our routine examinations, it was found that the calcium levels are increasing week by weak here in Niduguntapalem leading to molting problems in shrimp. “Calcium” is a major mineral used in mineralization of shell in shrimps. It helps in muscle relaxation and contraction. Normal range of calcium in pond water is greater than 150, but generally the calcium levels and total hardness depends on salinity. In the area of Nidiguntapalem there is a rise in calcium levels from January, 2015.

Materials and Methods As a part of weekly water analysis conducted by our Mobile aqua laboratory, a total of 50 samples from the specified area were collected and analyzed October 2014 to March 2015. Every week the water samples from same farm were collected and analyzed for the different water quality parameters. A comparison of parameters were done collected from October to December, 2014 with samples collected in 2015. The water analysis was carried out using APHA standards. An information on various culture peoblems faced by farmers were also collected in support of the analysis.








Results and Discussion

The results have indicated that the average value of pH before January 2015 is 8.16 and after January to March the average value of pH changed to 7.8. Ramakrishna (2008) and Soundarapandian and Gunalan (2008) was recommended pH of 7.5 to 8.5 for shrimp culture. When salinity was observed the change is almost negligible before and after the December 2015. Muthu (1980) , Soundarapandian and Gunalan and Ramakrishna (2000) Soundara Pandiyan and Gunalan (2008) recommended a salinity range of 10-35 ppt was ideal for shrimp culture. While Chanratchkool et al. (1998) maintained the salinity of 10-30 ppt. Chen (1980)opined that salinity ranges of 15-20 ppt are optimal for culture of shrimp. While studying the hardness it was found that the calcium levels were found to increase from an average value of 196 ppm to 240 ppm. The change is uniform in all the samples analyzed. Magnesium levels were not changed much. The total hardness value was found to increase from 1500 to 1700 ppm. When interacted with farmers most of the farmers intimated that all of them are suffering with improper molting which can be imparted to high level calcium , hard shell problems. While tracing the reason for high calcium an important observation was put forwarded by the farmers is that the depth of the ground water levels have been dropped almost 10 meters down leading to low water pumping which consists of white precipitate. Based on this our team has collected those water samples from bore well which are milky white in colour and analyzed for calcium level. It was found that the calcium levels were still high in those bore water samples. When the same water filtered with filter paper and analyzed it was found that the calcium levels were decreasing giving an information that the white turbidity of water might be due to calcium. Few of the reported early molting and few more reported white fecal matter syndrome and low dissolved oxygen.

Nov 2014 and Dec 2014






Jan 2015 and Feb 2015







Drop in ground water level


Delayed molting


Early molting


Water with milk white turbidity


White fecal



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Research Institute, Department of Fisheries, Kasetasart University, Bankok, pp: 91.

Soundarapandian, P. and B.Gunalan. (2008). Recent technology for the survival and production of giant tiger Chen, H.C. (1980). Water quality criteria for farming the shrimp, Penaeus monodon along south east coast of India. Int. grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. In: Take, Y., J.H. Primavera and J.A. Liobrea (Eds.), Proceedings of the 1st international J. Zool. Res., 4(1): 21-27. conference on culture of Penaeid prawns/ shrimps, pp: 165. Muthu, M.S. (1980). Site selection and type of farms for coastal aquaculture of prawns. Proceedings of the Symposium Shivappa, R.B. and J.B. Hamrey. (1997). Tiger shrimp culture on shrimp farming, Bombay, 16-18 August, Marine Products in freshwater, IFO Fish International, 4/97: 32- 36. Export Development Authority, pp: 97-106. Ramakrishna, R. (2000). Culture of the tiger shrimp Penaeus

Chanratchkool, P., J.F.Turunbull and C. Limsunean. (1994). monodon (Fabricus) in low saline waters. M.Sc., dissertation, Health management in Shrimp ponds. Aquatic Health Annamalai University, pp: 1-31.

Potent Vaccine against WSSV in Shrimp Invertebrate animals lack adaptive immunity and possess innate immunity to fight against diseases. However, a variety of innate immune molecules and mechanisms were reported in shrimp that could play an important role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Recently studies have provided promising results towards shrimp innate immune mechanisms that would contribute to development of effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Exposure of shrimp to anti-bacterial vaccine caused changes in humoral and cellular (phagocytosis) defences with elevated levels of internalised vibrios in hemocytes this suggesting an enhanced cellular defences of shrimp following vaccination. Vaccination through oral route have been undertaken to induce better protection against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a major shrimp pathogen using Formalin inactivated virus and WSSV envelope protein VP28 as candidate vaccine components. The truncated recombinant VP28 (rec-VP28), formalin inactivated virus (IVP) and live WSSV follow an identical uptake route suggested as receptor- mediated endocytosis that starts with adherence of luminal antigens at the apical layers of gut epithelium. DNA vaccination strategy through intramuscular route using four recombinant constructs using WSSV structural proteins namely VP15, VP28, VP35 and VP281 individually into DNA vaccine vector pVAX1 or in eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1 had better potential in protecting shrimps against WSSV infection. The VP28, VP19 and VP15 genes encode viral structural proteins of WSSV. Passive immunization strategy using Specific IgY immunoglobulin from hens immunized with recombinant plasmid (pCI-VP28/ VP19/VP15) with linkers or with inactivated WSSV, coupled together with CpGoligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) and Freund’s adjuvantincreased survival rate. The protective efficacy of host derived recombinant molecule namely the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) through oral and intramuscular injection has also been demonstrated to provide higher survival rates in shrimp infected with WSSV through reduction of oxidative stress.

The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac- VP28) transduced as vaccine by oral route had significant advantage in the shrimp cells providing highest survival rate. Immunization with oral rVP24 expressed in E.coli and VP28 expressed in a Grampositive bacterium, Brevi bacillus brevis also had profound effect in triggering immune response and increasing the protection. Although intramuscular administration seems better than oral route for its limitations. However, among all these routes of administration, oral route is the most recommended method for field application as it can be delivered in-masse through the feed. Further Vp28 antigen is suggested as the ideal candidate through many studies. In addition, it is reported that antigens from midgut reaches haemolymph. The nearly identical uptake pattern of different WSSVantigens suggests that receptors on the apical membrane of shrimp enterocytes recognize rec- VP28 efficiently. Further, these studies suggest VP28 as a potent candidate for immunization to elicit better immune response in shrimp.


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 30


Best Management Practices for High Yield and Cost Reduction in Shrimp Farming S.NO



S.NO 11

Drop in dissolved oxygen

-Plankton crash -Cloudy weather. -Overfeeding beyond ponds carrying capacity. -After formalin treatment

-Exchange water and then apply lime. -Remove stable foam. -Run aerators continuously. -Reduce feed - Stop any fresh feeding if necessary -Increase aeration. - Apply 5kg of Rapid Oxy/acre


Increased turbidity

-Heavy rain and suspended solid run off. -Disturbed pond bottom after

-Apply lime after water exchange -Removal of foam -Stop aeration and allow suspended solids to settle down aeration - Reduce feed


Accumulation of waste at the pond bottom

-Few aerators -Reduced depth -High density -Overfeeding -Plankton crash

-Increasing water depth -Water exchange -Increasing in number of aerators -Apply 1bag of Pro-Oxy commander with @10litres of Advex PS mixed with sand


Disappearance of feed in -Pond bottom deterioration check in short time -Under feeding -Improper placement of check tray -Presence of fish in the pond


Shrimp at edge of pond

-Low Dissolved oxygen -Improving Dissolved oxygen levels -Accumulation of mud and plankton -Apply 1bag of Pro-Oxy commander with @10 litres of crash in the gills Advex PS mixed with sand - Apply 5kg of Rapid Oxy/acre


Shrimp at surface of pond

-Sudden change in pond environment i.e. low DO, sudden drop in pH.

-Apply lime if reduction pH is seen -If DO drops Apply 5kg of Rapid Oxy/acre


External fouling

-Deteriorated pond bottom -Increased organic load -Plankton crash -Delayed molting

-Exchange water until organic load decreases -Apply Shield@500ml/acre -Then apply mixture of Pro-Oxy commander and Advex PS


Red colored shrimp

-Increased Vibrio in water and blood -Drop in Dissolved oxygen

- Application of Sanitizer like Virasafe @1kg/acre -Applying probiotics (Legend @500gm/acre) in the next day -Supplementing feed with gut probiotics (Enzolac @10gm/kg feed)


Damaged appendages

-Over feeding -High density -Eating of weak and dead shrimp by active shrimp

-Increase the feed ration -Partial harvesting


Deformed appendages

-Improper moulting due to low alkalinity

-Apply lime


Soft shell problem

-Increase in bacterial loads in water and animal -Under feeding -Low alakalinity

-Lime application -Supplementing feed with Enzolac and Nutrizyme @10 and 20gm/kg, respectively -Applying probiotics for bacterial control (Pioneer @ 500gm/acre)


Hard shell problem

-Increase in carbonates and pH -Improper ratio of calcium and magnesium

-Reduce pH using alum or gypsum -Application of Matrix EDTA before mineral application

High suspended matter in pond water after filling

-Newly constructed ponds with loose soil

-Flush the ponds before filling and then apply lime well


Ponds which can’t be dried

-Poor site selection -Rainy season -Seepage from adjacent ponds

-Make a depression in the centre of the pond (2050 cm deep, 20- 30% of pond area), apply pro -Oxy commander @2bags/hectare to supply the aerated conditions for the development of aerobic non pathogenic bacteria.


Filamentous algae on pond bottom

-Taking too much time for bloom development after pond filling

- Do not delay blooming plankton after filling pond. One bag of Swarna lakshmi/acre will help for the better development of plankton and also improves the natural food availability for shrimp.


Turbid incoming water

- Poor site selection - Rainy season

- Keep the water in the reservoir pond as long as possible until suspended matter settle down


Pond with poor blooming

-High suspended solids in water -Low alkalinity -Low fertility of soil

-Application of simultaneously


Increase in pH level

- Over – liming in previous production cycles

-High water exchange -Pumping fresh water -Application of Crown-Dolamite @40kg/acre -Application of Biotrix @1kg/acre mixed with 10kg of jaggery reduces the fluctuation in the pH


Existence of feed in check tray after observation time

-Shrimp not yet used to feeding in net. -Overfeeding -Deterioration of the water – quality. -Disease outbreak. -During mounting period -During periods of low temperature. -Other animals present in the pond. -May be ammonia

-Use feed nets from 20 days after stocking. -Reduce the feed by 30% and re-calculate survival. -Improve the water quality. -Examine shrimp form cast net for signs of disease Observation during sampling. -Examine pond for presence of shrimp shells. -Adjust the feed according to consumption (reduce to approximately 60%) until shrimp return to normal appetite. -Add some fresh feed or coat feed with fermented fish fluid. -Attempt to remove animals. -Reduce feed. -Apply Seize @1kg/acre and also Proact1kg/acre after 3hrs brewing



Disappearance of feed in -Improper feed drop in check tray check try before observation -Dropping net too quickly into water time with no fecal remnants -Net incorrectly placed, rope too short or net not flat. - Shrimp feeding in nets first

-Bringing awareness in workers -Place feed in nets after feeding


More number of shrimp in check tray

- Check condition of pond bottom, move nets to clean areas if necessary. - Feed only clean part of pond. -Check survival and re-calculate the feed. -Apply 1bag of proxy commander with @10litres of Advex PS mixed with sand

Drop in pH

-Plankton crash -Acid rains

-Apply Agriculture lime -Reduce the quantity of feed - Continuous running of aerators





Best Management Practices for High Yield and Cost Reduction in Shrimp Farming



-Deterioration of pond bottom -Under feeding

AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 31



-Sludge removal at bottom -Changing the position of check tray to a clean place -Check survival of animal -Kill fish using tea seed cake


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 32

Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt. Ltd Stall at Aqua Aquaria India 2015 Andhra Loyola College Campus, Vijayawada Organized by MPEDA, Kochi On 20th -22nd Feb, 2015 Mrs. Leena Nair, Chairperson, MPEDA, Kochi has been visited to Matrix stall on 22, February, 2015 and interacted with Shri. V. Siva Prasad, CEO, Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad. He has explained various activities of company and programmes conducted by the company such as training programmes for educated unemployed rural youth, making them as best technicians which is the need of industry, he also explained the MAAAR Centre (ANU), and its activities like educational and training programs like Certificate and PG Diploma in Aquaculture Management courses. During their discussions, Mr. Prasad has stressed the importance of better management practices for sustainable aquaculture. She has appreciated Mr. Siva Prasad for his valuable contribution to Aqua industry. She has also interacted with Dr. P. Jagan Mohanrao, Director (Technical) and enquired about the products of company.


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 33

Achievements & Activities of Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt.Ltd.,

Farmers Technical Meet

Product feed back from farmers

Farmers Technical Meet

Farmers Technical Meet

Farmers Technical Meet

Farmers Technical Meet

Land Lab Services

Aqua dealers trip to Goa

Mr. V.Siva Prasad, CEO, Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt.Ltd., interacting with Mrs. Leena Nair, Chairperson, MPEDA, Kochi

Social Responsibility Programmes By Matrix Sea Food India Pvt. Ltd.,

Swacha Bharat at MAAARC Mr. V.Siva Prasad, CEO, Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt.Ltd., being felicited by Sri D.Narendra Kumar M.L.A Ponnuru during Sewing Machines distribution programme at Nambur Village.

