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TABLE OF CONTENTS 2. Subject Pronoun 3. Indicative Present Tense Verb 4. Articles 5. Prepositions 6. Ser/Estar (to be) 7. Verbs with Similar Meanings 8. Irregular Verbs & Irregular Yo in Present Tense 9. Stem-Changing Verbs in Present Tense 10. Common Verbs 12. Past Participle 13. Imperative Present Verb Tense 14. Conditional Form (Would) & Should 15. Subjunctive Present Verb Tense 16. Past Tenses: Preterit & Imperfect 17. Past Perfect & Past Perfect Subjuntive 18. Present Progressive (-ing) 19. Simple Future & Informal Future Tense 20. Future Perfect 21. “Acabar de” & “Volver a”

22. Direct Object & Indirect Object Pronouns 23. Reflexive Pronouns 24. Conjunctions 25. Indefinite & Negative Expressions 26. Possesive Adectives 27. Demonstrative Adjectives & Adverbs 28. Questions & Answers 29. Comparisons & Superlatives 30. Por or Para 31. Feelings 32. Colors, Sizes & Adjectives 34. Adverbs 35. Abstract Concepts 36. Locations & Directions 37. Numbers & Amounts 38. Date & Time 39. Months, Dates & Seasons 40. References


SUBJECT PRONOUN Personal (subject) pronouns replace the subject noun in a sentence. This two column format is used to display verb conjugations. *Pronouns agree with gender/plurality.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person

Singular

Plural

yo tĂş ĂŠl*/ella*/usted

nosotros/as* -/ellos*/ellas*/ustedes

Other Pronouns todo/a/s* otro/a/s* algo nadie ambos 2

all other something no one both of them

varias alguien ti alguno cualquiera

several somebody you some anyone

conmigo ninguno nada uno

with me none nothing one


INDICATIVE PRESENT TENSE VERB The indicative mood is used to talk about actions, events, or states that are believed to be facts or true. It is very typical in speech for making factual statements or describing obvious qualities of a person or situation.

-AR -o -as -a

-amos -/-an

-ER -o -es -e

-emos -/-en

-IR -o -es -e

-imos -/-en

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ARTICLES Means “the.� Articles indicate the gender (masculine, feminine) and number (singular, plural) of a noun, as well as whether the noun is known to the reader or the listener (definite, indefinite).

Singular

Plural

4

m f

definitive el la

indefinitive un una

m f

definitive los las

indefinitive unos unas


PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are used to indicate a relationship between two words, linking them together. These words usually show location, direction, or time.

Del = de + el “De” means “of” and “del,” which is formed by combining “de” and “el,” means “of the.” For example, “el perro del niño” is how you would say “the boy’s dog.” Whereas “el perro de el niño” is incorrect (because you must always combine “de” and “el”), “el perro de la niña” is correct (since there is no contraction for “de” and “la”).

Al = a + el “A” means “to” and “al,” which is formed by combining “a” and “el,” means “to the.” For example, “camino al mar” is how you would say “I walk to the sea.” You must always contract “a” and “el,” so “camino a el mar” is incorrect.

en entre por para sobre sin con durante contra hacia bajo cerca según acerca

in between for/by/because of for/in order to about without with during against toward under close according to about 5


SER/ESTAR (TO BE) Ser soy eres es

somos -/son

origin, possession, what its made of, date/time, impersonal expression, where/when, unchanging attributes

Soy feliz. (I am happy by nature.) Él es callado. (He is introverted.) Estar estoy estás está

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estamos -/están

where objects are located, how someone is feeling, adjectives that tell physical, mental, or emotional status

Estoy feliz. (I am currently happy.) Él está callado. (He is being quiet.)


