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UrbanUpdate Setting The Agenda For Tomorrow’s Cities

T R A M S IES CIT Retrofitting the cities Technology to play the enabler Barcelona Innovation Hub DMICDC plans for 2040

OPPORTUNITY

Title Code: DELENG18712

All India Institute of Local Self Government

March 2014

In Necessity Crowding cities provide the much-needed thrust for creation of smarter cities

Elevated as Entrepreneurs Parliament clears the Street Vendors Bill


INSIDE

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inside Cover Story

14 Opportunity In Necessity Rapid urbanisation in India gives the much-needed

impetus to creation and growth of smarter cities

22 Retrofitting Cities Retrofitting the existing cities with smart devices has

worked globally, and so should it in India

24 Future Cities: Technology to Play the Enabler Riding advanced technology, the cities of tomorrow will

move without much human intervention

28 Barcelona: The Innovation Hub The city is investing lavishly in 22@Barcelona project that

would create modern spaces for knowledge-based activities

30 It’s Planning for 2040: Amitabh Kant The DMIC project will revolutionise the country’s urban

landscape like never before, says the DMICDC CEO & MD

Column 34 CCTV Surveillance: Missing Focal Angle Planning for installation of cameras is flawed, writes Ashish Shah

Centre Stage 38 Vexed Vendors Elevated

as Entrepreneurs

Parliament nods Street Vendors Bill to secure their right to livelihood

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Regulars Newscan 06 Products 42 Events 44 Urban Agenda 46


March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

DR. JATIN MODI PRESIDENT-AIILSG RANJIT CHAVAN EDITOR-IN-CHIEF & PUBLISHER DIRECTOR GENERAL-AIILSG

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Smart Cities – the urban tomorrow

APRESH C MISHRA MANAGING EDITOR NIRMAL ANSHU RANJAN EXECUTIVE EDITOR LOJY THOMAS, AIILSG ASSOCIATE EDITOR JESSY IYPE DESK EDITOR & REPORTER MEENAKSHI RAJPUT GRAPHIC DESIGNER NEHA SHARMA MARKETING MANAGER HEAD OFFICE PLOT NO. 6, F-BLOCK, BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX, TPS ROAD-12, BANDRA-EAST MUMBAI-400051, MAHARASHTRA VOLUME I - ISSUE I FOR FEEDBACK AND INFORMATION WRITE IN AT info@urbanupdate.in PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY RANJIT CHAVAN ON BEHALF OF ALL INDIA INSTITUTE OF LOCAL SELF GOVERNMENT PRINTED AT CIRRUS GRAPHICS PVT LTD B-61, SECTOR-67, NOIDA – 201301 UTTAR PRADESH. PUBLISHED AT PLOT NO. 6, F-BLOCK, BANDRA KURLA COMPLEX, TPS ROAD-12, BANDRA-EAST MUMBAI-400051, MAHARASHTRA DESPITE CAREFUL SELECTION OF BE TAKEN FOR ACCURACY. THE MAGAZINE ASSUMES NO LIABILITY OR RESPONSIBILITY OF ANY KIND IN CONNECTION WITH THE INFORMATION THEREOF. ALL RIGHT RESERVED. REPRODUCTION IN WHOLE OR IN PART IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION FROM THE PUBLISHER.

EDITORIAL

SOURCES, NO RESPONSIBILITY CAN

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hat makes a city? Well, the answer is a holistic view that includes the entirety of human activity in a given area, including city government, schools, hospitals, infrastructure, resources, businesses and people. In other words, a city is an interconnected system of systems. With 3.3 billion people living in cities today — a number that will double by 2050, city leaders need to find ways to enable urban areas to cope and prosper in the days ahead. Today, city infrastructure, agencies, services and economics — all demand change. And, this kind of transformation will require fundamental changes beyond policybased decisions. After the telecom age, which enabled global voice communication anywhere, anytime, and the age of Internet where information became readily available through computers and cell phones, the third age will allow sensor-enabled physical objects — home appliances, factory products, infrastructure assets and cars in a city — to talk to one another, be it people or computers. This change is gradually manifesting in a new kind of city — ‘Smart City’. The basic recipe for smarter cities is to collect data, analyse it and put it to use to improve the quality of city life — to make traffic flow more smoothly, to help police be more efficient, to ensure that water supply meets demand, and more. Smart City strategies seek to leverage ICT to pursue economic, social and environmental sustainability, and Smart City strategies provide new ways for governments, municipal authorities and private sector companies to design and build more efficient infrastructure and services. Sustainable urban management, resource conservation, safe and secure cities, gender equality, climate change and vulnerability assessment are major features of Smart Cities and critical to achieving value-added delivery services. The government intends to build at least two Smart Cities in every state of the country. To achieve this, it will take setting up of a centre of excellence to undertake trial of technologies, flagship projects and various urban models. The final outcome will broadly hinge on devising new, innovative solutions based on the knowledge gained through the processes and a knowledge bank of proof of concepts of the new technology solutions.


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Eleven cities to get BRTS under JnNURM

NEW DELHI: Seen as an instrument to help reduce accidents and facilitate rapid flow of traffic, the Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) will be awarded to 11 cities of seven states across the country. The Ministry of Urban Development sanctioned the projects under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) including the transition phase. More than 500-km stretch has to be covered under these projects. Of the total 11 projects, one project is in Pune, Maharashtra; one each in Ahmedabad, Rajkot and Surat, Gujarat; one in Indore, Madhya Pradesh; and one in Jaipur, Rajasthan; two in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh; one each in Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; one in Amritsar, Punjab; and one in Kolkata, West Bengal.

Patna has longest free Wi-Fi zone

PATNA: Once considered as a backward state, Bihar has now earned the tag of being infotech savvy by having world’s longest free Wi-Fi zone on the stretch from NIT-Patna on Ashok Rajpath to Danapur. Bihar made a strong bid for a mention on the world’s infotech map as chief minister Nitish Kumar unveiled the 20km free Wi-Fi zone, the longest across the globe, at the e-Bihar summit here on Februray 19th. The state’s free Wi-Fi zone is the longest in the world, earlier China’s 3.5km zone was considered as the longest.

GPS made a must in autos, buses NEW DELHI: To enforce better security for women across cities, the government set a deadline for public transport vehicles to install GPS devices by February 20. The project

involves setting up of closed circuit television (CCTVs) and using GPS to ensure safety and security of women and girls in distress and is part of the the Nirbhaya Fund for women safety. The policy was formulated in the wake of gang-rape of a 23-year old paramedic in a moving bus, on December 16, 2012. The victim had died in a Singapore hospital on December 29, 2012. The decision to install GPS in autorickshaws and other vehicles was taken up on a “war footing” by the transport department last year with an aim to keep a track of the movement of these vehicles.

ONE OF ITS KIND: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh recently dedicated to the nation ‘Indira Paryavaran Bhavan’ - India’s first net zero energy building in Delhi. With an installed capacity of 930kw peak power, the building has the largest roof-top solar system among multi-storied buildings in India.

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India to get its first daynight solar aircraft

NEW DELHI: Powered by nothing but solar energy while flying day and night, worlds first solar powered aircraft, Solar Impulse, will be launched in India by April next year. It will be the first ever day and night abled solar powered aircraft to do so. For the first time in history that an airplane has succeeded in flying day and night, the aircraft is powered by 12,000 solar cells and flies in the dark by reaching high altitudes during the day and gliding downward over long distances at night. It uses no fossil fuels.

Puneites to get Metro rail soon

NEW DELHI: The metro rail is a blessing for many metros in terms of convenient mode of public transportation and now Puneites may benefit from the metro ride soon with the Union Ministry of Urban Development recently giving an in-principle approval to the Phase – I of the Pune Metro Rail Project. The approval will facilitate the state government to take necessary action for faster implementation of the project. The project is aimed to improve the public transport system in the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) and Pimpri – Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) areas.

Cabinet nods 7,200 km of state roads as NHs NEW DELHI: The national highways are considered as the main artery and act as a backbone of the road network for people and transportation of goods and services; the government on February 20th gave nod to make about 7,200 km of state roads as the national highways (NHs) across various parts of the country. In the past four-anda-half years, about 10,000 km of state highways were added to the NH network. About 2,000 km of this will cover border roads including Manali to Leh stretch with the objective of building wider roads in areas closer to border areas.


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Mumbai to get energyefficient streetlights

MUMBAI: To provide a power saving alternative to the commercial hub of the country through LED lighting, Brihanmumbai Electricity Supply and Transport (BEST) has announced to build more than 32,000 streetlights powered by sodium vapour lamps in the city. The BEST will have to seek the consent of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) for the proposal. The project is seen as panacea to save energy and oversized power bills.

RAY achieves centrally sponsored scheme status

NEW DELHI: With a vision to ensure that the state and UTs of the country provide better amenities and standard of living to the slums, the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) was been approved as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs recently. RAY is being implemented all over the country based on the suggestions and recommendations for central assistance towards the redevelopment, up gradation, and relocation of the slums. For seeking central assistance, proposals under the scheme will be submitted by the state governments with their approval from HUPA for the development of slums in their states.

Illegal Delhi hoardings hurting civic bodies

SmartCity in north India soon

Bio-toilets for 11 Chhattisgarh cities soon

MUMBAI: To bring the northern side of the country under the umbrella of SmartCity, the Dubaibased SmartCity India is keen on setting up a much larger facility spanning up to a 1,000 acres. After starting work on its Rs. 5,000 crore Kochi project, now the emirate company wishes to broaden their base in other parts of the country, preferably north India.The 246-acre Kochi SmartCity project costed Rs. 5,000 crore and is a cluster of futuristic buildings planned to house the ICT, media, finance, research & innovation giants from across the world. SmartCity is the international business parks arm of Dubai Holding. The proposed SmartCity will be self-contained knowledge townships.

RAIPUR: As a platform to help the residents resort to healthy form of sanitation, the state government has initiated to build bio-toilets in slums across 11 cities, including Jagdalpur, Bhilai and Rajnandgaon. With less than 30% people in the state having access to toilets and over 80% of slum dwellers resorting to open defecation, the concept could resolve the problem in urban areas as well.According to officials, 11 cities- Korba, Jagdalpur, Rajnandgaon, Durg, Bhilai, Dhamtari, Ambikapur, Koria, Raigarh, Raipur and Bilaspur have been identified for expansion of the project.

A web portal to monitor human trafficking NEW DELHI: Human trafficking of person for commercial purposes mainly sexual exploitation is a grave violation to human rights and to ensure that this heinous organised crime is eradicated, the Ministry of Home Affairs recently launched a comprehensive webportal on Anti Human Trafficking. The portal will help in tracking large number of cases having inter-state ramifications and act as a one stop information repository on issues relating to trafficking including details of Anti-Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs), their locations, contact details of Anti-Human Trafficking Nodal Officers.

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NEW DELHI: As the political parties are gung-ho on the upcoming Lok Sabha elections and spending huge amounts of money on promotional activities, the local civic bodies in the capital are burdened by the spendthrift and are running into losses in revenue. According to official records, the three Municipal Corporation in the city are losing crores in revenue due to the illegal hoardings to advertising by political parties on regular commercial sites. Boards of up to 27 square feet can be put up outside shops or other places free of cost and without permission. On streets where commercial activity takes place, the corporations allow wall or building wraps.