Mobile Lab Service

Matrix Sea Foods India Pvt.Ltd., conducted farmers awareness program on the Best Management Practices in Aquaculture


Husbandry Practices in Trout Culture Salman Rauoof Chalkoo Department of Fisheries, Government of J&K, India

Husbandry practices find an important place in overall hatchery and farm management owing the risk involved regarding the health status of the stock and the exchequer involved. Fisheries sector is a cash crop with better returns, provided the management practices are involved for broodstock, hatchery as well as farm. This paper shall discuss the different aspects of trout fish farm management.

Broodstock Management In most of the hatcheries in India, including Kashmir, where the trout has thrived very well, owing to the speedy fresh flowing waters, there has been sporadic incidences of disease outbreaks, slow growth rate, inefficient food conversion and improper gonadal development resulting in non-viable crop. Due to these reasons, the estimated high seed producing trout states are lacking behind and are even unable to satiate the needs of government run and private trout farms. The reasons behind all this logical loss are evident, yet there are constraints which does not get an importance by the managers or the technocrats at the helm of affairs. As such there is need to find out the reasons for the same. Once the reasons are evidently proven, a strategic planning to evade the hiccups can be done at priority.

AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 35

of Fisheries with Mr.Mitchel as Director and Pt. Sodhama as Inspector came into being. Seed farms at Harwan and Achhabal were established and trout beats established in our streams like, Lidder, Sindh, Ferozpurnullah, Madhumati and Krishenganganullahs etc. Later trout were also introduced in Chenab and other streams of Jammu province. Many lakes and springs like Gangabal, Kounsarnag, Verinag were also used to stock trout fish. Since then the stock has never been crossed or replenished. As a broodstock management practice, the stock needs to bred with new or heterozygous strains every year or after two consecutive years. This varies the genetic profile, thereby increasing the heterozygosity. This makes broodstock healthy, potent and sexually more viable. The heterozygosity leads to the profile, which makes trout more potent. Moreover the seed production is more and the attained crop is resistant to the stress due to environmental conditions. Reports from many hatcheries having a considerable broodstock population reveal less feed consumption efficiency, general body blackening, exophthalmia, lethargic behavior and general weight loss. As a thumbs rule, a healthy broodstock can withstand a healthy crop. Moreover a balanced diet comprising of protein rich component is mandatory while designing a feed formula for the broodstock. General cleanliness measures of the raceways are also important as the fish habitat plays a great role in determining the health status of the fish. The

One of the important reasons of these constraints is “inbreeding depression”. Inbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in a given population as a result ofinbreeding –i e., breeding of related individuals. Population biological fitness refers to its ability to survive and reproduce itself. Inbreeding depression is often the result of a population bottleneck. In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from inbreeding depression. Since the trout has been introduced in Kashmir long back. Kashmir’s trout fisheries history goes back to 1898 when Mr. Mitchel a Scotsman introduced trout for the first time in Kashmir with the help of Pandit Sodhama Miskeen and Khwaja Gafarjoo. The fish seed was obtained from England. Half of it perished in transit because there were no airplanes those days and sea route was the only option. From

broodstock should always be placed nearing to outlet of the fish farm. Generally the designing of the farm is created in such a way so that the used water is emptied in broodstock pond. This makes the juveniles and fry stage less susceptible to infections due to broodstock excreta or unused feed. Bombay the seed had to be carried first by rail upto Rawalpindi Moreover the broodstock are reservoir of opportunistic and then by bus to Srinagar in containers of water. The water pathogens. had to be changed frequently. The first attempt failed but Hatchery Management subsequent attempt in 1900 to breed trout succeeded.The Maharaja of Kashmir was then approached and a Department Hatchery is the backbone of any aquaculture establishment. Trout hatchery is an important resource of the revenue


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 36

fertilization allowed to proceed for 5–15 minutes, startup. A well-managed and hygienic hatchery set up can lead to good crop, which shall grow and enhance the • The eggs should then be rinsed in 0.9% saline (30–60 economy of the state. Husbandry practices are required for seconds) to remove excess sperm and other organic overall management of hatchery. Hygienic conditions can be materials, maintained in different ways: • The eggs should then be rinsed in a 100 ppm iodophor a)Water Source: The water source can be disinfected solution for 1 minute. Then the solution should be before the start of breeding operation by using chlorine. An discarded and replaced with a fresh 100 ppm solution and adequate quantity of chlorine can be added to the spring the eggs disinfected for a further 30 minutes. This solution, source @ 10 ppm, 15 days before the startup of breeding and the rinsing solutions, should be used only once. The operation. This allows the mass kill of ectoparasites or the ratio of eggs to iodophor solution should be a minimum of carriers of parasites. Gammarus has been found in abundance 1:4, in trout waters, which have a prolific breeding nature. The gammarus shells are the best reservoirs of parasites causing • The eggs should be rinsed again in fresh or sterile hatchery water for 30– 60 seconds, whirling disease. So the disinfection of water source of important lest it damages the other livestock. The treated water should not be allowed to pass through any of the livestock establishment, which may cause a mass kill.

b)Equipments: Disinfection of equipment’s and nets used during breeding operation is essential. Use of betadine solution 1% (w/v) is an optimum disinfectant, which can be used without the problem of any pH change. The overall hatchery should be cleaned and disinfected with the above mentioned chemicals. This reduces the risk of contact of parasites with the host.

d)Livestock: As soon as the broodstock are picked for stripping, a 10- 15 days fasting is required, which reduces any chances of faecal matter contamination of fresh batch of eggs. The broodstock, which appears to be ripe should be, segregated sex wise 10 days before the day of stripping. This restricts the sexual chase and protects any release of eggs from the mature female body. The brooders should be given KMnO4 bath before and after handling. However after handling the broodstock or post stripping, the brooders should be dipped in 5% salt solution in addition to 5 ppm KMnO4 for 1-2 min. The brooders should be placed very peacefully in the raceways to avoid any physical stress.The collected eggs should be given disinfection with iodophor. Iodophor solution has been extensively used for the trout eggs. For disinfecting newly fertilized trout eggs via a water-hardening process with iodophors, the active iodine concentration should be 100 ppm. One such procedure is as follows:

involves subdividing the ration into 2-3 meals in summer. This increases the feed intake and improves the feed conversion efficiency. The fish can be supplemented with trash fish (low economic value small bony fish) or boiled poultry waste. This helps in fattening of the fish, which augments the economy of the farmer or the government establishment. The stock should be graded from time to time using a grade bar or by hand picking. This reduces the irregular growth, if any, in the raceways and restricts the cannibalistic tendency of the fish. Uniform size distribution among ponds ensures good

AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 37

management protocols. During grow out period, the fishes get prone to different pathogens, which may be bacterial, viral, fungal or parasitic. A health expert should be consulted on immediate basis to see any unhealthy symptoms of the fish so that early instructions could be flaunted to avoid any huge loss due to disease outbreak. Medicines should be strictly prescribed by the fish pathologist.

Cautions in Using Organic Raw Manures in Freshwater Fish Culture: Effective and CostEffective Usage of Mature Organic Manures in Aquaculture Jalagum Krishna Prasad CIFE Regional Centre, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India

c)Manpower: One of the important aspects of hatchery management is manpower portfolios to be standardized and prioritized. The staff in the hatchery should be trained and well equipped with the knowledge of disease occurrence. Knowing the causes of the disease can be beneficial for the hatchery, so that the men at work can take due precautionary measures to ensure the free hand infection contacts with the livestock. The officials should handle the hatchery equipment’s with rubber gloves. For picking the bad eggs, the picking glasses should be disinfected and used separately for different trays and troughs. Ensuring the resourceful manpower and technically sound workers can witness a healthy crop free from any induced parasites.


Importance of Organic Manures in Aqua-Farming • Water-hardening should be finished using clean water. It is important that eggs are not fertilized in the presence of the iodophor solution as this will kill sperm cells. Practically alkalinity studies of water should be done before the use of iodophor, which sometimes appears to be toxic due to decrease in pH. A proper buffer using NaOH or NaHCO3 can be used in proper ratios to reduce the pH. The health status of the fry can be improved by using vitamin D supplements, which helps in bone development in the growing fry. Moreover prebiotic/probiotic composition can increase the feed consumption and conversion efficiency of the growing fry. In addition, vitamin C supplements can be used as immunostimulants. The medicines including broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided at this stage, which makes the stock drug resistant. Allowing the growing fry to utilize its own immune system will have long lasting positive effects. A well balanced feed formula should be framed to meet the basic amino acid requirements of the growing fry. In addition to the commercial diet, fry can be supplemented with the chopped beef liver or dried gammarus, which augment the protein supplement of the growing fry.

Farm Management

An overall farm management is required for a better economic turnover. A protocol should be set and kept handy so that the necessary steps are taken from time to time. The most important is feeding. A proper feeding rate and • Eggs should be stripped and separated from ovarian fluid, feeding schedule is important for a crop. Feeding schedule rinsed in 0.9% saline (30–60 seconds), sperm added and

The organic manures are basically bio-degradable. In general aqua-farmers are using raw cattle or poultry manures in fresh water fish culture. These are applying before stocking of seed and time to time application of manures after stocking also for maintaining planktons. These raw organic manures may create problems in aqua farming. The raw organic manures can triggers to increase biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.) in the fish ponds. This in turn leads to reduction in dissolved oxygen content in the water. The raw organic manures applied to the water may start putrification. In the putrification process a lot of harmful gasses will liberate like hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, etc. This raw organic material will take a good amount of time in liberating nutrients. Due to all these reasons the ecological aquatic environment of fish pond will be disturbed, which in turn create a lot of problems to the farmer. Especially when apply raw poultry litter or deep litter to the fish pond, it may create or raise other source of problems and also to the ecology of the fish pond. In the poultry farming lot of antibiotics and other drugs usage is more. Excess of these drugs were drained out in their excreta. These excreta (poultry dung) was using as manure in the fish culture. The residuals of these dung will enter in the food chain. This may sometimes create a great deal of problems to the fish pond. Sometimes the fishes in these ponds may affect in their immunity. So aqua-farmers must think on these lines also. Aqua farmers can change their unacceptable farm practices into acceptable farm practices with a little thought, farm skills and with little practical knowledge. We

can very easily trace out the fitting farm practices and with cost effective to fulfill our need and demands. We can use compost (mature) organic manures instead of raw organic manures. These may be dairy compost, vermin compost, poultry compost, gobar gas plant slurry, etc. The preparations of these compost manures are very easy and much cost effective. The quality of these mature manures is very high. The quantity of important nutrients like Nitrate, Phosphate, and Potash are high. Approximately the nutrients status in (mature) compost manures double of triple than raw organic manures and side effects are also very less. In these compost or mature organic manures the nutrients release is quicker than raw organic manures. The growth is of good quality and quantity of plankton is high. It may require some further studies. In these ponds the growth of the fish is good and quick and healthy which ultimately leads to healthy market rates to the farmers. The aqua farmers can reduce their organic manures application by ½ to 1/3 if they use mature organic manures. In this way it is a cost effective also. So we are requesting the aqua farmers to think on these lines and adopt a suitable farm practices. So please search out a suitable, cost-effective and effective methodology to aqua farming. So aqua-farmers will take every possible area in adopting new methods. In the table below we have given some raw and mature organic manure nutritive values (The nutritive value may change according to the quality of organic manures used). The preparation of these compost/ vermin compost can be effectively taken up with the available infrastructure like low cost sheds on the fish culture tank bunds with little bit skill, knowledge and interest. They


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 38


require very little farming practices in their preparation only. layers of earth can be used for our purpose in preparing the It is very easy to make it cost effective also.Preparation of vermin compost making process. For making vermin beds different manures construct a rectangular tub with 3-4 feet width, height 2-2.5 feet and length can be made according to our feasibility and a) Preparation of Compost Manure requirement. These tubs can be protected from sun, rain, Mainly it depends upon requirement. Accordingly we can dig termites and ants. These tubs can be built in a less cost sheds. a pit 2-3 feet depth and approximately 6 feet width and length The prepared tubs can be wetted with water on the bed. First of the pit can be changed according to our requirement and 4-5 inch height layer can be made with saw dust, dry paddy available facilities. In these built pits, the available dairy or grass, wheat dry grass, coconut fruit fibers etc. and sprinkle poultry manures can be shaped with approx 30 cm breadth some water on it for making wet. It is very much useful for the layers. In between these layers sprinkle some water to make worms for taking rest in it. Prepare about 4 inch width layer with farm yard manure. In it if grasses are much longer make it small bits. Make it wet by sprinkle water on it. On the bed ORGANIC PHOSPHATE POTASH NITRATE introduce about 100 numbers of earth worms in every meter MANURE length of the bed. Above it make another layer with 4-5 inch width. At last highly rotten farm yard manure can be spread 1 Raw Cattle 0.5 - 1.5 % 0.3 - 0.9 % 0.5 – over it with about 1 feet width layer. Spread wet gunny bags dung 1.9 % over it. Please see that the bed and gunny bags over it will 2 Vermin 1.5 – 3.0 % 1.05 - 2.2 % 1.1 – always keeps 40-60% wet conditions. Never disturb the compost 1.75 % bed. The formations of vermin compost will be dependent on quality of organic manure have used and the number of 3 Poultry (1-2months) 1.0 % earth worms have released into the bed etc. Please be careful deep litter when you introduce your organic manures to the tub, never 4 Poultry (10-12 3.0 % 2.0 % allow plastic waste papers, sharp glass pieces, iron pieces etc. deep built months) always be careful not to allow termites and ants etc. to the litter vermin bed. 5 Gobar gas 2.0 – 2.4 % 1.5 % 1.0 % The fully prepared vermin compost will be very light and plant slurry appear as radish coffee powder and no smell. The vermin compost may contain earth worm eggs and small earth them wet and about 8-10 kg super phosphate can be applied worms etc. The earth worms will attach to the gunny bag on each layer. Likewise the pit can be raised to 1-2 feet above when the compost was fully prepared. After complete the ground level. The heap of this manure can be closed by preparation of vermin compost stop sprinkling of water for applying with a thin layer of cow dung or mud. Now the heap 2-3 days. During this phase all the earth worms will gradually can be protected from rain or direct sun light by building a reaches to the bottom layer bed. Now you can make conical small low cost shed. The complete compost can be formed shaped heaps place to place on the bed. Keep it for one more within 6-8 months time. The length of the time will be day. During this time the left over earth worms can reach to dependent on the quality of the ganic manures we used. bottom layer in search of wetness. The completely prepared vermin compost can be sheaving and filled in gunny bags and b) Preparation of Vermin-Compost can be kept in shade and cool place for some time and can be The time required in preparing compost is 6-8 months. applied according to requirement. The small earth worms and whereas the time taking for preparing vermin compost is earthworm’s eggs can be reintroduces in the fresh vermin much faster and takes about 1-2 months only. In the vermincompost bed for fresh culture. compost the micronutrient status is also very high, namely, Iron 175 ppm, Manganese 96 ppm, Zinc 24 ppm and Copper 15 ppm, etc. It is mainly dependent on the type of organic manures we used for vermin-compost. Vermin culture is also a way in preparing mature manures which is much faster. To grow earth worms is called vermin culture. These earth worms can eat organic waste materials and excretes small round balls like excreta which is called as vermin compost or earth worm organic manure. The preparation method of vermin compost is very easy. It contains very high nutritive value. The vermin compost may contain Carbon, Magnesium, Vitamins, Enzymes, and oxidants also. These can trigger the growth of useful bacteria in the medium when apply. These may require some more studies. The earthworms which generally live and grow in upper


