ive. r d n. o no i t , ac ts l o n e b es. i r No drive, o em m No o un. n f o , n on , i s t e ac mori o lts. e N e b m for No y ra o o H
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Contents APRIL 2012 • VOL 25, NO 4 • www.MT-ONLINE.com
YOUR SOURCE FOR CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
FEATURES CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES Planned Work Predominance: Contribution To The Bottom Line
©NJ — FOTOLIA.COM; ©mills21 — FOTOLIA.COM
The approach discussed here can bring some much-needed clarity to your objectives and help quantify your gains. Mike Shekhtman P.E., MBA, CMRP, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., North American Tire Manufacturing
ON THE ROAD TO SUSTAINABILITY 22
At NSK, ‘Low Friction’ Equals Sustainability This manufacturer equates the energy-saving qualities of its products with its campaign to cut waste and pollution. Rick Carter, Executive Editor
POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER 30
THE RELIABILITY FILES
Vibration Analysis: It’s Finally In Your Hands
The Basics Of Roller Chain Sprockets Installing new chain on old sprockets at your site? Please say it ain’t so! Special From U.S. Tsubaki For Maintenance Technology
My Take Stuff Happens
Special From Gates Corporation For Maintenance Technology
6 8 10 14
Belt Drives: Investing In Inspection & Preventive Maintenance Lack of investment can lead to costly downtime and/or safety issues.
Identifying faults before they become big problems doesn’t have to be a time-consuming, expensive proposition.
Choose The Best Hydraulic Fluid For The Job
Extending machine drain intervals, saving fluid and reducing downtime for oil change-outs spells “success” at a busy production operation.
Uptime For On The Floor Motor Doc’s Hot Topics
Keep the celebration going... ...make sure to visit www.MT-Online.com for this month’s 25th Anniversary Article, “C’ing Successful Organizational Change.”
www.MT-online.com APRIL 2012
MT-ONLINE.COM | 3
April 2012 Volume 25, No. 4 Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
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Maintenance Technology® (ISSN 0899-5729) is published monthly by Applied Technology Publications, Inc., 1300 S. Grove Avenue, Barrington, IL 60010. Periodicals postage paid at Barrington, Illinois and additional offices. Arthur L. Rice, III, President. Circulation records are maintained at Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Maintenance Technology® copyright 2012 by Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Annual subscription rates for nonqualified people: North America, $140; all others, $280 (air). No subscription agency is authorized by us to solicit or take orders for subscriptions. Postmaster: Please send address changes to Maintenance Technology®, Creative Data, 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. Please indicate position, title, company name, company address. For other circulation information call (630) 739-0900. Canadian Publications agreement No. 40886011. Canada Post returns: IMEX, Station A, P.O. Box 54, Windsor, ON N9A 6J5, or email: cpcreturns@ wdsmail.com. Submissions Policy: Maintenance Technology® gladly welcomes submissions. By sending us your submission, unless otherwise negotiated in writing with our editor(s), you grant Applied Technology Publications, Inc. permission, by an irrevocable license, to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish, and adapt your submission in any medium, including via Internet, on multiple occasions. You are, of course, free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be returned. “Maintenance Technology®” is a registered trademark of Applied Technology Publications, Inc. Printed in U.S.A.
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MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY C: 60
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Jane Alexander, Editor-In-Chief
Loving People Who Love Tools
better title for this might have been, “Here’s To Some People Who Love People Who Love Tools,” but it would have been too long. To clarify, the reference is to YOU who love and count on stateof-the-art test and measurement (T&M) tools to keep your operations up and running and— as I came to realize recently—the people at Fluke who clearly understand and love YOU back. From what I see, there’s a lot of loving going on, in both directions. I came to this conclusion during the first week of April, when I joined other editors invited from across the trade press at the beautiful, expansive Fluke Park facilities in Everette, WA. The occasion was the company’s “Editorial Summit 2012: Optimization and Efficiency.” What an amazing affair! Attendees were urged to wear comfortable shoes, and it’s a good thing we followed our hosts’ advice. We had a very busy schedule. In addition to getting up close and personal with essentially all things Fluke (i.e., tools, tools and more tools), we got a unique glimpse into how these products are conceptualized, designed, manufactured, tested, distributed, maintained, serviced, upgraded and trained on—and why. There was so much to see, do and discuss with the Fluke technical experts and manufacturing professionals who were put at our disposal. Our group took full advantage of the opportunity. In short, we learned Fluke has come a long way since it was founded in 1948 by John Fluke, Sr.— with a power meter as its first product. In his opening Summit presentation, John Cavoretto, Fluke’s VP of Engineering, used the intriguing (at least to me) phrase “from engineers to artisans” in characterizing the journey the company has been on over the years. You, too, might find it interesting. Read on… In its earliest days, Fluke, like other T&M companies, was working to develop bench instrumentation that appealed to engineers, scientists and physicists. Then, in 1977, it introduced the first handheld (HH) digital multimeter, which marked the launch of a whole new product category in the T&M market: HH precision test equipment—and the “firsts” have kept on coming. Somewhere along the way, however, Fluke noticed the profiles of its customers beginning to change. While plenty of them still worked in R&D and company labs, growing numbers were service, installation and maintenance technicians who worked out in the field. In Fluke’s vernacular, these were/are the “artisans”—defined as “no-nonsense, practical, skilled troubleshooters…smart and quick…love to use tools and demonstrate they know what they’re doing…live in the ‘here and now’…love to be heroes.” Whatever YOU call them, such “artisans” are an important factor in the capacity assurance equation. Moreover, Fluke strives to serve them (and YOU) by producing the type of tools THEY say THEY need, not just those that Fluke says THEY need. That’s what customer-centricity is all about. We saw it on display over and over in Everette, in everything Fluke does, including, it seems, delivering a strong value proposition—a goal set early on. As Cavoretto reminded us, “Great ideas live well beyond their creators.” Although Fluke’s value statement has evolved and been refined over the years, the idea that “the customer deserves to get a little more than they paid for,” was a “John Flukeism” from the outset. It lives on, Cavoretto said, to frame Fluke’s values to this day. And to all that, I’ll say, “What’s not to love?” MT email@example.com
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NEWS STUFF HAPPENS
New ‘Green’ Code = New Compliance Option Builders, owners and operators now have greater flexibility in the design of high-performance buildings through a change impacting application of the green building standard from the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) included in the International Green Construction Code (IgCC). ANSI/ASHRAE/USGBC/IES Standard 189.1-2011, Standard for the Design of High-Performance, Green Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings, provides a green building foundation for those who strive to design, build and operate high-performance buildings. It covers topic areas of site sustainability, water-use efficiency, energy efficiency, indoor environmental quality and a building’s impact on the atmosphere, materials and resources. This new version of Standard 189.1 now serves as a compliance option with the newly published IgCC, developed by the International Code Council (ICC) and endorsed by cooperating sponsors ASTM International and the American Institute of Architects. The change allows permit applicants, as opposed to authorities having jurisdiction, the option to use Standard 189.1 as the path of compliance. Learn more at www.ASHRAE.org.
’ N ’ I T N I H T G H FIIG F S D S R D O R WO W Inspiration For Those Battling The Enemies Of Reliability & Productivity
Jeff Dudley, Corporate Director of Reliability and Maintenance for The Dow Chemical Co., highlighted the following quote from General Colin Powell in a talk he delivered during a recent meeting of SMRP’s Chicago Chapter:
“The art of leadership will always deliver more than the science of management.” (BTW: Jeff authored this month’s “Viewpoint” on page 56)
Have you read, heard, seen, thought or written down something that falls into the realm of “fightin’ words” for the maintenance and reliability community? Send your favorites to firstname.lastname@example.org. We’ll be selecting one or two (maybe even three) to feature each month. Be sure to give full credit to the individual (dead, alive, real or fictional) that uttered or wrote the words, and why those words inspire you. Don’t forget to include your complete contact info.
STUFF HAPPENS NEWS
The Siemens Drive Technologies Division has combined all of its electric motors into one product family with the name Simotics, a move designed to integrate the portfolio and improve clarity for customers when selecting motors. According to the company, Simotics covers applications in almost all areas, and these motors are an essential component of the Division’s integrated drive train. The range includes low-voltage induction motors, motors for motion control applications, DC motors and high-voltage motors.
Rockwell Automation’s Blake Moret has been elected Vice Chairman of the Manufacturing Institute’s Board of Trustees. In this role, he’ll spend the next two years helping marshal research, innovation and education efforts to produce a high-quality manufacturing workforce and support U.S. competitiveness. He succeeds Ronald Bullock, Chairman of Bison Gear & Engineering. Moret is currently Vice President of Rockwell’s Control Products and Solutions biz. Among other things, he also serves on the Advisory Board of Georgia Tech’s School of Mechanical Engineering, from which he received his Bachelor’s degree.
Motion Industries says that its “YES” printed product catalog can now be ordered online at www.motionindustries.com. Over 44,000 items covering 20 categories are available in the catalog, searchable by product or manufacturer. A total of 4.8 million items are accessible through Motion Industries’ branch network.
QUESTION OF THE MONTH SOUND-OFF: Tell us what you think. . . Really. . .
What job-specific screening processes do your operations follow with candidates for maintenance positions? Go to MT-online.com/question with your answer.
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Bob Williamson, Contributing Editor
Learning From Sinking Ships And Aircraft Mishaps “Human error” is an often-cited cause or contributing factor in accidents and failures. We routinely see this with our plant equipment. Without a structured process for identifying and quantifying the underlying human factors associated with specific incidents, however, eliminating human error can be quite challenging. Let’s look into a couple of historical examples for some valuable insight. Just the tip of the iceberg On April 15, 1912, the new and grand RMS Titanic, at the time the world’s most technologically advanced steam ship, struck an iceberg and sank, taking over 1500 souls down with her. We could truthfully state, “If it weren’t for the iceberg, the Titanic would have had a glorious maiden trans-Atlantic voyage.” That would be an oversimplification. One of the technological marvels the Titanic sailed with was the Marconi wireless radio, which was operated exclusively by Marconi Company employees, solely as a service to the ship’s passengers. When icebergs were spotted in the shipping lanes by other ships in the area, their captains sent radio messages to the Titanic. Unfortunately, critical radio warnings from the SS Californian were later ignored in favor of a backlog of passenger messages. But, “If it weren’t for the iceberg…” Fred Fleet, a surviving Titanic crewman, was in the vessel’s crow’s nest the evening of April 14. Although he didn’t have binoculars with him, Fleet was serving as a lookout for ice. It seemed that the binoculars had been stowed away in the telephone locker—to which nobody on board had a key. But, “If it weren’t for the iceberg…” Second Officer David Blair, who had been bumped from the ship at the last minute by bosses at the White Star Line, had forgotten to hand off the locker keys to his replacement, a more senior Second Officer Charles Lightoller. But, “If it weren’t for the iceberg…” When asked during the disaster investigation how much sooner the iceberg could have been spotted with binoculars, the lookout Fleet replied, “Well, enough to get out of the way.” The Titanic disaster 100 years ago led to substantial changes in ship design, radio communications and other navigational breakthroughs. The most signifi10 |
cant, yet preventable, contributing factors leading to the ship’s demise, though, could not be eliminated by design: They were the human factors. Human fallibility, at multiple levels, had gone largely unnoticed during this much-heralded, but ill-fated, voyage. Given the technology of 1912, what must happen to prevent future collisions with icebergs? Flying on the ground The Airbus A340-600 “super-stretch” aircraft is known for its new manufacturing techniques, stateof-the-art technologies, its extended range, fuel efficiency, unrivaled interior comfort and amenities, and reduced maintenance cost. The A340-600, powered by four Rolls Royce engines each generating 56,000 pounds of thrust for a take-off weight of over 400 tons, is the longest passenger aircraft flying today. Only 96 of these aircraft are currently in operation worldwide. On November 15, 2007, a new Airbus A340-600 crashed during a ground engine test, at the Airbus facilities at Toulouse International Airport in France. The $250M plane—about to be delivered to Etihad Airways, in the United Arab Emirates—was a total loss after less than 13 seconds of movement. The aircraft had just finished a static ground test, and the technician started the engines again for a full-power run to find the origin of oil leaks. The calculations had shown that “the parking brake was designed to hold under full engine power.” After about three minutes of running, though, the aircraft began to move. The technician applied the brakes, which released the parking brakes. Then, with the aircraft continuing to move in the direction of a testpen wall, the technician turned the nose wheel, causing it to skid sideways as the plane accelerated. But, “The parking brake was designed to hold…” The 242-ton aircraft hit the wall at 35 miles per hour, causing the forward fuselage to break off and fall forward down the other side of the wall. Engines 1 and 2 were damaged when they hit the wall. Because the throttle controls were severed, Engines 3 and 4 could not be shut down immediately. Engine 4 shut down after two-and-a-half hours—when water and firefighting foam snuffed it out. Engine 3 continued running for nine hours, until it finally ran out of fuel. APRIL 2012