EVE-POWERED AUTOS: Female auto drivers are the new incarnations of empowered-women-at-work in the state of Bihar, contemptuously passed off as a caste-ridden, backward state. The photo shows a woman auto driver at work in Patna recently.


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Smart lighting adopted in Cyberpark

KOZHIKODE: Seen as a first in the country, Kerala’s IT hub, Cyberpark has innovated an intelligent tele-management system in the LED street lightings in the campus that can save huge amount of energy through effective utilisation of power. The system manages control, meter and lighting through static IP (internet protocol) across the globe and allows each individual light point to be switched on or off or dimmed at any time. Each pole communicates with each other through the wireless mechanism and each lighting point would send a report via email or SMS.

Funds doled to control traffic congestion NEW DELHI: In a bid to identify the most congested areas and control the traffic in the cities, the Central Government has issued an advisory letter to all the states and UTs to study and adopt congestion charges as per the requirement and has proposed to provide funding up to 80 percent for the same. The charges will be imposed as a measure to decongest a particular area/central business district, increasing mode share of cycling as well as public transport and mobility of the people besides controlling pollution.

Rs 236cr RAY project to replace 42 slums in Jharkhand RANCHI: Forty-two slums in four Jharkhand cities – Ranchi, Dhanbad, Bokaro and Jamshedpur – are all set to go, as over 4,300 households will get permanent dwelling units under the Rajiv Awas Yojana at an estimated cost of Rs 236 crore. The state urban development department is waiting for the release of central funds earmarked for the project. The final detailed project reports (DPR) have been forwarded to the Centre for approval. As per the RAY provision, the dwelling units will come up on a 50:50 (central-state) sharing basis. With some suggestions of corrections, the Centre had approved the DPRs of the four cities on December 29, 2013. After making some corrections in the DPRs, the urban development department submitted the final DPRs to its appraisal agency, Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), on February 25.

GREEN ACCLAIM: The International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, recently selected the Biju Patnaik Airport in Bhubaneswar for awarding ISO-14001 tag. The recognition comes for meeting environmental parameters. This tag will help the airport popularise itself as an international one.

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Hyderabad civic body launches Rs 5 meal plan

HYDERABAD: The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) has launched pilot of a scheme which would provide subsidised hot and hygienic meals to the poor for Rs 5 at Nampally Sarai. The GHMC, which plans to feed 15,000 people a day, will set up 50 such centres, each equipped to serve 300 persons. The actual cost of the meal would be Rs 20, while the civic body will bear the balance cost. To municipal corporation has partnered with Akshaya Patra Foundation, run by Hare Krishna Movement, which will prepare the food. Vegetarian meal of rice, dal/sambar, sabji and pickle shall be served under the plan.

France to invest in Indian urban sector

JAMSHEDPUR: To augment investment in India, leading European Union member France, is scouting interest in solar power generation, urban development and automobile sectors in the eastern part of the country. Interacting with the Confederation of India Industry (CII), Jharkhand chapter, members at Center for Excellence, the Consul General Fabrice Etienne, said that Jharkhand holds enough potential for the French companies vis-a-vis investment. He also announced opening an Indo-France Chamber of Commerce and Industry centre in Kolkata to regulate bilateral business proposals of the eastern states.

New PMC Commissioner to focus on waste mgmt PUNE: Taking charge of his responsibilities as the newly appointed commissioner of the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) Vikas Deshmukh has ensured to keep solid waste management on topmost priority of the administration during his tenure. Deshmukh, who took charge on Februray 11th, said that small waste processing plants are the need of the hour and the civic administration has appealed to the farmers to collect segregated garbage and use it as compost in their farms.


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National Solar Mission misses capacity targets

NEW DELHI: After a good start two years back, India is now facing a tough time achieving its 1.1GW target set for the current fiscal year (2013- 14). Under its National Solar Mission (NSM), the country has been able to install only 550MW of grid connected solar power until now. The key reasons for the sluggish capacity addition in the current fiscal year have been the delays associated with the state solar policies and the delay in rollout of Phase II of the NSM.

Chennai hosts forum on urban transportation CHENNAI: In an effort to project emerging ideas in urban transportation on topics varying from intelligent transportation systems, disaster management and emergency response, with emphasis on environmental issues, the city hosted a workshop on ‘Sustainable Urban Transportation’. The two-day workshop, organised jointly by the Indian Institute of Technology-Madras and Purdue University, was a forum for presentations and knowledge exchange on issues in sustainable urban planning, including new ideas such as bike sharing, vehicle sharing and hybrid transit systems.

PEDAL CONNECTION: To ease stress on public transport network, the South Delhi Municipal Corporation will start a bicycle sharing plan in the city. To provide commuters with first- and last-mile connectivity, the Corporation would allow people to rent bicycles near places like Metro stations and bus stops.

Thirty-two Mumbai buildings unlivable

Maternity care to benefit one lakh Ranchi women

MUMBAI: A Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation’s (BMC) survey of its buildings has raised concern over stability of several civic body-owned structures stating that a total of 32 buildings was uninhabitable and needed to be vacated. Following last year’s Dockyard building crash, which had killed 61 persons, the BMC has so

RANCHI: With an aim at improving the quality of maternity care by adapting internationally recognized quality improvement standards, a private company launched two programmes in the state on Februray 10th. The project ensures at improving the quality of maternal mortality rate care in Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro, Dhanbad and Giridih and promises to benefit around one lakh women. The programme team shall work with various government departments to streamline the accreditation process of private facilities under various government schemes. More than 80 private sector facilities in the state will be involved in the project.

Biogas generation from vegetable waste

Urban health mission celebrated by Kerala govt far issued work orders for structural audits of 472 buildings. Of these, the BMC received audit reports of 42 buildings, in which the reports for 32 buildings recommended that the structures need to be vacated. According to officials, the BMC has allotted more than Rs 500 crore to repair and reconstruct buildings in 2014-15.

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THIRUVANANTHAPURAM: As part of the UDF government completing 1,000 days of its ruling, the centrally-sponsored national urban health mission was rolled out in the state on February 11th.The mission, envisaged as another phase of the national rural health mission, aims at improving healthcare facilities at hospitals in urban areas.The scheme will benefit around 33 lakh people from Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Ernakulam, Thrissur and Kozhikode corporations and municipalities of Neyyattinkara, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Palakkad, Manjeri, Kannur, Thodupuzha, Pathanamthitta, Kalpetta and Kasaragod.

HYDERABAD: In an unusual effort to manage the menace of huge tons of municipal solid waste, a few officials have ideated on segregating and converting vegetable waste into biogas. Almost everyday the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) does the gargantuan task of mopping up around 4,000 metric tonnes of municipal solid waste and transport it to the gigantic municipal dump yard at Jawaharnagar. The Macha Bolarum area under Alwal circle, has the unique ‘biomethation’ plant that converts vegetable waste into gas. The gas is estimated to be equal to 10 cylinders a month and 500 kg less of garbage, meaning the GHMC could garner savings of Rs. 3.5 lakh a year.


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Mumbai cheapest city to live in LONDON: For an average Indian, living costs in Mumbai may be a nightmare. But the new Worldwide Cost of Living 2014 index has thrown up an interesting finding: India’s city of dreams has emerged as the world’s cheapest city to live in. The analysis takes into account the concept of value for money — how much bread would you get for one dollar or for that matter a litre of petrol. While Mumbai has emerged as the country with the best value for money spent, Delhi has emerged the third cheapest city. For example, buying 1 kg bread in Mumbai would cost $0.91, while in Delhi it would be $1.05 as against $3.36 in Singapore, which has toppled Tokyo to be the world’s most expensive city to live in this year. The average cost of one litre unleaded petrol in Mumbai is $1.21 and in Delhi $ 1.14, as against $ 2.50 in Paris — the world’s second most expensive city. Singapore topped 131 cities globally to become the world’s most expensive city to live in 2014, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Asia is interestingly home to some of the world’s most expensive cities as well as to many of the world’s cheapest cities.

10 Least Expensive Cities ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦

Mumbai (India) Karachi (Pakistan) New Delhi (India) Damascus (Syria) Kathmandu (Nepal) Algiers (Algeria) Bucharest (Romania) Panama City (Panama) Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

The index says: “Within Asia the best value for money is in the Indian

subcontinent (defined as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka). Mumbai is the cheapest location in the survey and three of the four cheapest cities hail from Pakistan, India and Nepal. Mumbai’s title as the world’s cheapest city is a reflection of the structural factors that define price within the Indian subcontinent.” Besides Singapore, cities making up the top five most expensive cities to live in are Paris, Oslo, Zurich and Sydney, while Tokyo falling to the sixth place.

BPL population down, claims HUPA ♦♦ A centrally sponsored scheme called Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY) had been implemented through the state governments, to provide gainful employment ♦♦ In the scheme, a total of 8,44,459 beneficiaries have been assisted for setting up of micro-enterprises (Individual and Group) and 16,42,122 persons during last five years 10

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NEW DELHI: Seen as a pleasant change for the below poverty line (BPL) sector, the government recently stated that there is a considerable decline in the BPL population in the country between 2004 and 2012, and that policies were being made to elevate the unemployed through selfemployment ventures. An estimate released by the Planning Commission stated that the percentage of population of below the poverty line in urban areas has

declined from 25.5 percent in 2004-05 to 13.7 percent in 2011-12, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (HUPA) Minister Girija Vyas recently informed the Lok Sabha. As per the 2011-12 data, a total of 531.20 lakh people are below poverty line in the country. The National Urban Livelihoods Mission (NULM) was included in the 12th Five Year Plan to focus on organising the urban poor in self help groups and creating opportunities for skill and market-based development.


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HUPA funds double in 2014-15 NEW DELHI: As the report card of the country’s state of economy was presented by the Union Finance Minister P. Chidambaram here on February 17, the interim budget, also called the cover budget, garlanded the Ministry of Housing & Urban Alleviation (HUPA) a manifold increase in allocation of Rs.6,008.82 crore for the year 2014-15. The minister said that the Union Home Ministry has been allocated a total of Rs 59,387 crore, a rise of 16 percent over its allocation last year. The budget this year also focused on

680mn Indians lack access to basic amenities: McKinsey NEW DELHI: India’s next government is likely to face a daunting challenges as a report A report by McKinsey Global Institute has revealed that at least 680 million continue to lack the means to meet essential needs, including food, health and sanitation, housing and education. According to the study, the country should spend Rs 3.3 lakh crore over the next 10 years to empower the marginally better than those under the poverty line. With the government’s spending on various development schemes not effectively reaching much of the public, the study suggests a rise in expenditure on the social sector by 91 per cent, to Rs 10.8 lakh crore by 2022. Currently, it says, only 36 per cent of public spending on health reaches the public, as does 52 per cent of that on the national rural job guarantee scheme (MGNREGS) and 64 per cent of the spending on food.The study was conducted across all 640 districts and measured the availability of

social services. Uttar Pradesh and parts of Bihar have emerged as the most deprived states. The coastal belts of Karnataka and Kerala and the hilly terrains of Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh rank among the least deprived. The ‘BIMARU’ states — undivided Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh — continue to be extremely deprived. India has a lack of infrastructure, including power and logistics. The report has said the gaps in power and transportation need to be reviewed and state governments can play a crucial role.

