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CHAPTER 23 : THE NEW DEAL

Contents I. 1. 2. 3.

A New Deal Fights The Depression Americans get a New Deal Helping the American People: The New Deal Comes Under Attack:

II.

The Second New Deal Takes Hold The Second Hundred Days Helping Farmes Roosevelt Extends Relief Improving Labor and Other Reforms.

1.

2. 3. 4. III. 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. IV. 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. V. 1.

2.

The New Deal Affects many Groups. The New Deal Bring New Opportunities African-American Activism Mexican-American Fortunes Native Americans Gain Support FDR Creates the New Deal Coalition Culture in the 1930s Movies are a hit: Radio Entertains Artists Decorate America Music Diverse Writers Depict American Life THE IMPACT OF THE NEW DEAL New Deal Reforms Endure Social and Environmental Effects

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SECTION 1: A NEW DEAL FIGHTS THE DEPRESSION Americans get a New Deal President Hoover was re-nominated to be a candidate of the republicans for reelection. However, too many Americans blamed Hoover for doing too little about the depression in America. In the meanwhile, the Democrats put their hopes on Franklin Delano Roosevelt. As the result, he won the election with nearly 23 million votes.

President Roosevelt http://www.google.com.vnimgla ndingq=fdr&imgurl=httpwww.as. miami.eduenglishwiki_blytheima ges883Fdr.jpg&imgrefurl=httpw ww.as.miami.eduenglishwiki_bly theindex.php%3Ftitle%3DChris_D utcher%2527s_Project&usg=__M u1cmtM4Cl8EG5gCYtb3zACcME=&h=5.jpg%20Deal.jpg

FDR was not idle in the waiting time to have his inauguration as president in March 1933. He worked with his carefully picked advisers - known as his “Brain Trust”. FDR began to form a program, which was designed to alleviate the problems from the Great Depression, came to know as the New Deal. Its policies focused on three generals goals: relieve for needy, economic recovery, and financial reform.

Roosevelt’s Brain Trust http://www.dtman.comsteve_pr ivateschoolimages1937scotus.gif

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Roosevelt’s administration launched a period of intense activities known as the Hundred Days. During these days, Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation, which expanded the federal government’s role in the nation’s economy.

The New Deal https://www.inpro.vnfilesThe%20New %20Deal.jpg

Roosevelt declared a bank holiday and closed all banks to prevent further withdrawals. He also persuaded Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act. These acts made the bank systems more reliable for the citizens. President Roosevelt gave his first fireside chat about issues of public concern; it was delivered in clear, simple language, which made Americans feel as if the president were talking directly to them. He explained that the nation’s welfare depended on public support. A few weeks after his chat, many Americans returned their savings to banks.

The New Deal http://www.twainquotes.comnewdeal2 .gif

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Passing the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933, which established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), was another step to reorganize the banking system. The FDIC provided federal insurance for individual bank accounts up to $5,000; and, it also required banks to act cautiously with their costumers’ money. At the same time, Congress and the president also worked to regulate the stock market. In May 1933, the Federal Securities Act was passed which required information on all stock offering and made them liable. Roosevelt also persuaded Congress to approve a bill allowing the manufacture and sale of some alcoholic beverages to gain government revenue through taxing alcohol.

Helping the American People: The Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) sought to raise crop prices by reducing production, which the government achieved by paying farmers to leave land unseeded. This policy upset many Americans, who objected to the destruction of food while many were starving. On the other hand, the policy increased the farm prices and helped farmer a lot. The programs, which provide work project and cash payments were established to relieve the situation. The Civilian Conservation Crops (CCC), decreased unemployment problems by giving jobs to young men and also giving free food, uniforms and lodging in works camp. The Public Works Administration (PWA), a part of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), provided money to states to create jobs chiefly in the construction of schools and other community buildings. When these programs did not work well, Roosevelt established the Civil Works Administration (CWA) in 1933. It immediately provided 4 million jobs. National Recovery Administration (NRA) was established to set prices of many products and established standards. Its aim was to promote recovery by interrupting the trend of wage cuts, falling prices, and layoffs.