The idea that preventable equipment failures can be eliminated by design doesn’t always hold true when human factors are involved. The cause of this A340-600 aircraft mishap was summed up as “a lack of detection and correction of violations to test procedures.” You guessed it: human factors, again. But, “The parking brake was designed to hold…” Coming to the rescue What can we learn from these two examples of human factors in preventable mishaps and failures? The first step in eliminating problems is to identify contributing factors—human factors being the most elusive. Alas, we often refer to this situation as “human error” (another oversimplification). Let’s see how the U.S. Department of Defense (USDOD) has identified and categorized contributing human factors. In a May 2003 memorandum, the U.S. Secretary of Defense proclaimed, “World-class organizations do not tolerate preventable accidents. Our accident rates have increased recently, and we need to turn this situation around. I challenge all of you to reduce the number of mishaps and accident rates by at least 50% in the next two years.” This memorandum resulted in the formation of the “Department of Defense Safety and Oversight Committee” and a powerful emphasis on human factors engineering (HFE). The Committee’s statistics revealed that 80 to 90% of all mishaps were caused by human errors at some level. The result was the “Human Factors Analysis and Classification System” (HFACS). The HFACS included the following four tiers and associated factors to help understand why a mishap occurred and how it might be prevented from happening again. n Organizational Influences (20 factors) n Management/Supervisory Conditions (19 factors) n Preconditions (92 factors) n Acts Committed by Operator (16 factors) This original four-tier HFACS structure was later adapted for “maintenance events” and called “HFACS-Maintenance Extension” (HFACS-ME). The “maintenance” framework included these four tiers and associated factors: n Management/Supervisory Conditions (24 factors) n Maintainer Conditions (27 factors) n Working Conditions (27 factors) n Maintainer Acts (24 factors) Note how both the HFACS and HFACS-ME have identified the “Acts” of the Operators or Maintainers as the APRIL 2012
category with the fewest causal or contributing factors. They have looked beyond the person at the controls or on the tools for causes and potential solutions. Human-factors lessons from the Airbus mishap Using the HFACS to assess and classify the contributing factors of the November 2007 Airbus incident resulted in the following report summary: n Unsafe acts ◆ Errors: The technician was fixated on applying the brakes and steering the nose wheel instead of reducing power. ◆ Violations: Procedures require full power for only two engines at a time—the one leaking and one on the opposite wing. The use of wheel chocks is required for engine tests. n Preconditions for unsafe acts ◆ The Airbus technician was unaware the aircraft was moving until the on-board customer representative told him so. The technician also testified he often carried out this test, but with higher aircraft weight. n Unsafe supervision ◆ The technician admitted that some tests were conducted outside the scope of the Customer Acceptance Manual, due to the pressure of the on-board customer representative. n Organizational influences ◆ There were oversights in safety processes shown in video recordings from several days prior to the incident. Some tests were performed with wheel chocks and others without wheel chocks, even though procedures require the chocks during engine tests. The lack of detecting procedural violations and taking corrective action was cited as promoting the test outside of the established procedures. Application for capital-intensive businesses and industries… What can we learn and put into practice based on the HFACS and HFACS-ME? The USDOD’s expressed goal: “To identify and eliminate the causes of aircraft mishaps and failures.” The same could be said with regard to equipment-intensive industries: “To identify and eliminate the causes of critical equipment mishaps and failures.” In other words, it means improving equipment performance and reliability. mt-online.com | 11
Human factors in equipment-reliability improvement… We should be able to identify and classify human factors that contribute to equipment failures and mishaps in our plants and facilities. Then, given those factors, we should be able to establish countermeasures to eliminate causes of such failures and mishaps in the future. Here’s a starting point based on the HFACS-ME factors that could easily apply to industrial plants—or any equipment-intensive operations: Organizational influences/work culture n Resources and policy deployment n Organizational climate n Organizational policies, procedures and work processes Management/supervisory conditions n Inadequate supervision n Planned inappropriate operations n Failure to correct known problem n Supervisory violations
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Preconditions n Environmental factors/working conditions n Condition of individuals involved n Personnel factors: operators and maintainers
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Acts committed n Errors n Violations Consider these points First, bad decision-making can overcome the best of technologies. Second, a technology is only as good as the people using it. And third, complex systems rarely fail without warnings. Understanding the impacts of any “human” factor is key to improved performance. Think proactively. When developing maintenance procedures, operating procedures, training programs and rootcause analysis methods, always take into account human factors that would contribute to flawless human and equipment performance in your plant. When investigating causes of equipment failures, always identify contributing human factors and evaluate the effectiveness of policies, procedures and work processes. Making an HFACS model work in our plants and facilities has many powerful benefits. Among them is improved reliability (reduced breakdowns and equipment failures) plus improved workplace safety, product quality and on-time delivery. Stay tuned for more details on “Human Factors for Industrial Equipment-Reliability Improvement.” MT
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FOR ON THE FLOOR An outlet for the views of today’s capacity assurance professionals Rick Carter, Executive Editor
Salary Satisfaction? GE’s Jack Welch is quoted as saying, “If you pick the right people and give them the opportunity to spread their wings and put compensation as a carrier behind it, you almost don’t have to manage them.” Most would agree, in principle if not always in practice. This month, our Reader Panelists report on how satisfied they are with their own compensation. While we didn’t ask for compensation details— focusing instead on salary trends and the factors that impact them—most Panelists, encouragingly, feel fairly compensated and that their salaries and wages generally align with those of similarly titled and tenured peers. This could be taken as corroboration of the government’s current (as of December 2011) Employment Cost Index (ECI) of 114.7 for the manufacturing sector, which suggests most manufacturing employees probably make more today than they did several years ago. The ECI indicates that manufacturers, in fact, are spending almost 15% more on their employees’ compensation (wages, salaries and benefits) than they did in the 100-level base year of 2005. In a category the size and breadth of manufacturing, however, anomalies are to be expected. Comments from those who are less positive about their compensation serve as a reminder that when it comes to salaries, a rising tide does not automatically lift all boats. Here’s what our group had to say: Q: Regarding your salary history with your current employer (or recent past employer), how has your pay changed from when you started with the company? “My salary has increased much more quickly with my current employer than it did with previous employers. I’m up over 75% in seven years. One increase is from a promotion, all others were for performance and cost-of-living increases. In the last year I’m up 6%.” … Maintenance engineer, West
“I went from a union pay scale, which was not a bad salary, to management. The starting salary was a raise and is very competitive with my peers in the industry.” … FME site coordinator, Northeast “I am at the industry average, but I have held different positions within my company over the years, and those positions did come with a pay increase. Within the last year I received a very modest salary increase.” … Production support manager, Midwest “My salary is about average for skilled trades in our area, but it was hit fairly hard after we [recently] came out of bankruptcy and were then sold. At that time, we took an $8-per-hour pay cut, so the wage I get now is the same I received when I hired into [the original company] in 1999.” … PM leader, Midwest “My pay scale is average-to-low for my experience level and position. My salary has not changed since I was hired due to the economic conditions of my employer, a start-up company. We were told we would begin to get salary increases when we became profitable. We expect that to happen this year, but we’re not there yet. Also, we have no 401K match until we are profitable.” … Maintenance supervisor, South “My salary is below average for my position and education. My salary adjustment was curtailed by 30% [several years ago] and was followed by minor adjustments of up to 3%, except in 2008 when we all took freezes, though management continued to get their large bonuses. The excuse was that they were all under contract and could sue the company if they did not get their bonuses. I believe that I and my peers in this company are under-compensated by at least 15%, according to the market surveys I have seen.” … Maintenance manager, New England
FOR ON THE FLOOR
Q: What opportunities does (or did) your company offer to make money above your original pay? “We have a profit-sharing program, which paid the maximum after the [company] sale, but I have not heard if we will see anything for the last half of 2011. But overtime is pretty much available on a daily basis.” … PM leader, Midwest “Once a year we get a performance bonus, depending on our job evaluations. This amount isn’t a great deal, especially if you compare it to senior management, but it is nice and it is appreciated.” … FME site coordinator, Northeast “I received stock options offered at hire for the first four years, now vested, which have since become de-valued due to the current economic condition of the company.” … Maintenance supervisor, South “My bonus has dropped progressively, and is now 35% down from four years ago. The reasons have been consistent: pricing pressures and a decline [in] the economy. In my current position, the end-of-year performance bonus is the only way to make money above my salary.” … Production support manager, Midwest Q: How does your current workload compare with your average workload over your career: higher, lower or about the same? “Our workload has increased because we have lost a lot of trades people that have not been replaced. We are so busy now, you can make almost the same wage with overtime as we did with the higher pay.” … PM leader, Midwest “We have to do more and work longer hours for the same pay. That is getting to be common throughout the world today.” … Maintenance manager, New England “My workload has increased, but that is partially because of me. I am actively involved in our industry group and tend to accept projects no one else has time for. All of these projects are necessary, so anything I can do to further them along is a plus.” … FME site coordinator, Northeast
Compensation quality We also asked Panelists if they felt their compensation adequately reflected their personal experience and specific talent, as opposed to simply being in line with trends or time in service. An aspect not reflected in official stats, the topic elicited several strong responses. The maintenance supervisor in the South, for example, who pegs his salary as “average-to-low” was originally “excited about being part of a start-up,” but when his company’s stock options lost value, he found he was making a greater-than-expected sacrifice: “With my 30 years of experience, plus accreditations (CRMP, CPMM, Six Sigma Black Belt), I believe I could fairly easily move to other employment in a similar position and earn 10% more at minimum.” The inequities typically found between compensation levels for management and workers are also on Panelists’ minds: “As the economy improves I believe that companies that practice [inequitable] compensation methods will have a difficult time retaining employees and recruiting new employees,” says the maintenance manager in New England. “There is very little loyalty today displayed by employers or employees. All the greed that is going on will undoubtedly hurt our country’s future if it does not subside soon.” Interestingly, at least one Panelist is inspired by what he sees as the potential inherent in such inequities: “I do think I am fairly compensated,” says this Panelist in the Midwest. “But when you see the public disclosures of the company’s executive management team getting huge bonuses and base pay, it just makes me want to do better so I can get to that compensation level some time in my life.” MT The Maintenance Technology Reader Panel is comprised of approximately 100 working industrial-maintenance practitioners and consultants who have volunteered to answer bi-monthly questions prepared by our editorial staff. Panelist identities are not revealed, and their responses are not necessarily projectable. Our Reader Panel welcomes new members: Have your comments and observations included in this column by joining the Reader Panel at www.mt-online. com. Click on “Reader Panel” under the “MT Resources” header, and follow instructions. If accepted, you will automatically be entered into a drawing for a cash prize after one year of active participation.
MT-ONLINE.COM | 15
Planned Work Predominance:
Contribution To The Bottom Line Mike Shekhtman P.E., MBA, CMRP Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. North American Tire Manufacturing
The method presented here can help bring some much-needed clarity to your objectives.
t’s common knowledge that increasing the share of planned maintenance over the time spent on breakdowns should be a top priority for forward-thinking maintenance organizations. The financial benefits of that strategy, however, may not be readily apparent.
Modern industrial operations put great emphasis on planned maintenance. We all are big proponents of preventive maintenance. We put much effort into capturing preventive tasks in CMMS, then tracking, changing, improving and scheduling them, as our equipment systems require. Many of us implement and expand predictive ways of managing our assets. And planned reactive work is always the preferred way of addressing equipment problems, as opposed to fighting fires of unplanned downtime. In other words, anything is better for business than trying to manage unexpected failures. While we all recognize the importance of and work toward minimizing time spent on machine breakdowns, quantifying the results of what we do is often problematic. Yet, trying to 16 |
assign a number to what good those precious man-hours of planned work do for us should not be an exception. To that end, let’s explore how some well-known assumptions of “scientific” maintenance can help us measure the benefits of planned work. Planned work share and resource-availability benefit A logical place to start is with the important fact that planned maintenance work costs organizations less than trying to mange breakdowns. This is true in more ways than one: If the production delay is planned, the machine operators can be reassigned ahead of time and ripple effects on the operating flow downstream from the machine can be managed better. APRIL 2012
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
Another assumption is that unacceptable, acceptable, desirable or world-class levels of planned-to-breakdown man-hour ratios can be quantified. Some sources claim a 5 to 95% balance of unplanned-to-planned work to be worldclass. Some state that less then a 75% share of planned work is intolerable. For the purposes of this discussion, let’s agree that for an average shop, an 80% planned-maintenancework to 20% breakdown ratio is highly desirable and makes for a nice long-term goal. In a 2007 presentation entitled “The New Approach to Plant Maintenance,” ABB Reliability Services suggested that one hour of properly performed planned maintenance avoids three hours of repair work. Depending on maintenance productivity or planned-work “wrench time” effectiveness, the ratio can probably be better than that. At least temporarily, let’s agree on an understatement that every ONE plannedmaintenance hour is worth TWO breakdown hours. Consider the hypothetical example of a rather average maintenance shop with the relatively challenging planned-tobreakdown man-power allocation ratio illustrated in Fig. 1.