JICA aids wastewater treatment TOKYO: With an aim to create awareness on how to improvise wastewater treatment and efficient use of technology for water and sanitation, an onsite training course was recently organised by the Central Public Health Engineering and Environmental Organisation (CPHEEO), a Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) arm, in association with the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The objective of the programme was to train in-service engineers and para engineering staff at the

various state Public Health Engineering Departments (PHED), and water supply and sewerage boards and urban local bodies, among others.

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schemes for safety of women in Delhi and creation of special infrastructure in Naxal-affected states. Out of a total budget package for Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), the finance minister has earmarked Rs 2 crore for schemes for women’s safety in Delhi. Talking about manufacturing sector, Mr Chidambaram said the National Manufacturing Policy has set the goal of increasing the share of manufacturing in GDP to 25 percent and create 100 million jobs over a decade. He stated that eight National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZ) have been announced along the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) and nine projects have been approved by the DMIC Trust. Five NIMZs outside DMIC have been given in-principle approval and three more corridors connecting Chennai and Bengaluru, Bengaluru and Mumbai, and Amritsar and Kolkata are under different stages of preparatory work.

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India’s first zero-emission bus hits road in Bengaluru The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) rolls out the much-awaited India’s first electric bus — BYD K9 — in the city for a trial period of three months BENGALURU: Going by the need of the hour to go green, the country introduced its first electric zero-emission bus here on February 27. Seen as a ‘clean’ attempt to meet its mass transport requirements and curtail the high pollution levels, the Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) rolled out the 12-metre air-conditioned ‘e-bus’. Although the bus had been running in the city for over a month, it started plying officially on the city streets from the day. The bus, which has the capacity to accommodate 32 people, can travel 250 km on a single charge of four to six hours. Costing Rs 2.7 crore, the public transport will be on trial for three months and operate along various routes, beginning with Majestic to Kadugodi, informed Transport Minister Ramalinga Reddy while rolling out the vehicle. The bus will be assessed on how economical it will be for the passengers, and while on trial, it is likely to cost Rs. 80 on route

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from Majestic to Kadugodi. “We will study whether the bus is economical and if it can function efficiently in the city. When the battery is fully charged (six hours), the bus can run for about 250 km, which is ideal for BMTC. However, this needs to be tested. We also need to see how it fares on various

Basics of Bus ♦♦ Zero emission ♦♦ No oil required ♦♦ Costs Rs 2.7 crore (Volvo Rs 88 lakh) ♦♦ Runs for 250 km with 6 hours of charging ♦♦ Low running cost of Rs 7 per km (Rs 18 per km for a Volvo A/C bus) ♦♦ Easy maintenance ♦♦ Fare from Majestic to Kadugodi – Rs 80 roads in the city and which routes are best suited to operate the bus,” said BMTC Managing Director Anjum Parvez. The fare of the bus will be feasible at Rs 7 per km as

compared to Rs 18 per km for a Volvo A/C bus and is likely to be reduced in course of time. “Once the demand for the bus goes up and more people express interest in purchasing it, the rates are likely to come down. Moreover, the research and development wings of various bus manufacturers are working on this and it is only some time before the initial cost of the bus is reduced,” said Reddy. The bus, manufactured by Build Your Dreams (BYD), was brought to India by Utopia Pvt Ltd. At least 5,000 such buses are operational in countries such as the United States, the Netherlands, Switzerland and some European countries. With the persistent existence of pollution levels in urban cities, state governments are ensuring to adopt eco-friendly mode of transportation to conserve energy as also to ease the traffic congestion on roads. Many cities have incorporated the hybrid or CNG-operated buses as part of the economic friendly initiative.


OPPORTUNITY

COVER STORY

In Necessity

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Nirmal Anshu Ranjan Executive Editor nirmal@urbanupdate.in

As more and more people move to cities seeking schools for their children, healthcare for their families and jobs for themselves, country’s urban planners urgently need to think innovatively to prepare for the unprecedented migration

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But to realise the vision of such an urban space, it is necessary to ♦♦ Make better use of data from various sources like social networks, sensors and statistics, etc; ♦♦ Empower people by providing better information and better tools to help participation in policymaking and service development; and ♦♦ Remove barriers between sectors like energy, transport, ICT, water, waste management and healthcare, as an integration of these sectors can bring benefits to all of them and deliver better services to the users.

Technology-driven cities

The opportunity of technology to help address these challenges has never been greater, as smart cities focus on empowering citizens with the right tools to connect to the right information. Today, it is possible to create smart cities with intelligent networks that manage basic citizen services and replace sprawling concrete jungles – fit only for cars – with spaces that are walkable, bikeable and above all, liveable. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can be applied to our built environment, which will not only help address the problems that we see in our cities today – like congestion and wasted energy – but also offer exciting new consumer experiences and convenience, and help stimulate the much-needed economic growth and job creation. It is, therefore, assumed that a smart city would ♦♦ Make better use of data from various sources like social networks, sensors and statistics, etc; ♦♦ Empower people by providing better information and better tools to help participation in

COVER STORY

he urban population in India accounts for 31 percent of the population, i.e. about 410 million people live in urban areas, out of which 50 percent resides in metro cities, putting massive pressure on city infrastructures, including transportation, housing, water, power and city services. On account of crowding of cities, the multifarious challenges posed to our national and municipal governments, and to businesses and individual citizens are immense. Governments are witnessing rising costs and increasing pressures on resources such as labour, transportation, communications infrastructure, energy, water and other basics. This necessitates collective and innovative problem solving techniques, which can throw up alternatives to highcost solutions and leave limited resources untaxed while also ensuring urban growth and sustainability. It is here that comes into play the concept of ‘smart cities’: cities where infrastructure network and delivery of services are more efficient – across telecommunication, logistics, water and gas supply.


COVER STORY

SMART COMPANIES

IBM: The company is involved in pilot smart grid projects around the world, ranging from smart meter roll-out to countrywide integration. The ‘Smarter Cities Challenge’ has also been launched by the company wherein, an award of $50 million is granted to 100 cities globally

Arup: Engineering consultancy firm Arup runs a ‘Smart Cities’ programme to develop cities of the future

Schneider Electric: Global energy management group Schneider Electric has come out with the Wiser Energy Management System, which involves 60,000 consumers using smart thermostats and in-home displays

Hitachi: The company is developing clean energy and waste recycling systems

Cisco: The ‘Smart+Connected Cities’ programme run by Cisco using intelligent networking binds people, services and community assets into a single pervasive solution. Cisco is involved in over 20 major smart city projects worldwide

Accenture: The firm has developed ‘Intelligent City Network’ to deploy smart grid solutions. Accenture’s ‘Global Cities Forum’ works on nearly 100 smart grid and smart city pilot projects around the globe

Alstom: It is working with Microsoft, using MS technologies applied to Alstom’s energy management and control systems for distributed power generation

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Honeywell: It is working with utilities on demand by smart thermostats through Baltimore Gas and Utility

Siemens: With the initiation of the ‘City of the Future’ programme, Siemens is involved in a broad range of city pilots globally. It also runs the ‘Green City Index’, in partnership with the Economist Intelligence Unit, to measure and rank the environmental performance of cities from around the world

Intel: Intel has launched a dedicated residential demand response by offering Johnson Controls, which provides the users building management sensor technology, controls and systems

Mitsubishi: As part of collaboration between India and Japan, Mitsubishi with Hitachi is working on developing the infrastructure of new cities along the Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC)

General Electric: GE’s ‘Ecomagination’ provides technology to be used in renewable energy, water filtration and wastewater treatment, smart building initiatives, sensing and detecting equipment, traffic signalling and transportation monitoring and management systems


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policymaking and service development; and ♦♦ Remove barriers between sectors like energy, transport, ICT, water, waste management and healthcare. Integrating these sectors can bring benefits to all of them and deliver better service to the users. In other words, effective management of clean water, energy, transportation, public safety, education and healthcare using smart devices and intelligent communications is what makes a city truly smart, or a Smart City. Such cities use technology to transform their core systems and optimise the return from finite resources. Investment in smart systems can also translate into a source of sustainable employment. Through such initiatives, the urban systems can be made more instrumented, integrated and intelligent, so that those serve the needs of businesses and citizens better.

Elements of a Smart city

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500 CITIES

Needed to house 700 million city dwellers by 2050

$1,023

Global smart cities market to grow to $1,023 by 2016

$70,300

Million credit line to projects for 90 smart city model areas in china

A city is smart when the infrastructure and technologies employed are intelligent enough to ensure faster and efficient service delivery and foretell of dangers and calamities accurately to make the life of citizens easier and safe, environment clean and green, and installed devices costeffective. Consumption of scarce resources like water and energy should also be optimised through advanced technologies and high-tech devices. Installation of smart water meters help monitors and reduce wastage in the system, saving 10-15 percent per household. Talking about better energy management, smart grids fitted with sensors and instrumentation can improve distribution network efficiency, and in conjunction with smart metering, those can help match energy demand and supply. Similarly, a better energy management system can help people automate the energy-consuming systems ♦♦ The concept is still quite new in India, in buildings, and building sensors and controls can help predict although it has received a lot of attention the faults. in the last few years In transport segment, smart cards can link multiple forms of ♦♦ Several Indian cities have already transport and make it more convenient to use, and for transport begun deploying a few smart technologies to authorities to understand mobility patterns; real time transport efficiently provide civic services displays can provide visibility of and information on ♦♦ Cities such as Hyderabad, Surat, Coimbatore, availability of public transports to users, thus, encouraging Bengaluru, Mangalore, Jamshedpur, Kanpur, Delhi, uptake of mass transportation; and give information on Mumbai and Chennai have launched initiatives condition of traffic on various routes accurately. related to deployment of advanced communications Sensors are known to play pivotal role in smart cities systems, metro rail systems, traffic management sysas those can provide real-time inputs to a control centre tems, smart meters, GPRS for solid waste management, on clean water, energy, public transport, public safety, GIS to manage property tax, online water quality monitoreducation and healthcare. Intelligent communication ing, online building plan approval schemes, etc tools let administrators manage and respond to ♦♦ Several new smart cities – Kochi Smart City, Gujarat Interemergencies quickly as well as provide residents national Finance Tec-City and Lavasa – are being developed with constant real-time inputs. as model cities through private sector participation

‘SMART CITIES’ AND INDIA

The government has also spoken of its intention to develop at least two smart cities in each state equipped with a host of modern features — like intelligent transport, e-services and carbon neutral

♦♦

Seven smart cities are under development by states with foreign aid as part of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC); work on two of these will begin in 2014; 24 new cities by 2040 have been planned under the project ♦♦ The government has unveiled plans to develop two cities in each of the 29 states as smart cities under Phase II of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