VERBS WITH SIMILAR MEARNINGS Saber & Conocer (to know) to know a fact

to be aquainted/famillar with someone/thing

Pedir & Preguntar (to ask) to request for a thing or action

to ask for information

Salir & Dejar (to leave) to exit or go away

to leave an object somewhere

Tener & Haber (to have) to possess

as an auxiliary verb with past participle

Solicitar & Aplicar (to apply) to apply for a job

to apply “oneself” or something (ex: lotion)

Jugar & Tocar (To play) for games

for musical instruments (also to touch)

Llevar & Tomar & Sacar (to take) to carry or transport

to take for one’s use; transport, medication

to remove 7


IRREGULAR VERBS & IRREGULAR YO in present tense Tener (to have) tengo tienes tiene

tenemos -/tienen

Ir (to go) voy vas va

vamos -/van

Venir (to come)

Irregular Yo

vengo venimos vienes -/viene vienen

Otherwise conjugated normally

Decir (to say) digo dices dice

decimos -/dicen

Poder (to be able to) Haber (to have done) puedo podemos puedes -/puede pueden 8

he has ha

hemos -/han

Hacer (to make) hago haces hace More poner salir traer dar saber ver conducir escoger

hacemos -/hacen Examples: pongo (I place/put) salgo (I go out/leave) traigo (I bring) doy (I give) sĂŠ (I know) veo (I see) conduzco (I drive) escojo (I choose)


STEM-CHANGING VERBS in present tense E -> IE Querer (to want/to love) quiero quieres quiere

queremos -/quieren

More Examples: entender to understand pensar to think/plan perder to lose preferir to prefer empezar to begin

E -> I

O -> UE

Pedir (to ask for)

Volver (to return)

pido pides pide

vuelvo volvemos vuelves -/vuelve vuelven

pedimos -/piden

More Examples: repetir to repeat servir to serve

More Examples: dormir to sleep almorzar to have lunch encontrar to find jugar to play poder to be able/can recordar to remember so単ar to dream 9


COMMON VERBS abandonar abrir acabar aceptar actuar alcanzar alquilar analizar andar aparecer aplicar aprender asumir atender aumentar ayudar a単adir beber buscar caer cambiar caminar cerrar colocar comenzar

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drop out open finish accept act attain/reach rent analyze walk show up apply learn assume attend increase help add drink look for fall change walk close place begin

comer comprar comprender comprobar conocer conseguir considerar construir contar continuar controlar correr crear creer cubrir dar defender definir dejar demostrar desarrollar descubrir despertar dormir elegir

eat buy understand check know get consider build tell continue control run create believe cover give defend define leave show develop discover awakening sleep choose

eliminar empezar encontrar entender entrar escribir escuchar esperar establecer estar estudiar evitar existir explicar formar ganar hablar impedir iniciar intentar jugar leer llamar llegar llevar

remove begin find understand enter write hear expect/want establish be study avoid exist explain form earn/win speak prevent start intent to/try play read call arrive carry/wear


llover lograr mantener matar mejorar mirar morir mostrar nadar observar obtener ofrecer olvidar oĂ­r pagar participar partir pasar pedir pensar perder permitir pesar poner preparar

rain achieve keep kill get better/improve look at die show swim observe get offer forget hear pay participate leave/break happen ask think lose allow weigh place prepare

presentar producir quedar querer realizar recibir reconocer recordar recuperar reducir regresar repetir resolver responder romper saber salir seguir sentir ser servir subir sufrir superar terminar

present tocar produce tomar stay trabajar want tratar perform usar receive utilizar recognize vender remember venir get it back vivir reduce volver give back/return repeat solve answer break know go out follow feel be serve go up suffer live through/get over end up

play drink work try use use sell come live return

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PAST PARTICIPLE A past participle is like adding an -ed or -en to a verb in English. Can function as an adjective, a predicative, or as a verb in conjunction with haber to form the past perfect and future perfect tenses.

Irregular Past Participles

-AR

-ER

-IR

-ado

-ido

-ido

hablar - ar + ado = hablado to speak = spoken comer - er + ido = comido to eat = eaten vivir - ir + ido = vivido to live = lived 12

A few verbs in Spanish have irregular forms that you will need to memorize. abrir abierto (to open) cubrir cubierto (to cover) decir dicho (to say) escribir escrito (to write) hacer hecho (to do) morir muerto (to die) poner puesto (to put) romper roto (to break) ver visto (to see) volver vuelto (to return)


IMPERATIVE PRESENT VERB TENSE The imperative mood is used to tell someone to do something in a direct manner, or simply, a command. For a softer command, the subjunctive is often used.

Tú Command

Nosotros Command

-AR -> -a -ER -> -e -IR -> -e

Vamos a + infinitive

ex: ¡Escribe el ensayo! (Write the essay!)