Planned Maintenance Reactive Maintenance 36% Planned 64% Breakdown
80% Planned 20% Breakdown
ONE Planned Maintenance hour is worth TWO Breakdown hours Fig. 1. Hypothetical maintenance shop objectives example
At the present time, our hypothetical maintenance shop spends only 36 out of every 100 man-hours on planned work. Say the leadership decides to shift that balance by either hiring more technicians or arbitrarily reassigning some of the existing staff to bump the planned work number up to 37 out of 100 hours. With that additional hour buying a two-hour reduction in breakdown work, the shop suddenly finds itself spending 98 man-hours on what used to take 100 hours to do. If the process of incrementally increasing the planned-work share continues in the same manner, the reduction in breakdown will continue to accumulate (Table I). That way, with each one planned-work hour reducing the breakdown hours by two, by the time the shop arrives at the 80% planned-work share, there are only 66 man-hours spent doing 100 man-hours worth of work. Our hypothetical shop has found resources it didn’t know it had. APRIL 2012
Maintenance Hours Unplanned Planned Reactive
100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66
36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53
64 61 58 55 52 49 46 43 40 37 34 31 28 25 22 19 16 13
% Planned Work 36.00% 37.76% 39.58% 41.49% 43.48% 45.56% 47.73% 50.00% 52.38% 54.88% 57.50% 60.26% 63.16% 66.22% 69.44% 72.86% 76.47% 80%
Table I. Planned Work-Share Increase and Resulting ResourceAvailability Gains
Quantifying the gains… Total maintenance man-hours after planned work-share increase… Let’s take things further. We want to see if there’s a way to quantify the effect of the planned work share increase on the maintenance costs. As David Geaslin of The Geaslin Group correctly states on www.geaslin.com, "Just because a maintenance manager cannot predict future maintenance costs does not mean that they cannot produce the lowest maintenance cost per unit of production possible." Here, we’ll use very basic algebra to come up with some dollar values. The conventions we’re going to start with are listed in Table II. Designation TMH1 TMH2 PMH1 PMH2 BDMH1 BDMH2 ML1 ML2 TML1 TML2 X W K
Description Total Maintenance Man-hours before Planned Hours Increase Total Maintenance Man-hours after Planned Hours Increase Planned Maintenance Man-hours before Increase Planned Maintenance Man-hours after Increase Breakdown Maintenance Man-hours before Increase Breakdown Maintenance Man-hours after Increase Maintenance Labor Costs Per Unit Produced before Planned Hours Increase Maintenance Labor Costs Per Unit Produced after Planned Hours Increase Total Maintenance Labor Costs before Planned Hours Increase Total Maintenance Labor Costs after Planned Hours Increase Number of Units Produced Hourly wage Proportionality Factor between Planned Work Increase and Breakdown Work PHM2 - PMH1 = Increase in Planned Maintenance Hours
Table II. Conventions for Cost Reduction Calculations
Note, in the following calculations, that we’re generalizing more with regard to what every additional hour of planned work buys us than we did in our previous hypothetical shop example. Let’s state that: 1 Hour Planned = K Hours Breakdown where K is the proportionality factor between planned man-hours increase and breakdown man-hours decrease MT-ONLINE.COM | 17
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
The planned work-hours increase and corresponding breakdown-hours decrease can be expressed as: Planned Hours Increase = (PMH2-PMH1)
Maintenance labor costs can be expressed in two ways. First, we'll use hourly wage that is not affected by anything we do with the work-type balance and total man-hours worked. Then with the Table II conventions, for both before and after the planned-work increase we can say:
Breakdown Hours Decrease = (BDMH1-BDMH2) (2) The proportionality factor defined above as K gives us the relationship between the two: Breakdown Hours Decrease = K • Planned Hours Increase K • (PMH2-PMH1) = (BDMH1-BDMH2)
TML1 = W • TMH1
TML2 = W • TMH2
Secondly, if we multiply the maintenance costs per unit produced by the number of units we get same values:
The total number of man-hours before and after the plannedwork improvement is the sum of all hours worked:
TML1 = ML1 • X
TML2 = ML2 • X
TMLH1 = (PMH1+BDMH1)
Now, we can respectively equate (8) and (10), and (9) and (11):
THLH2 = (PMH2+BDMH2)
W • TMH1 = ML1 • X
Thus, the overall reduction in maintenance man-hours is:
W • TMH2 = ML2 • X
TMLH1 – TMLH2 = Total Decrease in Maintenance Man-Hours
Deriving the wage value from both equations:
Plugging in formulas (4) and (5) for the total decrease in manhours and manipulating equation members algebraically, we get:
• W = ML1 X TMH1
TMH1 – TMH2 = (PMH1+BDMH1) – (PMH2+BDMH2)
• W = ML2 X TMH2 Therefore:
TMH1 – TMH2 = (BDMH1-BDMH2) – (PMH2+PMH1) (6) Substituting in formula (6) for breakdown-hours decrease (2) with what we agreed on in formula (3), we get: TMH1 – TMH2 = K • (PMH2-PMH1) – (PMH2-PMH1) Shifting the members around a bit and giving a name to the planned-hours increase (1) per conventions in Table II, we can derive a new expression for the total maintenance man-hours after the planned-work share was increased:
TMH1 – TMH2 = (K-1) • (7)
Quantifying the gains: Expressing total man-hours in terms of either wage or cost per unit and the consequent maintenance labor cost per unit decrease expression... 18 |
ML2 = ML1 • TMH2 TMH1
Substituting in (12) for the value of the total maintenance man-hours after the planned-work increase TMH2 as derived in the formula (7) ML2 = ML1
TMH1 – TMH2 = (K-1) • (PMH2-PMH1)
TMH2 = TMH1 – (K-1) •
ML1•X = ML2•X TMH1 TMH2
• TMH1-(K-1) TMH1
We have thus found the way to express the new maintenance costs per unit of product in terms of initial costs—but without using either the hourly wage or the number of units produced. Quantifying the gains: Expressing the decrease in maintenance labor costs per unit produced in terms of the increase in planned maintenance work hours as the percentage of total man-hours prior to that increase… APRIL 2012
Now, by subtracting the new maintenance labor cost per unit produced as per formula (13) from the initial one, let’s see how the improvement can be expressed: MLC/unit decrease = ML1 - ML2 MLC/unit decrease = ML1 - ML1 • TMH1-(K-1) TMH1 Then, after some simplification: MLC/unit decrease = ML1 • ( 1- TMH1-(K-1) TMH1
MLC/unit decrease = ML1 • (K-1) TMH1 Expressing the improvement in maintenance labor cost per unit produced as percentage of that cost before the planned-work hours increase: MLC/unit decrease (%) = (K-1) • But per the definition of
from Table II: = (PMH2-PMH1) TMH1
If we look closely at what’s on the right side of the equation (15), it shouldn’t take long to recognize that it is the increase in planned maintenance work hours PMH2PMH1, expressed in terms of the percentage of TMH1, the total man-hours prior to that increase. That being the case, the equation (14) can be expressed as follows: MLC/unit decrease (%)=(K-1) •
Planned maintenance work hours increases share of total pre-increase man-hours (%)
Formula 16 can be expressed in a verbal statement, as shown in Fig 2. An increase in planned maintenance work hours causes a reduction in maintenance labor costs per unit produced that is directly proportional to the share of that planned work increase in terms of total man-hours prior to that increase. The relationship factor equals (K-1) where K is the planned work “wrench time” effectiveness. That value constitutes the proportionality factor between planned man-hours increase and breakdown man-hours decrease.
Fig. 2. Reduction in maintenance labor costs per unit due to planned maintenance work hours increase (Copyright Mike Shekhtman, 2012) For more info, enter 71 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
MT-ONLINE.COM | 19
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
Quantifying the gains: Numerical examples of the decrease in maintenance-labor costs per unit produced in terms of the increase in plannedmaintenance work hours, as the percentage of total manhours prior to that increase… Let’s go back to the previously-mentioned hypothetical maintenance shop with only 36 of every 100 man-hours allocated to planned work and the shop’s leadership effort to boost the share of the planned work. Our newly developed method enables us to estimate the maintenance labor-costs reduction in the shop’s journey to reach the 80/20 balance. We agreed initially that every ONE planned maintenance hour in the shop is worth TWO breakdown hours. That renders the planned work “wrench time” effectiveness K proportionality factor as 2. An assumption will have to be made as to where the shop stands with the K planned-work-effectiveness value of equation (16), that proportionality factor between planned man-hours increase and breakdown man-hours decrease. Let’s try three various scenarios, starting with our already reviewed example of K =2, then continuing with K=3 and K=1.5. The results are shown in Table III. The bottom row of Table III shows that by the time our hypothetical shop with K=2 reaches the 80/20 plannedversus-unplanned maintenance-work balance, its maintenance- labor cost per unit will cumulatively decrease by 20.52%. Had the effect of the planned-work increase on the reduction in breakdown hours been more pronounced with
the K factor of 3, then the cumulative decrease of maintenance labor cost per unit of product would have been at 41.04%. If the shop’s planned work had been a bit less effective with the proportionality factor K conversely equating to 1.5, it would result in a cumulative 10.26% reduction of those costs. Building your own business case It’s no secret that if we find the way to translate our technical team’s effort into the language of dollars and cents our company leadership will be more receptive to investing more into that effort. Consequently, with the method and the hypothetical assumptions described above—or without them—marketing “scientific” maintenance is a must. It becomes more or less a daily task to understand and communicate to decision-makers the connection between lifecycle costs of equipment, the equipment’s performance and its consequent throughput with the costs of maintenance per unit of production. As business people, we need to make it clear to our leadership and ourselves that to reach optimal levels of both costs and performance, additional spending above regular labor and material will be needed. Lecturers from IDCON, Inc., often speak of a “maintenance-costs curve” and its initial hump. That hump and delay of the downward slope can be easily seen in Fig. 3, which depicts what dependency of both 80/20 planned-work-share effort and the hypothetical machine uptime curve from maintenance costs may look like.
Maintenance Hours Total
100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66
36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53
% Planned K=2 % maintenance work Maint Labor Cost Cumulative Maint Planned hours increase share Unplanned/ Work of total pre-increase per unit decrease Labor Cost per per formula (16) unit decrease Reactive man-hours 36.00% 64 1.00% 1.00% 1.00% 37.76% 61 2.02% 1.02% 1.02% 39.58% 58 3.06% 1.04% 1.04% 41.49% 55 4.13% 1.06% 1.06% 43.48% 52 5.21% 1.09% 1.09% 45.56% 49 6.32% 1.11% 1.11% 47.73% 46 7.46% 1.14% 1.14% 50.00% 43 8.62% 1.16% 1.16% 52.38% 40 9.81% 1.19% 1.19% 54.88% 37 11.03% 1.22% 1.22% 57.50% 34 12.28% 1.25% 1.25% 60.26% 31 13.57% 1.28% 1.28% 63.16% 28 14.88% 1.32% 1.32% 66.22% 25 16.23% 1.35% 1.35% 69.44% 22 17.62% 1.39% 1.39% 72.86% 19 19.05% 1.43% 1.43% 76.47% 16 20.52% 1.47% 1.47% 80.00% 13
K=3 K = 1.5 Maint Labor Cost Cumulative Maint Maint Labor Cost Cumulative Maint per unit decrease Labor Cost per per unit decrease Labor Cost per per formula (16) unit decrease per formula (16) unit decrease 2.00% 2.04% 2.08% 2.13% 2.17% 2.22% 2.27% 2.33% 2.38% 2.44% 2.50% 2.56% 2.63% 2.70% 2.78% 2.86% 2.94%
2.00% 4.04% 6.12% 8.25% 10.43% 12.65% 14.92% 17.25% 19.63% 22.07% 24.57% 27.13% 29.76% 32.46% 35.24% 38.10% 41.04%
0.50% 0.51% 0.52% 0.53% 0.54% 0.56% 0.57% 0.58% 0.60% 0.61% 0.63% 0.64% 0.66% 0.68% 0.69% 0.71% 0.74%
0.50% 1.01% 1.53% 2.06% 2.61% 3.16% 3.73% 4.31% 4.91% 5.52% 6.14% 6.78% 7.44% 8.12% 8.81% 9.52% 10.26%
Table III. Planned-Work-Share Increase and Resulting Resource Availability Gains
CAPACITY ASSURANCE STRATEGIES
The stronger the funding for best practices, the sooner an operation will achieve that noble goal of 80/20 maintenance, the hypothetical goal of 1% equipment downtime and the lowest obtainable maintenance costs. So, build the business case for your planned-maintenance work contribution to the bottom line, prove your point to management and secure the needed resources. Then, all you have to do is assure that the planned work is as effective as possible—and deliver on the premise. MT
Fig. 3. The successful shift from breakdown to planned maintenance will require additional spending above regular maintenance labor and material.