COVER STORY

The Indian context


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SMART TECHNOLOGIES ♦♦ High tech waste management systems ♦♦ All digital and easy to use parking and payment systems ♦♦ Touch screens around the city ♦♦ Wi-fi in subway stations and trains ♦♦ Broadband access for all citizens ♦♦ Sustainable and energy efficient residential and commercial real estate ♦♦ Kiosks that display real time information ♦♦ Social media based emergency alert and crisis response systems

♦♦ Police that use real time data to monitor and prevent crime ♦♦ Public transit, high speed trains and bus rapid transit ♦♦ OLED lights and surveillance in high crime zones ♦♦ Solar powered charging stations ♦♦ Roofs covered with solar panels or gardens ♦♦ Smart climate control systems ♦♦ Water recycling systems ♦♦ Crowd sourced urban planning

WAVE CITY, GHAZIABAD Designed on the lines of the Smart City concept by IBM and world-renowned city planners Bentel Associates from South Africa, Wave City is a 4500-acre self-sufficient city located at NH 24 in Ghaziabad. It is being designed to be one of the largest fully integrated smart cities in the country where every amenity is offered to help the residents reduce their cost of living. The project presents world class living standards by way of smart city that has a central command centre to manage the complete city. Facilities like the automated traffic signals, which turn on and off without manual effort, electricity and water meters are custom-made to reduce your monthly bills, buses send text messages to inform the residents of its arrival, mechanised 18

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garbage control system, fibre optic connectivity to each resident, 24X7 security system, panic buttons and CCTV surveillance systems have been installed throughout the city and everything from the roads to each nook and corner in the township are kept under close surveillance. With all devices connected to a central command centre, the city authorities will be able to record and respond to events much faster and in a more coordinated manner, prevent and anticipate problems, and improve the quality of life of residents. For example, a resident’s smart device will be alerted to current traffic conditions, or residents can check parking availability or changes to traffic conditions due to conditions like natural disaster.


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status — under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM). Since the existing mega cities are already groaning under the weight of lack of planning and mismanagement, it plans to develop medium-size cities with half-a-million to one million population. The planners are also looking to change the economic face of the nation through the Delhi–Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), the world’s largest infrastructure project. When completed, the $90bn project will have 24 new hi-tech cities along nearly 1,500 km course of the corridor, improving the living standards of about 180 million people. Incidentally, one initiative to develop a smart township in the country has been undertaken by the Wave Inc in Ghaziabad of UP, with technical knowhow from the IBM. Clean water, energy, transportation, public safety, education and healthcare in the Wave City will be integrated by a central command centre and managed by smart devices using sensors and other intelligent communication tools. It will record and respond to events faster and anticipate and prevent problems. A resident’s smart device will be alerted to traffic conditions or residents can check parking availability, or even a natural disaster like flooding.

Problems as solution

LeaderSpeak

POLISH POLICIES TO REFURBISH CITIES Jatin Modi President, AIILSG

E

ven as the unprecedented growth of urban population is putting tremendous pressure on urban services and infrastructures, the apparently worrisome situation also has a silver lining — it provides the much-needed thrust for creation and growth of smart cities. Smart cities as a concept may be new to India, but that cannot be a reason for going reticent on the issue. Today, there is an urgency to fix the state of urban affairs to transform cities into a more liveable and workable place for the people at large. The country needs to mobilise all possible resources — talent, technology and finance — to improve the quality of life of its urban residents. Across the globe, technology is doing wonders in improving productivity, lifestyle and prosperity of the people, while green growth strategies are building environmentallysustainable cities. So, India needs to learn from the best practices elsewhere in the world and design solutions to suit the Indian context. But, be it creation of new cities or retrofitting the existing ones with smart devices, both require huge investments. Therefore, apart from mobilising its own resources, the government also needs to create an environment conducing for

attracting private investment and promote public-private partnership model more proactively. If India sincerely intends to develop smart cities — not doing which is no more an option — on the required pace and scale, it will have to first bring about some qualitative changes in the overall governance and regulatory mechanism. In this context, some challenges calling for immediate attention may be listed as below: ♦♦ Challenges relating to political alignment, financing and stakeholder management will have to be addressed; ♦♦ Greater alignment between and within government agencies will be required; ♦♦ A conducive policy and investment environment for private investors will have to be created; ♦♦ All stakeholders will have to included in the decisionmaking process; and ♦♦ Clear lines of accountability will have to be established. Given that smarter cities are now a matter of ‘when’ and not ‘if’, the government recently went a step ahead to unveil its plan to develop two such cities in every state in the second phase of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal mission (JnNURM). But walking the talk does not look all that easy if it does not visit the outlined areas of concern.

COVER STORY

Given the rapid pace of urbanisation and inadequate urban infrastructure in the country, as also elsewhere, the need for smarter cities is being increasingly felt, and it will again be the same twin factors that will keep on driving growth in the sector. The plethora of urban problems today also present the authorities with a never-before opportunity to develop new cities and retrofit the existing ones to meet the impending urban challenges ahead. Even otherwise, whether they love it or hate it, development of smart cities with an integrated and digitally-enriched urban environment seems the only way forward.

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Fostering Smart Cities concept in India The Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies, Mumbai makes sincere attempts towards realisation of Smart Cities concept in the country through its technical advisory services

Dr (Prof) Sneha Palnitkar Director, RCUES, AIILSG, Mumbai snehapalnitkar@gmail.com

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C

ities play a vital role in the development of a nation: they are engines of growth, sources of energy and catalysts for economic development. By 2015, more than 215 million people in India will migrate to cities. But most of the Indian cities can barely deal with the rising population and its demands for energy, water, transport and communication. The importance of having livable, efficient, productive and safe cities has been recognised well, and to make this happen in India is a big opportunity for the country’s economic growth. Smart Cities is about what can be done through innovative use of what is available ‘off the shelf’. Besides, the Regional Centre for Urban and Environmental Studies (RCUES), Mumbai — an arm of the All India Institute of Local Self Government (AIILSG), Mumbai — along with Smart Cities Council, India, is also working towards inclusive and more sustainable urban solutions. A city is ‘Smart’ when there are investments in human and social capital, traditional and modern communication infrastructure, sustainable economic development, a high quality of life and wise management of natural resources through participatory process. It is a balanced mix of Urban Planning and Development focussing six key areas of performance: economy, mobility, environment, citizenship, quality of life and, finally, governance. A smart city also employs ICT to enhance its livability, workability and sustainability. The AIILSG, Mumbai — well-known as an anchor institution for research and training in urban development

and management — through the RCUES strives to strengthen and improve the urban local bodies for efficient governance. The RCUES, Mumbai is fully supported by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, and is also recognised as a Nodal Resource Centre (NRC) by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. The RCUES, Mumbai — through research, training and policy advocacy — has been offering consultancy services for various urban development schemes and programmes, and nurturing the concept of Smart Cities and Communities Initiative in India for rapidly developing modern cities. The concept intends to understand the current and future issues and challenges faced by cities, and identify development opportunities. It also aims to provide holistic and expert views required to develop the Smart City by working in the following key areas: ♦♦ Performance assessment and benchmarking of municipal utilities services — water, wastewater, solid waste management and sanitation services; ♦♦ Operations and maintenance of municipal services through effective municipal asset management; ♦♦ Need assessment for urban amenities within the city; ♦♦ Understanding people’s vision on city’s development; ♦♦ Promoting safe city- and urban mobility-related policies; ♦♦ ICT in urban management and local governance; ♦♦ E-gov in urban management; ♦♦ Technological innovations in urban sector; and ♦♦ Responsive urban governance.


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RETROFITTING

Advait Aundhkar Advisory Consultant, AIILSG aundhkar@gmail.com

Bristol ♦♦ Using smart technologies, it aims to build on the city’s digital infrastructure to meet the target to reduce CO2 emissions as well as wider social and economic targets ♦♦ Bristol’s Smart Energy projects aim to help Bristol citizens make energy savings through using ICT to help them understand how much energy they consume, and how to live more sustainably ♦♦ Smart Transport projects pilot ICT solutions to support the electric vehicle infra in Bristol, and reduce congestion in the city ♦♦ Smart Data initiatives focus on open data solutions to make data accessible to the public, enabling the creation of new urban services ♦♦ Implementation of STEEP, a European project that will use a new systems approach to develop an energy masterplan for the city, and support businesses ♦♦ To date Bristol has secured around £5 million for Smart City Projects and the city’s programme was also a finalist in the World Smart City Awards 2012 22

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CITIES Challenges posed to our national and local governments, businesses and individual citizens are immense. The interconnectedness of our national economies, supply chains, talent and resource pools, means that this is a collective problem to solve. While new Greenfield projects are coming up, administrators in India are still grappling with the challenges, as smart components are necessary to be retrofitted in the existing cities. Here we talk about some of the cities retrofitted with smart components

New York City ♦♦ 3,000 government buildings in New York City benchmark and publicly disclose their energy use ♦♦ Every building in the city over 50,000 square feet will be required to annually benchmark and disclose their energy use ♦♦ The Green Buildings Plan showed that 17,000 jobs could be maintained or created while saving New Yorkers $750 million a year in energy costs ♦♦ Since 2005, New York city-wide Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions are down by 12% and government’s own emissions fell 5% in 2011


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Valencia ♦♦ In Valencia, the municipality controls the traffic flows in the city by constantly monitoring over 1,000 crossing points and more than 100 information panels through its Traffic Control Centre. An important element of this technology system is the strategic level of interaction with citizens, which goes well beyond parking and traffic announcements ♦♦ Valencia mobility solution integrates data from critical points in the city, such as tunnels and car parks, to identify a problem situation and propose a solution for that specific issue ♦♦ In the case of the environment, cities can apply sound or pollution parameters to the system, which then suggests the best option for specific environmental issues monitored, whether it be via increased green traffic lights to divert the traffic or via information panels advising citizens to turn off their engines ♦♦ The protocol for this system, the set of commands, could also be adapted to other cities in Europe

London ♦♦ Retrofitting London’s public sector buildings, homes with energy efficiency measures and saving millions of pounds every year ♦♦ Earmarking 10 low carbon zones across London aiming to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% by 2012 across the community ♦♦ Supplying 25% of London’s energy from secure, low carbon local sources

The Hague ♦♦ In the Vogelwijk Neighbourhood of the Hague, residents have used their own money to restore an existing, inactive windmill and put it back into operation ♦♦ This mill provides green energy for 450 households. It is an excellent example of neighbourhood participation, whereby residents are fully responsible for a sustainable initiative and its execution

Berlin

COVER STORY

♦♦ The intelligent Wastebasket recognizes its fill level with the help of infrared sensors and can transmit this information via radio interface ♦♦ Using the information from the sensor capillary network, the Solid Waste Department gets intimation on the filling status of wastebaskets, thus help to analyze the requirement of wastebaskets in a particular location ♦♦ City cleaning has been optimize based on route planning and only include those wastebaskets that are truly full. This relieves city cleaning’s employees, saves transportation costs and emissions, and limits the noise disturbance for residents


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FUTURE CITIES

Technology to play the enabler Riding the high-tech cyber physical systems, and supervisory control and data acquisition systems, the future cities are predicted to move autonomously and automatically with minimal need for human intervention, assert experts Rajabahadur V Arcot Industry Analyst rajabahadurav@gmail.com 24

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P

ost-industrialisation era, people moved from the countryside to the

cities in search of better livelihood prospects resulting in a dramatic rise in the number of cities, especially in


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the emerging countries in the recent years, while the challenges in ensuring that cities serve the purpose in a sustainable manner have escalated. Over the decades, some of the megacities, such as London, Paris and Tokyo, have emerged as livable places with all the facilities, while many others have not. For their proper functioning, cities require good planning, but due to the rapid influx of population from the rural areas, some of the new cities are growing in an unplanned manner. They are found inadequate in meeting the needed essential services, such as sanitation, water, healthcare, transportation resulting in emerging as large producers of waste, emitters of greenhouse gases, and consumption centres of materials and energy. Therefore, it has become incumbent on the part of city planners and administrators to give a serious thought to the way the cities come up are planned.