Pronoun placement: The pronoun is attached to the end of affirmative commands and the verb carries an accent mark to maintain its original stress. ex: Tráemelo. (Bring it to me.)

(“let’s...”)

ex: Vamos a llamarlo. (Let’s call him.) ex: Vamos a ir a la playa. (Let’s go to the beach.)

Indirect Command Que + subjunctive form verb ex: Que lo haga ella. (Let her do it.) ex: Que lo hagas tú. (You do it.)

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CONDITIONAL FORM (WOULD) AND SHOULD “Would”

“Should”

-AR, -ER & IR

Deber + infinitive

-ía -ías -ía

debería deberías debería

-íamos -/-ían

ex: ¿Reciclarias envases de aluminio? (Would you recycle aluminum cans?)

deberíamos -/deberían

ex: Deberias conservar recursos. (You should reserve resources)

Conditional Perfect (conditional haber + past participle) habría habrías habría 14

habríamos -/habrían

ex: Yo habría comprado los regalos pero no tenía tiempo. (I would have bought the gifts, but I didn´t have time.)


SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT VERB TENSE The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.

-AR -e -es -e

-emos -/-en

-ER -a -as -a

-amos -/-an

-IR -a -as -a

-amos -/-an

ex: No creo que Luis vaya a Londres. (I don’t believe that Luis is going to London.)

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PAST TENSES: PRETERITE & IMPERFECT Preterite Tense The preterite is used for actions considered completed, actions that have definite beginning and end points.

-AR -é -amos -aste -/-ó -aron

Imperfect Past Tense Used for actions in the past that do not have a definite end. These can be actions that are not yet completed or refer to a time in general in the past.

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-ER -í -emos -iste -/-ió -ieron

-IR -i -iste -ió

-imos -/-ieron

ex: Gasté mucho dinero en comida. (I spent a lot of money on food.)

-AR -aba -abas -aba

-ábamos -/-aban

-ER & -IR -ía -ías -ía

-íamos -/-ían

ex: Estaba durmiendo cuando el teléfono sonó. (I was sleeping when the telephone rang.)


PAST PERFECT & PAST PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE Also known as the pluperfect, the past perfect describes an action in the past that happened before another action in the past.

Imperfect Haber + Past Participle había habías había

habíamos -/habían

ex: Había visto ya a mi primo. (I had already seen my cousin.) ex: Ellos habían puesto los pasteles en la mesa. (They had put the cakes on the table.)

Completed actions that had happened before another past action, Conditional constructions, Hypothetical situations that could have happened, but didn’t.

Imperfect Subjunctive of Haber + Past Participle hubiera hubieras hubiera

hubiéramos -/hubieran

ex: Si hubiera/hubiese sabido, habría venido. (If I had known, I would have come.) ex: El juez no pensó que el testigo hubiera/hubiese mentido. (The judge didn´t think the witness would have had lied.) 17


PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (-ING) The present progressive tells what a person “is doing” right now.

estar + verb-ando/iendo Hablar (to speak) estoy hablando estás hablando está hablando

estamos hablando -/están hablando

-AR -> ando -ER -> iendo -IR -> iendo

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SIMPLE FUTURE & INFORMAL FUTURE TENSE The simple future loosely indicates that someone “will” or “shall” do something. The simple future is used for making assumptions about the present (probably), making predictions about the future (will), and giving solemn commands (shall). The informal future is used mostly in spoken Spanish to express future actions.

Simple Future -AR, -ER & IR -é -emos, -ás -éis -á -án ex: Anita estará en la playa ahora. (Anita is probably at the beach right now.) ex: Encontrará un trabajo bueno. (He will find a good job.) ex: No robarás. (You shall not steal.)

Informal Future (to be going to + infinitive)

Ir (to go) + a/al voy vas va

vamos -/van

ex: Voy a estudiar. (I am going to study.)

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FUTURE PERFECT The future perfect tense is a combination of the past participle and the simple future of the verb haber. The future perfect is used to express an action that “will have been” completed at a certain point in the future.

Simple Future Haber + past particple habré habrás habrá

habremos -/habrán

ex: Habré terminado mi trabajo para diciembre. (I will have finished my work by December.)