Saying “yes” to this approach… ■ Yes, “scientific” maintenance over time will increase our equipment uptime. What that optimally obtainable uptime is will depend on the age of our machines, age, level of general machine decay and whatever time has elapsed since the last major upgrade or overhaul. ■ Yes, the arbitrary, forced and continuous shift from breakdown maintenance to planned maintenance will affect how quickly our organization reaches that optimal uptime of the equipment. ■ And yes, maintenance costs will eventually decrease with the continuous increase of planned work-share on our shop floor, along with the improvement of our machines’ performance. But to reach the optimal levels of reduced costs, greater planned work-share and improved equipment performance, an organization company needs to invest in planned-maintenance Best Practices (i.e., boosting both the resources allocated to planned maintenance and the effectiveness of planned-work “wrench time”). That investment might be hiring more craftsmen to do the planned work or paying more for predictive tools and services. It might be putting in place just the right number of well-trained and dedicated planners and giving them the right (modern) tools to help assure optimal planned-work “wrench time” effectiveness. Or, the investment might simply be taking a leap of faith to increase maintenance planned man-hours and temporarily accept potentially greater levels of downtime as personnel are reassigned from “watching machines run/waiting for them to go down” to PM, PdM, running inspections or other planned work. APRIL 2012
Mike Shekhtman is a Regional Manager of Maintenance and Reliability for the North American region of Goodyear’s tire manufacturing operations, based at The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company’s headquarters in Akron, OH. He spent 24 years in the manufacturing industry in various capacities in maintenance management and engineering. A licensed Professional Engineer and a Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional, Shekhtman holds an MSME degree from St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University in Russia, and an MBA from Cleveland State University. Telephone: (330) 796-7245; firstname.lastname@example.org. x 4.8750_Maint Technology_Ad v4_Layout 1 3/23/12 3:02 PM email:
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At NSK, ‘Low Friction’ Equals Sustainability
The Japan-based bearing maker equates the low-friction, energysaving qualities of its products with its aggressive campaign to cut waste and pollution. Its NSK Americas group is a strong part of the team. Rick Carter Executive Editor
Led by President and CEO Brian Lindsay, NSK Americas, headquartered in Ann Arbor, MI, oversees 2500 workers at production plants and support facilities in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.
t the back of NSK’s 2011 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Report, the Tokyo-based bearing manufacturer includes a sampling of opinions about the company’s CSR efforts from some of its 26,000 global employees. Asked to finish this sentence, “Our CSR is…,” their comments range from lighthearted (“Our CSR is to share delight”) to thoughtful (“Our CSR is an activity which unifies a company and employees with its environmental goals”). One makes a simple connection between the company’s fundamental product mission and its CSR goals: “They are about ensuring that our products reduce friction, which means less wasted energy.” APRIL 2012
ON THE ROAD TO SUSTAINABILITY
That last comment captures the essence of a company best known for its automotive bearings (but also produces other automotive components and linear motion products) and whose value proposition includes the impact its main products have—from design through manufacture and use—on the world at large. The statement also gives dimension to the plant-level efforts that drive the company’s environmental gains. In Japan, for example (in fiscal year 2010), these gains include a waste-recycling rate of 99.3% (92.3% outside of Japan), CO2 emission reductions of 5.8% from FY06 levels and the creation of 16 new environmentally friendly products and technologies. The CSR Report also includes a third-party opinion of these accomplishments, which states that they have brought NSK “nearly to a first stage” of environmental and sustainable maturity. The opinion, offered by a member of the Japan Research Institute, continues with the suggestion that NSK is ready to take the next step, such as “creating a vision of the future world.” NSK in the USA Franklin, Indiana… NSK employees at the company’s seven U.S.-based production sites believe they are already hard at work on that vision. The recycling rate at the corporation’s Franklin, IN, plant for example, “is probably as close to 100% as anyone could be, 99.9% easily,” says Kevin Dodds, Engineering Manager and Environmental Team Leader at the facility, a producer of automotive hub and transmission bearings. The 20-year-old plant was relatively efficient from the start regarding sustainable benchmarks, but in the past decade undertook a new push in this direction. One of its first steps was to become certified to the international environmental standard, ISO 14000, in 2002. Dodds’ unfamiliarity with ISO 14000 at that time didn’t stop the plant manager from asking him to lead the certification effort. “As an electrical engineer, I didn’t think this applied to what I would normally be doing,” he says, “but I took it on and over the last 10 years have gotten to really like it.” He credits the plant-wide cooperation required to obtain the certification for opening the plant’s culture to the possibilities and importance of sustainable actions. “ISO 14000 certification is not something the cross-functional team can just go out and do,” he says. “If you don’t have everyone’s participation, you can’t meet the requirements.” Like those of other ISO standards, ISO 14000 requirements are a framework for a management system. To choose and define the tasks needed to create the framework at Franklin, plant workers had to think about the plant’s environmental issues in a new way. Existing systems had to be measured and benchmarked. Existing procedures—processes, byproducts, what was shipped out, what was taken in—had to be redefined with regard to the environmental impact of each. Certification (achieved in APRIL 2012
This new NSK production equipment uses high-powered air jets to remove excess rust-prevention oil from balls that are being packed into bearings.
10 months and before NSK Americas’ other operations followed suit) has meant that “now everybody in the plant has certain responsibilities, which are continuously reviewed,” says Dodds. “Ask anyone on the floor what their responsibility is with ISO 14000, and they’ll explain it to you.” Working toward ISO 14000 certification took time to gain momentum, but not because the plant’s 250 employees were unaware of its importance. “They understood the big picture,” says Dodds, but the from-scratch benchmarking process could not be rushed. Once the benchmarking showed them where they stood, however, “people could see that with very little effort, positive results occur. Then it was easy to get people motivated and keep them involved.” Landfill waste and recycling were two areas where the Franklin plant had rapid success. Before certification, it had landfilled up to 38 tons of waste each month, “which was even a surprise to me,” says Dodds. The first year after certification, this amount was halved, and has continued to drop ever since. “When you slap that up in front of everybody and they see the charts, they feel good about it and feel a part of it.” The plant’s focus on recycling was inspired by “a corporate initiative to get to a 98% recycling ratio,” he says, “which meant that the goal for any byproduct was to have 98% of it reused or recycled.” Even cafeteria and miscellaneous paper waste, which once accounted for 2% of the plant’s total waste material, is now reused by a local company, which incinerates the waste to generate steam for the downtown Indianapolis steam loop. “And they have pollution controls in place,” says Dodds. MT-ONLINE.COM | 23
Road TO What’s next for Franklin’s sustainability program? “Training and awareness,” says Dodds, “and making sure everybody is on board.” More system refinements are on the agenda, too, along with “continued reduction of utilities and VOCs, maintaining compliance and working toward the total elimination of pollution.”
A newly designed spindle for grinding parts uses grease instead of oil mist for lubrication, reducing compressed air needed for the process by 75%.
The only reasons the plant now falls just short of 100%, says Dodds, is that the mop-water used to clean production floors— which is sent out for separate treatment—may contain solids that require landfill disposal, and a small amount of inert ash remains from the incineration of cafeteria and paper waste. The Franklin plant’s attention to sustainable detail also includes refinements to manufacturing processes and building systems, such as: ■ Installation of a reverse osmosis system that enabled the plant to eliminate a deionized water system requiring the use of hazardous chemicals. ■ Reduction in kerosene usage for parts cleaning. ■ Decreased electrical usage from switching to electronic ballasts, installing more-efficient lighting and eliminating air-system leaks.
Dyersburg, Tennessee… NSK’s sprawling 200,000 sq.-ft. plant in Dyersburg, TN, manufactures steering columns and electronic powersteering systems for the major Japanese automakers. This not-quite-five-year-old facility is, like all NSK Americas’ operations, ISO 14000-certified. Both new and newly enlarged (an expansion completed in January doubled its size), the site is poised to take NSK’s sustainability numbers higher. “As a green-field plant, there’s an opportunity to do a little better than your sister facilities,” says Arlene Brown, Dyersburg’s Safety & Environmental Manager and Human Resources Manager. Dyersburg started with a single assembly line, she says, and now includes machining, heat-treating, robotic welding and soldering, all of which raise its environmental impact. Having been at the plant since it opened, however, Brown says she is confident the Dyersburg culture can meet new challenges. “We started immediately recycling paper and cardboard to get that culture in the very beginning,” she says. “Then we added plastics. And when we started machining, we recycled aluminum, steel, used oils and used coolants.” The plant also recycles plastic bottles from cafeteria vending machines, gloves (which are laundered and returned) and shop towels. “The only thing we don’t recycle is general paper trash,” says Brown, and they’re working on that. When general trash is recycled, the plant’s recycling rate will match that of the Franklin facility: nearly 100%. Motion-sensor lighting, touchless faucets and upgraded lighting in the plant’s new addition,
NSK Main Initiatives to Reduce CO2 Emissions: Plants and Distribution Heat Treatment Production Equipment Compressors
Reducing Electrical Usage
CO2 emitted from power plants and regarded as generated by the user of electricity
• Optimization of operating conditions
Reducing Fuel Usage
Directly emitted CO2 from the plant by combusting fuel (petroleum and gas)
• Control by inverters • Streamlining • Improvement of production efﬁciency • Reduction of defects • Downsizing • Development of new technology
• Conversion to cleaner energies • Streamlining • Improvement of insulation efﬁciency • Optimization of operating conditions
• Prevention of pressurized-air leaks • Reduction of pressurized-air use • Reduction of pressure used • Control by inverters • Optimization of operating conditions • Upgrading to highly efﬁcient equipment • Development of equipment that does not use pressurized air
Source: NSK CSR Report 2011
Air Conditioning • Selection of models suited to conditions • Optimization of running conditions • Upgrading to highly efﬁcient equipment • Control by inverters
• Conversion to cleaner energies • Selection of models suited to conditions • Optimization of running conditions
• Upgrading to highly efﬁcient equipment • Control by inverters • Optimization of illumination • Turning off lights
• Improvement of load efﬁciency • Joint transportation • Modal shift
along with the commonizing of coolants and reduction of air-system losses, all contribute to shrinking the plant’s carbon footprint. According to Brown, a second expansion at Dyersburg is planned, and it’s expected that another fulltime Safety & Environmental person will be hired. This individual will report to Brown, allowing her to focus on the personnel issues that another expansion will bring. Brown knows more growth will mean more training and more chances for her team to sharpen their environmental edge. As a new plant, she says, “We’ve had to dig a little deeper to find things to go after,” an effort that has led her team to a stronger focus on internal auditing and training, as well as on programs that spread the word outside the plant. “The education of our people and broadening the spectrum to assist the community by sharing things we’ve done here” are a big part of ongoing efforts at Dyersburg, notes Brown. The plant already celebrates Earth Day “in a big way,” she notes, and conducts other outreach efforts that include “educating people about specific things they can do at home” as well as participation in county-wide recycling drives where the plant helps its workers and local citizens properly dispose of used computers, batteries, used oil and other materials. As new ways to save energy and cut waste become harder to find at Dyersburg, Brown is clearly unafraid to continue the search, regardless of where it leads. “I plan to take my environmental team dumpster diving,” she says, “just to see what kinds of things we still have in there.” Sustainability is the ‘S’ in NSK NSK’s environmental goals originate in Japan, but it’s up to individual plants to determine the strategies that work best for each and pursue them successfully. This does not happen in a vacuum. Thanks to tireless workers
like Marcia Fournier, Manager of Environmental Health and Safety, based at the NSK Americas headquarters in Ann Arbor, MI, all NSK Americas plants—the seven U.S. operations and one in Brazil—are regularly updated on
each other’s environmental best practices and lessons learned. “I travel extensively to visit all of our facilities,” says Fournier. “And the environmental managers at each site have a dotted line to me for communication, so
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ON THE TO
Road Sustainability we’re very active with each plant. Next week, for example, I’m NSK’s Franklin facility. “We benchmarked that one to see how going to Brazil to support their ISO 14000-recertification audit. they manage their environmental targets,” recalls Fournier, The biggest part of my job,” she notes, “is the support mecha“and we took some of their ideas.” One of these was to join nism: raising the awareness, raising the education, working with EPA’s WasteWise program, which, she says, “is what gives us our changing the culture of the sites to ensure that the sites that were sustainability numbers with regard to how many trees and how new to ISO 14000 understood the benefits associated with it and much water we’ve saved.” to show people what they accomplished. And for sites that have Fournier and her colleagues say the regular strategy a mature process, we keep the momentum going.” meetings reflect the heightened emphasis on sustainA 10-year NSK veteran, Fournier brings her formal training ability within NSK Americas. The emphasis coincided with as a chemist to her a recent influx of job, along with 17 new management years of experience members that, she working in a steel says, brought in mill. “Even though the concept of I was intended to accountabilit y, be working in the as well as reportlab [at NSK],” she ing, sharing and says, “we saw there analyzing data. was a lot of activity The President and outside the lab that CEO of NSK Amerneeded a chemist’s icas, Brian Lindsay, attention, such as (appointed in 2009) chemical managewas part of the new ment and managteam. He is clearly ing environmental committed to the needs specific to company’s continuchemicals.” So her ous improvement in position “grew over sustainability. As he the years,” as did describes it,“I underNSK’s emphasis on stand that environthe environment. mental stewardship Today, each NSK needs a focus, and Americas site has part of that focus is ENGINEERED an environmental to create and estabPRODUCTS,INC management rep, lish a position within most of whom the Americas that To learn more visit: have an assistant, env ironmental explains Fournier. excellence is paraWith the encourmount.” agement and the With 35 years of For more info, enter 74 at www.MT-freeinfo.com approval of NSK, experience working in and running industrial operations around the globe, Lindsay these leaders meet on a regular basis to sharpen their environsays he’s happy to be “proactively seeking out the right thing mental skills. “We get everyone together at headquarters or a different to do [environmentally] rather than focused on avoiding facility twice a year and we talk about any difficulties people doing the wrong thing.” He has already overseen the complete may have, we talk about best practices at their facilities, we revision of NSK Americas’ environmental policy to make it share ideas and we support each other regarding managing function as a road map to excellence that also carries enough KPIs.” Some meetings are special events, such as a recent gathweight to allow the company to make what he calls the “right” ering Fournier calls a “week-long environmental boot camp” environmental actions, even in challenging economic times. conducted by a third party. “We made the investment to ensure “It will surprise some skeptics who believe the cost of envieveryone had a baseline knowledge of our environmental ronmental stewardship has no financial benefits,” says Lindsay, requirements,” she says. Team meetings sometimes involve “that it is possible to turn this perceived cost challenge into a benchmarking, such as a recent one that involved a plant near win/win for the company and the environment.”
Electrical Safety, Evolved.
ON THE ROAD TO SUSTAINABILITY
Green Oil-Filtration Solutions For A ‘Greener’ Planet
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ccording to CCECO, its robust oil by-pass filtration equipment for industrial applications and mobile equipment can extend hydraulic-oil change intervals to 20,000 hours or more. This lets users save money, time and assets while reducing oil consumption and minimizing an operations’ environmental impact. Oil can be purified down to less than 1 micron, achieving ISO codes of 16/14/10 or better. Each filter element will last six months or longer, remove up to 1.134 KG (2.5 lbs.) of particulates and, in the GFC50 size shown here, hold 1.89 Liters (1/2 gal) of water.