Sustainable & Resource-efficient Smart Cities

At present, one-fifth of the planet lives in about 600 cities that generate up to 60% of the world’s output, and by the middle of this century, three-quarters of humanity are likely to be urban

and interesting places on earth.” However, living up to the promise requires better urban management policies in those cities. Robert Zoellick, in his address in 2011 at a conference in São Paulo, Brazil, had said, “….for centuries, cities have been the birthplace of some of mankind’s greatest ideas.” Cities could be a powerful force of change if they pledge to work efficiently on clean energy programmes, adaptation and mitigation strategies. The need for cities to work together is essential to disseminate best practices. Responding to these needs, thought leaders from the city administrators and planners, technology and industry leaders, and other stakeholders have been discussing about the cities of the future. The consensus opinion is that the cities of future, while effectively and efficiently meeting the functional and aspirational needs, such as sanitation, water, health services, transportation, communication, and similar others, should also be environmentally friendly for smart urban planning. Another area of agreement is that cities should work autonomously and automatically with minimal need for intervention; those should be realtime information driven entities capable of responding to changing demands with information analysis and decision-making capabilities. In effect, cities will have to become intelligent entities – smart cities.

Smart Cities: Technology as the Enabler

A smart city should have a supervisory control and data acquisition systems to monitor, operate and control a variety of infrastructure facilities and systems; manage the sourcing and distribution of electric power depending on the need, availability, tariff; the traffic management and transportation systems at optimal levels of efficiency and costs. Interconnecting conventional electric grid with local microgrid that manages the renewable sources, such as rooftop solar power and wind power, would be an integral part of smart city architecture. Smart buildings / home would be a subset of smart city architecture. Deployment of control systems to automate the temperature and lightening controls in large buildings, such as offices and shopping complexes, and building automation is spreading to private houses (smart homes) with everincreasing applications. The Smart Home concept includes making the living place friendly to the elderly and disabled persons, and thereby, improve the quality of life of persons who otherwise require caregivers or institutional care. The building automation’s ambit has expanded to include access and security control, public address facility, fire protection and alarm, and to emerge as integrated automation systems to housing complexes.

COVER STORY

According to the United Nations Environment Program’s report, “Sustainable, resource efficient cities – Making it happen”, comparing over half of the world’s population residing in cities now, by 2050 almost 80 percent would be living in cities. Another study, “Urban world: Mapping the economic power of cities”, by McKinsey talks about the cities’ contribution to the economy; currently one-fifth of the planet lives in about 600 cities that generate up to 60 percent of the world’s output, and by the middle of this century, threequarters of humanity are likely to be urban. Edward Glaesar, Professor of Economics at Harvard, and Robert Zoellick, former World Bank President, have highlighted the need for better planning of cities and ensure that cities continue to make positive contribution to the future of mankind. According to Edward Glaesar, “… megacities are a big part of humanity’s future….are the most creative, dynamic

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COVER STORY

ICT is a powerful tool in smart cities that empowers networking, data gathering and analysis, extraction of actionable information, effective collaboration, visualisation of appropriate information, etc

Smart city’s network connectivity would help better management and administer common civic facilities with greater efficiency. To handle emergency situations, the smart city should include alarm capabilities that can notify the appropriate people through audible means like SMSes and other applications on the mobile phones. Sharing of data among various assets of a city, such as transportation and communication infrastructure systems, power grids, hospitals, buildings, residents, doctors and others via a ubiquitous communication would lead to delivery of digitally enhanced services. This would improve the city’s productivity levels. The convergent information and communication technologies, which are already profoundly influencing

our lives, would play a major role in ushering the era of smart cities. The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a powerful tool that empowers networking, data gathering and analysis, extraction of actionable information, effective collaboration, visualisation of appropriate information on real-time basis. For example, sensors embedded in homes, power grids, transportation systems, can be connected to monitoring and control systems to initiate and track various actions, like controlling autonomously and automatically temperate room, switch on or off the power supply, initiation of alert messages among others. There are no limitations to the inputs to the monitoring and control systems or to the nature of outputs.

The cities of future should not just meet the day-to-day needs, like sanitation, water, health services, transportation, communication, and similar others, those should also be environmentally friendly, experts stress

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Sensor-transmitter embedded homes, gadgets such as electric meters, cars and pumps, empower them, and communicate their status, location and accept commands from the connected monitoring and control systems to change their status or initiate appropriate actions. These assets, because of their ability to sense, communicate, and operate autonomously and automatically, have become smart homes, smart meters, smart cars and smart pumps, among others. The cyber-physical entities, or Internet of Things, and standard internet technologies would connect them. Currently, the basic sensortransmitters that communicate with monitoring and control systems via the Industrial Ethernet (IE) and supervisory control and data acquisition systems are available and are already in operation. Imagine all entities, living and nonliving, in a smart city as cyber-physical systems or combination of cyberphysical systems (CPS). The CPS are embedded processors, networked to sensors and transmitters on one side and linked through Internet Protocol IPv6 to supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), that would revolutionise the landscape of future cities. With the introduction of the IPv6 in 2012, there are now sufficient addresses available to enable universal direct networking of smart objects via the Internet. This means, for the first time ever, it is now possible to network resources, information, objects, people to create the Internet of Things and Services or Internet of Everything — IP address facilitated networking of every conceivable asset including people with applications and services. The writer is an Independent Industry Analyst / Columnist and Automation Consultant with extensive experience in writing industry and technology trend articles, market research reports, case studies, white papers, and automation and manufacturing IT insights.


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BARCELONA

The Innovation Hub Barcelona is lavishly investing in 22@Barcelona, an urban regeneration project offering modern spaces for strategic concentration of knowledge-based activities Team Urban Update

B

arcelona is fast becoming a world leader in creating an environment in which companies can try new ideas and technologies within the urban realm. As part of this, the city has been investing in 22@Barcelona, an urban regeneration project offering modern spaces for strategic concentration of 28

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intensive knowledge-based activities. Barcelona also created the Smart City Campus33, located in the 22@ Barcelona innovation district. In order to further strengthen the strategy of the city and urban innovation, the city is offering a great platform for companies to develop and test pilots. The Smart City Campus has developed a cluster of ‘smart city’

companies, and this will foster connections between diverse sectors like ICT, energy and mobility, for creation of an ecosystem that integrates not only companies (multinationals and SMEs), but also institutions, research centres, technology transfer centres and universities. Barcelona’s smart city strategy recognises and incorporates existing


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PARTNERSHIPS

PARTNERSHIPS

Working with a variety of partners is central to Barcelona’s smart city approach. Partnerships here fall under three categories: collaborations with private sector, research centres and other cities

Transversal

Private Sector Collaboration Team Urban Update

Collaboration with the Catalan research centres for RDI projects in Europe to promote, together with the “Generalitat” of Catalonia, creation of a cluster of smart cities to incorporate companies in Barcelona, Catalonia. Collaborations with other cities include ties-ups with: ♦♦ Dublin City Council ♦♦ Seoul Metropolitan Government ♦♦ Ajunctament de SantCugat

♦♦ New Telecommunications Network: Integration of different fibre optic networks, boosting Wi-Fi network, reduced operating and maintenance costs ♦♦ Urban Platform: Barcelona sensor platform, city operating system, and apps and services ♦♦ Intelligent data: Open data, measurement of city indicators, and a central situation room for decision making and control Vertical ♦♦ Lighting Directorate Plan: A strategic plan for lighting ♦♦ Self-sufficient Islands: Creating energy self-sufficient islands, to improve practices of consumption and production of energy ♦♦ Electric Vehicles: Development of electro-mobility in the coming years, short-term (two years) and medium term (five years) ♦♦ Tele-management of Irrigation: Remote management system for centralised control of automated irrigation infrastructure in order to control the duration and frequency of irrigation in each area ♦♦ Directorate Mobility Plan: Orthogonal design of the bus network to improve urban mobility ♦♦ Urban Transformation: Within the frame of remodelling of the main streets of Barcelona, developing a series of smart cities and telecommunications projects ♦♦ Citizen compromise to sustainability: A roadmap for a more equitable, prosperous and selfsufficient city ♦♦ O-Government: To develop tools and web sites in specific areas of transparency, open data and civic participation ♦♦ Smart parking: Network of sensors and displays of parking availability across the city ♦♦ Barcelona in your pocket: Barcelona contactless and mobile apps

COVER STORY

successful projects, as well as sets an agenda for the future. This will help the city build upon its existing investment and success, whilst aligning action across the city to a common purpose. In Barcelona, the smart city movement started in energy, but now it is spreading across all sectors. The city believes that this investment will create a sustainable city and also work towards fostering citizen participation, mobility and other fields. The city describes this as a ‘transversal approach’. City leaders in Barcelona understand the city as something dynamic and changing; a network of networks, as illustrated in their conceptual model of the smart city here, which is broken down into three layers: people, information and city structure.

♦♦ Telefónica and Abertis: Telefónica and Abertis signed agreements with the City Council, working together to define pilots, with the main objective being to collaborate in the process of integration of municipal networks as well as development of a sensing platform (BSP). In addition, Telefónica is also working with the project TAP & GO ♦♦ Indra: Indra is working with the City Council to establish a collaborative agreement to develop a project in the Arrowhead framework of the European ARTEMIS’ “Pilot Innovation” 2012, in the areas of energy and mobility, for currently unspecified project pilots ♦♦ IBM: An MoU was signed with the IBM for research and development of a City Operating System and its future application in other cities globally ♦♦ Endesa: Presented an FP7 European project on smart cities, in collaboration with Turin, Italy ♦♦ Ros Roca: Jointly applied for a European project on intelligent automated waste collection

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‘It’s planning for 2040’ Spread over a stretch of 1,483 km, India’s most ambitious infrastructure project DelhiMumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC) promises to revolutionise the country`s urban landscape like never before. Starting from Dadri in Uttar Pradesh, the DMIC will wind its way through six states to the Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Mumbai, Maharashtra, with seven ultra-modern ‘smart cities’ dotting its course. To get a 360 degree perspective of the project and the issues involved, Urban Update talked to Mr Amitabh Kant, CEO & MD of the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor Development Corporation (DMICDC), the nodal body entrusted with the task of developing the project. Excerpts:

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What’s the rationale behind the selection of route? The envisaged alignment of the western Dedicated Freight Corridor (DFC) passes through six states — UP, NCR of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra — and is mostly aligned parallel to the existing railway tracks. The DFC proposes high-speed connectivity for high axle load wagons (25 tonnes) of double stacked container trains supported by high power locomotives. Then, the Delhi-Mumbai leg of the Golden Quadrilateral National Highway also runs almost parallel to the freight corridor. These states also had the required stretch of green fields along their existing industrial belts where several ‘smart cities’ are proposed.

be available within a 10-minute walk from home or office. The DMIC’s master plans for the cities are unique in the sense that an effort has been made to look at the future by putting infrastructure in place ahead of the demand. In fact, we are planning for 2040.