AQUACULTURE TIMES I Vol. 1(1) - 2015 I 39

c) Gobar Gas Plant Slurry


Raw cattle dung can be mixed in less water and make thick gobar slurry. Put this thick gobar slurry in airtight gas tank. Keep it for some time to allow the microbial actions. Because of this microbial action on gobar slurry biogas or cooking biogas will be produced. The constituents in bio gas are Carbandioxide 30-40%, methane 50-60% and Hydrogen 10%. The bio gas which is librated from the gas tank can be used as cooking gas or we can use for lighten bulbs as source of energy. The gobar slurry can be changed time to time to increase the liberation of bio gas. The used gobar gas tank slurry can be anexcellent source of nutrients which can be effectively used in aqua farming.

Now a days in different corners of the country, the aqua farmers are facing a great deal of problems in getting their good quality of intake waters. The quality of intake waters are deteriorating day by day due to so many reasons mainly because of poorly constructions of drainage and feeding channels. With the present poor quality input water source, in the fish ponds, can make havoc in the culture period and with little bit error or negligence by the farmer can leads to heavy losses. So think carefully and adopt and apply your heart and brain and follow right kind of farm practices which fetched you joy and happiness.

Feeds and Feeding in Aquaculture

which constitute 45 to 47% of tissue dry matter. Therefore, it is an essential nutrient for body maintenance and growth. Protein is typically the most costly nutrient in a formulated feed. Proteins are composed of up to 20α-amino acids linked into chains by peptide bonds and they provide the proper ratio of amino acids. It is necessary for the building muscle, connective tissues, blood, enzymes, hormones, etc.

P.V. Rangacharyulu and Ramesh Rathod CIFA Regional Centre, Vijayawada – 521137, Andhra Pradesh, India

So apply mature organic manures to the aqua farming and minimize risks and make it cost effective and produce healthy fish stock which fetches good wealth to you.

Lipids Dietary lipids are important sources of energy and essential fatty acids (EFA) that are needed for normal growth and development. They also assist in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Dietary lipids, mainly in the form of triacylglycerols, are hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes to a mixture of free fatty acids and 2-monoglycerides. These compounds are then absorbed and either used for the synthesis of various cellular components or catabolized for energy.

Feed represents one of the highest operating costs in aquaculture systems and feed choice and feed management practices have a significant impact on the economic performance of a production system. The type and value of feed inputs that farmers select is dependent upon a number of factors including the market (local, export) and the value Carbohydrates of the fish, the financial resources available to the farmer, the It is poor source of energy for fish. But act as filler component species, the culture system and intensity of production. in the feed. Carbohydrates are used in fish feeds to provide In semi-intensive and intensive aquaculture systems, feed the binder and expansion characteristics required for costs typically account for between 40 and 60 percent pelletizing and extruding. Although no specific carbohydrate of production costs. In order to ensure profitability, it is requirement has been established for fish, some form of imperative that farmers have access to good quality feeds digestible carbohydrate should be included in the diet. at reasonable prices. With the quantities produced by the Carbohydrates may serve as precursors for the dispensable aquaculture industry today, relatively small changes in feed amino acids and nucleic acids, which are metabolic composition and feeding regimens can generate substantial intermediates necessary for growth. Because carbohydrate benefits. The demand for development of more cost-efficient is the least expensive source of dietary energy, the maximum feed means that we have to gain a fundamental understanding tolerable concentration should be used with regard to the fish species. of the nutritional needs and tolerance limits of farmed fish. The objective of feeding fish is to provide the nutritional requirements for good health, optimum growth, optimum yield and minimum waste within reasonable cost so as to optimize profits. The feed should contain all the nutrients required by the fish, in the right proportions for good performance (growth and health), are as follows:


Vitamins are organic compounds, distinct from amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, that are required in trace amounts from an exogenous source (usually the diet) for normal growth, reproduction, and health. Vitamins are classified as water- soluble and fat soluble. Eight of the water-soluble vitamins are required in relatively small amounts, have Protein primarily co-enzyme functions, and are known as the vitamin Protein is one of the basic components of animal tissues B complex. Three of the water- soluble vitamins, choline,


inositol, and vitamin C, are required in larger quantities and have functions other than co-enzymes. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are the fat soluble vitamins that function independent of enzymes or, in some cases such as vitamin K, may have coenzyme roles. Most fish require dietary ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Ascorbic acid added to fish feeds should be phoshorylated to stabilize the vitamin and increase storage time. The concentration of vitamin E is often inadequate, especially in diets that are high in fat.

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the nutrient balance of more expensive ones. However, it is also necessary to consider factors such as the quality, palatability and functional properties of ingredients as well as the possible content of anti-nutritional components that are known to affect the growth and health of fish.

Protein Sources Animal Origin High protein meals from animal sources are of great value in aquaculture feeds, particularly if they are of marine origin. Animal proteins are generally rich in essential amino acids especially those (lysine and methionine) which are often limiting in plant proteins. They also are good sources of vitamins, unidentified growth factors and trace minerals. The commonly used animal origin protein sources in aquaculture practices are as follows: Fish meal, Fish solubles, Fish silage, Meat meal, Meat and bone meal, Shrimp meal, Squid meal and Silkworm pupae meal etc.

Plant Origin Plant protein supplements are widely used in feeds for aquaculture practices. Plant products and by-products generally have high protein digestibility. They can often be used in combination to replace more expensive ingredients such as fishmeal. The commonly used plant origin protein sources in aquaculture practices are as follows:

Minerals Minerals are the inorganic component of the feed, are required for the normal life processes of fish. They have wide variety of functions, plays important role for structural component of hard and soft tissues. Act as cofactors and/ or activators of enzymes, osmoregulators and acid-base balance. Fish, unlike most terrestrial animals, can absorb some minerals (inorganic elements) not only from their diets but also from their external aquatic environment. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) are generally derived from the water to satisfy part of the nutritional requirements of fish.

Feed Ingredients Fish, like other animals, have requirements for the essential nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals in their diets, in order to grow properly. When fish is placed in an artificial environment (culture practices), feed containing these essential nutrients must be supplied for better growth. Conversely the feed may be given as supplementary feed, where part of the nutritional needs is supplied by natural foods present in the aquatic environment (Lovell 1989). Aquaculture feed ingredients tend to be mostly by-products of processing or milling industries. Different proportions of less expensive ingredients can often be combined to achieve

Oil seed cakes of Ground nut, Soy bean, Cotton seed, Sunflower seed, Rape seed, Mustard seed, Til seed and Safflower etc. Carbohydrate sources: Cereals, Cereal grains and Milling byproducts etc.

References FAO (1998). Animal feed resources information system by Bo Gรถhl-database. (Eds) Andrew Speedy and Nick Waltham. 8th Edition. FAO, Rome. Lovell, R. T., (1989). Nutrition and feeding of fish. Van Mostrand Reinhold, New York. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 2008. National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. Tacon, A. G. J., (1993). Feed ingredients for warm water fish: fish meal and other processed feedstuffs. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, FAO Fisheries Circular, No. 856: 64.


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Probiotics-A Boon for Aquaculture A.Balasubramanian and T. Suguna Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University, Undi - 534 199, West Godavari Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India Nowadays, in India, the practices of Aquaculture is surpassing the Agriculture as it is a lucrative industry and acquiring good foreign exchange as well. Intensification of aquaculture practices leads to high stocking of animals in a smaller area and the culture practices are not regularized properly despite the government does better. Further higher stocking of animals leads to huge application of feeds, fertilizers, pesticides and antibiotics which in turn leads to accumulation of organic wastes thereby damage of ecosystem. It ultimately subjects to wide outbreak of various kinds of microbial infections in the cultured animals which takes to loss of productivity by huge mortality of rearing animals. Intensive way of aqua culture and its consequent disease problems due to bacteria and virus resorted to application of various antibiotics. It developed drug resistant to the bacteria which harbours the animals and reduced the efficiency of antibiotics against the diseases. Application of sanitizers, pesticides and antibiotics do not thrive the production for a long period. Prolonged and indiscriminate application of anti-microbial agents not only kills the pathogenic bacteria and other bacteria but also transfer their resistance genes to other bacterial populations which are exposed to such antibiotics. As a rule of thumb, prevention is the better than cure, nowadays prevention is emphasized in aquatic health management despite it costs heavily compared to curing them. Owing to this, the concept of probiotic is being applied at present. The concept was introduced in the year 1965 by Lilly and Stillwell.

Concept of Probiotic Probiotic means composition of certain defined viable non pathogenic microorganism in determined quantity which alters the gut microbial biota of the rearing animals. It may be mono or mixed culture of microorganisms. It facilitates the rearing animal to cease the pathogens activity in the gut and improves the intestinal microbial composition which leads to development of immuno-stimulant in the animals and enhance the food absorption. It would be effective during extreme conditions like salinity, temperature, etc. It acts as food supplement which benefits the host. Commonly used probiotic micro-organisms are Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., Enterococcus sp., Carnobacterium sp., and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, etc., Application of antimicrobial agents in aquaculture practices can be reduced by

encouraging the usage of immune- stimulants, non-specific immune enhancers, probiotics and vaccines. Further, these are considered as major thrust areas of potential research for disease control in aquaculture. Generally, probiotic refers bacteria belongs to gram positive especially Lactobacillus sp, Bifidobacterium sp, and Streptococcus. In aquaculture, generally intestinal microbiota is only considered as major entity for harbouring the various pathogenic bacteria since microbes require moist environment. Unlike terrestrial animals, it is largely interrelated with aquatic environment which harbours various micro-floras as the host and microbes share the same ecosystem. Various studies reveal that gut microbiota of aquatic animal is highly influenced by the bacteria exist in the environment and vice versa. Existence of microbes in the gut of aquatic animals is either from the environment or feed. The probiotic used in aquaculture is a live microbial addition supplied through feed which yields beneficial effect by modifying the gut microflora by enhancing feed absorption, nutrition and immunity against the pathogenic bacteria in the gut. The probiotic bacteria normally produce anti-microbial agents like bacteriocins and organic acids which compete with pathogens and cease the adhesion of pathogens in the Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT) of aquatic animals. Hence, the probiotic bacteria is called as friendly or health bacteria. GIT harbours various potentially pathogenic bacteria like Escherichia coli, Listeria and Salmonella along with other probiotic bacteria. The other probiotic bacteria which are commonly found in GIT are gram positive Bacillus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus Lactobacillus and gram-negative facultative anaerobic such as Vibrio and Pseudomonas and yeasts, fungi and algae. The probiotic bacteria adjunct is prepared from the bacteria isolated from intestine of the animal and the environment. The indigenous microbiota varies between fish and shrimp as well as fresh water and sea. The fresh water fish includes genera of Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, representatives of the family Enterobacteriaceae, and obligate anaerobic bacteria of the genera Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, and Eubacterium whereas, the gut of the marine shrimp is dominated by the gram negative bacteria viz., Vibrio, Pseudomonas. The fresh water fishes contain more indigenous microbes than the sea water animals. Unfortunately lactic acid producing bacteria are less common in the intestinal tract of the aquatic animals. Even though, Bacillus sp., Vibrio and Lactobacillus are


commonly used as probiotic bacteria for the aquatic animals as it modifies the gut microbiota thereby improves their growth, survival and immunity against the diseases. Recent studies say that nowadays beneficial bacteria for aquaculture are also isolated from the marine environment.