As NSK Americas expands its sustainability impact, working to bring suppliers to the same level will receive more focus, as will efforts to find more environmentally friendly ways to manufacture their products. “With the rules and regs coming down so fast from all over the world,” says Fournier, “there are new chemicals added to lists for which we need to find alternatives. We need to make sure we are compliant on a global basis.” Fortunately for NSK Americas, and the rest of the world, Fournier is unfazed by the relentless pace such efforts demand. “I love what I do,” she says. “The support I get in education and from management is outstanding. And if we do have a problem,” she adds, “we deal with it and we fix it.” MT
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Monitor Machine Systems 24/7 From Anywhere NetEP slashes time & cost of onsite monitoring to help you extend the service life of your machine systems
Get more out of your machine systems with a performance monitoring product that continuously delivers the data you need to keep your machinery running optimally. The SKF Online Motor Analysis System-NetEP enables predictive maintenance by acquiring and analyzing machine system data at regular intervals to discern faults or potential problems long before they result in failure and costly downtime. NetEP also reduces the time and cost of sending maintenance staff to acquire health and performance data for every machine system throughout a facility or region. Best of all, performance data is readily and securely available from any PC with access to the Internet. To learn more about how SKF can help maintain your machine system assets and improve your bottom line, or visit us online at www.bakerinst.com, or call us today at 1-800-752-8272.
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The power to predict productivity. Today, more and more companies are seeking to intensify predictive maintenance practices — increasingly depending on oil analysis to ensure equipment reliability and reduce costs.
A Motor Rebuild
ExxonMobil’s state-of-the-art Signum Oil Analysis program—available exclusively to ExxonMobil customers —is specifically tailored to monitor critical indicators in used oil. Based on leading equipment builder specifications and international standards, this program delivers the knowledge you need to better understand the condition of your company’s lubricants and equipment. What’s more, Signum Oil Analysis is convenient: Our technically advanced o i l - a n a l y s i s p r o g r a m includes capabilities that can be accessed online.
Symptom: “Dear Dr. Lube, we’ve received a motor [for rebuild] that runs in a hot environment. Its bearings are sealed and the motor is encased in a tube with no access to lubricate the bearings periodically. The OEM specifies SHC 100 bearing grease rated at 350 F. Koyo ball bearings come lubricated with Polyrex® EM grease, also rated at 350 F. Is one grease better than the other?”
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Most motors are now sold with “sealed for life” bearings that require specialized grease to protect against high speeds, water washout, rust, corrosion and extreme temperatures while providing low noise properties. Both greases mentioned are Mobil products. SHC 100, a synthetic PAO (polyalphaolefin) product with a lithium complex filler, is cherry-red in color. Polyrex® EM grease, a mineral-based product with a polyurea thickener, is blue. Both are NLGI number 2 greases, designed to operate in high-speed, severe and high-temperature applications. Mobil recommends both as premium electricmotor bearing greases. In a direct comparison of typical grease properties, there’s little difference in their performance values. Polyrex® EM is a slightly higher viscosity at ISO 115, versus ISO 100 for the SHC 100, and has a slightly higher droppingpoint temperature of 550 F versus 510 F for the SHC 100. Results from a Koyo-bearing-provided Mobil ASTM D 3336 test (grease life in hours at 350 F) show the Polyrex® EM product as having over twice the hightemperature life expectancy of typical synthetic lithium complex greases.
© 2011 Exxon Mobil Corporation The ExxonMobil logotype and Pegasus design are registered trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
When rebuilding motors, bearings are virtually always replaced. On the odd occasions when bearings are deemed suitable for reuse, it’s wise to flush and repack them with the original specified grease. (This is very important in such an application, as polyurea-based greases are incompatible with lithiumbased products.) When new bearings are used, the rebuilder has a choice of lubricants (as evidenced above). On paper, the Polyrex® EM product may look like the best candidate. That said, I urge you to contact ExxonMobil’s engineering department, describe the exact operating condition for the motor and let those lube experts prescribe which of their greases is best suited for your application. MT Lube questions? Ask Dr. Lube, aka Ken Bannister, author of the book Lubrication for Industry and the Lubrication section of the 28th edition Machinery’s Handbook. He’s also a contributing editor for Maintenance Technology and Lubrication Management & Technology. E-mail: email@example.com.
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Gas engines are built to run. But what if they could ﬂy?
What if fl awless, trouble-free operations were the norm, not the exception? What if your productivity took off like never before? With Mobil as your supplier, it can. Equipment builders worldwide trust Mobil Industrial Lubricants for oils designed to work harder and longer. Like Mobil Pegasus 1005, with over 40,000 hours in proven service fi eld testing. It provides not only peace of mind, but the chance to ignite productivity to enviable new levels. Visit mobilindustrial.com for more.
© 2011 Exxon Mobil Corporation Mobil and the Pegasus design are registered trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
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POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
Belt Drives: Investing In Inspection & Preventive Maintenance Proper alignment is necessary for optimal drive performance. Use laser alignment tools to aid in the process.
No one can afford downtime or safety hazards that come with inadequate maintenance. Special From Gates Corporation For Maintenance Technology
ortunately, when it comes to belt drives, downtime can often be prevented, and there are straightforward steps you can take to improve workplace safety. In addition to proper selection and storage of belts, a preventive maintenance (PM) plan includes proper inspection, maintenance and replacement. Making a PM plan part of routine maintenance frees up plant managers and maintenance engineers to focus on other important tasksâ€”like boosting productivity and improving the bottom line.
Belt-drive inspection Deciding how often to inspect or replace a belt drive isnâ€™t always as simple as it seems. Belt wear and life depend on a variety of factors, including the original drive design, actual loads vs. design loads, sheave or sprocket alignment, installation tension, maintenance practices and environmental conditions. 30 |
That said, you'll want to consider the following when determining how often to inspect a drive:: n Critical nature of the equipment n Drive operating cycle n Accessibility of equipment n Drive operating speed n Environmental factors n Temperature extremes in the environment APRIL 2012
POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
Often, the most crucial factor is the first on that list. A small, infrequently used, non-critical HVAC unit requires less attention than a belt powering an integral process on a manufacturing line. If the belt were to fail and shut down the assembly line, it could cost the facility a significant sum in downtime. A general recommendation is to do a quick visual and noise inspection every 1-2 weeks for critical drives and once a month for normal drives. Complete a shutdown inspection every 3-6 months. Types of inspections Inspections should be one part of a greater preventive maintenance (PM) plan. Such plans include replacing worn sheaves, cleaning guards, checking for weak brackets and components and ensuring alignment. Even though belt drives don’t require the constant lubrication of chain drives, or entail the mechanical problems of gear drives, optimum belt-drive performance depends on proper maintenance. Visual and noise inspection… As noted, visual and noise inspections should be scheduled every 1-2 weeks for critical drives and on a monthly basis for normal drives. These observation-based inspections can be part of your usual maintenance rounds: n Ensure a safe working environment. Wear safety glasses and wear gloves when inspecting machinery. No loose or bulky clothing, like a large jacket or a necktie, should be worn near belt drives. n Belt drives should operate smoothly and quietly. Listen for unusual vibrations or noise while the drive runs. n Check motor-mounts for proper tightness, as well as take-up slots or rails. They should be clean and lightly lubricated. n Visually check the guard for an accumulation of grime or material, which can increase temperature. Increased temperatures can reduce belt life. n Watch for oil or grease dripping from the guard. This is a sign of over-lubricated bearings.
Sticking to a solid PM plan is one of the best things you can do for your operation's hard-working belt drives. Complete shutdown inspection… Perform a complete shutdown inspection every 3-6 months. Here’s a quick checklist for performing safe and efficient shutdown belt-drive maintenance: n Always turn off the power to the drive and post a “Down for Maintenance” warning sign. Test to make sure the correct circuit has been turned off. n Place all machine components in a safe and neutral position. Make sure that moving components are locked down or are in a safe position, and that fans are unable to freewheel. n Remove the guard and inspect it for damage. Check for signs of wear or rubbing; clean and realign it if necessary. n Inspect the belt for wear or damage. Watch for cracks, frayed spots, cuts or unusual wear patterns and check the belt for excessive heat. Troubleshoot problems; replace as needed. n Inspect the sheaves or sprockets for wear and misalignment. Replace them if worn. n Inspect the other drive components as well as the static conductive grounding system. Examine the bearings for proper lubrication, and look for loose screws, rust or debris. n Check belt tension and alignment; adjust it as needed. If V-belts are undertensioned, they can slip, generating heat and belt failure. Synchronous belts can jump teeth or ratchet, causing damage. Overtensioned belts can reduce belt and bearing life. To properly test tension, use a tension tester, available through your manufacturer. n Recheck sheave or sprocket alignment. n Reinstall the belt guard.
n Make sure the area is clear of debris and that the ﬂoors are clean. There should be no oil spills, clutter or other hazards. APRIL 2012
n Resume power and restart the drive. Look and listen for anything unusual. MT-ONLINE.COM | 31
POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
n Review and implement the corrective action. Keep in mind that your manufacturer may offer tools or technologies to help solve and prevent common problems. If you’re unsure what corrective action to take, or if there's still an issue after you’ve exhausted your troubleshooting options, don’t hesitate to call your distributor. Tools are available to help you determine how to handle an issue— and experts are available to answer your questions. They may even offer special programs to help you evaluate, design or refine your current belt systems. The importance of a solid PM plan While many activities go into belt-drive upkeep, PM plans prevent expensive belt failure and ensure productivity and safety. From belt selection to storage, from maintenance to troubleshooting, taking care of your system is a necessary investment. So, conduct scheduled inspections regularly and stick to these solid PM basics:
Before removing a guard for maintenance or belt replacement, be sure the drive is off, locked and tagged.
Belt replacement When it’s time to replace a belt on an existing drive, it’s important to select one that is compatible with the sheaves or sprockets. With the vast assortment of belt styles available from numerous manufacturers, choosing the right belt can be challenging. If you have questions, don’t hesitate to consult your distributor or manufacturer to speak with an expert. Selecting the right belts helps you achieve optimum drive performance, maximize the life of the belt and sprockets and minimize safety issues.
n Adhere to proper installation procedures n Evaluate drive performance n Have a good base of belt product knowledge n Properly store and handle belts n Troubleshoot problems By observing proper selection and installation principles, then following up with regular inspections and strong PM practices, you’ll have systems you can rely on. MT For more info, enter 02 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Troubleshooting problems n Identify the problem. What is wrong? When and how did it happen? What is the drive application? Have machine operations or output changed? What belts are in place and what are the expectations for their performance? n Determine the drive symptoms and record them, as well as observations of anything unusual about the drive. Look for premature belt-failure symptoms, severe or abnormal wear, unusual noises or vibrations, problems with components or sheaves and performance issues. n List probable causes and corrective action. For example, if you observe undercord cracking and see that the sheave diameter is too small, a corrective action would be to replace the sheaves with a larger diameter. 32 |
Worn sheave grooves can result in premature belt failure. Use a sheave gauge, an inexpensive tool, to assess the condition of these parts. APRIL 2012
POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
The Basics of Roller Chain Sprockets Installing new chain on old sprockets at your plant? Please say it ain’t so! Special From U.S. Tsubaki For Maintenance Technology
hink of all your chain-driven machinery. Now consider the sprockets driving all those chains. Often subjected to temperature extremes, corrosive environments, harsh washdowns and/or impact loads that destroy keyways and shear teeth, sprockets tend to be ignored until a breakdown. Suddenly, you’re tasked with finding the correct replacement and getting it installed so production can continue ASAP. Understanding the basics of roller chain sprockets will help you do just that (and perhaps prevent unexpected failures going forward). In addition to helping you identify types of sprockets, the following guidelines will help you identify options that may offer improved performance and longer service life. Proper replacement at the appropriate time will reduce downtime and save you money.
Sprocket identification & terminology Step #1. Chain type and pitch. . . Sprockets are designed for use with a specific chain. All chains are made to a given standard—with ANSI being the most common in the U.S. Each chain is identified by “pitch,” which refers to the measurement from one roller-pin center to the next roller-pin center of a given chain. ANSI chain pitch is always measured in 1/8” increments. Refer to Fig. 1 for how to measure chain pitch, then see Table I for ANSI Standard Chain pitch sizes. There are, of course, roller-chain standards other than ANSI, but they’re not commonly used in the U.S. The second most popular is British Standard Chain, in which chain pitch is measured in 1/16” roller-pin-center to roller-pin-center spacing increments.
Fig. 1. How to measure chain pitch Standard Roller Chain Number 25 35 40 41 50 60 80
Pitch "P" 1/4" 3/8" 1/2" 1/2" 5/8" 3/4" 1"
Number 100 120 140 160 180 200 240
Pitch "P" 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 1-3/4" 2" 2-1/4" 2-1/2" 3"
Table I. ANSI Standard Chain Sizes
Fig 2. Single-strand and Multi-strand tooth profile
After determining the chain pitch, note the number of chain strands used in the application: single strand, double strand, triple strand, etc. The sprocket selected for the application needs to match the chain—i.e., double-strand chain runs on a double-strand sprocket. (Refer to Fig. 2.)