Please share the features of these smart cities. The smart cities will have compact, vertical developments, an efficient public transportation system, use of digital technology to create smart grids for better management of civic infrastructure, recycling of sewage water for industrial use, green spaces, cycle tracks and easy accessibility to goods, services and activities. Plans are also in place to integrate these cities through new airports, new rail links and arteries of 10-lane highways. Each city will have underground utility corridors for parking, sewage disposal and communication lines to give it a neat look and leave enough space for facilities that are missing in most existing cities, like pavements, parks and cycle tracks. Public transport will

Your experience with regard to land acquisition issues in various states? It has been an interesting experience... state governments have used extremely innovative processes for land pooling and procurement. They have put in a lot of hard work at the grass-root level interacting with the local communities. The new Land Acquisition Act lays down a number of processes for social impact, including clearances by several committees. Acquisition will be through a process of negotiation and deliberations with the land owners, making them an integral component of the developmental process and skilling them for manufacturing, so that they can move to new jobs. How will the DMICDC-developed project be executed? These new industrial cities of the size and scale of Singapore would be constructed by special purpose vehicles (SPVs) to be formed in the next two-three months. Envisaged to be formed on the public-private partnership model, those SPVs would operate on build-operate-trade basis. As there is no legal framework for development of new cities in India, the DMIC had to finalise the Share Holders’ Agreement and the State

VISION FOR DMIC ♦♦ To create strong economic base with globally competitive environment and state-of-the-art infrastructure to activate local commerce, enhance foreign investments and attain sustainable development ♦♦ To raise a model industrial corridor of international standards with emphasis on expanding manufacturing and services base ♦♦ To develop a ‘Global Manufacturing and Trading Hub’, infusing worldwide technological advancements to the grass-root level of local production sources and upgrading human skills of influence regions and the country

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How many ‘smart cities’ have been planned? A total of 24 such new generation cities are being planned for phased development; in the first phase, we propose to develop seven smart cities...the rest may follow. These seven cities, to be developed as worldclass manufacturing hubs, are to have individual master plans. Each of these requires a different size of land. The DMICDC is mostly through with the legal formalities for the process of land acquisition in the states concerned.

The DMIC planning aims to achieve certain concrete economic endresults, like doubling employment potential, trebling industrial output and quadrupling exports from the region over a period of five years’

Why the need for DMIC? The DMIC supported by worldclass infrastructure will optimise the potential, enhance investment climate and promote economic development of the region. It is an ambitious project aimed at developing an industrial zone spanning across six states in India. The project will ensure a major expansion of infrastructure and industry – including industrial clusters, and rail, road, port and air connectivity – in the states along the route of the corridor. The DMIC planning aims to achieve certain concrete economic endresults, like doubling employment potential, trebling industrial output and quadrupling exports from the region over a period of five years.

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COVER STORY Support Agreement, and get the states’ acts amended, so that the city SPVs get the powers to levy external and internal development fee and user’s fee. Any concerns about funds? No, none. The ambitious project received a major boost with India and Japan entering into an agreement to set up a project development fund. As on today, India and Japan hold 49 percent and 26 percent equities, respectively, in the DMIC project, while the rest lies with the Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) and the Housing and Urban Development Corporation Limited (HUDCO). The government has already approved an outlay of Rs 18,500 crore for creation of trunk infrastructure. Lands are being provided by the state governments. The Japanese government has approved $4.5 billion for non-commercial projects through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and commercial lending through the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). So, funds are just not an issue. 32

March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

Execution of the project hasn’t begun yet. Can we meet the deadline? Most certainly. Across the world, new cities have taken two to three decades to develop, grow and evolve. But it’s

going to be different this time round. The timeline laid down by the Cabinet for development of the first phase is 2019. In fact, we are ahead of schedule in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

WHAT ‘SMART CITIES’ WILL OFFER ♦♦ Compact, vertical developments ♦♦ Efficient public transportation system available within a 10-minute walk from home or office ♦♦ Use of digital technology to create smart grids for better management of civic infrastructure, recycling of sewage water for industrial use ♦♦ Green spaces, cycle tracks and easy accessibility to goods, services and activities designed to foster a sense of community ♦♦ Integrated cities with new airports, new rail links and arteries of 10-lane highways ♦♦ Underground utility corridors for parking, sewage disposal and communication lines to give it a neat look ♦♦ Leave enough space for facilities missing in most existing cities, like pavements, parks and cycle tracks

DMIC PROJECT GOALS ♦♦ The DMIC developmental planning aims to achieve certain end results so as to boost economic development. The project goals in terms of Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) are: ♦♦ Double employment potential in five years (14.87% CAGR) ♦♦ Triple industrial output in five years (24.57% CAGR) ♦♦ Quadruple exports from the region in five years (31.95% CAGR)


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COLUMN

CCTV Surveillance

Missing Focal Angle Closed Circuit Television, or CCTV, system has proved its utility as an effective surveillance device over time, though there are gaping gaps in the planning for installation of cameras and execution of the entire system in the country

W Ashish Shah ashish@poc.co.in

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March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

ith growing security issues in the cities, the Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system has proved an effective tool in ensuring safety at public places. Besides, the device has also come in handy in efficiently managing traffic through constant monitoring. However, the effectiveness of CCTV coverage in the country has mostly been achieved through design experience and trial-and-error method, rather than proper evaluation and visualisation using a robust approach. The Ministry of Home Affairs brought

about a huge impact by introducing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems to modernise the police force. There have been attempts over the last 15 years to install CCTV systems in all major cities, including Mumbai and Delhi. But, surprisingly though, the utility and usefulness of these installations were never divulged to the citizens, nor did the citizens – the primary ‘stakeholders’ – ever demanded the outcome of these installations. The Kandahar Hijack misadventure, Indian Parliament attack, 26/11 terror attack and, most recently, the Pune


March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

Bakery bomb blast have all underlined the need for technological solutions to support the policing agencies by enhancing the quality of their investigations and increasing their efficiency through timely reaction.

The UK Model

The United Kingdom has been in the forefront of utilising CCTV for city’s surveillance, and to date, almost 2.4 million CCTV cameras installed by citizens, business and the various government organisations are registered. Over the last 10 years, a similar trend and acceptance of CCTV use has also been noted in India. To further improve such surveillance, the Police Scientific Department Branch of the UK has published multiple documents, such as: ♦♦ CCTV Operational Requirements Manual (OR Level - 1 & 2) ♦♦ Performance Testing of CCTV Surveillance Systems ♦♦ Video & Image Quality ♦♦ Operational Requirement Analysis – A new approach to effective security ♦♦ Training of CCTV Operators ♦♦ Recruitment and Selection of CCTV Operators ♦♦ CCTV Control room Ergonomics ♦♦ Police Interaction with CCTV ♦♦ CCTV Technical Testing ♦♦ CCTV User Picture Detail Requirements

Need for standardisation

Standards are not simply about engineering specifications, they also prescribe the processes to be

Observe and Analyse: ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦ ♦♦

Vehicular traffic Vehicle count Pedestrians Pedestrian count Monitoring crowds Studying crowd behaviour ♦♦ Recording accidents ♦♦ Recording traffic violations

Recognise & Analyze

♦♦ Accidents related to incidents such as congestion and violence ♦♦ Unattended objects at crowded public places ♦♦ Loitering (behaviour assessment)

Identify and analyse

♦♦ Stolen Vehicle Number Plates ♦♦ Miscreants and thieves ♦♦ Criminals and terrorists So naturally, if one needs to define 6,000 camera installations, this would be a humungous task, and with the lack of standards, only commercial implications would be defined.

The Solution

The government has already set up Police Helplines and counselling centres at police stations and text messaging options, through which victims are responded to in an accessible format informing them about when the assistance would be made available. Following are the few key measures that would require immediate attention from the government as well as the policymakers: ♦♦ Introduction of mission mode projects from the Government of India enhancing CCTV citizen services - The project shall specify

Introduction of CCTVs for crime and criminal tracking system to modernise the police force has brought about huge impact. There have been attempts over the last 15 years to install CCTV systems in major metropolitan cities, including Mumbai and Delhi

COLUMN

But in India, we do not have any such publication. Surprisingly, the tender documents for city surveillance prepared by consultants on behalf of the MHA also do not suggest any specific standards utilised for capturing the operational requirements or the benchmarks for performance testing, leave alone addressing the issues of operator recruitment/training.

followed for a successful project. For example, in the Mumbai City Surveillance project, four cameras were sanctioned per road junction, without taking into consideration its utility. The performance of cameras was described on the basis of multiple applications that every camera had to perform. A camera with 1 MP resolution with a fixed focal length of 8mm positioned at a height of 6 meters and a tilt of 60° from the ground would count vehicles. But the same camera installed at a different angle would not be able to read vehicular number plates, and therefore, the expectations would not be met and the installation would be called as 50 percent functional or a failure in terms of overall delivery. Every camera installation requires a prescribed ‘success criteria’ and to achieve those criteria, each installation needs to be studied and defined in the following format: Geography: Physical location, height, tilt angle Optics: Camera sensor resolution, field of view, depth Function: Detect, observe, recognise, identify Application: City Surveillance

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COLUMN

the process of generation and digital representation of physical and functional characteristics of places. It will devise a technical methodology for CCTV cameras simulation embedded within a 3D perspective using tools such as Building Information System and Geographic Information Systems. It is believed that this methodology shall help validate outcome of each camera installation, evaluate the coverage area by a varifocal lens, facilitate parametric modelling of CCTV footages and thereby reduce the overall footprint, installation and maintenance cost. ♦♦ Vulnerability and risk assessment – Lower crime rates and resiliency to natural disasters like fires and floods aid cities in the competition for businesses and jobs, and they help ensure that once businesses locate in a city, they can operate safely. Indian cities need to define Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) to set service level benchmark on CCTV safety and security indicators that could help assess the ranking of cities for global business investments and conduct proactive actions by city administrators and lawmakers. ♦♦ Designing communication strategies and tools – Assigning the responsibility of coordinating CCTV operations and maintenance to a specific unit within the municipal organisation is a key element of success. It is essential to be able to follow up, undertake inter-departmental co-ordination and effectively implement strategic orientations, policies and priorities. For instance, the CCTV footage data would need analytical tools such as situational awareness (single unified view of status and events) reduces confusion and enables far more fast and more effective decision making. It would hold a great promise for city court systems, where access to an enormous quantity of data makes it difficult to use it. ♦♦ Appointment of experts – Appointment of subject matter experts to devise and issue city surveillance physical environment and building design guidelines. These guidelines should be provided to various entities such as hotels, corporate organisations, factories, residential buildings, welfare associations, etc. The writer is an Ahmedabadbased Consultant and Entrepreneur, currently working as Director, Business Development, POC Company LLP.