Role of Probiotics Probiotic bacteria can be directly added to soil and water of the production pond and along with feed. Various commercial Probiotics are available in the market in different combinations and bacterial counts. Report says in general, the use of probiotic bacteria reduces mortality rate. However, the quantity of cells present in the probioitic given with feed plays a major role in the survival of animals. The bacterial count of 109 g-1 is ideal than 1012 g-1 and it indicates the increasing of bacterial count does not offer protection to the animals. Mixed culture of probiotic bacteria yields better result by enhancing lysozyme activity, migration of neutrophils, and plasma bactericidal activity, than probiotic with single species. Nowadays, prebiotics like, yucca, gluccans, etc are also included in the probiotic preparation which are non digestible ingredients and help in stimulating the growth of probiotic bacteria especially in colon region of fish. Probiotic bacteria are isolated from the pond sediment, soil, water and animal. The potential effect of probiotic relies on the source from which the bacteria are isolated and way of application. Hence, it cannot be considered all the commercial probiotics available in the market are potential one and they may vary based on source and type.

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organic wastes from the environment. It also influences the immunity of the animals and maintains good water quality of the culture systems. Bacteria like Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas and Sulphur reducing bacteria are also probiotic bacteria which cleansing the bottom of the aqua ponds by converting the nitrogen and sulphur components into usable forms. The immune power and stamina of the aquatic animals will be improved by frequent application of the Probiotics both in water and through feed and application of probiotic should not be stopped at any circumstances. Continuous application of probiotic bacteria starts colonizing in the gastro intestinal tract of the animals since these bacteria have good multiplication rate than eviction. If any failure in the application of probiotic, it would be susceptible to the immediate infection. Further, the probiotic bacteria supports the growth of phytoplankton like Chetoceros sp. and zooplankton like rotifers which serve as food for larvae of fish and shrimp and adult fishes. The probiotic bacteria supplemented with feed enhances the body protein and fat content of the fish and their survival. They used to produce extracellular compounds which arouse the non-specific immune response in the aquatic animals. It is reported that supplementation of bacteria Lactobacillus sp. in the feed for Litopenaeus vannamei is effective against bacteria Vibrio harveyi and maintained the anti-oxidant defense level. It is essential to enhance the disease resistant level and immune power in fish and shrimp against viral infection as there are no drugs for curing them. In this context, the probiotic bacteria only can improve the immune power of the rearing animals. The fish and shrimp are totally varying in their immune systems. Fish has good immune system compared to shrimp. Shrimp cannot have capacity to detect and eliminate the foreign organisms which are highly harmful to them unlike the fish. Later can able to produce their immunoglobulin to recognize and eliminate the pathogens whereas the shrimp depend on innate immune systems of cellular components like formation of nodules, encapsulation, etc. and humoral components like agglutinins, antimicrobial peptides, anticoagulant proteins, etc. However, in shrimps specific immunity can be induced through vaccination. Probiotic bacteria are capable of synthesizing the enzymes like amylases, lipases and proteases and vitamins, fatty acids and amino acids which facilitate nutrition absorption in the aquatic animals. Similarly feed given to the fish supplemented with yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances their growth and produces the anti-oxidative enzymes like catalase, glutathione, peroxidase, etc. In vannamei, the inclusion of Bacillus with its feed augments the digestibility of dry matter, protein, fat, etc.

Effect of probiotic is arbitrated by various factors like mainly the type of probiotic, the dosage, method of application, duration of application, frequency of application. Probiotic delivers its effect by secreting antibacterial substances like bacteriocin and other peptides such as defensins, chemokines, etc., which inhibit microbes and fight against the diseases. In some other cases, probiotic is arresting bacterial movement bacteria crossing the GIT wall and improving the mucosal secretion by producing immune molecules. The commercial Probiotics available in market are either in liquid or powder form. Instead of applying these products directly in the pond water or soil, it may be allowed for further fermentation mixing with jiggery for a period of 4-6 h which would improve the viability and functionality of microbes for better performance. Nowadays, the Probiotics is prepared in encapsulated form through various processes like emulsification, extrusion, spray drying and adhesion to starch etc. The encapsulation aids to preclude the damage of probiotic bacteria from low pH and other digestive enzymes of GIT. If the probiotic bacteria survive well in the intestine, then the performance of bacteria will be effective against the Water quality can be maintained in the culture ponds by infections. The viability of probiotic depends on the method addition of gram positive bacillus strains than gram negative of production, storage temperature, survival and stability in as they convert organic matter into carbondioxide efficiently. the intestinal tract, etc. Hence, it is essential to maintain higher level of gram positive probiotic bacteria in the production pond by repeated addition Use of Probiotics in Aquaculture which reduces the accumulation of dissolved and particulate Probiotic serves as a feed supplement which enhances the organic carbon in the ecosystem. Further they improve growth besides protecting the animals from the pathogens, the primary productivity of the ponds. Other bacterial like regenerating or recycling the nutrients and degrading Nitrobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Cellulomonas and


Rhodopseudomonas are effective in maintaining the water quality especially for removal organic wastes in the pond bottom. In Fish ponds, ammonia production and nitrite toxicity are major problem which is highly toxic and it can be removed by application of above probiotic bacteria through nitrification process. Many of probiotic bacteria serve as algicide which inhibits the growth of certain unicellular algae like Pavlova lutheri. The relationship between the algae and the probiotic should also be considered during selection of any probiotic. High stocking and intensive way of culture cause stress in the fish and shrimp which is indicated by presence of hormone cortisol and glucose levels of Lactate and plasma in the tissues of the animals. It leads to poor synthesis of body muscle protein and thereby poor growth. It can be eliminated by application of probiotic bacteria.

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bacterial infection is well reported whereas for viral infection is under research. Application of probiotic from the beginning of the culture to the end yields good production than during the disease outbreak. Hence, it is strongly recommended to apply probiotic in pond soil, water and along with regular feed, so as to keep the animal healthy and avoid loss of economic value. However, it is still vague that if probiotics suppress the pathogen or consequences of nutritional effect of Probiotics do.

References Balcazar JL, Blas ID, Ruiz-Z I, Cunningham D, Vendrell D, Múzquiz JL. (2006). The role of probiotics in aquaculture. Veterinary Microbiology. 114(3-4):173–186.

Probiotic triggers the gonadal somatic index in many fishes. Application of Probiotics in the larval rearing tanks of shrimp encourages good survival of post larvae and shorter development period. Generally live feed like rotifer would act as vector for bacterial infection which can be controlled by addition of microbial culture. Similarly inclusion of probiotic bacteria maintains the survival and growth of live food artemia nauplii which is used in shrimp hatchery.

Conclusion The aquatic ecosystem is comprised of various microbial agents mainly heterotrophs which requires substrates like carbon and energy sources. Manipulation of microbiota composition in aquatic environment may lead to reduction of disease problems. It could be achieved through bringing the candidate probiotic to the required location through various modes like production of inhibitory compounds, competition for available energy and adhesion site, improvement of immunity, maintaining water quality, interrelation with planktons, contribution of enzymes for digestion, etc. It is strongly opined that multi strain of bacteria serves better than single strain probiotic bacteria. Use of Probiotics for the

Garriques D, Arevalo G. (1995). An evaluation of the production and use of a live bacterial isolate to manipulate the microbial flora in the commercial production of L. vannamei postlarvae in Ecuador. In: Browdy C L, Hopkins J S, editors. Swimming through troubled water. Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture ‘95. Baton Rouge, La: World Aquaculture Society; pp. 53–59. Moriarty, D. J. W. (1997). The role of microorganisms in aquaculture ponds, Aquaculture, 151, No. 1–4, pp. 333–349. Munro P D, Barbour A, Birkbeck T H. (1995). Comparison of the growth and survival of larval turbot in the absence of culturable bacteria with those in the presence of Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio alginolyticus, or a marine Aeromonas sp. Appl Environ Microbiol. 61:4425–4428. Roch, P. (1999). Defense mechanisms and disease prevention in farmed marine invertebrates, Aquaculture, vol. 172, no. 1-2, pp.125–145. Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Huys G, Dhont J, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W. (1999). Microbial control of the culture of Artemia juveniles through pre-emptive colonization by selected bacterial strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 65:2527– 2533. Verschuere L, Rombaut G, Sorgeloos P, Verstraete W. (2000). Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 64(4):655– 671.


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Ammonia in Culture Pond Water its Formation and Impact on Culture Organisms S.V. Sharma MAAARC, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagajuna Nagar - 522510, India In culture ponds, ammonia is an important factor. It influences the growth and at higher levels in the pond water it causes stress to the culture organims. Ammonia is formed in the pond water and is an output of matabolic activity by the aquatic organisms through excertion of the nitrogenous metabolic end products. It is released into the water through the gills. Further, Ammonia is also formed from the organic matter present at the pond bottom through decay. Dead algal matter and faecal matter of the fish is also known to the development of ammonia in the pond water. Ammonia in the pond water is present either in ionized (NH4+) or unionized NH3 form. Generally total amount of ammonia present in the water is measured. The relative proportion of these two forms of ammonia is influenced by the pH of the pond water. At higher levels of pH in the pond water unionized form of ammonia is usually higher and when the pH is low ammoia is ionized. When the pH of the pond water is less than 8.0 only 10 percent ammonia is formed into the toxic unionized ammonia. In pond water, pH changes with the photosynthetic activity and respiration of the organisms in the pond. In view of thee dynamic changes toxic form of ammonia in the ponds during late afternoon and in the evening times and before sunrise through early morning the balance between the ionized and unionized is also affected by the water temperatures in the pond. At higher temperatures toxic ammonia is present than at cooler temperatures. Two main processes influence the loss or transformation of ammonia uptake of ammonia by algae and plants is an important factor. Plants utilize nitrogen as a nutrient for growth. Algal photosynthesis results in higher uptake of ammonia. Factors that influence this condition in the plants are sufficient light, warm temperture, excess of nutrient supply and the algal density. The other process which influence the ammonia transformation in fish ponds is nitrification, Ammonia is oxidized by bacteria in two steps, initially to nitrites (NO-2) and then to Nitrate (NO3). the chief factors which influence the rate of nitrification in the fish ponds are the concentration of ammonia, water temperature and the D0 in the water. The Unionized ammonia occasionally accumulate to the levels that may cause sub lethal affects on the culture organisms. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established three levels- one acute level and two chronic levels. For ammonia in the pond water expressed as Nitrogen and based on duration of exposure. EPA criteria help to determine when the ammonia in the fish ponds is problematic. Ammonia in pond waters appear to be low in summer when the water

temperatures are high in winter months when the water temperatures are low. The relative low concentrations in summer is generally attributed to active photosynthetic activity by algae. After the crash of an algal bloom in ponds with dense blooms. When this happens ammonia concentration increases rapidly. Decomposithin of the dead algae reduces DO concentration and pH and increases ammonia and carbondioxide concentrations in the Pond water. When ammonia becomes a problem nothing can be done. There are speical circumstances when ammonia levels are to be monitored. It is suggested that ammonia needs to be measured every other day after the crash of an algal bloom, weekly in cooler months to identify the problem with nitrite. Other than this, it is probably not necessary to measure


Career in Fisheries Science Sector Introduction Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions. Though there are some types of aquaculture like Algaculture which is the cultivation of kelp or Seaweed and other Algae, the growing of Cultured Pearls, the primary form of aquaculture is Fish Farming or Pisciculture (the Latin word piscis means fish). Fish farming or Aquaculture of this kind is end directed, that is, fishes are grown or cultivated for human consumption or for industrial and medicinal purposes. Aquaculture has been practised since ancient times. In ancient China (circa 2500 BC), fishes were held in artificial tanks after the floods. Aquaculture however expanded and became a full fledged industry only in the 20th century. Fishes provide an excellent source of protein and essential amino acids. In many developing countries with considerable water bodies or coasts, aquaculture is greatly encouraged in an effort to prevent malnutrition among the people. India is surrounded by water bodies on multiple sides and there are numerous water bodies within the mainland. There is an approximately 7,500 km coastline and longer inland water channels. The fishing industry is therefore a rapidly increasing and important industry and aquaculture is a viable career option.

Nature of Work Those involved in Aquaculture have to develop fish farms and work in fish research centres. They also need to research and gather information about water bodies and coastal areas. Fish farmers also need to find out and prevent water pollution and engage in fish preservation. Aquaculture involves the study of methods of fish cultivation and harvesting, freezing and canning in both coastal as well as inland factories. Then there is the necessity of figuring out ways of marketing, both within and outside the country, the transportation and delivery of fishes.


anmmonia in fish ponds. Fish farmers should not be alarmed if ammonia concentration becomes elevated. High ammonia level often indicate that nitrite concentration may rise soon. Extra vigilance after the crash needs. Stocking of fish at a reasonable density harvesting as often as practical, to keep the standing crop from being too large using good feeding practices that maximize the proportion of the feed consumed by fish.

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Being involved in Aquaculture does not require a special kind of personality as such but one must be prepared to handle fishes and dissect them, travel on the water and be able to swim. Therefore, it is a major setback if one cannot physically handle fishes or stand the smell of fishes. Being sea sick is also a problem for certain kinds of job in the aquaculture industry. An interest in marine or aqua life is an added advantage. Being able to swim is not only an advantage, but also quite necessary.

Professional Courses One can pursue a bachelor’s degree in Fishieries (B.F.Sc. in Fishery Sciences) and this degree paves the way for a further master’s degree in Fishery Sciences(M.F.Sc). One can also

study for a master’s degree either in Mariculture (M.Sc. in Mariculture) or Aquaculture (M.Sc. in Aquaculture). One can also study for a Ph.D. after getting a master’s degree. Diploma courses are also offered by several institutes. These diploma courses can be of 1 to 3 years. Small certificate courses are also offered by some academic institutions. Other short term courses are also offered by some institutes for a career in Fisheries sector. These short term courses can sometimes be a concentrated period of study for 30 days to 90 days depends on institutione rules and regulations.