MT-ONLINE.COM | 33
POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
Step #5. LTB (length through bore). . . "LTB” refers to the inside hub diameter and the length to which it is machined. This length must be long enough to accommodate the proper-size keyway to withstand shear and torque stress induced by the rotating shaft. (See Fig. 4.)
Fig. 3. The most common ANSI sprocket styles
Step #2. Sprocket hub style. . . While there are unlimited arrangements, a vast majority of roller chain sprockets fall into one of these major styles: no hub (A-style); a hub projection from one side (B-style); or hub projections from both sides of the sprocket (C-style). (See Fig. 3.)
Fig. 5. Sprocket with keyway and two set screws
Fig. 4. Primary sprocket dimensions
Step #3. Number of sprocket teeth or sprocket diameter. . . The easiest way to determine the number of teeth is simply to count them. Sometimes, however, the teeth are totally worn away. In this event, the caliper diameter may assist in identifying the sprocket. The term "caliper diameter” refers to the dimension measured from sprocket-tooth valley to sprockettooth valley on the opposite side of the sprocket. This dimension measures the diameter of the sprocket plate not including sprocket teeth. On sprockets with odd number of teeth, the measurement would be taken from the valley of one tooth to the valley as close to 180° on the opposite side of the sprocket. (See Fig. 4.) Step #4. Hub diameter on B- and C-style sprockets. . . The outside diameter is known as the “hub diameter,” which is typically specified by the sprocket supplier. Hub diameter determined by the size of the sprocket bore, the keyway used and the requirement to maintain a sprocket-wall thickness that will withstand the forces required of the application. (Refer again to Fig. 4.) 34 |
Step #6. Sprocket bore. . . This term pertains to the inside diameter of the sprocket and how it is secured to the shaft. ■ The term “plain bore” is associated with A-, B- and C-style sprockets, where there is no special machining performed to accommodate keyways or set screws, only a hole to accommodate shaft diameter. Plain bore sprockets typically require additional machining before installation. ■ The term “finished bore” is associated with B- and C-style sprockets, where the inside diameter of the hub is machined to accommodate a specific shaft diameter: This configuration includes a standard keyway and set screws. (U.S. Tsubaki provides two set screws to ensure additional clamping force.) Finished bore hubs can also be machined to non-standard yet specific requirements depending on the needs of the application. (A standard finished bore sprocket is shown in Fig. 5.) ■ "Maximum bore diameter” is another term that's associated with B- and C-style sprockets. It refers to the maximum bore size to which a sprocket can be machined without compromising structural integrity, yet still be capable of accepting a standard keyway. This measurement is normally listed in a vendor's catalog. APRIL 2012
POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
Fig. 6. ANSI keyway and set-screw specifications
Diameter of Shaft Keyseat Width x Depth
5/16 - 7/16
1/2 - 9/16
5/8 - 7/8
15/16 - 1-1/4
1-5/16 - 1-3/8
3/32 x 3/64
1/8 x 3/64
3/16 x 3/32
1/4 x 1/8
5/16 x 5/32
Diameter of Set Screw
8 - 32
10 - 24
Step #7. Keyway dimensions and set-screw locations. . . Typically, the sprockets are secured to the shaft using an ANSI standard dimensioned keyway and one or more set screws. The ANSI standards provide a keyway of specific length, width and depth for a given shaft diameter. See Fig. 6 for a partial listing of common keyway dimensions. It is possible that your application not match this standard. If this is the case, you will have to measure or reference the proper-size keyway and supply this information to your sprocket supplier. A set screw is used to prevent axial movement of the sprocket; if one is used, the placing is usually above the keyway. This location keeps the sprocket from moving along the shaft and stops the key from moving. To better hold the sprocket in place, U.S. Tsubaki incorporates two set screws as the standard. Located at 90° to the keyway, the second set screw provides additional clamping force, as well as reduces the side forces the key receives, which leads to longer service life. Step #8. Hardened-tooth sprockets. . . As the chain contacts the sprocket, frictional wear of the tooth and pocket occurs. With each rotation, every sprocket tooth contacts the chain. Sprockets are typically stamped from plate, pressed from powder metal or machined from bar stock. The hardness of the tooth directly relates to sprocket life. A sprocket with a "hardened tooth” may last three times longer than a softer sprocket. Some manufacturers charge extra for this option. APRIL 2012
VFD-Induced Bearing Currents Kill Motors!
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POWER TRANSMISSION PRIMER
Applying new chain to worn sprockets can reduce chain-life expectancy by half.
Fig. 7. QD sprocket and bushing
Fig. 8. Taper-LOCK sprocket and bushing
Fig. 9. Split sprocket
Fig. 10. Double-single sprocket
Fig. 11. Ball-bearing idler sprocket
Step #9. Other common sprocket variations. . . Bushed sprockets: At times, a bushed sprocket is used in applications where higher working loads are prevalent. Sprockets with tapered bushings will fall into the QD®, Split-Taper or Taper-Lock ® families. QD and Split-Taper bushings are flanged and commonly utilize large anchor bolts around the circumference of the flange to retain itself to the sprocket (Fig. 7). Taper-Lock bushings are similar in that they incorporate a split through the taper to provide a true clamp on the shaft. These bushings are retained to the sprocket with a series of set screws on the OD of the bushing (parallel to the shaft [Fig. 8]). Steel split sprockets: These sprockets (Fig. 9) are cut through the entire diameter for ease of installation and removal. The sprocket halves are held together by bolts on either side of the hub. This particular style is normally available in chain pitch sizes of 40 through 240, and bore diameters of 3/4” through 6”, depending on chain pitch selected. Double single sprockets: This type of sprocket (Fig. 10) is used in applications where two or more items are powered by a common drive shaft. The space between the sprocket plates is wider than a multi-strand sprocket, and allows two independent strands of chain to engage without contacting each other. With this type of sprocket, each strand of chain may exit in a different direction than the other— i.e., one strand exiting toward the ceiling and the other running parallel to the floor. Idler sprockets, chain tensioner: These types of components are used in applications where the drive chain may experience slack due to long lengths, non-adjustability of the driven shaft or where the chain has to be guided around an obstruction. They prevent chain whipping and uneven distribution of load. This type of sprocket can also be used in applications where the drive chain may be reversed in direction and the idler sprocket is mounted to the outside of the chain to prevent whipping. See Fig. 11 for an illustration of a ball-bearing idler sprocket and bronze bushing. ROI from sprocket inspection Applying new chain to worn sprockets can reduce chain-life expectancy by half. Since the cost of chain is often much higher than that of sprockets, replacing both chain and sprockets at the same time—while equipment is already down for service— can save time and money. The small additional cost will be outweighed by fewer problems and considerably longer chain life. Remember: The only certainty that comes with installing new chain onto old sprockets is that you’ll be doing the same job again soon. MT For more info, enter 03 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Volume 2 Number 4
RELIABILITY F I L E S TECHNOLOGY M A I N T E N A N C E
Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
Vibration Analysis: It’s Finally In Your Hands Problem Unplanned downtime and costly repairs a problem in your facility? Chances are the culprit falls into one of four common mechanical faults: imbalance, misalignment, wear or looseness. The good news is vibration analysis can identify these faults before they become big problems. The bad news is vibration analysis services can often be time consuming and expensive. What you need is a product that puts the power and expertise of vibration analysis in your hands. Solution Enter the Fluke 810 Vibration Tester: the easy, cost-effective way to analyze vibration. It makes vibration testing easier so you can spend less time looking for the problem and more time fixing it. Using a sensor (“accelerometer”) that measures vibration in three different directions simultaneously, the Fluke 810 collects vibration data over a short time period. To isolate details of various mechanical faults, it converts time-based data into frequency-based vibration spectra. These spectra are now ready for analysis by the onboard diagnostic engine. The diagnostic engine takes a systems approach by viewing a machine as the sum of its individual components— i.e. motor + coupling + pump. This is because each component has a unique vibration signature that contributes to an overall picture of the drivetrain’s health. The diagnostic engine uses pattern recognition and a rules database to identify the faults. There are 4700+ algorithms and rules developed through real-world maintenance experience that
are designed to detect bearing problems, misalignment, unbalance and looseness and assess severity. Unlike more complex vibration analyzers that are designed for longerterm condition-monitoring programs, the Fluke 810 is a troubleshooting tool designed to give you immediate answers. It does not require you to establish an initial baseline reading, then collect information over time for comparison.
Return On Investment Predictability. . . Studies have shown that vibration analysis can provide early warnings of impending machine failure, giving maintenance staff time to schedule the required repairs and acquire needed parts. Safety. . . Having information about machine health enables operators to take faulty equipment offline before a hazardous condition occurs. Revenue. . . Well-maintained machines have fewer unexpected and serious failures, thus helping prevent production stoppages that cut into the bottom line. Increased maintenance intervals. . . When machine health is being tracked, maintenance can be scheduled by need, not just by accumulated hours of operation.
The Fluke 810 uses a unique “synthetic baseline” technology to determine fault severity by simulating a fault-free condition and instantly comparing it to the collected data. A synthetic baseline is dynamically generated based upon the drivetrain configuration, and the collected data is subsequently compared to this baseline. The extent to which the data’s amplitude exceeds the baseline determines the mechanical fault’s severity. The diagnostic engine has been fieldtested for years by trained consultants working on mission-critical systems. The Fluke 810 puts the knowledge of these consultants in your hands so you can diagnose and repair mechanical problems quickly—and with minimal training.
Cost savings. . . Running machinery until failure frequently results in more expensive repairs, overtime and forced purchases. Twenty-five years of documented savings show a 20:1 benefit-to-cost ratio for vibration analysis programs. And don’t forget peace of mind. . . A better understanding of machinery health builds confidence in maintenance schedules, budgeting and productivity estimates. For more information or to sign up for a free diagnostic report, visit www.fluke.com/answersnow. MT Fluke Corporation Everette, WA For more info, enter 260 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
THE RELIABILITY FILES / APRIL 2012
Other tools tell you:
Fluke tells you:
• There’s a vibration
• What it is • Where it is • How severe it is
The Fluke 810 Vibration Tester
Put a good vibration expert on staff. Like the Fluke 810 Vibration Tester. Unique in its design, the 810 identifies four common equipment faults: misalignment, unbalance, looseness and bearing condition. You learn exactly what the problem is, where it is, and how to fix it. Prioritize maintenance, prevent unplanned downtime and manage cash flow. All for a fraction of the cost of a full predictive maintenance program. So go with the vibration expert. Go with Fluke. www.fluke.com/answersnow ©2011 Fluke Corporation. AD 4114910A
more info, RELIABILITY enter 280 at www.MT-freeinfo.com JULYFor 2011 / THE FILES
MT-ONLINE.COM | 39
Choose The Best Hydraulic Fluid For The Job Problem If you’re like most manufacturers, you want a hydraulic fluid that will decrease downtime, lower operational costs, increase productivity and, as a result, add to your overall profits. This may sound like a laundry list of unattainable goals, but when you better understand the challenges placed on your equipment and work with professionals who know your business and needs, these benefits are achievable. David Moore, Plant Manager for Auto Mats and Accessories of Dalton, GA, knows first-hand the importance of selecting the right hydraulic fluid for the job. Auto Mats and Accessories specializes in producing all-weather automotive floor mats. In this line of business, injection-molding machines play a vital role in melting and injecting the vinyl that’s used to produce automotive mats. When three injection-molding machines were purchased for the plant, Moore was dedicated to using only the best fluids. However, this plant— like many others—presented unique challenges when determining the right hydraulic fluids. “We keep our machines running all the time because it is such a nightmare to get them back up once they have been shut down,” explains Moore. “It takes about three hours to start the extruder, heat it up and get the vinyl flowing freely. Having additional downtime because of lubrication change-outs is a cost we don’t want to face.” Moore was looking for a superior product to extend drain intervals, eliminate downtime and cut maintenance costs.
Auto Mats and Accessories would have been draining its machines yearly without HYDREX AW. Solution Once you understand your current demand, your best solution is to work with suppliers who know the products, their specifications and benefits, and can work with you to deliver the best results for your plant. In the case of Auto Mats and Accessories, cutting costs— not corners—was vital to the business. With the support of their Petro-Canada Lubricants distributor Whitfield Oil, Auto Mats and Accessories found its solution with HYDREX AW hydraulic fluid. HYDREX AW, specially formulated for heavy-duty hydraulic systems, delivers advanced anti-wear protection, improved rust and corrosion prevention and outstanding
oxidation and thermal stability, which leads to extended drain intervals, decreased change-outs, optimal cost savings and reduced maintenance costs. HYDREX AW also minimizes sludge and varnish deposits. Sludge can be incredibly damaging to hydraulic components. By minimizing oxidation and consequently reducing sludge build-up, a highperformance hydraulic fluid like HYDREX AW provides longer lubricant life, resulting in fewer changeouts, reduced equipment wear and less downtime for your operations.
When you put the time
Return On Investment When you put the time and care into selecting the right fluids, it all pays off. Auto Mats and Accessories would have been draining its machines on a yearly basis without HYDREX AW. Through an effective oil-analysis program, the company was able to extend its drain intervals and save approximately 200-300 gallons of fluid—and 8-10 hours of downtime—for the oil change-out of each machine. “With HYDREX AW hydraulic fluid, we extended drain intervals two times what we experienced with other products,” explains Moore. “The cost savings has been a tremendous benefit.” MT
and care into selecting
Petro-Canada Mississauga, ON, Canada
the right fluids, it all pays off. For more info, enter 261 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
THE RELIABILITY FILES / APRIL 2012
When it comes to General Manufacturing, we’re all business. But first we’re all ears. Sometimes a little thing like listening can make all the difference in the world. Take HYDREX™ for example. Listening to customers is what drove the development of our top-performing hydraulic fluid that lasts up to 3 times longer than the leading brand and offers 2 times the protection against wear.† You talk, we’ll listen. And together, we’ll find ways to save you money.