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“ACABAR DE” & “VOLVER A” Volver a + Infinitive

Acabar de + Infinitive

(to do something again)

(to have just done something)

vuelvo vuelves vuelve

volvemos -/vuelven

ex: Cristina vuelve a hablar con mi mamá. (Christina speaks with my mom again.)

acabo acabas acaba

acabamos -/acaban

ex: Acaban de borrar el archivo. (They have just erased the file.)

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DIRECT OBJECT & INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS Direct Object Pronouns (DOP) Direct objects are nouns which receive the action of a verb in a sentence. DOPs replace that noun and are placed before conjugated verb or attached to an infinitive.

me te lo/la

nos -/los/las

ex: Te quiero. (I love you.) ex: Sandra threw it. (Sandra la tiró.) ex: Quiero verlo. (I want to see it.)

Indirect Object Pronouns (IOP) Indirect objects tell “to whom” or “for whom” something is done. IOPs are the replacements for indirect objects, which are always personal nouns. Comes before conjugated verb or attached to an infinitive. When both the direct and indirect object pronouns are in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun goes in front of the direct object pronoun.

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me te le

nos ex: Me compró una rosa. -/- (He bought a rose for me.) les ex: Necesito comprarte un sombrero. (I need to buy you a hat.)

ex: Marcos nos la trajo. (Marcos brought it to us.) ex: Dámelo. (Give it to me.) ex: No te la tengo. (I don’t have it for you.)


REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Reflexive pronouns work with a reflexive verb to indicate that a person is performing the action toward or for him/herself. They are placed before conjugated verb or attached to an infinitive.

Reflexive Pronouns me te se

nos -/se

ex: Me lavo las manos. (I wash my hands.) ex: Lo quiero ver. /Quiero verlo. (I want to see it.) ex: Me alegro de ganar. (I am happy to win.)

Common Reflexive Verbs with Reflexive Pronouns: alegrarse (de) divertirse enamorarse (de) enfermarse enojarse con olvidarse (de) mirarse ducharse dormirse divertirse (con) ponerse

to become happy to have fun to fall in love with to become sick to become angry with to forget to look at oneself to shower to go to sleep to enjoy oneself with to put on 23


CONJUNCTIONS Y, E, O, U y o si que porque ni pero cuando aunque sino mientras como

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and or if than why neither but when although but while as

The word for “and” in Spanish is “y,” and the word for “or” is “o.” However, if the word after “and” starts with an “i” or “hi” (which sounds the same as “i” because the “h” in Spanish is always silent), then you need to use “e” instead of “y.” For example “sons and daughters” is “hijos e hijas.” Similarly, if the word after “or” starts with “o” or “ho,” then you have to use “u” instead of “o.” For example, “dog or bear” is “perro u oso.”

Sí Versus Si Although “sí” and “si” sound the same, “sí” (with an accent mark) means “yes” and “si” means “if.”


INDEFINITE & NEGATIVE EXPRESSIONS Indefinite

Negative

algo

something/ anything

nada

nothing/ not anything

alguien

someone/ anyone

nadie

nobody/ no one

algun/ any/some algúno/a(s)

ningún/ none/not any ninguno/a(s) nunca/ never jamas

siempre

always

también

also/too

tampoco

neither

o... o

either...or

ni...ni

neither... nor

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POSSESIVE ADJECTIVES Short Form The most common way to express possession and must agree with the noun, precedes noun.

Plural

Singular mi tu su

nuestro/a -/sus

mis tus sus

nuestros/as -/su/s

ex: Es mi libro. (That book is mine.)

Long form Emphasize the owner of one noun, follows noun.

Singular mio/a tuyo/a suyo/a

nuestro/a -/suyo/a

Plural mios/as tuyos/as suyos/as

nuestros/as -/suyos/as

ex: 多Esos zapatos son tuyos? (Are those your shoes?) 26


DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES & ADVERBS Singular

Plural

this/these

m

este

estos

f

esta

estas

that/those

m

ese

esos

f

esa

esas

that/those

m

aquel

aquellos

f

aquella

aquellas

(close to me) (close to you) (over there)

Adverb aquí (here) allí (there) allá (over there)

these can also be used as pronouns

(this one/these ones, that one/those ones, that/those)

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS Questions cómo cuál cuándo cuánto/as dónde de dónde

how/what which when how many where from where

a dónde por qué qué quién de quién(es)

where to why what who whose

Answers Es/Son... Hay un/a (unos/unas)... Necesito... Tengo... 28

It is/They are.. There is a (are some)... I need... I have...