CCC http://www.sahistory.org.zapageshandson-classroomclassroompagesprojects grade12lesson7imagesCivilianConservation .jpg

A number of New Deal programs concerned housing and home mortgage problems. The Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) was an example for those programs. Besides, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was also established to help people buy food.

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The New Deal Comes Under Attack: President Roosevelt engaged in the New Deal program, which was agreed to the policy of deficit spending. It only used during economic crisis, but it didn’t end depression. Many said that the New Deal did not help the poor. The Conservative criticized that it gave too much control for the federal government over agriculture and industry. The Supreme Court was against the New Deal and began to strike down two of its programs which are NIRA and AAA for believing that agriculture was a local matter and should be regulated by the States rather than by the federal government. President Roosevelt feared his New Deal might be dismantle, he proposed to the Congress and allow him to replace new judges for the Supreme Court. In 1934, Charles Coughlin, Dr. Francis Townsend, and Huey Long, the three men and several strongest conservative that opposed the New Deal form an organization called the American Liberty League. Charles Coughlin believed that Roosevelt didn’t do enough to help poor and elderly, so he created a plan that gives monthly benefit for the aged. Huey Long was far more popular than other two mans. He initially supported the New Deal then later on opposed the President. He created a program called Share our Wealth.

Huey Long http://faculty.uml.edusgallagherGENDERS TUDIESTXT_fileshuey1a.jpg

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SECTION 2: THE SECOND NEW DEAL TAKES HOLD

Frank D. R oosevelt and his proud Plan: The New Deal. After the first New Deal in 1933, Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) made the Second New Deal under constructed in 1934-1936. By the helped of Eleanor Roosevelt, President FDR was able to know more about the social condition of the people suffering in the Nation. Finally, FDR got reelect for his New Deal in 1936.

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In early 1936, the Supreme Court stroke down the AAA and replaced it with the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act to helped farmers. The Second New Deal also helped the share croppers, migrant workers and many other poor farmers. In 1935, The Resettlement Administration was created, and give loaned to farmers. In 1937, The Resettlement Administration had been replaced by the Farm Security Administration (FSA). They had loaned more than $1 billion to help the farmers and hired photographers to record the difficult situation in rural America.

The R esettlem ent Adm inistration Poster

The Roosevelt administration and Congress set up a series of programs to help the workers. The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was one of the largest programs. The WPA goal was to create as many jobs as possible and as quickly as possible. Between 1935 and 1943, the WPA had used up To $11 billion to give job to about 8 million unskilled workers that built 850 airports, construct and repaired 651,000 miles of roads and streets along with more than 125 public buildings. The WPA also employed professionals to guide cities and made special efforts to help women, minorities, and young people. One of the largest programs that provide education, jobs, counseling and recreation for young people was the National Youth Administration (NYA). In exchange for the school fees, the student worked in their free time as waiter or cleaner at school.

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W orks P rogress Adm inistration (W P A) After the Supreme Court declared the NIRA unconstitutional, they created the National Labor Relation Act or known as the Wagner Act. The Act reestablished the NIRA provision by protected the right of workers to join unions and stop the unfair labor practices such as firing, threatening workers. The Act also created the National Labor Relation Board (NLRB) to listening to the worker’s idea. Then The Wagner Act pass the Fair Labor Standards Act to set the maximum work hours at 44 per weeks, and many others to protect the workers.

The Nation Labor R elation Board in the 1930s.