Colleges, Institutions and Universities Institutes offering Diploma and Certificate Course •

Centre for Distance Education, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar, A.P. - 522510.

Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, Kerala & Andhra Pradesh. Institutes offering under graduate and post graduate degree programme in Fishery Sciences are: •

College of Fisheries, KVAFSU, Mangalore, Karnataka

Fisheries College and Research Institute, TNFU, Thoothkudi, Tamil Nadu

College of Fisheries , Panangad, Kochi, Kerala

College of Fisheries, Agartala, Tripura

College of Fisheries, SVVU, Muthukur, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh

College of Fisheries, Pantnagar, Uttarakand

College of Fisheries, Raipur, Chattisgarh

College of Fisheries, Dholi, Bihar

College of Fisheries, Raha, Assam

College of Fisheries, Rajasthan

College of Fisheries, Ludhiana, Punjab

College of Fisheries, Jammu & Kashmir

College of Fisheries, Nagpur, Maharashtra


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preservation of marine life. With water pollution increasing rapidly, one can study about ways in which water pollution can be prevented and how toxic industrial wastes can be disposed of safely without destroying the ecological system. Commercial fishing as opposed to fish farming has led to the depletion in the population of several of the most widely consumed breeds of fishes. There are also opportunities to study the ways in which extinction of the most widely consumed breeds of fishes can be prevented. A ban on the extensive fishing of some breeds is one of the new fields that is being incorporated into aquaculture studies in India and also in other countries. One can also specialize in fish processing. Since aquaculture is end oriented, the processing as well as harvesting is an important part of studies in

Aquaculture •

College of Fisheries, Veraval, Gujarat

Faculty of Fishery Science, Kolkata

Colleges of Fisheries, Udgir, Maharashtra

College of Fisheries, Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh

Institue of Fisheries Technology, TNFU, Tamil Nadu

Central Institutes offering Post Graduate Degree Programme in Fisheries Sciences • Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Fisheries University Road , Seven Bungalows, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400061 Phone: +91 22 2636 1446 / 7 / 8 Fax: +91 22 2636 1573 , Email: contact@cife.

Career Growth and Prospects With the huge coastal lines and the numerous inland water bodies in India, aquaculture presents a growing industry. Aquaculture is still in its early stages in India and there is a lot of scope for development. Fishes are an important export item for India because India,

ANU-Matrix Offering Diploma and Certificate courses in Aquaculture Managment at Acharya Nagarjuna University Diploma Course - Fee : 5,710/-

Apart from these, the ASPARC in Visakhapatnam and OSSPARC in Bhubaneshwar are two major training centres for aquaculture. The courses at both these centres are of one month. Marine Product Export Development Authority (MPEDA) in Mumbai and Mangalore also offer a 30 day shrimp farm management course. MPEDA assists in job placements as well.

Eligibility The eligibility for most of these courses is the study of science till class 12 in school. However, it is best to check with individual institutes to see what their requirements are. The cut offs for these institutes vary from institute to institute. Whether one needs to appear for any of the competitive exams or whether the school leaving exam is sufficient depends on the institute.

Specialization What one specializes in leads to what kinds of jobs one can look for later. If one is looking for a job in the industry, then one can specialize in the ways of breeding and cultivating fishes for industry. One can also specialize in fields which seek to cultivate aquatic life for use in medicine. One can then find a job in a pharmaceutical company. If one is not looking for a job in the industry but rather wants to go into research and development, then one can specialise in studying the life patterns, habits and breeding patterns of fishes. One can specialize in either fresh water aquaculture or coastal aquaculture. One can also study about the

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Offers field based training through certificate and P.G.Diploma courses in Advanced Aquaculture Management. Need based research on day to day problems in aquaculture. Free consultancy to farmers round the clock. Advanced laboratory service to the farmers through mobile laboratories. For Admissions contact:


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with its long coastlines, has excellent fish stocks. The career prospects and openings are therefore large. One can find employment in fish farms in the areas of design, construction and management as well. The CFTRI’s Biology department, Indian Council of Agricultural Research; the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) and the MPEDA are all encouraging and boosting the aquaculture industry in India. With these efforts, the job prospects are not limited.

Remunerations Aquaculture is a viable career option. With large paths of development lying ahead, the job returns are not limited. For teachers, the remuneration is as per the University Grants Commission (UGC) guidelines. Even while one is a research fellow, one can get a salary of Rs 18,000 per month. For professors, the salary can go up to Rs 25,000 per month. Farming supervisors can get a salary between Rs 15,000 to Rs 25,000. For entrepreneurs, the returns are not defined but the scope is tremendous.

How to find a Job? One can either find a placement in industry or in fisheries department as Fisheries Development Officer / Assistant Director of Fisheries / Inspector of Fisheries / Fisheries Excutive Officer or go into research and development and teaching. One can find several openings in industry. Some of these are in farm management where one performs supervisory tasks like site selection, designing and construction ponds and other water bodies, feeding fishes, perform selective stocking, manage water quality, and monitor the fishes and prevent toxication or infection till they are harvested and also protecting the water body in general. In hatchery management one can be engaged in brood stock collection, breeding fishes in artificial conditions, managing water quality, oxygen packing and transportation to the farms. One can also find jobs which try to provide equipment required in fish cultivation like nets, fishing vessels, machines or equipments for cleaning, salting and freezing fishes. Two low level jobs associated with the aquaculture industry are those of a fishery inspector and a deep sea fishery worker. One can get a job as a fishery inspector whose duty is to transport fish seed safely to different fishery stations. Deep sea fishery workers work as crew members of fishing vessels. For research and development, one can be involved either with academic institutions or with the research and development sections of fishing companies or pharmaceutical companies. Teaching posts are available at all the institutes offering courses in aquaculture.

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A touch of Clay help to Prevent the Columnaris Disease in Fish A kind of clay that was used in cosmetics, medicine, and papermaking may be useful for to fight against columnaris disease in fish. This disease is affected by freshwater finfish worldwide, as said by Sandra Avant, USDA, ARS. Agricultural Research Service scientists have discovered that adding this clay, called kaolin, to water significantly improves the survival rate of channel catfish with columnaris disease, which is caused by the bacterial pathogen Flavobacterium columnare. Columnaris affects many commercially important fish species, but few preventive methods or therapies are available to treat it, says Benjamin Beck, a fish physiologist at ARS’s Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart [Arkansas] National Aquaculture Research Center. The pathogen is ubiquitous. Mr Beck says. It’s even found on healthy fish at very low levels, but doesn’t usually cause a problem until they become stressed. The disease primarily affects the gills, skin, and fins of fish. The bacteria are proteolytic and in severe cases, the infection can expose underlying muscle, Mr Beck said. Fish can lose their entire fins, but the real target is the gill. If the fish loses gill function and quickly dies, because the gills act to exchange gases—similar to our lungs. Mr Beck and his ARS colleagues evaluated kaolin as an alternative to antibiotics, which are sometimes used to treat disease in fish. While the United States is one of the leading producers of kaolin, it is found globally.


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Bacillus Probiotics together with lower pH would help to Prevent EMS in Shrimps

Penaeid shrimp production has been under intense risk by bacterial and viral infections that resulted in severe economic loss to the industry. Early mortality syndrome or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (EMS/AHPND), is presently disrupting production in the three major shrimp producing countries China, Thailand and Vietnam. EMS has been reported in China during the year in 2009 and was found to spread in Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand. The disease does not affect humans but is often fatal to shrimp. Infected shrimp ponds can experience loss rates as high as 100 percent, affecting both Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon. Recently, it causes annual losses more than USD 1 billion. The symptoms of EMS outbreaks is identified during first 30 days after stocking that results in more than 60-70% mortality. Donald Lighter identified that EMS is caused by a bacterial agent that is orally transmitted and colonises in gastrointestinal tract of shrimp and releases a toxin that leads to tissue destruction and dysfunction of the shrimp digestive organ and hepatopancreas. Studies reveal that of a commercial biocide and probiotic Bacillus strain function against EMS causing Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. Probiotic bacillus has been reported to be more effective against the pathogen thus protecting the shrimp against EMS. More specifically, one of the Bacillus probiotics shown to inhibit the growth of 10 pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. Reports also suggest that the pH is one of the major determining factor in the outbreak of disease since the shrimp ponds maintained at a higher pH 7.8-8 suffered much whereas the shrimps that were kept in quarantine at a lower pH 7.2-7.5 appeared normal. At present there are no valid positive reports on EMS or AHPNS infection in shrimp ponds in India. However, reports suggest that the occurrence of the disease could be in the ponds that are poorly maintained and possess excess of nutrient pollution. It could be high when poor quality seeds were used and during stress. Deficiency of oxygen due to insufficient aeration and high concentration of H2S could also aggravate the disease.Therefore maintenance of shrimp pond at a lower pH together with proper ambient biotic and abiotic factors together with application of Bacillus probiotics could prevent EMS in shrimps. Global production of farmed shrimp 23% below expections due to EMS Epidemic in different contries has given in figure NACA’s report


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Omega-3S and Heart Health

Best Management Practices will help to Prevent the EMS in Shrimp

Omega-3 fats are among the most studied nutrients for cardiovascular health Observational studies consist ently show that people who eat the most fish, especially fatty fish, are at reduced risk for heart attacks, stroke and other coronary problems. This benefit was first suggested by studies of Inuit in Greenland, who eat lots of fatty fish (and marine mammals, also rich in omega- 3s) and have low rates of cardiovascular disease.

Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) or Hepatopancreatic Acute Necrosis Syndrome is a new disease that affects shrimps, such as p.monodon and L.vannamei

Exactly how fish reduces the risk is not clear. Research, mostly done in the lab, has found that omega-3 fats in fish oil help prevent arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms) and blood clots, reduce inflammation, make arteries more flexible, lower triglycerides (substantially, when taken in high doses) and reduce blood pressure (modestly). Other factors may also be involved.

The disease was first reported in China in 2009, before it spread to Viet Nam in 2010, Malaysia and Northern Borneo in 2011 and Thailand in 2012. In 2013, EMS was reported for the first time outside Asia, showing up in Mexico - dueto imports of infected live shrimps from Asia. Dr.Lightner and his team at the University of Arizona has identified the disease is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is transmitted orally and colonies the shrimps gastrointestinal tract. This then produces a toxin that causes tissue destruction and dysfunction of the shrimp digestive organ known as the hepatopancreas. A research team from Kinki University and the National Research Institute of Aquaculture in Japan, have also identified the triggering factors for EMS. The team found that EMS manifests in ponds when there is an increase in pH to 8.5-8.8. The disease appears during the first 30 days after stocking EMS is characterized by high mortalities. In many cases mortality reaching 100 per cent within the 30 days.

Clinical signs of EMS Include Erratic swimming or swimming near the bottom of the pond Reduced growth whitening of the hepatopancreas The AHA advises people with heart disease to consume 1 gram (1,000 milligrams) a day of omega-3s, preferably from fatty fish. For people with very high triglycerides, it recommends 2 to 4 grams a day from supplements, under a doctor’s care. Prescription high dose omega-3 capsules have been approved by the FDA specifically to treat very high triglyceride levels A research study in Australia has proved that fish consumption can be used to cure hypertension and obesity. The study also discovered that a weight-loss diet which includes a regular amount of fish consumption can be effective. About 10 percent of Americans take fish oil (omega-3) capsules, which are now the third most widely used dietary supplement after multivitamins and calcium.

Reduction in size of hepatopancreas Soften the exoskeleton Dark spots on the hepatopancreas Hardening of hepatopancreas Steps to prevent the EMS EMS-free brood stock are needed. Selective breeding for resistance to EMS would involve challenging families and selecting those with best survival as parents for the next generation. Improve farm practices. Stock with healthy postlarvae and closely manage water and bottom quality of pond. Disinfection with chlorine or ozone and eliminates multiple pathogens. Probiotics and polyculture would help to prevent the EMS in shrimp. Maintain light to moderate bioflocs, avoid overfeeding and remove sludge regularly. Improve farm infrastructure with biosecurity. Small, deep ponds covered with plastic or bird nets Identify feed additives that reduce the incidence of EMS.

The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014 Global aquaculture production continues to grow and now provides almost half of all fish for human consumption. Aquaculture supports the livelihoods of 10–12 percent of the world’s population, and provides a wide range of economic opportunities. The source of protein, essential fatty acids and micronutrients, fish is important for diversified and healthy diets. Small-scale fisheries are gaining more global recognition as being integral to growth but also highly vulnerable to impacts linked to issues ranging from climate change to tenure disputes. Reduction of wastage especially postharvest losses in small scale fisheries will make more fish available for food and boost use of by-products. The Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, nearly 20 years on serves as an internationally accepted benchmark and framework for the sustainable use of aquatic resources. Source: FAO, 2014

India‘s First Jelly Fish Lake is found in a State of Gujarat Marine scientist have discovered a jelly fish lake in Gujarat, probably the first such in India. This is probably the first jelly fish lake to have been found in India. The population density of Jelly fish is very high in this lake. You can see them from outside during low tide and when the water is clear as said by wildlife scientist BC Chowdhary.