What are people saying about our lubricants? Scan the code or talk to us and get a FREE GREASE SAMPLE. www.hydrexsolutions.com or 1-866-335-3369 Petro-Canada is a Suncor Energy business.
For more info, enter 281 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 280 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
TM Trademark of Suncor Energy Inc. Used under licence. Measured against the number one selling North American hydraulic oil brand.
MOTOR DOC’S HOT TOPICS
Voltage Unbalance Impact On Motors Howard W. Penrose, Ph.D., CMRP
oltage unbalance and its most severe form—single phasing—cause up to 14% of motor failures . It’s important to understand that maximum current unbalance isn’t defined in standards for motors in the field. Voltage unbalance, which has direct impact on the operating life and characteristics of an electric motor, is defined. The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) standard MG-1 defines the maximum voltage unbalance to be applied to an electric motor as 5%, and notes that a derating factor must be applied to a motor operating with a voltage unbalance.
Voltage Unbalance Derating Factor
Voltage unbalance is relatively simple to calculate. It requires measurement of the phase-to-phase voltage of the supply to a three-phase motor. The first step is to take all three measured voltages, add them together and divide by three. This will be your Vave. Next, subtract the voltage furthest from the Vave, change it to a positive value, then divide by Vave and multiply by 100%. For example, if you have Va-b = 465V, Va-c = 480V and Vb-c = 467V, then (465V + 480V + 467V)/3 = 471Vave. Then ((480-471)/471) x 100% = 1.9%. Applied to the above chart, you would then multiply the horsepower or kilowatt rating of the motor times 0.95. In effect, a 10-hp motor would have to operate as a 9.5-hp motor. If voltage unbalance is detected, you should identify the cause. If you see a current unbalance with a low-voltage unbalance, try rotating the phases, then recheck current. (Rotate phases by moving the lead from phase A to phase B, phase B to phase C and phase C to phase A. This doesn’t change the direction of rotation.) If, upon rechecking current, the unbalance moves, it’s motor-related. If the unbalance stays in the same location or disappears, it’s supply-related. MT 1. Cooper Bussman Corp., Motor Protection: Voltage Unbalance and Single-Phasing, 2003.
Dr. Howard Penrose is VP of Engineering and Reliability Services for Dreisilker, Webmaster of the IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, and Director of Outreach of the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals (SMRP). For more info, enter 04 at www.MT-freeinfo.com For more info, enter 79 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Itâ€™s Coming! Are You Ready? Categories: Innovative Devices, Gizmos & Gadgets Innovative Processes & Procedures Innovative Use of Third-Party Resources
Applied Technology Publications
For more info, enter 99 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Entry Forms Available May 1 At www.reliabilityinnovator.com Look For More Details In The Next Issue!
Information Technology Web-Based, Full-Featured SaaS CMMS
apcon’s On-Demand™ uses SaaS (software-as-a-service) technology to provide comprehensive maintenance management, including work orders and preventive maintenance scheduling, at a lower cost than similar software applications. The product’s Java Swing™ technology delivers a fast, comprehensive CMMS directly over the Web, eliminating any slowdown associated with browsers. The system can be easily set up by non-IT personnel with basic PC skills and includes free technical support. On-Demand offers all features of Mapcon’s Enterprise software, including mobile capabilities. Being Web-based, however, it can operate in several environments (Windows, Apple OSX, Linux), connect to various databases (Oracle, SQL Server, Interbase) and communicate with other software packages. Because the service is billed on a monthly basis, without an annual contact, users can upgrade or downgrade on the fly without penalties. Mapcon Technologies, Inc. Des Moines, IA
For more info, enter 00 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
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Robust, Professional-Grade Tablet Computers
anasonic’s Toughpad™ A1 is a professional-grade 10” Android™-powered tablet suited for mobile outdoor workers and where exposure to extreme environments is a possibility. Designed to meet many of the same durability standards as Panasonic’s Toughbook PC product line, this new device has MIL-STD810G ratings for drops, as well as ingress protection ratings for resistance to dust and water. It’s also rated for use across a wide range of temperatures. Besides having access to the selection of existing Android Market™ apps, the product is supported by the Business AppPortal™, an enterprise-focused app store offering market-specific solutions and applications addressing broad enterprise concerns, including Mobile Device Management, security and virtualization. This secure, cloud-based user storefront lets IT Managers and developers store, download and test apps for their Toughpad devices. Panasonic will also offer private application stores within the Business AppPortal, which businesses can customize to meet their specific needs. Panasonic Solutions Co. A division of Panasonic Corp. of North America Secaucus, NJ For more info, enter 06 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 75 at www.MT-freeinfo.com APRIL 2012
iOS Vibration Analysis App
he Mobius iVibe™ from the Mobius Institute is an application for Apple’s iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch that provides a virtual vibration analysis expert. While diagnosing machine faults, iVibe provides an easy way to look up machine fault conditions based on spectrum symptoms and machine types. The application provides sample spectra, explanations of faults and explanations of how to diagnose fault conditions. Users can select from a list of symptoms, machine types and fault types before drilling down for more information on each topic. The application also includes a gallery with 80 spectral images. Upon seeing a spectrum, users can swipe up and down to see other similar spectra, or swipe left and right to see a page of details, diagnostic information and suggested additional tests to help confirm a diagnosis as correct. iVibe is available for purchase through Apple’s App Store.
AIR SAVING BLOWOFF IS SUPER QUIET
The low cost Super Air Knife dramatically reduces compressed air usage and noise when compared to other blowoffs. It delivers a uniform sheet of laminar airflow with hard-hitting force across the entire length. Energy use is comparable to a blower without the maintenance or downtime. Many sizes in aluminum or stainless steel. Applications include blowing liquid, chips, and contaminant from parts and conveyors, cooling hot parts, and air screening.
EXAIR CORPORATION 11510 Goldcoast Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45249-1621 Phone 513 671-3322 Toll Free 800 903-9247 Fax 513 671-3363 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Internet: www.exair.com/48/176.htm
Mobius Institute Brentwood, TN For more info, enter 07 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 81 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Cross-Platform Mobile Support For IBM Maximo
yclo’s SMART Mobile Suite For Maximo is now available for iPhone, iPad, Android smartphones and Android tablets. It’s been deployed for more than 400 IBM Maximo enterprise asset management software customers on Syclo’s Agentry Mobile Platform. According to the company, Syclo is the only vendor offering mobile solutions for IBM Maximo that work with all major devices, whether they’re online or not. Users get native applications without the need to maintain separate code sets for each device. Software designers get increased flexibility in configuring user interfaces to ensure that each application looks and behaves exactly as expected on each operating system. Syclo SMART Mobile Suite For Maximo works with IBM Maximo versions 4, 5, 6, 7 and 7.5.
Syclo, LLC Hoffman Estates, IL For more info, enter 08 at www.MT-freeinfo.com APRIL 2012
For more info, enter 80 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 82 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
MT-ONLINE.COM | 45
PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT POINTS Knowledge Capture
Harness Valuable Knowledge
Capturing, retaining and using valuable technical, process & organizational Knowledge
Knowledge CaptureTM is a unique process and application for the capture, retention, access and use of key knowledge within an operation, whether it is equipment, system or work process based. Knowledge Capture
Knowledge Capture TM APPLIED KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE
Knowledge Capture TM has easily configurable & visually interactive knowledge modules that allow for the capture and storage of knowledge in multiple formats (text, video, images, files)
General Operations knowledge Operational Risks Knowledge Defect Knowledge Equipment Spares Knowledge Equipment Image Gallery Walkaround/Work Practice Video Library Audio Interview Library Reference Documents/Diagrams
TEL : +1 713.339.9070 FAX: +1 832.553.8067
Before It Leaves The Organization
any companies struggle with the loss of experienced staff leaving the organization. Just as challenging—if not more so—is the loss of valuable plant-specific knowledge that these individuals carry with them when they go out the door. This is especially troublesome today, given the current demographics across the country: The knowledge gap between mature, experienced employees who are retiring or departing for other job opportunities and newer, less experienced workers who may be taking their places is significant. i-Quantum Solutions has developed a unique process and software application that provides another tactic to capture the valuable knowledge staff possess on equipment and systems. The process identifies what knowledge and information is critical and relevant for retention by the organization. An easy-to-navigate object-based application links the valuable nuggets of knowledge to images or technical diagrams of the manufacturing or production process using our proprietary “Knowledge Modules.” Each of these modules can be configured to hold multiple categories of knowledge: operating risk, operating practices, equipment defect issues, maintenance tactics, operating notes and repair procedures, for example. In each knowledge category, the information is captured using text bytes, audio clips, video clips or other media such as documents. It essentially encapsulates that “little pocket notebook” operators and technicians use for reference and much more. The i-Quantum approach is to capture typically undocumented knowledge in usable bytes, through multi-media, from the people who are critical to an operation. That’s because most people in today’s world prefer to receive their information in byte-size pieces—through visual and audio formats rather than long text-based procedures and manuals. The interactive, dynamic format allows the software to become a “live” solution to capture knowledge on an ongoing basis, rather than by way of a static approach that only allows a knowledge capture at a given point in time. This type of dynamic environment allows for the quick building of a plantspecific knowledge base. In turn, your invaluable tangible knowledge investment is retained and equates to a significant cost benefit. MT To learn about i-Quantum’s practical performance improvement processes and innovative solutions, visit www.i-qs.com, or email: email@example.com.
26006 Oak Ridge Drive Woodlands, Texas 77380
For more info, enter 84 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
www.i-QS.com For more info, enter 81 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 83 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
2012 EASA CONVENTION Register Today!
Gaylord Opryland® Resort & Convention Center
Plan to Attend EASA’s World-Class Exhibition • See the newest motor, drive and pump products, as well as cutting-edge maintenance and repair technologies! • Meet the leading manufacturers and suppliers face-to-face! • Network with EASA service center representatives and end users from across the country & around the world! • See live presentations and learn about the latest products in the New Product Theater! • All at the fabulous Gaylord Opryland®!
Get a full conference schedule, exhibitor list and register at www.easa.com
Moving Industry Forr w ard Fo
Register by April 20 to get the Early Bird Discount, or by May 18 to get the Advance Registration Discount! Electrical Apparatus Service Association, Inc.
1331 Baur Blvd. • St. Louis, MO 63132 USA • www.easa.com • firstname.lastname@example.org For more info, enter 85 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
A Big Thank You To Everyone!
MARTS 2012 Was Great!
ur 9th Annual Maintenance and Reliability Technology Summit concluded a very successful four-day run last month, and we couldn’t have done it without any of you: our valued sponsors, partners, exhibitors, presenters and, most of all, our attendees, who came together at MARTS to share, learn and network. See more MARTS 2012 photos at www.martsconference.com.
Top Sponsor / Partner:
Infraspection Institute Inpro/Seal Ludeca, Inc. Exhibitors: AVO Training Des-Case Corp. Dreisilker Electric Motors, Inc.
Mapcon Panasonic PdMA Corp. Graybar Iriss LAI Reliability Meggitt Sensing Systems
Royal Purple ShockWatch Success by Design Mtelligence Reporting House Scalewatcher UE Systems
Plan Now To Join Us In Rosemont Next Spring For MARTS’ 10th Anniversary! Details To Come!
Above: Members of the Frito-Lay team from the companyâ€™s plant in Fayetteville, TN, proudly display their 2011 North American Maintenance Excellence Award. Below: David Boulay, president of the Illinois Manufacturing Extension Center, delivers the Tuesday-morning Keynote address.
Above: Guy Delahay takes questions after his Wednesday-morning Keynote address. Below: 2011 Maintenance & Reliability Innovator of the Year Award Grand Prize team winners Chris Labat of LOOP, LLC and Chuck Reames of Shaw Group Maintenance, Inc. are joined by (from left) Bob Williamson, Ken Bannister, Jane Alexander and Rick Carter.
MT-ONLINE.COM | 49
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Explosion-Proof Linear Transducer
alluff’s Micropulse TA12 is a non-contact linear position sensor with a compact, explosionproof housing. It is specifically designed for continuous feedback on hydraulically and pneumatically actuated valves for oil and gas refining, storage, transport and handling. The transducer now has a IECEx hazardous-area approval rating, in addition to existing ATEX and North American approvals, expanding its acceptability for use in applications where hazardous gases and/or dusts are present.
Balluff, Inc. Florence, KY For more info, enter 30 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Energy-Efficient Progressing Cavity Pumps
llweiler All-Optiflow® progressing cavity pumps from Colfax offer up to twice the flow of standard pumps for applications up to 6 bar (87 PSI). Capable of moving any type of liquid, including fibrous and solid materials, they’re well suited to waste, wastewatertreatment and paper-manufacturing applications. According to the company, the pumps feature high power density that helps reduce energy consumption by up to 15%, when compared to standard progressive cavity pumps.