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Social Security Adm inistration’s Sim ple. In the New Deal Programs, the Social Security Act was also one of the most important achievements. This Act had 3 major parts; it set the insurance for retirees, to tax the workers a payment ranged from $15 to $18 per week, and aids the families with dependent children and the disabled. This Act had provided substantial benefits to millions of Americans even they’re not a complete welfare system. Thanks to the Second New Deal, the electric farm had been widely spread throughout The US. President FDR had created the Rural Electrification Administration (REA) to financed and work with electrical cooperatives to bring electricity to isolated areas. Followed the REA, the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 had been created. It outlawed ownership of utilities by multiple holding companies. Overall, the Second New Deal was a great program that helps Americans to develop a lot during the 1930s. It helped to manage the country better by created different group that organized different things. It’s a great plan that has been created and construct by president FDR and represent his proud in it.

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SECTION 3: The New Deal Affects many Groups One of the most important changes during the New Deal was women had been appointed to several important positions in the government. The first female cabinet member was Frances Perkins. She was the secretary of labor which played a major role in creating the Social Security system and supervised labor legislation. President Roosevelt gained support from his wife and he seeks the support of women voters, he also appointed two female diplomats and a female federal judge. Although women started to gain important position in the government, they still face a lot of discrimination in the workplace; many workers believe that women had taken away job from men. However, the percent of women in the workplace continue to grow even if they face a lot of discrimination. In 1930, only 11.7 percent worker was the female but in 1940, the number had increased into 15.6 percent.

Another change during the new deal was President Roosevelt appointed more than 100 African American to key positions in the government. Mary McLeod Bethune helped organize a “Black Cabinet” of influential African American to advise the Roosevelt administration on racial issues. Eleanor Roosevelt played a key role in opening doors for African Americans in government. Although Roosevelt support African American, he didn’t give them any civil rights because he afraid it would upset his supporter, but he still gained a lot of support from African American.

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Native American also gained some rights during the New Deal. In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act had been passed and they had received full citizenship by law. The act gave lands to entire tribe, children could attend school on reservation and Native American could elect tribal council to govern their reservation.

Indian Reorganization Act

As the result of the Wagner Act and other pro-labor legislation passed during the New Deal, union member enjoyed better working conditions and increased bargaining power. In the union members, President Roosevelt was a “friend of labor” and labor unions supported Roosevelt by donated money to Roosevelt’s reelection campaigns. The union membership grew from less than 3 million to more than 10 million between 1933 and 1941. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) has traditionally restricted to the craft union, most of the AFL leaders opposed industry-wide union that represented all the workers in a given industry, such as automobile manufacturing. Frustrated by this, several leaders formed the Committee for Industrial Organization to organize industrial unions. By 1938, all the unions that made up the group had been expelled from the AFL; the committee changed its name to the Congress of Industrial Organization (CIO). In 1937, a bargaining occurred at Republic Steel plant in Chicago on Memorial Day, ten people were killed and 84 wounded, which later has known as the Memorial Day Massacre.

President Roosevelt gained support from various religious and ethnic groups such as Roman Catholics, Jews, Italians, Irish and Polish as well as from African American. His appeal to these groups was based on New Deal labor laws and work-relief programs, which aided the urban poor. He also appointed many officials of urbanimmigrant backgrounds to several important government positions.

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Section 4: Culture in the 1930s Movies are a hit: Some films offered pure escape from the hard realities of the Depression by presenting of wealth, romance, and good times. One of the most famous film of the era was Gone With the Wind (1939). Another film, Flying Down to Rio (1933) was a light romantic comedy. The dazzling animation of Walt Disney made some notable movies include The Wizard of Oz (1939), Snow White (1937) and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). Comedies like Monkey Business (1931), Duck Soup (1931) became especially popular. Little Caesar (1930) and The Public Enemy (1931) featured hard-bitten characters struggling to succeed in a harsh environment where they faced difficulties.

Radio Entertains: Orson Welles - an actor, director, producer, and writer. He created The War of the Worlds. The complete broadcast of Orson Welles' famous 1938 radio program accompanied by an exploration of the cultural conditions that led to the ensuing panic. Soap opera (by soap companies) - tended to play late morning to early afternoon for homemakers. One of the first worldwide radio broadcasts described for listeners the horrific crash of the Hindenburg. Artists Decorate America: The Federal Art Project paid artists a living wage to produce public art, aimed to increase public appreciation of art and to promote positive images of American society. Project created posters, taught art in the schools, and painted murals on the walls of public building. American painters such as Edward Hopper, Thomas Hart Benton, and Iowa’s Grant Wood whose work includes the famous painting American Gothic.