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ICAR Funded for Fish Hospital to diagnose various fish diseases. Asked when fish growers should approach West Bengal Fisheries and aquaculture remains

one of the important food producing sector. But recently the emergence of new diseases in fishes and shrimps has decreased the production and has affected the country’s economy. Although several institutes and research centres were working towards the reducing the infection and diseases in fishes and shrimps, it does not completely provide a place for treatment of disease and abnormalities. This gap has been recently solved by the project funded by Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). Dr. T J Abraham Senior scientist, declared that the work has already started on the project to set up the country’s first hospital to treat abnormalities and diseases in fishes in Kolkata by mid2015. He said that nearly 60-65 kinds of disease and abnormality were found in fishes in India and that is why West Bengal slipped from the number one position in fish production as 10-20 per cent of them died of diseases. Such hospitals are quite common in foreign countries, Abraham, a senior fish microbiologist with the West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, said. The institute will not only help fish farmers increase yield by reducing the number of fish deaths, but will also ensure that people will consume healthy fish, he points out. According to Dr. Abraham, the hospital will have 50 glass aquariums, 25 circular water tanks, each with a capacity of 500 litres, to admit and treat diseased fish. The hospital will also have a separate well-equipped pathological lab to

the hospital, he said, In such cases as abnormality, sudden death, change in colour or drastic reduction of weight, they may either contact the hospital or visit it with fish and water samples. He said that the diseased fish would be kept in aquariums for observation and after ascertaining the disease/ abnormality, medicines and tips would be provided to the growers.

The fish hospital, which is funded by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, under the Union Ministry of Agriculture, has a budget of Rs five crore. Nearly Rs 1.70 crore will be spent on hospital construction and the rest on creating infrastructure and lab facilities, said Abraham. Apart from Abraham, who is heading the project, there will be another scientist and the team of the two will be assisted by 4-6 research scholars initially.Abraham said that the hospital would document diseases affecting fish in Bengal to be forwarded to the World Animal Health Organisation, Paris of which India is a member. Further, in mere future we expect more fish hospitals through out the country to cater the need of the farmers in fisheries and aquaculture.

Excess Concentration of Antibiotics in L.vannamei Hammers Export Rejection by European Union India’s sea food exports has been increasing tremendously during recent years. But recently, there is a great set back in export performance. This is due to the fact that multiple loads of containers were rejected by the European Union since they were

reported to contain antibiotics or traces of antibiotics. Reports from The Hindu suggest that a lack of proper monitoring is the cause for frequent rejections of shrimp exports from India.Mr. Ansar Ali, Deputy Director of the Marine Products Export Development Agency, said the rejection rate of Indian shrimp has been going up since July 2014. The Federation of Indian Fishery Industries (FIFI) president Y.G.K. Murti said there was no proper monitoring on the use of antibiotics. In general, chloramphenicol and nitrofurans are used by hatcheries, seed suppliers or farmers.

Commercial Aqua Farming Benefiting Poorer Communities in Bangladesh A new report from World Fish shows that resource- poor Bangladeshis can participate in commercial aquaculture, challenging conventional assumptions that this was not possible. The report also highlights that more of the very poor in Bangladesh are profiting from commercial aquaculture than was previously thought. According to Stephen Hall, Director General, WorldFish: “By identifying the modes of aquaculture that most benefits the poor we can best direct efforts to bolster this sector. While we have seen the detrimental effects of large scale aquaculture for communities it is now clearer that the benefits of smaller scale commercial operations are potentially great in increasing food security and employment. Source:


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Indian Govt. Encouraging more Investment in Aquaculture Sector The global Aquaculture and Fisheries market expected to hit 188 million tons by 2020, as a result of driven by gushing seafood consumption. Due to the increased demand and lower natural resources of aquaculture and fisheries are expected to fill the gap in demand and supply. Aquaculture is reaching momentum as the sea food are considered to be the chief protein source as a result the exotic species like shrimp and oysters are driving growth in the global aquaculture market. Further aquaculture provides indirect employment potential in the globe. Recently the sustainable seafood production and organic aquaculture practices are considered to be highly significant. Increase in population together with the familiarity towards aquaculture and aquaphonics are few of the factors that accelerates the global aquaculture market. The low per capita protein consumption in developing countries offers immense untapped opportunities for future growth. The Aquaculture will remain one of the fastest growing market in the future with a rising individual incomes and increased consumption of animal proteins. By keeping this in mind our Indian Govt is likely to support more investments in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. The Govt would provide in lease the local water bodies to entrepreneurs or private companies. The department of fisheries has identified several waterbodies across the state that were not utilized. Many waterbodies in and around the city have dried up due to lack of proper maintenance and many waterbodies and small ponds, especially in the eastern fringes of the city, have been filled up for constructing buildings. The Govt is now providing these unutilized waterbodies to entrepreneurs or private companies on long term lease or can develop a water body through public-privatepartnership (PPP) or joint venture mode for doing aquaculture or setting up water parks. In addition, they need to be utilized properly for aquaculture or fish production.

References (1) Aquaculture and Fisheries: A Global Strategic Business Report (2) fishnews/24184/ (3) fishnews/24074/

Global Tilapia Production is Expected to almost Double by 2030

Internal Mortality in Litopenaeus vannamei Culture Ponds

According to the reports published in the fish site World tilapia production is expected to almost double from 4.3 million tonnes per year in 2010 to 7.3 million tonnes a year in 2030. With these estimates, tilapia will likely be one of the main contributors to the fastest growth in world aquaculture aside from carp and catfish. Asia remains the main driver of tilapia production with China in the lead. Supplies from Latin America are also expected to increase though a drought in the Santa Fe does Sul region in Brazil has resulted in a 30% drop in tilapia production. The region is one of the largest producers of tilapia with an annual production of about 22 000 tonnes annually. According to INFOFISH analysis, global exports of tilapia during the first half of 2014 reached approximately 200 000 tonnes. Supplies were primarily from China in the frozen form with the largest market being the USA. However, imports increased to other markets as well as to new markets. The tilapia market will remain firm with steady demand leading to stronger prices in producing countries’ domestic markets. As long as tilapia prices stay competitive, new markets will possibly strengthen and develop

It has been observed that in L .vannamei culture ponds of West & East Godavari and Nellore distracts, there is continuous mortality was observed throughout the culture period. The shrimp are dead regularly in affected ponds. Sometimes, dead shrimp float on the surface of the pond water or sometimes the shrimps are noticed under the aerators. In some ponds, the shrimp come to edges of the ponds and die. The symptoms include shrimp becoming weak, lethargic with body colour turning pinkish. They refuge to take feed. Intensity of mortality is high when management practices are very poor and the load of Vibrio sp. in the pond is also noticed to be high. Farmers are advised to adapt best management practices, avoid over feeding of the shrimp and maintain good water quality.


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World Shrimp Business Grows, Supported largely by Increased Imports by the US And East Asian Markets.

vannamei and black tiger, continue to come into the country from Latin America and other Asian countries.

In the first half of 2014, the volume traded in the world shrimp market increased by 5-6% compared with the same period in 2013, mostly as a result of import growth in US and East Asian markets. In case of farmed shrimp production, positive trends have been reported so far in Ecuador, Indonesia, Viet Nam and India. But supply shortfalls in Thailand, China and Mexico are higher than expected. As a result, the level of supply is lower than the early-year forecast, which has kept shrimp prices stable in the global market.

In India, vannamei production increased moderately while black tiger production is on the decline phase. Until September, 2014 ex farm prices continued an upward trend due to supply demand imbalance and good import demand from East Asia. The official forecast in India suggests that farmed shrimp production, dominated by vannamei, may increase by 10-20% during the current fiscal year (April 2014-March 2015). But production of black tiger shrimp is likely to decline at the same rate as many farmers in the northeast aquaculture belt have moved to vannamei culture in 2014.

In Asia, the seasonal peak of farmed shrimp was delayed due to weather problems and the late arrival of monsoon season. Overall, supplies were low to moderate in the producing countries during the April- October 2014. Moreover, the aquaculture areas affected by EMS in Southeast Asia and Latin America have not been able to recover fully yet. In Thailand, the main production period was delayed till August, with harvests mostly consisting of small sized shrimp as farmers avoided a longer farming period. Therefore, the total production of shrimp in 2014 is likely be below 200 000 tonnes in Thailand, which is lower than the earlier forecast was 250 000 tonnes. In Southern China, a strong typhoon hit shrimp aquaculture areas in July, 2014 causing extensive damage to the hatcheries and farms. Hatcheries in Hainan lost thousands of brood stocks and post larvae, with seed production in this area reduced by almost 50%, a significant negative impact to shrimp farming in the southern provinces. Subsequently, vannamei shrimp supplies were limited from Hainan, Guangxi and Guangdong with rising ex-farm prices. While EMS disease persists in affected areas in Viet Nam, new areas in the country have evolved for vannamei farming. Some farmers also moved away from rice to shrimp farming due to increased salinity in waters in the Mekong Delta. These developments have given Viet Nam a recent boost in vannamei shrimp production. While black tiger production has declined marginally in Ca Mao and Bac Lew but increased by more than 15% in Kien Giang where some farmers have moved back to black tiger due to the low price of vannamei during the first quarter of the 2014. The industry association of Viet Nam, VASEP, reported that total production of farmed shrimp through mid-August, 2014 was 317 305 tonnes in which 152 035 tonnes were black tiger. Frozen shrimp imports, both

In Latin America, farmed shrimp production is generally good and stable, particularly in Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Peru. However, production continues to be lower in Mexico as a result of EMS. In a precautionary measure related to the EMS, Peru has suspended imports of shrimp from China, Thailand, Viet Nam, Malaysia, India and Mexico for the next year. Import And Export Trends According to INFOFISH estimates, the volume import in global shrimp trade increased by 5-6% during January-June 2014 against the same period in 2013 with a firm and steady price trend. The top ten importers, namely the EU, the USA, Japan, Viet Nam, Republic of Korea, China, Hong Kong SAR, Mexico, Canada and Australia, bought a total of nearly 850 000 tonnes of shrimp during half of 2014. The demand trend was mixed in these markets; imports declined in Japan, Hong Kong SAR and Canada but remained positive in the others. It is also interesting to note the trend in exports during half of 2014, in which Ecuador was the top supplier, very closely followed by India. The average monthly exports from each of these countries were nearly 24 000 tonnes. The other leading exporters are Viet Nam, China, Indonesia and Thailand. Monthly exports from China and Indonesia were about 13000 tonnes each. The export volume from Viet Nam is not officially reported, but it is known to be higher than China and Indonesia. The Japanese market, is the third largest shrimp market globally. It has to import less shrimp as a result of the yen devaluation in the beginning of December 2012. In late September 2014, the yen dropped to a six year low at yen 110 equal to USD 1 creating panic in the market. Prices have also started to move up in yen along the distribution chain, causing serious concern in the trade prior to the year-end high consumption season. Prices are expected to increase further by 10% due to this


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factor, which is a bad news for marketers in Japan. The import Import demand for shrimp remains selective in the EU. Asian price of farmed shrimp has already increased by USD 3.00 per processors are constantly asked to produce frozen products kg during the June-September 2014. with 20-30% glaze though the market is unable to support high Total imports during the first half of the 2014 were 28 200 prices. There are more imports from Latin America, namely tonnes below the same period 2013. The market share of Ecuador, Nicaragua and Honduras due to the preferential tariff tropical shrimp has been increasingly taken over by the rates. cheaper cold-water prawn, particularly from Argentina and The Russian Federation. Imports of raw, frozen cold-water shrimp were 34% higher during this period at 17 037 tonnes but the large decline in tropical shrimp (-23,491 tonnes), was not compensated. The top five shrimp suppliers to Japan for the period were Viet Nam, Thailand, Indonesia, Argentina and China.

During the first half of 2014, shrimp imports into the EU from third countries (extra-EU imports) were almost 6% higher at 253 600 tonnes compared with the same period last year. Ecuador, the top supplier, increased supply by 12.7% and had an 18.7% share in total imports. India was the second leading supplier with a 38% rise in exports. Imports from Indonesia also increased by 35% while Thai exports dipped strongly by In this price sensitive market, supplies of value added shrimp, 55% following the withdrawal of GSP on Thai shrimp in the EU generally exported by Thailand, Viet Nam and China, have also market beginning in January 2014. been affected. On 17 July, the EU and Ecuador signed a deal which will allow Until June 2014 monthly imports of raw frozen shrimp the country to join its Andean neighbours Peru and Columbia remained below 10,000 tonnes impacting the cumulative in its trade agreement with the EU. According to the European volume during the first half of the year. Indeed, supplies Commission, the terms of the new agreement go beyond the unilateral EU-GSP for which Ecuador is no longer eligible. declined by 22.6% compared with the same period in 2013. However, it will allow Ecuador, the number one exporter of wholesale market, shrimp prices have increased in Japan since shrimp to the EU, to benefit from improved access for its main July, 2014 while local inventories remain lower than compared exports including fishery products to the EU markets. with other years. The large shrimp importers in the Asian/Pacific region are Viet In the retail market demand for farmed shrimp is bound to Nam, China, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong SAR and Australia. decline due to rising prices. Marketers are likely to promote the Argentinean seabob shrimp during the Christmas and New According to INFOFISH analysis, Viet Nam is possibly the number one import market for farmed shrimp in the Asian/ Year season. Pacific region with estimated imports of frozen shrimp for the Total shrimp supply in the US market is up with continued first half of 2014 is 50 000 tonnes. Ecuador and India were the growth expected. Despite falling production and exports from main suppliers with imports also increasing from Indonesia, Thailand, imports continue to grow from other sources in Asia Bangladesh and others. Most of these volumes are reprocessed and Latin America. So far the situation has not had a serious for export markets. impact on prices, which are still at historically high levels and China mainly imports for domestic consumption with supplies stable, demonstrating that demand is in balance with supply. of both cold and warm-water shrimp increasing into the In the first half of 2014, relatively large imports of shrimp market during the first half of 2014 compared with the same from Indonesia (+34%), Ecuador (+19%) and Viet Nam (+77%) period in 2013. This trend continued during July-September pushed the total import volume of shrimp into the USA at in order to procure supply for the Mid-Autumn festival held 11% higher compared with the same time period last year. in early October. Industry sources indicate that actual import Notably, supplies were up for all types of product groups, volumes, particularly from Viet Nam and Myanmar, are much including shell-on/easy-peel, semi-processed and processed, higher than official figures due to undocumented border trade. contributing to a much higher percentage rise in the import value (+50%) that crossed USD 3 billion during the January- The shortage of farmed shrimp supply has affected Chinese June period this year. Although rising shrimp prices were given exports. as the reason for this development, it is also this import growth that contributed to the hefty increase in value. Indonesia was the top supplier during this period; the average import price of Indonesian shrimp increased by 40% which could be linked to higher volume imports of large sized shellon/ easy-peel shrimp (un/15 through 21/25) (+35%) and also all types of peeled shrimp (+40%). Similarly, imports of peeled shrimp (including peeled tail-on or PTO, butterfly-cut etc.) were 70% and 30% higher from Viet Nam and Ecuador. respectively. The rise in Indian shrimp imports was moderate at 10%.