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CCTVs for 34 cities 7 mega and 27 million-plus population cities in India have been selected under the JnNURM for deployment of CCTV surveillance systems

Under the watch ♦♦ Under the Airport and Port Modernisation Programme, CCTV surveillance is of utmost importance ♦♦ Metro rails and Monorails must have high-tech CCTV systems installed ♦♦ Vulnerable installations such as pipelines, rail tracks, power plants and industrial establishments should be fitted with CCTV devices


March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

CALL NEHA SHARMA +91 96544 57548 neha@urbanupdate.in

COLUMN

THIS PLACE COULD BE YOURS

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CENTRE STAGE

Vexed vendors

Elevated as Entrepreneurs

Provisions of the Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending Bill, 2014, passed by Parliament recently are aimed at creating ‘conducive’ atmosphere for street vendors and designated spaces for them to carry out their business for livelihood

T Jessy Iype Desk Editor & Reporter jessy@urbanupdate.in

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he passage of the Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending Bill, 2014 in Parliament recently comes as a much-needed relief to the street vendors, one of the most frowned upon lots in the cities. Once the President gives his assent to the Bill, the new act

will go a long way in safeguarding the interests of the community. There are more than 10 million urban street vendors in India, and most of them are migrants from villages and small towns. Once in place, the law would acknowledge their constitutional right to choose a vocation and practise it freely anywhere in the


March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

country, unlike what the case has been until now — vending at the mercy of civic body officials and local police. They have been vulnerable to exploitation as their livelihood had been in a legislative vacuum. But, no more. The proposed law, being pressed for by the National Association of Street Vendors of India (NASVI) for quite some time, would provide relief to around two percent of the country’s population engaged in street vending.

Social Security

MAKING OF A BILL Following demands for granting the right to livelihood to street vendors, the government came up with a National Policy on Urban Street Vending in the year 2004 for regulating street vending. The policy was revised in 2009 so as to secure the right of the citizens to opt for a means of livelihood of their choice, as enshrined in Articles 14, 19(1)(g), 38(2), 39(a), 39(b) and 41 of the Constitution. The revision also aimed at fostering a congenial environment for the urban street vendors to carry out their activities without causing congestion on the sidewalks and impeding free flow of traffic on roads. The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2014 followed the national policy. It was cleared by the Lok Sabha in 2013 before being passed by the Rajya Sabha recently.

NUMBERS GAME ♦♦ In India, street traders represent about three percent of the total nonagricultural employment ♦♦ Official statistics translate this to over 3.1 million street vendors countrywide ♦♦ Unofficial estimates put the figure at around 10 million across the country

ALL FOR A LIVELIHOOD ♦♦ Street vendors devote many work hours at the same site on a daily basis ♦♦ Their families rely on earnings from vending as their primary source of household income ♦♦ Some vendors visit two or more sites, based on different types of clientele cultures in various cities ♦♦ Some vendors work on part-time basis in weekly roving markets or as seasonal vendors of specialty items ♦♦ A study on street vendors shows that they pay between 10 to 20 percent of their earnings as rent ♦♦ Surveys show an overwhelming number of street vendors lack access to social protection and are prone to a range of employment risks ♦♦ Studies suggest there are more male vendors than female vendors in India ♦♦ Mobile women street vendors are also exposed to greater security issues ♦♦ Female vendors earn less, on an average, than male vendors: their earnings range from Rs 40 to 60 per day ♦♦ The lack of toilets has an adverse effect on women’s health and many suffer from urinary tract infections and kidney ailments ♦♦ In Mumbai, around 85 percent of the vendors complain of stress-related diseases – migraine, hyper acidity, hyper tension and high blood pressure

CENTRE STAGE

The Bill ensures security of livelihood to all street vendors with vending certificates, which would be issued by Town Vending Committees. Accordingly, it also mandates formation of town and zonal vending committees in every city, with street vendors getting 40 percent representation on the panel. It envisages that up to 2.5 percent of a city’s population would be allocated vending zones. Numerous employment schemes notwithstanding, the country is facing a persistent problem of unemployment, forcing a majority of people to shift from the rural to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. The inclination to become selfemployed through street vending is seen most among the poor populace, as they are unable to get a handsome remuneration otherwise for want of proper education and lack of professional skills. Categorised under the unorganised sector, the street vendors make substantial contributions towards making services available at affordable rates to the urban population. According to a National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sectors (NCEUS) report based on the 55th Round of the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 1999-2000, the estimated number of street vendors in the urban areas was in the range of 17 to 25 lakh at the turn of the century. The new law will facilitate street vending while guarding the vendors against harassment, and help them carry out their activities with dignity and honour.

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CENTRE STAGE

Street vending gets

Legal Canopy The Street Vendors Bill — under government’s consideration since 2004 and in demand since ages — is set to be passed into a law, providing security and right to livelihood to street vendors — the soft targets for municipal personnel and local police — though much will depend on the way it is implemented

B

etter late than never, they say, and the recent passage of the Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2014 in Parliament only goes on to prove the age-old cliché true, yet again. What was being demanded so vociferously all these years is almost here. All that is needed now is the presidential assent, which remains a foregone conclusion if not just a formality. However, any legislation is meaningless without its sincere implementation, and so will be the case with this law, too. After the enactment of the Bill, the system will have to change its mindset drastically towards ‘street vending’, as it has been largely perceived as an informal activity. That is why, it has not found its due place in spatial and economic planning processes for the urban areas. It is now time for the municipal governments to act wisely in their approach in dealing with both ‘street vendors’ and ‘street vending’.

Awareness Generation

Ajay Agarwal Director, PRUDA ajay_agro@yahoo.com

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Apart from implementation, the authorities concerned should also try to make the target community aware of their rights as well as the duties, as provided for in the law, so as to make the legislation more relevant. For example, a vendor should know

the alternatives before him if he were asked to relocate from a specific area. According to the Bill, municipal authorities would not ask a vendor to relocate after issuing a ‘Certificate of Vending’ for a particular location and a certain time period. Any such move of the municipal authorities would be held as going against the provisions of the Act, and therefore, open to be challenged in a court of law. Under the law, municipal governments are directed to have cityspecific schemes for street vending, which would include delineation of areas for this activity. Responsibility of safeguarding the interests of the vendors has been left to the wisdom of the local municipal and planning authorities. It is indicated in the Bill that areas designated for this activity would be used optimally, and hence, it would be construed that municipal authorities had undertaken due diligence before issuing the vending certificate.

Registration

Another area of concern is identification and registration of vendors in a fair manner, and whether the Town Vending Committees (TVCs) can do that efficiently. Going by the available techniques, that should not be a cause of much worry. All that the TVCs will have to do is prepare a reliable inventory of vendors


March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

employing modern survey techniques with all documentary proofs of their identity and places of work. A little support from the central and state governments can also encourage local authorities to adopt the modern mapping methods. The Bill also has provisions for the progressive or peripatetic vendors – the ones, who despite being allotted a particular place decide to relocate to a different place or a different city on considerations of growth. Since the Bill awards vendors the constitutional right to venture anywhere in the country for a vocation, such vendors can very well do it. The only document they need to carry on them is the identity certificate issued by municipal bodies. In fact, out of the three types of vendors — stationery, mobile and peripatetic or roving, only stationary ones would need both licence and I-card. For the rest, the I-card would suffice.

Time-sharing

The author is the Director of PRUDA (Planning and Resources of Urban Development Association), the R&D wing of AIILSG

SALIENT FEATURES The Street Vendors (Protection of Livelihood and Regulation of Street Vending) Bill, 2014 is aimed at creating an atmosphere where street vendors are able to carry out their business without fearing for eviction and other harassments. Some of the high points of the Bill are: ♦♦ Provision for formation of a Town Vending Committee (TVC) in each city for implementing the provisions of the Bill ♦♦ To ensure participatory decision making for aspects relating to street vending, like determination of natural market, identification of vending zone, preparation of street vending plan and survey of street vendors, the TVC is required to have representation of officials, non-officials and street vendors, including female vendors with due representation from SC/ST, OBC, minorities and persons with disabilities. ♦♦ Forty percent members of the Committee shall be from amongst the vendors selected through an election, of which 1/3 shall be women ♦♦ To avoid arbitrariness of authorities, the Bill provides for a survey of all existing street vendors, and subsequent survey at least once every five years, and issuance of vending certificates to all the street vendors identified in the survey, with preference to SC/ST, OBC, women, persons with disabilities, minorities etc ♦♦ All existing street vendors identified in the survey would be accommodated in the vending zones subject to a norm conforming to 2.5 percent of the population of the ward, zone, town or city ♦♦ Where the numbers of street vendors identified are more than the holding capacity of the vending zone, the TVC is required to carry out a draw of lots for issuing the certificate of vending for that vending zone, and the remaining persons would be accommodated in any adjoining vending zone to avoid relocation ♦♦ The street vendors, who are issued certificates of vending/licence etc. before the commencement of this act, would be deemed to be a street vendor for that category and for the period for which they are issued the certificates; ♦♦ No street vendor would be evicted until the survey has been completed and certificate of vending issued to the street vendors ♦♦ In case a vendor, to whom vending certificate is issued, dies or suffers from any permanent disability or is ill, one of his family members, i.e. spouse or dependent child, can vend in his place till the validity of the certificate ♦♦ Procedure for relocation, eviction and confiscation of goods has been specified and made street vendor-friendly. Provision for recommendation of the TVC, as a condition for relocation being carried out by the local authority, is also proposed

CENTRE STAGE

The Bill also proposes a time-sharing model where particular vendors can share the time throughout the day, maybe a fruit and vegetable vendor can start his business at a given location from evening and an eatery vendor can do his during the day time at the site. This can benefit spatial planning for different vending zones. The Bill has something in store for the consumers as well: the allocation of vending places with adequate infrastructure will rid them of the compulsion to shop in chaotic, congested and unsafe markets and roadsides. Vendors can also be encouraged to serve quality food which will ultimately benefit the endusers – the consumers. Let us hope that the Bill that had been in consideration since 2004 and cleared by the Lok Sabha last year, heralds happier times for the street vendors.

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PRODUCTS

Schneider’s Villaya AC micro grid Ensuring 24/7 uninterrupted electricity in remote places requires micro grid solutions. Villaya AC micro grid solution of Schneider Electric allows users to use appliances through AC power. The modular design offers scalability in accordance with the energy demand. The product is available in two models: 2kW and 4kW. It uses a highly energy efficient and reliable MPPT charge controller to harvest maximum energy from the solar panels and store it in a 24 volt battery.

Features

♦♦ It provides a robust solution through minimum skilled maintenance ♦♦ Its superior reliable design, neatly integrated inverter and MPPT charger ensure high performance of the micro grid system ♦♦ It is easy to set up; requires only 3 connecting points (battery, PV panels, loads), and provides 24/7 energy supply ♦♦ It is designed specifically for off-grid, rural applications

NXP’s green chip lighting

NXP company’s GreenChip iSSL and GreenChip iCFL is an innovative product that brings together wireless IP connectivity, energy-efficient lighting and low power standby in a compact, low-cost solution that enables new ways to control lights and manage energy consumption for consumers in homes as well as for commercial applications.