COMPARISONS & SUPERLATIVES tan + (ajective/adverb) + como = as (xxx) as tanto/a(s) (noun) + como = as (many/much) as más/menos + (adjective/adverb/noun) + que = more than/less than (verb) + más/menos + que

ex: Estudio más que tú. (I study more than you.)

(definitive article) + más/menos/(adjectice) + de ex: Soy la más alta. (I am the tallest.)

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POR OR PARA (for) Por

• • • • • • • •

during because of on behalf of through along by around + estar = to be about/ to do something

Para • in order to + infinitive • express destination • work objective (going to be a pilot) • deadlines • comparisons (for december, the weather is nice)

Idioms with Por por ahora for now por aquí around here por eso that’s why 30

por ejemplo for example por último lastly por favor please por lo general in general por fin finally por supuesto of course


FEELINGS alegr铆a amistad amor celebraci贸n curiosidad deseo dolor esperanza felicidad feliz humor miedo

happiness friendship love celebration curiosity desire pain hope happiness happy humor fear

nervioso personalidad placer satisfacci贸n sentimiento soledad sonrisa sorpresa temor tensi贸n triste

nervous personality pleasure satisfaction feeling loneliness smile surprise fear tension sad

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COLORS, SIZES & ADJECTIVES rojo amaranjado amarillo verde azul morado marrón negro gris blanco grande pequeño largo alto corto enorme tamaño gran bajo

32

red orange yellow green blue purple brown black grey white big little long high short great size great low

In general, adjectives follow the nouns they describe. They reflect the gender and number of the word they describe. The exceptions are descriptive adjectives that emphasize an essential quality of a noun, possessive adjectives, demonstrative adjectives, and meaning-changing adjectives. adecuada amplia antiguos barato bilingüe bonito brillante buen básico cansado capaz caro cierto claro clásico comunes

right wide old cheap bilingual beautiful bright good basic tired able expensive true clear classic common

consciente conveniente diferentes difícil disponible distintos dulce duro débil eficaz elevado eléctrico enfermo escaso especiales excelente

aware extraño convenient famoso different feo difficult femenino available formal different fuerte sweet ideal hard iguales weak independiente effective industrial high infantil electric inmediato ill intelectual scarce inteligente special interesante excellent joven

strange famous ugly female formal strong ideal equal independent industrial infant immediate intellectual intelligent interesting young


MORE ADJECTIVES juntos justo legales libre limpio loco lógico mal malo mayor mejor menor mismo moderna mundial máxima mínima múltiples nacional necesario negativa nuevo numerosos original oscuro

together fair legal free cleansed crazy logical evil bad higher best/better less same modern worldwide maximum minimum multiple national necessary negative new numerous original dark

particular pasado pendiente peor perdido perfecto plano pobre popular positivo presentes previa privado probable profunda propios próxima pura real reciente regular revolucionario rico rápido segura

particular last pending worst lost perfect flat poor popular positive present previous private likely deep own next pure real recent regular revolutionary delicious/rich fast safe

sencillo siguientes similares simple sola sucio suficiente superiores tanto terrible tradicional tranquilo universal verdaderos viejo vivo ácido último único

easy following similar simple alone dirty enough top so much terrible traditional calm universal real old alive acid last one only

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ADVERBS Follows the word it describes. The -mente ending is similar to the -ly ending in English. absolutamente actualmente adelante además ahora allí alrededor anteriormente antes apenas aproximadamente aquí así aún bastante bien casi completamente