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Edward Hopper, Room in Brooklyn (1932) Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Thomas Hart Benton, Lord, Heal the Child (1934)

Music: Woody Guthrie used music to capture the hardships of America. He also wrote many songs about the plight of Americans. This Land Is Your Land

Diverse Writers Depict American Life: Many writers received support from Federal Writers’ Project. There were Richard Wright - an African American author wrote .Native Son. John Steinbeck published The Grapes of Wrath (1939) which examined the poor life of Oklahomans who left the Dust Bowl and migrating to California. James T.Farrell with Studs Lonigan trilogy (1932-1935). The Disinherited(1933) of Jack Conroy portrays the violence 8and poverty of the Missouri coalfields. Some writers found hope in the positive values of American. Thornton Wilder with the play Our Town(1938) captures the beauty of smalltown life in England. 13


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Section 5: THE IMPACT OF THE NEW DEAL The third New Deal was created in order to develop the country after the great depression. Many of the supporters think this “New Deal” was going to be successful but from the critics this deal failed to reach its goal. Lots of critics argue over the effect of the New Deal has brought to American.

Over time since the New Deal was established, many conservatives think that President Roosevelt’s policies made the federal government too large and too powerful in order to prevent enterprise and individual initiatives. The supporters contend that the president struck a reasonable balance between two extreme: unregulated capitalism and over-regulated socialism, and help the country recovers from it economic difficulties. On the other hands, the critics think that President Roosevelt didn’t do much to socialize the economic and to eliminate social and economic inequalities.

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The president Roosevelt created federal job in order to regulate the supply and demand. The government creates some agencies like Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to regulate the banking system. The unemployment was still high by thanks to the New Deal that it got lower. The New Deal made the economy stable after the Great Depression. The New Deal did not end the Depression. Nor did it significantly redistribute income. It did, however, provide Americans with economic security that they had never known before

The New Deal helped reduce the suffering of people from the Great Depression. The federal deficit increase from the year 1933 to 1936 and from the period 1937-1938 the deficit lost 100$ million and from the period 1940 to 1943 the deficit increase dramatically about 54$ million. The New Deal legislation, including the Wagner Act and the Fair Labor Standards create the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) to protect the worker rights.

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The New Deal had brought many changes in social and environment. The Social Security system provides an old-age insurance program, employments compensation systems that help Americans in their life. They made low loan for farmer. The value of a loan was determined by the amount of a farmer’s surplus crops and the parity price.

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The Civilian Conservation Corps and The Soil Conservation Service were created to protect the environment and conserve the soil for future use.The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) use water to power electricity and prvent floods in the Tennessee Valley. The government also added to the national park system in the 1930s, established new wildlife refuges and set aside large wilderness areas.

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CITATION

The Whole Group The Americans History Textbook Company: McDougal Littell Author: Gerald A. Danzer J. Jorge Klor de Alva Larry S. Krieger Louis E. Wilson Nancy Woloch

Section 1:

Wikipedia.com New Deal

Falcon8765

Tommy2010

Last edited 24 May 2010

Wikipedia.com Ronhjones Butwhatdoiknow Last edited 19 May 2010

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CHAPTER 23 : THE NEW DEAL www.investopedia.com by Reem Heakal Last edited unknown

ezinearticles.com Davidson, Julian "The Essence of the Emergency Banking Relief Act." The Essence of the Emergency Banking Relief Act. 3 Sep. 2008 EzineArticles.com. 25 May. 2010

Other Small Sources http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/deficit-spending.asp http://content.lib.washington.edu/feraweb/index.html http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-3401800171/american-liber ty-league.html http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1639.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civilian_Conservation_Corps http://www.greatestdepressionsite.org/?page_id=78

Section 2:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Industrial_Recovery_Act Legalskeptic Tim1965

Last edited 26 April 2010

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1851.html Copyright 2001-2010 by Online Highways LLC. All rights reserved. Last edited unknown

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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/32_f_roosevelt/index.html Website Š1996-2009 WGBH Educational Foundation This site is produced for PBS by WGBH

http://www.lkwdpl.org/wihohio/roos-ele.htm

Women in History. Eleanor Roosevelt biography. Last Updated: 3/10/2010. Lakewood Public Library. Date accessed 5/25/2010 .