Colfax Fluid Handling A business of Colfax Corp. Monroe, NC For more info, enter 31 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Laser tool for fast and accurate alignment of V-belts pulleys
h Watc O VIDEne Onli
Measuring pulley misalignment with a straightedge or string is cumbersome and requires two people. One person does it easily with SHEAVEMASTER®! You can quickly detect and correct angle, offset and twist misalignment between pulleys. Also available with a Green Line Laser —ideal for outdoor applications. Free Practical Guide to Pulley Alignment, download at www.ludeca.com/pulleys 305-591-8935 • www.ludeca.com For more info, enter 86 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
50 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY
For more info, enter 77 at www.MT-freeinfo.com For more info, enter 87 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Convert To Oil-Free Compressed Air
OGE notes that its BC line of converter products offers new possibilities for pro-ducing environmentally friendly compressed air according to quality Class 0 (ISO 8573-0). They incorporate an innovative catalyst system that splits long hydrocarbon chains of residual oil in compressed air into carbon dioxide and water. The technology circulates compressed air around a receiver containing granulated, catalyst material, simultaneously cracking oil droplets and oil vapors. This results in oil-free compressed air and ultra-clean condensate. BOGE Americas, Inc. Powder Springs, GA
Intelligent And Portable Condition Monitoring
COUT, part of GE’s Bently Nevada product line, is an intelligent suite of portable vibration monitoring and analysis instruments suited for the oil, gas and power-gen industries. The series offers fully integrated, single-provider solutions that support all plant-condition monitoring needs, including dual- or four-channel measurement and dual-plane balancing. The instruments’ field-proven Ascent® software can be programmed with thousands of separate machine definitions covering a number of route choices. GE Measurement & Control A part of GE Oil & Gas Minden, NV
For more info, enter 32 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 33 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 88 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 89 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
MT-ONLINE.COM | 51
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Easily Programmed Alarm Trip
oore Industries’ STA Safety Trip Alarm provides more than a standard alarm trip, monitoring potentially hazardous events and initiating emergency shutdown procedures or alerting personnel of unsafe process conditions. The company says it performs some of the same functions as other safety PLCs, but is easier to program. Process alarm trips and analog outputs are user-configurable via front-panel push buttons. Configurations can be downloaded to multiple STA units with free software. Moore Industries-International, Inc. North Hills, CA For more info, enter 34 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Ideal opportunity to own a growing company The company has been in business for over 30 years, and has a very strong foothold in the Western United States with several national accounts. Specializing in non-destructive testing, accounts include manufacturing facilities, petrochemical plants, office buildings, office parks, shopping malls, financial companies and medical centers. Upwards of 60% of the company’s business on an annual basis is from repeat customers, with an even higher percentage over a 24-month period. There are three offices and a total of 19 full-time employees, most of whom have been with the company for more than six years. Should you have genuine interest, please forward your name, company name, phone number and email address to:
email@example.com For more info, enter 90 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Surge Protection For AC Mains And Branches
TL’s ZoneMaster PRO Type 1 allows users to install UL1449 3rd Edition-listed premium surge protection before or after the main building disconnect. Listed at 20kA in level, it can be installed in UL96A-certified lighting-protection systems. Its versatility makes it appropriate for switchgear, distribution and branch panels in a range of applications. Featuring replaceable, bolt-in modules, the product offers enhanced redundancy, thermal and short-circuit fusing and low let-through with high current impulses. MTL Instruments A business unit of Cooper Crouse-Hinds Houston, TX For more info, enter 35 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Revolutionary Technique for Condition Monitoring SPM®HD is implemented in the Intellinova® Compact, a new addition to the very successful range of SPM Instruments on-line condition monitoring products.
Particularly well suited for Low RPM bearing monitoring, SPM ®HD can be utilized in bearings operating from 1 – 20,000 RPM. For further information, please call or visit our website. Tel. 1-800-505-5636 www.spmhd.com For more info, enter 91 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
52 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY
CAPACITY ASSURANCE MARKETPLACE
Next-Generation Motor Analyzers
ccording to SKF, its Static Motor Analyzer – Baker DX models perform motor and generator analysis faster and more accurately than previous-generation surge test analyzers. They now include lowvoltage inductance, impedance, phase angle and capacitance, coil and DC step voltage tests in a smaller, lighter-weight portable unit. Like their predecessors, the analyzers also conduct winding resistance, megohm, DC HiPot, surge tests and DC bar-to-bar armature tests. All units come with a touchscreen graphical user interface and can be ordered in an array of configurations.
SKF CMC-Fort Collins Part of the SKF Group Fort Collins, CO For more info, enter 36 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
Smart Shop-Floor Management Of Consumable And Returnable Items
upplyPro’s SmartDrawer™ has introduced the concept of individual compartment control for shop-floor cabinets at the point of use. This versatile, plug-&-go solution allows users to choose the best level of access control and accountability for each application. SmartDrawer lids can be set to provide Absolute Control® for singleitem dispense and return, or part-numberlevel control for higher-density management. Available for new shop-floor cabinets or as a retrofit for existing cabinets, drawer by drawer, it can be used as a standalone unit, or combined with other SupplyPro devices. SmartDrawer comes with access to the manufacturer’s SupplyPort data-management offering, as well as with full implementation and on-call support services. SupplyPro San Diego, CA For more info, enter 37 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
7-Step Best Practice Lubrication Program Professional Self-Directed Implementation ToolKit
Tap into your Liquid Gold for less than $20 per day!* Looking to increase asset utilization and maintainability, reduce contamination, downtime, energy consumption and/or your carbon footprint? You’re ready for a 7-Step Best Practice lubrication Program! For more information on this “expert in a box” approach, contact ENGTECH Industries
at 519.469.9173 or email firstname.lastname@example.org * Amortized over one year For more info, enter 92 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
For more info, enter 93 at www.MT-freeinfo.com
MT-ONLINE.COM | 53
INFORMATION HIGHWAY For rate information on advertising in the Information Highway Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 / E-mail: email@example.com Web Spotlight: Grace
PIP is a consortium of process plant owners and engineering construction contractors harmonizing memberâ€™s internal standards for design, procurement, construction and maintenance into industry-wide Practices. PIP has published over 450 Practices. A current listing of published Practices is available on the PIP website at: http://pip.org/practices/index.asp. For more info, enter 95 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.pip.org
Increase Productivity and Safety with Mechanical LOTO
Workers performing mechanical LOTO procedures must isolate electrical energy. Externally-mounted voltage detectors provide a means of checking voltage inside an electrical panel. Without these devices, a mechanic performing mechanical LOTO would be required to work in tandem with an electrician using a voltmeter to physically verify voltage inside an electrical panel. In this case, the electrician is exposed to voltage. With The Combo Unit, the mechanic can single-handedly check for zero electrical energy without any exposure to voltage.
For more info, enter 94 at www.MT-freeinfo.com http://graceport.com
LUDECA, INC. - Preventive, Predictive and Corrective Maintenance Solutions including laser shaft alignment, pulley alignment, bore alignment, straightness and flatness measurement, monitoring of thermal growth, online condition monitoring, vibration analysis and balancing equipment as well as software, services and training. For more info, enter 96 at www.MT-freeinfo.com www.ludeca.com
electric motors and drives
ATP List Services
SQONE.COM Square One Electric 302.678.0400
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www.atplists.com Contact: Ellen Sandkam 847-382-8100 x110 800-223-3423 x110 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com 1300 S. Grove Ave., Suite 105, Barrington, IL 60010
For rate information on advertising in the Classified Section Contact your Sales Rep or JERRY PRESTON at: Phone: (480) 396-9585 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2012 M A I N T E N A N C April E
Volume 25, No. 4 TECHNOLOGY ®
APRIL 2012 Volume 25, No. 4
Your Source For CAPACITY ASSURANCE SOLUTIONS
ALL-TEST Pro, LLC.........................www.alltestpro.com .................................................97 .....................IBC Baldor Electric Company................www.baldor.com ......................................................67 ..........................7 CRC Industries .................................www.crcindustries.com/ei ......................................89 ....................... 51 Des-Case Corporation.....................www.descase.com.....................................................62 ..........................1 Dreisilker Electric Motors Inc.........www.dreisilker.com..................................................79 ....................... 42 EASA ..................................................www.easa.com ..........................................................85 ....................... 47 Electro Static Technology ................www.est-aegis.com...................................................78 ....................... 35 Engtech Industries Inc. ....................www.engtechindustries.com ..................................93 ....................... 53 Exair Corporation ............................www.exair.com/48/123.htm ...................................81 ....................... 45 Foster Printing Services ...................www.fosterprinting.com .........................................65 ..........................4 Fluke...................................................www.fluke.com/madeeasy ......................................98 ......................BC Fluke...................................................wwww.fluke.com/answersnow ..............................260, 280 ...... 38, 39 Gates Corporation ...........................www.gates.com/powerfulbelts ...............................61 .....................IFC Grace Engineered Products. Inc.....info.graceport.com/mt_evolved ............................74 ....................... 26 Grace Engineered Products. Inc.........info.graceport.com/3mt_informationhighway......94 ..........................54 Grainger .................................................www.grainger.com..........................................................66 ............................5 i Quantum Solutions ...........................www.i-qs.com ..................................................................83 ..........................46 Innovator Of The Year.........................www.reliabilityinnovator.com ......................................99 ..........................43 Kluber Lubrication North America ..klubersolutions.com/sustainability2............................69 ..........................12 Ludeca Inc..............................................www.ludeca.com .............................................................86, 96 ..............50, 54 Martin Sprocket & Gear, Inc...............www.martintools.net......................................................73 ..........................25 Meltric Corporation ............................www.meltric.com............................................................82 ..........................45 Miller-Stephenson Chemical Co. ......www.miller-stephenson.com........................................64 ............................4 Mobil Industrial Lubricants................www.signumoilanalysis.com.........................................76 ..........................28 Mobil Industrial Lubricants................www.mobilindustrial.com ............................................77 ..........................29 Motion Industries.................................www.motionindustries.com .........................................63 ............................2 NSK Corporation.................................www.nskamericas.com ..................................................68 ............................9 OilMiser .................................................www.oilmiser.com ..........................................................88 ..........................51 Palmer Wahl Instrumentation Group ...www.wahlheatspy.com...................................................72 ..........................21 Panasonic Computer Solutions Com...www.panasonic.com/toughpad ...................................70 ..........................13 Petro Canada - Suncor ........................www.hydrexsolutions.com............................................261, 281..........40, 41 Predictive Service ..................................www.predictiveservice.com...........................................71 ..........................19 Process Industry Practices...................www.pip.org.....................................................................87, 95 ..............50, 54 SKF CMC-Fort Collins .......................www.bakerinst.com ........................................................75 ..........................27 SPM Instrument, Inc. ..........................www.spmhd.com............................................................91 ..........................52 Strategic Work Systems, Inc................www.swspitcrew.com .....................................................92 ..........................53 Test Products International ................www.testproductsintl.com ............................................80 ..........................45
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MT-ONLINE.COM | 55
viewpoint Jeff Dudley, Corporate Director of Reliability and Maintenance, The Dow Chemical Company
Questions And Answers: Are You Reliable Enough?
hen I say “reliable,” what do I really mean? A dictionary will define the word as “capable of being dependable.” Synonyms include terms like “trustworthy” and “responsible.” With this in mind, I ask the following question: “Are you reliable?” Or, better yet, “Are you reliable enough?” Your answer will tell how much you care about the concept of complete reliability. My definition of reliability is “the constant and consistent ability to meet your commitments to your stakeholders”—all of them. That means your customers, your employees and your shareholders. Does your organization do this? “Constant” means all of the time, every hour, every day, every week and every year. “Consistent” means every person in your organization. Again, does your organization do this? If you’ve answered “yes,” your organization is one of the very few that does these things, and I offer my congratulations! If you’ve answered “no” to these questions, we have a lot to discuss. There are very few organizations that meet the above-referenced level of reliability. That’s because reliability typically is an initiative that an organization sets out to achieve. Reliability, though, can’t be an initiative in that initiatives have a start and usually an end, and because they are normally followed by another initiative. Reliability must become a culture. Quite simply, it’s not what you do, but how you do everything. It’s how you make product, sell product, take orders, pay invoices, etc. Each thing/every thing your organization does is done reliably. It reflects a constant and consistent ability to meet your commitments to your shareholders. The culture of reliability extends to everyone in the organization—and I do mean everyone! Each person in your organization must choose, every time, to do something and not hope that someone else will do it. When people in an organization aren’t personally committed to reliability, they become weak links in your chain. Such individuals might notice unplanned events starting to happen and say others need to deal
with them. That means someone else will need to see a problem situation and take action. Unfortunately, we don’t know when the beginning of an unplanned event would be noticed again (or if it would be noticed in time to prevent a catastrophe). A small, unplanned event that might have been mitigated could turn into a crisis, just because someone who recognizes the importance of minimizing unplanned events wouldn’t take the personal responsibility to act.
Reliability must become a culture. Quite simply, it’s not what you do, but how you do everything. It reflects that constant and consistent ability to meet your commitments to your shareholders. Now you know the reason why many organizations fail to achieve complete reliability. The way you get someone to act is to give him/her a reason to care. We act on and talk about the things we care about. So let me ask several more things of you: “Why do you care about reliability? “Why do care about minimizing unplanned events?” “Do you care enough to change your culture?” The answers to these questions can help you determine if, in fact, you are reliable enough. MT (EDITOR’S NOTE: Jeff Dudley will expand on this topic in an upcoming feature article. Among the items he’ll discuss is the importance of leadership in the quest for complete reliability.)
The opinions expressed in this Viewpoint section are those of the author, and don’t necessarily reflect those of the staff and management of Maintenance Technology magazine.
56 | MAINTENANCE TECHNOLOGY
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Published on Apr 19, 2012