34

absolutely actually ahead also now there around previously before barely approximately here so yet quite all right almost completely

debajo definitivamente demasiado despacio después donde entonces especialmente exactamente finalmente fácilmente general generalmente igualmente inmediatamente jamás lejos lentamente luego menos mucho más necesariamente normalmente nuevamente

below definitely too slowly then where so especially exactly finally easily general generally equally immediately never far slowly later less a lot more necessarily normally newly

perfectamente posiblemente principalmente probablemente prácticamente quizá quizás realmente recientemente relativamente rápidamente seguramente siempre simplemente solamente supuesto sólo también tampoco tan tanto todavía totalmente ya únicamente

perfectly possibly mainly probably practically maybe maybe really recently relatively quickly surely always simply only supposed alone also neither so so much still totally already only


ABSTRACT CONCEPTS acceso acciones actividades altura aspecto belleza calidad cambio cargo carácter caída comportamiento concentración conciencia conducta construcción contenido creación crecimiento críticas código edad esfuerzo excepción experiencia

access actions activities height aspect beauty quality change position character drop behavior concentration awareness behaviour construction content creation growth reviews code age effort exception experience

expresión extensión fracaso gesto honor identidad imagen impacto importancia influencia intensidad memoria mirada motivos movimiento necesidad objetivo obra orden origen paz peligro pensamiento posibilidades preocupaciones

expression extension failure gesture honor identity image impact importance influence intensity memory look reasons movement need objective work order origin peace danger thought posibilities concerns

presencia principio proceso propuestas propósito práctica pérdida realidad recursos relación ruido servicio sesión significado sombra suerte sueño tiempo tipo unidad verdad visión

presence beginning process proposals purpose practice loss reality means relationship noise service session meaning shadow luck sleep time kind unit true view

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LOCATIONS & DIRECTIONS al lado de a la derecha de a la izquierda de cerca de delante de detras de enfrente de entre lejos (de)

36

next to to the right of to the left of nearby in front of behind facing across from between far (from)

lado centro posición entrada salida llegada búsqueda orientación viaje dirección señal norte sur oeste este

side center position entry departure arrival search orientation journey address signal north south west east


NUMBERS & AMOUNTS uno dos tres cuatro cinco seis siete ocho nueve diez

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

once doce trece catorce quince diecis茅is diecisiete dieciocho diecinueve viente

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

cien 100 mil 1,000 mill贸n 1,000,000

veinticinco treinta cuarenta cincuenta sesenta setenta ochenta noventa

cuarto 1/4 tercio 1/3 medio 1/2

25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

alguno bastante cuanto demasiado mucho ninguno poco suficiente varios cada muchos todos pocos cuantos ambos

some plenty as much too much a lot none a little enough various each a lots of all few how many both of them 37


DATE & TIME Es el # de (mes). It is the # of the (month). ¿Cuál es la fecha hoy? What is the date today? Hoy es el # de (mes). Today is the # of (month). ¿A qué hora es la clase? What time is the class? Es a las ocho y media. It’s at 8:30. por la (mañana, tarde, noche) in the (morning, afternoon, night) 1:00 2:00 pm 5:20 6:50 4:45 4:30 38

Es la una. Son las dos de la tarde. Son las tres y veinte. Son las siete menos diez. Son las cinco menos cuarto. Son las cuatro y media.

mediodia medianoche punto madrugada

noon midnight “sharp” dawn


MONTHS, DAYS & SEASONS Months enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre

January February March April May June July August September October November December

Days of the Week domingo lunes martes miercoles jueves viernes sĂĄbado

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursay Friday Saturday

Seasons la primavera el verano el otoĂąo el invierno

the spring the summer the fall the winter 39


REFERENCES SpanishDict.com

Duolingo

Google Translate ยกArriba!: comunicaciรณn y cultura

A fanastic website for all this definitions and grammer. Straight forward and extensive guides that much of the verbage in this tomb originates from. A great free, game based language learning app and website. Highly recommended for daily practice! A bit obvious, but essential in app and web form. The spanish textbook I can recommend. Buy an older edition for cheap!

Agradecimientos especiales a Miguel, Tulio, Gary y Susan por toda su ayuda. ยกMuchas gracias! 40


Profile for Anna Jo Beck

BBBS #6: Spanish Grammar  

Hoja de Trampas, or "sheet of cheats" is a reference guide for intermediate Spanish grammar

BBBS #6: Spanish Grammar  

Hoja de Trampas, or "sheet of cheats" is a reference guide for intermediate Spanish grammar

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