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1599.html Copyright 2001-2010 by Online Highways LLC. All rights reserved. Last edited unknown http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1609.html Copyright 2001-2010 by Online Highways LLC. All rights reserved.

Last edited unknown http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Labor_Relations_Board Tim1965

Bellfazar

Last edited 16 May 2010

Other Small sources: http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/soilcon.html http://www.fws.gov/laws/lawsdigest/soilcon.html http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe30s/water_13.html http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/nya.htm http://www.civics-online.org/library/formatted/texts/wagner_act.html http://newdeal.feri.org/tva/tva10.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_Utility_Holding_Company_Act_of_1935

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CHAPTER 23 : THE NEW DEAL Section 3: http://www.jstor.org/pss/1189648 by C. E. French © 1938 Duke University School of Law. Last edited unknown

http://nativeamericanfirstnationshistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/indian_reorganization_act_ii Nannette Croce Last editedJun 12, 2006

http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/eueh_02/eueh_02_01041.html Banner, Lois. Women in Modern America: A Brief History. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. Chafe, William. The American Woman: Her Changing Social, Economic, and Political Roles, 1920– 1970. New York: Oxford University Press, 1972. Hartmann, Susan M. The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s. Boston: Twayne, 1982. Kanowitz, Leo. Women and the Law: The Unfinished Revolution. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1969. Rosenberg, Rosalind. Divided Lives: American Women in the Twentieth Century. New York: Hill and Wang, 1992. Women in the Workplace (Issue)

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http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orson_Welles

Lord CornwallisGrunge6910 Last edited 24 May 2010

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fap.html Unknown Author Last editedMay 22, 2009

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_%28radio%29

Zeng8r Andy120290 Last edited 14 May 2010

Some Small sources http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/gallery/hopper1932.jpg http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/gallery/benton1934.jpg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaI5IRuS2aE http://msnbcmedia1.msn.com/j/ap/5a601494-7c2d-4513-9ff4-0107021c4b80.widec.jpg http://it.pinellas.k12.fl.us/Teachers8/BeckertM/images/E70DE2DEA9FE4D0D8D3D77A14254F5C2. jpg http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/macdowell/highlights/wilder/images/mc0031.jpg http://www.coverbrowser.com/image/greatest-novels-of-all-time/39-1.jpg http://www.filmsite.org/gone.html

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CHAPTER 23 : THE NEW DEAL http://www.movieposter.com/posters/archive/main/20/b70-10001 http://www.chonghanggia.gov.vn/images/trade_news/biasachcuawwalt.jpg http://www.oldmovies.net.au/userimages/user1367_1172556085.jpg http://www.filmbuffonline.com/FBOLNewsreel/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2008/10/orsonwelles.jpg

Section 5:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civilian_Conservation_Corps Jusdafax

Rjensen

Lasr edited 24 May 2010

http://www.tva.gov/abouttva/history.htm Patricia Bernard Ezzell Last editted unknown

Some small sources http://www.fdic.gov/ http://www.nlrb.gov/ http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/text/page19_text.html http://libcom.org/files/images/history/depression%20unemployment.JPG http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/31/32716/figures/DIVI553.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Wpa1.JPG/800pxWpa1.JPG http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/24/TVA_water_supply_Wilder.gif 24

Period 2 Chapter 23 : The New Deal  

Ansem, Justin, Ron, Michael, Kristen