In Asia, farmed shrimp production is likely to decrease in the coming months while the sector approaches the production season’s end. Industry reports from Thailand indicate less than 200 000 tonnes of production for 2014. In Ecuador, shrimp producers are planning to increase production during the next harvesting season. However, the next season’s supply will not be in the market before March/ April, 2014.

Japan has become less attractive for vannamei shrimp exporters, while limited demand for black tiger shrimp will In August and September, 2014 the Department of Commerce continue to cater to the high-end market during the year-end upheld higher duty rates for Thai, Indian and Vietnamese festival season. shrimp exporters, which were preliminarily raised in March, 2014


J&K raises more Trout to meet increasing Demand The fisheries department of Jammu and Kashmir has stepped up the breeding of trout fish to meet the demands of resident and private sector. The demands have increased with the change in the dictary habits as trout fish has largely replaced red meet for the people of the Kashmir valley. According to the fisheries department, the favourable climatic conditions and appropriate breeding operation accelerate production of trout fish in Srinagar. Dept. people said we have achieved the goal and have to increases the production to keep in view the local demand of the fish. What we are producing and selling out to the common people and side by side to increase production further for private sector. So far that we taking all the measures said Muhammad Ashraf Darzil, the project officer of fisheries department. During breeding, eggs of fishes are kept in their monitoring cells. Meanwhile Javaid Ahmad an employee said thay take care of every minute aspect during this period to increase production. They said, we put all our efforts in the breeding process. If breeding is good the production will also be good siad Ahmad. Trout is highly nutrious. An average sized trout contains about 1.8 grams of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids that is required for the development of brain and retina in infants. Trout also contains 20% protein, Vitamin A, B, B1, C2 and D and forms the of healthy, low fat and fibre rich diet. Source: MPEDA News Letter

The World Aquaculture Production The world aquaculture production in the year 2012 is estimated to be 66.76 million tonnes of these a freshwater fishes dominate by contributing to 37.4% of the total, followed by the molluscan culture estimated to be 15.2%. The crustaceans shrimp and prawn contributed to 6.5% of the total production through culture. The marine fish culture accounted to be only 2.2% . Globally of the contries involved in aquaculture dominated by undertaking freshwater fish culture. Of this China contributes nearly 40% of the carps globally. Cat fish are produced in North America through Aquaculture producing 1,36,000 annully. The other groups the diadromous fish productio is about 7%. The farmed Atlantic salmon makes 3% of the Global Aquaculture production (source: FAO database)

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VNTR Sequences as Useful Genetic Markers for Studying WSSV Epidemiology As published in DOA (Sindhu priya et al 2014) VNTR sequences might be good genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology as there will not be any change the sequence after passing through generations in any peneiad shrimp. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replicates rapidly, can be extremely pathogenic and is a common cause of mass mortality in cultured shrimp. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences present in the open reading frame (ORF)94, ORF125 and ORF75 regions of the WSSV genome have been used widely as genetic markers in epidemiological studies. However, reports that VNTRs might evolve rapidly following even a single transmission through penaeid shrimp or other crustacean hosts have created confusion as to how VNTR data is interpreted. To examine VNTR stability again, 2 WSSV strains (PmTN4RU and LvAP11RU) with differing ORF94 tandem repeat numbers and slight differences in apparent virulence were passaged sequentially 6 times through black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, Indian white shrimp Feneropenaeus indicus or Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. PCR analyses to genotype the ORF94, ORF125 and ORF75 VNTRs did not identify any differences from either of the 2 parental WSSV strains after multiple passages through any of the shrimp species. These data were confirmed by sequence analysis and indicate that the stability of the genome regions containing these VNTRs is quite high at least for the WSSV strains, hosts and number of passages examined and that the VNTR sequences thus represent useful genetic markers for studying WSSV epidemiology.

The Global Fish Farming Industry Is Booming Aquaculture global is a fast developing sector in view of market demand for fish as food globally, there is an increase in the culture activities and also consuption as food as per the estimates of FAO . The per capita consuption is about 10kg in the year 1960 and 2012 it increase to 19kg per capita this is because of vast increase culture activity. (source: FAO database)


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Prof. KRS Sambasiva Rao takes Charges as VC, ANU Govt. of Andhra Pradesh has appointed Prof. Rao as a Vice- Chancellor of Acharya Nagarjuna University. After assuming charges as Vice Chancellor he focused his vision towords quality research and education and to get the NAAC ‘A’ grade to the University and to establish University as a centre for excellency. White Spot Disease in Litopenaeus vannamei Incidences of WSD has been reported in some vannamei farms of Krisha and East and West Godawari districts of Andhra Pradesh. It causes huge economic loss to the farmers. In some farms even after 20 days of seed stocking disease has been reported due to WSSV infection. The main reason for infection was poor quality seed and farmers are not follwing proper management practices for pond preparation etc., Some small scales farmers were purchasing seed from unauthorised hatcheries or nauplai centres, it was also a reson for spreading of virus. In infected ponds, 100% mortality has been obsereved with in one week of period. Farmers are advised to purchase the seed from certified hatcharies only. Some farmers and aquaculture technicians expressed their views about WSD in vannamei when vannamei introduced in India, there is no WSSV infection but last 3 years WSD infection was significat problem in vannamei farming.

New Bacterial Species for wastes generated by aquaculture, Bioremediation of Aquaculture like nitrogenous and phosphorous inorganic compounds, organic matter, Wastes Aquaculture being one of the important economic activity on the other hand, it creates a environmental havoc through the impact of disposal of aquaculture wastes. This results in greater environmental impacts that results in aquatic ecosystem changes. Both water and soil pollution has been prevalent in regions of aquaculture. To mitigate this problem autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes have been extensively used for bioremediation of metals, petroleum spills, and their derivatives. However, the use of micro organisms to bioremediate aquaculture wastes has not been as extensive. The

and etc are, require the use of specific micro organisms. The emergence of new technologies could help capture inorganic nitrogen from water and reduce organic enrichment of sediments. Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture play a vital role in helping in-situ removal of nitrogen and other nutrients at sea cage sites. Recent studies suggest that identification of denitrifying bacteria in brackishwater shrimp culture pond sediments resulted in identification of few species like Marinobacter sp, Shewagenella sp, Aquamicro bium sp.

Director for Coastal Aquaculture Authority Appointed Dr. R. Jayaraman has assumed charges as Director, Coastal Aquaculture Authority , Ministry of Agriculture Govt. of India at its Chennai office on the forenoon of 06.02.2015. He is on deputation from the Tamil Nadu Fisheries University to the Authority for a period of three years. Earlier, he was serving the University as Professor and Head, Department of Fisheries Economics and Management, Fisheries College and Research Institute, Thoothukudi. He is a fisheries professional with over 26 years of experience in teaching, research and extension activities in fisheries. He has several research publications in reputed International and National fisheries Journals and Conferences. He has obtained and operated many research projects funded by the ICAR, NABARD, Indian Council of Social Sciences Research, Planning Commission of India and Tamil Nadu State Planning Commission. International Conference on Recent Advances in Biosciences and Applications of Engineering in Production of Biopharmaceuticals & 9th Annual Convention of Association of Biotechnology and Pharmacy Special Satellite Meeting on “Molecular Neurochemical Networking Complexes in Alzheimer’s Disease” (14- 16 December, 2015) Venue : KL University, Andhra Pradesh, India For further details contact: Prof. K. Srinivasulu Organizing Secretary KL University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India Phone : +91 (861) 2352366, 2352377, Fax : +91 (861) 2352356, + 91 9849519527, Email-


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The Aquaculture Times inviting original papers, articles, reviews, observations relating to aquaculture principles and practices, culture aspects, water quality management, disease diagnosis, control measures, new technology inventions relating to aquaculture. The manuscripts should be concise, typed in double space in a general format containing a title page with a short running title and the names and addresses of the authors for correspondence followed by brief Abstract (350 words), 3-5 key words, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, References, followed by the tables, figures and graphs on separate sheets in Adobe Photoshop with good illumination. For quoting references in text one has to follow the numbering of references in parentheses and full references with appropriate numbers at the end of the text in the same order. Authors are solely responsible for the data, presentation and conclusions made in their articles/research papers. The authors are advised to have plagiarism check for their articles before it is submitted for publication. It is the responsibility of the advertisers for the statements made in the advertisements. No part of the journal can be reproduced without the permission of the editorial office. References at the end has to be given in the following format Dubey, S.K., Trivedi, R.K., Rout, S.K., Chand, B.K. and Choudhury, A. (2014). Median Lethal Salinity (MLS96 h) of Two Small Indigenous Fish Species, Amblypharyngodon mola and Puntius ticto from Indian Sundarban. J Aquac Res Development 5:249. Kaplan, E.H. (1996). Can Raising Fish Become a Career Aquaculture Magazine 22.1:102. Authors can submit their papers and articles either to editor or any of the editorial board members for onward transmission to the editorial office. Members of the editorial board are authorized to accept papers and can recommend for publication after the peer reviewing process. For submission of articles directly, the authors are advised to submit their articles only through email to

India is Major Prawn Exporter to US During January - November 2014, India ranked as the biggest exporter of prawns to the US. According to figures from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), India exported 99,566 tonnes of prawn, worth $1,269 million, to the US between January and November of 2014, up from 85,799 tonnes exported in the corresponding period of 2013, reports the Times Of India. Frozen prawns were the largest money earning component for India in seafood exports, accounting for 73.14 per cent of the US dollar earnings and 39.73 per cent of the overall seafood export quantity during April - October 2014. India’s export performance in prawns could be attributed to the introduction of Vannamei, an exotic white shrimp from the Pacific, in the country in 2009. After constant lobbying from the local seafood industry, the government of India had approved the import of Vannamei broodstock (mother prawns) from Hawaii and Florida in the US, which had been a huge success here, said Mangala Babu, a seafood exporter in Kochi. Rupee’s devaluation also helped exporters to quote lower prices compared to other prawn producers, he added. Source : TheFishSite

New fisheries policy to improve aqua production in Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Agriculture Minister, Shri. P Pulla Rao mentioned that the government has brought the new fisheries policy with an aim to enhance aqua production in the state. The new policy aims at increasing the aqua production in the state from Rs 22,000 crore in 2014-15 to Rs 35,000 by 2018-19, while addressing to the farmers at a seminar on transforming AP as an aquaculture hub organised by the state fisheries department at Vijayawada. The government, through its new fisheries policy, introduced many schemes for farmers and feed and seed manufacturers to promote their activity. The interest subsidy on loans for all farmers and feed and seed manufacturers has been introduced. Also, the power tariff for farmers has reduced from Rs 4.65 per unit to Rs 3.75 a unit. The government has liberalised the process of permission for construction of fish tanks by farmers. Shri Pulla Rao also said that the government is contemplating to set up an ‘Aqua park’ and a fisheries university in West Godavari district. An entrepreneur has came forward to provide Rs 300 crore financial assistance for setting up of a fisheries university on PPP model. Source:


Shri Duvvuru Radha Krishna Reddy, President, Farmers Association, SPSR Nellore Dt. Andhra Pradesh, India has expressed his views to the aqua farming society. The President, Farmers Association, Shri Duvvuru Radha Krishna Reddy mentioned that the L. vannamei (cultured ~28,000 acres) occupies a major share and followed by fish (~2,000 acres) and then a little bit of P. monodon (~500 to 1,000 acre). When compared to earlier, the cost of seed has increased very much from 25 paise to almost 70paise /Post larvae (PL). If the crop price is good it can be affordable, but it is always a burden for small farmers. However, the availability of quality seed is lacking and even though the farmers are ready to spend.It may bedue to the non-availability of more number of SPF brooders andlack of quarantine measures to be followed for specified disease free pathogens. The hatcheries should maintain stringent biosecurity measures, and should not supposed to use local brooders, and screen the PL through PCR before the delivery to the farmers. The farmers should not be hurry in getting PL until it reaches at least to 13PL stage so that the survival rate can be improved. He also advised the farmers to go for low stocking density culture i.e. 20-25pcs/m2, and the farmers should have a minimum knowledge on cost of production and should have control over the crop through BMPs. During the last crop, the success rate of the culture was almost very low i.e. nearer to 40%. The major reasonsto set back the industry was lack of good quality seed and scientific approaches to follow the culture practices which could leads tothe occurrence of diseases viz., white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), white muscle & running mortalityand simultaneously leads to the loss of entire crop. Now the farmers are very much worried about the white fecal syndrome which is attacking at the early stage of the culture (within 40 days) and leading to loose shell and mortality. Earlier, Kota belt has contributed much production within the district. But this time, it has seen much loses. However, Niduguntapalem is one of the best area which was recordedwith good success rate. In order to improve our success rate one has to strictly follow the culture practices by following best management practices (BMPs). As of now, our standards are meeting only 40-50%, in terms of quality it should be improved through antibiotic free culture. Exporters must be fair in price and it is the responsibility of them to caution the farmer demand