Features

♦♦ The company’s software system provides ultra-low-power wireless connectivity for the GreenChip iSSL and GreenChip iCFL modules ♦♦ The product is a total ‘smart lighting’ solution with GreenChip ♦♦ The lighting product portfolio includes high efficiency, low standby power converters, CFL, solid state LEDs (SSL) and TL drivers ♦♦ The solutions are flexible, so you can add extra smart lighting features such as remote dimming and colour adjustment

Universal traffic management radar Smartmicro’s product on traffic radar, called the Universal Traffic Management Radar (UMRR-0A) is a 24GHz Radar sensor projecting a low-power microwave beam on the road capturing all objects within its coverage. The applied radar principle allows real time direct measurement of range, speed and azimuth angle of all reflectors simultaneously. The data is detected 20 times per second and is tracked (filtered) over time. The objects in the field is reliably detected and reported with excellent precision.

Features

♦♦ Precisely measures position and speed vector for each object ♦♦ Tracks and classifies up to 64 objects simultaneously (trucks, vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians) ♦♦ Operates for four lanes (and more) up to 300m (1,000feet) ♦♦ Precise speed measurement up to 300km/h 42

March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in


March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

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Biffa’s red recycling bins Designed to make recycling easy, Biffa’s red bins provides clearly branded stations which are simply labelled to ensure the correct waste is deposited in the correct container. The stations come in two bin or three bin formations with both Dry Mixed Recycling (DMR) and general waste bins. The containers are made from hard wearing plastic and allows easy removal while emptying the containers.

Features

Road repair solution

♦♦ DMR service, supported by the Big Red Bins, increases recycling levels by more than 50 per cent and has a removable bin liner ♦♦ The waste can be converted into a reusable commodity through advanced processes at the recycling centres ♦♦ While many recycling services require you to segregate waste materials into different types ♦♦ DMR is an easy and sustainable process whilst reducing costs by not disposing to landfill

Road maintenance and repair are an ongoing necessity, and to maintain efficiency of the road structure, Pazkar’s road repair products, called Polypaz 3/250, are recommended for municipalities and local transport authorities. The solutions could restore roads and avoid traffic disruptions.

Features

♦♦ It is useful for both waterproofing and reinforcement, and can be easily applied to bridge the existing and the new asphalt pavement ♦♦ Polypaz 3/250, with its unique root resistance, has a twin function: it prevents moisture and reinforces the existing structure ♦♦ Application of Polypaz 3/250 delays cracks from extending through an overlay to the surface ♦♦ Pazkar’s cold patch application (CPA) is a cold polymeric asphalt that is simple to use and highly effective for filling cracks and potholes, repairing conventional utility cuts

Energy efficient lights

Features

♦♦ The lights are aesthetically designed with metal body, suitable for industrial & commercial applications ♦♦ It saves energy and has aluminium extrusion ♦♦ It has a wide voltage range and a low VA burden ♦♦ Its new innovation luminary saves up to 45% power ♦♦ It lights up at 130V and operates from 130 to 300V. ♦♦ It has a high power factor that results low load on generation and is devoid of flickering

PRODUCTS

Asian Electronics’ Lumibox/Lumistar lights aims to conserve energy through energy efficient equipment, effective controls, and careful design. Use of such lighting reduces heat gain, thus improving thermal comfort and maintaining adequate illumination while controlling reflection and glare.


EVENTS

Electronics expo 2014

A

unique three-day event showcasing the ecosystem of electronics, Electronics For You (EFY) 2014 was held in the national capital from 20th to 22nd Feb. The expo focused on the electronics value chain, including components, parts, materials, manufacturing services and equipments and was a comprehensive and an ideal platform for the electronics industry exhibiting innovators, designers, manufacturers and sellers and attracted visitors from all quarters of the industry. The

National Conference on Computational and Internetworking Information Technology 6th to 7th March, Coimbatore

exhibition saw direct interaction between the buyers and sellers across the world. The Indian electronics market, estimated to be worth over US$ 75 billion in 2011, has been growing consistently at over 20 per cent every year and such expo’s are an ideal podium of knowledge-disseminating for the participants.

Tamil Nadu hosts smart cities exhibition

A

one day exhibition that highlighted key trends, tech solutions and strategies relevant to field of smart cities called ‘Tamil Nadu Smart Cities 2014’ was held in Tamil Nadu on Feb 25. The expo analysed the key global and local initiatives while highlighting the challenges and opportunities of creating ‘smart’ cities. The conference focused on urban regeneration systems for

Events Calender

public utilities, water & solid waste management, smart education & healthcare, smart mobility, transitoriented urban development. The event had discussions on a new paradigm for urban development including master planning and urban design, funding, technology, and above all—governance. ‘Tamil Nadu Smart Cities 2014’ offered audience interactivity, presentations from eminent speakers and productive panel discussions.

DRDO Sponsored National Conference on Wireless Communications & Sensor Networks 7th to 8th March, Vaddeswaram Guntur dist, Andhra Pradesh National Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology (NCONET14) 8th March, Karumathapatti Coimbatore International Conference on Recent Trends in Engineering and Technology (ICRTET-2014) 13th to 14th March, Pudukkottai Tamil Nadu Indo-European dialogue on ICT standards and emerging technologies 13th to 14th March, New Delhi National Conference on ‘Technology, Policy and Community: Small Experiments in Sustainability’ 14th March, Hyderabad International Conference on Information Engineering (ICIE 2014) 17th to 18th March, Chennai Conference Renewable Energy in Tamil Nadu 20th March, Hotel Le Meridian Chennai Convene 2k14 22th March, Pune National Conference on Emerging Trends in Computing and Communication (ETCC 2014) 22nd to 23rd March, Kolkata IEEE sponsored National Conference on Energy, Power and Intelligent Control Systems 28th to 29th March, Greater Noida

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March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

45

6th Affordable Housing Summit

Govt pushes for PPP model in housing sector Team Urban Update

T

as only guidelines are not enough,” Mr Mishra said and underlined the need for a single-window clearance system. He lauded the urban housing policies adopted by some states, including Rajasthan, Haryana and West Bengal. Among the awardees were the Gaursons India, who bagged an award under the category of Best High Rise Affordable Housing in Noida and Ghaziabad. Sharing his vision on affordable housing with the gathering, Mr Manoj Gaur, the founder of Gaursons India, told Urban Update that to make this sector more vibrant, it is essential that the government deregulates many cumbersome policies, on which the builders have to waste a lot of time. “The company’s vision is not on how many square feet houses they build, but to ensure that lower income group families are able to afford houses of their own,” he added. The event also held two panel discussions chaired by distinguished personalities from the housing sector. Some of the suggestions on how to

face the housing challenges emerging from the event were: ♦♦ More and more free models of housing be developed ♦♦ Brainstorming be done on the requirements of the masses with respective state governments ♦♦ Land mapping of the areas that are developing into clusters be done ♦♦ Rent control law and financing of projects be modified to attract FDI in the realty sector ♦♦ Taxation rules be modified, as it can reduce housing costs by as much as 30 percent ♦♦ Cap on selling schemes to private companies be removed ♦♦ Proposals of the 20 states seeking financing under the RAY be discussed threadbare ♦♦ Housing sector be accorded special status, as it is the second-largest industry after agriculture in terms of contribution to the GDP ♦♦ Developers be encouraged to adopt affordable technologies ♦♦ Planning be done in holistic manner, region wise, on the lines of Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor ♦♦ Guidelines be implemented and monitored by state governments ♦♦ State governments be involved in the procedural frameworks

EVENTS

he government will encourage public private partnership (PPP) model for slum redevelopment and ensure affordable housing for the middle class masses, Minister of Housing and Alleviation Dr Girija Vyas has said. The minister was speaking at the 6th Affordable Housing Summit and Excellence Awards ceremony, organised here recently under the aegis of the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (Assocham), to address and understand the issues impeding construction of affordable dwellings in a fast urbanising India. Striking an emotional chord, Dr Vyas called upon the better-off sections of the people, industrialists, developers and the law-makers to ensure decent housing for the weaker sections of the society. The event, which appreciated the works of many developers for their concept of affordable housing across the country, also saw several young builders, developers and other stakeholders share the challenges faced in constructing housing societies. Speaking on the challenges, Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (HUPA) Secretary A K Mishra said the government is trying to give fillip to the housing sector through its numerous policies. “There is a huge influx of people from the rural areas, which means that affordable housing is a necessity. The state governments must ensure that land acquisition policies are foolproof,


URBAN AGENDA

A ‘RAY’ of hope for the urban poor Apresh Chandra Mishra Managing Editor apresh@urbanupdate.in

O

nce referred to as the ‘Golden Bird’, India is today striving hard to remove the blot of being a nation that caters to the world’s largest urban slum population. Even though the country has ensured a place on the global map in the fields of technology, education and art, one of the areas still demanding rigorous working is the provision of respectable housing cover for the urban poor and facilitation of basic civic amenities for them. A study suggests that Indian cities are the least comprehensive in the world, with the urban poor residing under abysmal conditions. According to a data from 2,613 of the 4,041 statutory towns, the slum population grew by 25 percent to 65.4 million in the last decade.

Missing the point

The Rajiv Awas Yojana, popularly known as RAY, seeks to bridge the gap between the making of housing policies and their flawed execution 46

March 2014 | www.urbanupdate.in

The factor attributed to the pitiable state of slums has largely been the huge influx of migrants from the rural areas, but what the city planners seem to have missed sight of is repeated failures to efficiently implement the various housing policies — be it relating to affordable housing or providing economic assistance to the lower income groups for the purpose. For instance, the interest subsidy scheme, which is meant to provide financial assistance to lower income groups to secure housing and enable construction of three lakh units, has so far reached only 13,485 beneficiaries. Besides, many state governments

are yet to instrument the National Urban Housing and Habitat Policy’s recommendation for allocation of 15 percent of land in residential projects for housing the poor. Another perturbing fact is that although over 13.7 million households are surviving deplorable conditions, the policy makers have certified only a third of them as slums. This disparity of records would leave a huge number bearing the brunt of living in vulnerable conditions and prone to eviction from their own dwellings. It was in this backdrop of failed policies that the government launched the Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY) in 2011. The new scheme has been received as a ‘RAY’ of hope amid futile efforts to rid the nation of the curse of slums and rehabilitate their occupants. It also aims to fetch the dwellers amenities, tenure security, and access to services.

The real challenge

The key challenge would, however, be executing the policy and providing serviced land for social housing. Realising this, the National Advisory Council in its suggestions to brighten the ‘RAY’ recommended that cities earmark 25 to 40 percent of the total land in their development plans for social housing. Although the road to implementation of the scheme looks a bumpy one, at least the beginning of a start has been made in cities to adequately address the issue of housing the poor and ensuring their right to live under better conditions. The rest is future.


Urban Update - March Issue  

The march issue is on Smart Cities. The coverage includes prospects, technologies, policies, trends, and best practices

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