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wise what counts must be planned at various time intervals. The Government can do lot of things for the betterment of shrimp farmers and the industry. Govt. can promote the domestic market by consumption of aqua foods through promotional activities and can provide incentives to the feed and chemical companies so that they will come forward to sell their products at low prices. Apart from that it is better to have a Market Council with the eminent scientists from different sectors of industry to analyze the market situation on day to day base and provide the information to the farmers to culture the required quantities of shrimp at required counts. A statistical report must be maintained to assess the status of culture online so that farmer can have an idea in controlling the culture volumes at required quantities without losing the price. Government should also give permission for the entrepreneurs to develop SPF brood stock and to operate the naupli centers in the country immediately. So that local brooders can be controlled. Another major drawback in the industry is the because of the nonavailability of qualified technicians at base level to provide guidance to the farmers at their farm gate. Govt. officials should take the lead to strengthen the qualified technicians. Educational institutes must involve in improving research in the deficient areas for the best remedies. Bankers and the insurance companies should come forward and provide loans to the rural unemployed youth for practicing shrimp farming and also they should provide subsidies for setting up of farms. The economy of fisheries sector in the state is mainly depends on export to the other states and outside the country. Promotion of hygienic domestic markets within the state and also promotion for development of cold chain facilities, fish processing industries in private sector, strengthening and up-gradation of the existing fishing harbours, fish landing centres, creation of more fish landing centres on par with international standards will boost up the sector in terms of generation of more employment, more income to the State and the country.


Interview with Mr. Ravichandran, Senior Aqua Consultant, Prakasam District, Andhra Pradesh, India Prakasam District is having 3 Revenue Divisions with 56 Mandals, 102 Km long coastline, 34 landing centers and 3,859 area of continental shelf area, wide number of rivers and rivulets, canals and drains which offers excellent opportunity for harvest of variety of fishes and crustaceans. There are about 17,500 fishermen families spread over 74 villages in the district with a total fishermen population of 88,000 of which 26,000 are active fishermen. The district is having 45 functional Marine Fishermen Cooperative Societies and 51 Inland Fishermen Cooperative Societies with membership of 7,859 and 5,703 respectively. In addition to that there are 30 functional Fisherwomen Cooperative Societies in the district and a District Fishermen Cooperative Society. A total of 10,000 to 12,000 ha of land is under culture where the major species being cultured is L. vannamei which constitutes 95% of the total culture and only 3-5% is occupied by P. monodon. The availability of seed for the present culture has become plenty as most of the farmers are not interested to gofor farming activity, because of the down trend in price. More over the hatcheries are producing more number of post larvae (PL). In these situations, the costof the seed comes around 30paise/PL. But earlier the cost was very high almost reached 90paise/PL. In terms of quality it is the sole responsibility of the hatcheries to screen the PL before the delivery and also it is the responsibility of farmers to choose good, healthy and disease free PL by screening through PCR. Because non-availability of sufficient number of brood stocks the hatcheries are using same old stock of brood stock for 3-4 generation for the production of PL which is reducing their vigor to withstand the infection and usage of such seed by the farmers leading to heavy loses. Hence Govt. should take necessary action for the supply of more number of brooders to meet the requirement. Besides, brood stock domestication must be brought to our country so that availability of brooders that can sustain Indian conditions can be developed and can be used for PL production.Dedicated efforts are required from CAA, MPEDA, RGCA etc. to follow the stringent biosecurity measures to maintain the brood bank and

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this long way can solve the above problem. At the present situation, the farmers are very much suffering with the down trend in price. In the last crop the farmers are able to get a good price of Rs.680/kg for 30 count and now it has become just Rs. 330 for 30 count. Therefore many of the farmers are not willing to go for the second crop. However, in the earlier crop farmers has seen looses due to white fecal matter syndrome for the control of which the farmers medicated the animals using gut probiotics, tamarind, garlic, etc. but are unable to get out of it. So, the percentage of success in this district for the last crop is very nominal and not even counts for 30%. Farmers should go for crop rotation and also culture should be practiced using best management practices (BMPs). Farmers should take necessary care that they should not use antibiotics. If antibiotic residues exists that may lead to rejections which affects the cost of the material. The present standards are very far away from the global standards. So, we need to adopt antibiotic free culture and to improve the culture standards through BMPs. MPEDA has to regulate the antibiotic usage. They should take required action to find out the antibiotic residues levels instead of checking after the rejection. They can take necessary action and certify that the culture is free from antibiotics.Govt. should give permission to more number of feed companies in order to cutthe feed cost.Insurance companies must come forward to protect the farmers offering insurance to the crop, so that bankers can also come forward if there is crop insurance so that farmer can be protected from heavy financial loses.


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Interview with Mr. Sharmil Kumar, Dealer, Siri Varshini Aqua Feeds and Chemicals, Bapatla, Guntur Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India

Interview with Mr.Srihari, Chamundeswari Aqua Feeds and Chemicals, Korukallu, Krishna Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India

In Guntur district, we have different types of soils like sandy, loamy and black soils all of them are used for culture practice. 85% farmers are culturing Litopenaeus vannamei and the rest of the farmers are culturing Penaeus monodon. Most of the farmers are culturing with high stocking densities around 50-60pcs/m2. Very few farmers are going for 15-20 pcs/ m2.He advised to the farmers to go for lower densities to avoid most of the problems and hatcheries should be in a position to deliver required quantity of good quality seed with minimum price. The aquaculture in the district has almost reached to 6,000 ha, where in the most cultivated species is L. vannamei.During the last crop farmers have faced white gut, white feces and white muscle problems. Up to my knowledge, uncontrolled loose shell is also the major clutches in the present crop.The availability of seed is good in this area. We have 5-6 good and reputed hatcherieswhich is situated in and around Bapatla. All the hatcheries are supplying quality seed with reasonable price for the last 3-4 years. The success rate was better than the other districts and reaching to all most 60%. Our practices are still at their infancy. Need to be updated a lot. We farmers need to focus much on biosecurity and other best management practices (BMPs) to meet the global standards.

Krishna district has all potential to emerge as a vital asset of the state in aquaculture, which can be expanded in Koduru, Nagayalanka, Machilipatnam, Pedana, Bantumilli, Kruthivennu and Mudinepalli mandals. While the shrimp farming is shrinking; fish farming is on the rise for the past three years in Krishna district. Thousands of acres of paddy fields are turning into fish ponds in the delta region, especially the mandals located on the border of West Godavari district. According to estimates, fish farming is being taken up in more than one lakh acres while the shrimp and prawn farming is limited to a mere 5,000 to 7,000 acres. The officials records say that fish farming is done in 75,000 acres and shrimp farming in 5,000 acres.Inadequate availability of SPF L. vannamei shrimp seed is greatly hampering the production potential of the culture practices and the quality of seed getting inferior due to the factors likes in-breeding and biosecurity aspects. Quality seed available in @ 30 to 40 paise/PL, but the availability of seed in required quantity is limited. Good quality seed is the need of hour for farmers. Hatcheries should supply good quality seed irrespective of demand; of course Govt. has to support them for supply of high quality brooders. Major diseases like white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), white gut, loose shell and white muscle are encountered both in the last crop and in the present crop also. Because of this the success rate in the last crop was 60% and the remaining 40% was lost due to the above mentioned diseases. Our farming practices are not up to the global standards, we need to upgrade in terms of scientific approach in terms of culture. Farmers should dry the ponds after harvesting and give some gap from crop to crop so that more problems can be eliminated.

Export of fish and shrimp products is a major trade in India. Of the total exports, 20,000 crores were earned as foreign exchange during the last year from aqua sector, out of which 12,200 crores were obtained only from Andhra Pradesh. In order to improve these export earnings, the government and other related agencies come forward to offer the better subsidies, good market price, and also support the farmers either by conducting or organizing technical trainings, brain storming on best management practices, export rejections Government should control their organizations like MPEDA etc. and CAA in such a way that both can work for the betterment of farmers and not for their own fame. Government should Getting good price for the crop is the need of hour and that take action for providing reasonable price for the crop. Feed itself is good sign for the long run of industry. MPEDA should manufacturers are increasing the feed cost day by day when monitor the international costing and must be delivered to ever diesel cost increased, but they should decrease the price the farmer level and they should have control over processing when ever here is decrease in fuel price and others. Govt. plants in determining the price. MPEDA should also provide should give permissions to more feed companies to reduce some sort of subsidies for establishing farms.Till date no bank the feed cost. Exporters must buy all counts with reasonable is encouraging the middle and small scale farmers. Most of the price. Farmers are expecting from the Govt. agencies on times banks supports only to corporate farms. Banks should various things like subsidies, fixing of price, etc.But they come forward to provide loans to the small scale farmers are not up to the expectations. Bankers always support the too.Insurance companies must come forward with amicable corporate farmers but not the small scale farmers. They policies for the crop protection and rotation, by the way of should come forward to help the small scale farmers in their which bankers can also come forward based on this. limitations providing loans for various materials used in culture practices.


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Earlier the shrimp culture is being done in very few acresnot exceeding more than 300-400 acres. Now-a-days it is reported almost 10 fold increase in culture area.At presentthe total cultured area nearly around 30,000 acres of which 20,000 acres is contributes by Litopenaeus vannamei and another 10,000 acres by different fish. Availability of quality seed is the main criteria to overcome so many problemsand the farmers won’t mind in paying even if it is costly also and the survival rate is the major problem during the present culture. Besides, during the last crop, we have faced white muscle, black gill and brown gill disease, etc. The success rate in the last crop was 60% and the remaining 40% was lost due to various disease problems. However, best management practices (BMPs) are the only method to alleviate the diseases instead of indiscriminate use of antibiotics. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics could lead to the formation of antibiotic residues, which could lead to the rejection of exports. So, BMPs and GMPs are the only method can reduce the disease outbreaks. We need to upgrade our culture practices in terms of technical approach. Government should realize the importance of the industry and value addition of the industry in support of getting foreign exchange. Being a valued industry generating almost 35,000 crore of income per year, it is the duty of the government to save the industry in all possible ways and support the fisheries industry. MPEDA should come forward to provide more technical support. It should guide the hatcheries to supplythe good quality seed at reasonable price. They also should push bankers to provide loans. Bankers should give at least minimum support in providing loans with low interest rates for buying electric needs, aerators, etc.Insurance company’s lot can to do. If they provide insurance to the crop, farmers will extend the culture to more acres and improves production too. Then only we can improve our exports by the way which farmers gets benefit.

Interview with Mr. Subhash Raju, Farmer, Bhimavaram, West Godavari Dt. Andhra Pradesh, India West Godavari district, fish and shrimp culture is practiced from many years. Nearly about 8,000 acres of land is being cultured for shrimp andaround 10,000 acres land for fish culture. Inadequate availability of quality seed is the major clutches to the industry. Occasionally the survival rate will be 50 to 60 percent and the price may vary between 30-50 paisa/PL. The active involvement and coordinated efforts among of MPEDA, RGCA, CAA, CIBA and other central fisheries institutes will solve this problem. Bacterial and viral infections have led to serious economic losses to the shrimp farming industry. In addition running mortality, white gut etc. are the major diseases occurring. The success percentage for the last crop is only 60%. Another major problem is cost of production. In this case, feed manufactures can reduce the feed cost. Farmers also required knowledge of good management culture practices (GMPs) to avoid the loss due to diseases.However, farmer requires more knowledge in culture practices, and new technologies should be followed to reduce the cost of production. Government has to do a lot for the development of shrimp farming. They are somehow delaying each and every process. Government has to give permission for more processing units and feed plants. MPEDA should work on good quality seed supply through the hatcheries and should conduct more awareness programmes about antibiotic usage, residue formation, rejections etc. Almost all bankers are giving loans, but only on property base. Government should guide the bankers to provide loans to the small farmers on various inputs of culture like aerators, electric motors, etc.Insurance companies must come forward along with bankers to support the crop so that farmer will be ready to continue the culture without abrupt dropping.



Interview with Mr. G. S. Raju, Farmer, Chayyeru Agra haram, East Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India

Aquaculture Times is an international magazine contains mainly general features, articles and news covering a variety of aquaculture related topics. Published bi-monthly, the magazine provides a platform to bring the salient features of aquaculture, problems relating to farmers, up to date events, information, and latest trends in aquaculture. Aquaculture has a great demand with a tremendous scope for improving the food security and national economy. However, aquaculture is increasingly confronted with several issues of water quality management, environmental protection and disease outbreak, particularly associated mainly with high-input high-output intensive systems, suffering with innumerable problems, and the result of which can degrade the coastal ecosystem and in turn can reduce the output. The Aquaculture Times can provide a platform for bringing out the various issues relating to the latest aspects of culture.




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