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Making predictions Modal perfect Breaches of privacy Communication strategies Indirectness Interaction Monitoring at work

Security and privacy Making predictions

4 Which of the predictions in exercise 3 do you think may also be true for your country? How would you rewrite the ones that you think are not true? I think it’s unlikely that credit card payments will decrease in popularity.

Listening: Plastic money 1 Choose two questions and discuss them. 1 How do you think credit card security is going to improve? 2 In your opinion, is there going to be more or less credit available over the next couple of years?

Grammar: Making predictions

3 How do you think the way people pay for the things they buy is going to change in the next few years? 4 What do you think will happen to debit card customers in the years to come? 2.19 Listen to people in the street answering the questions above. Match each answer to the appropriate question. Interview C = Question

Interview B = Question

Interview D = Question

sure something won't happen

Predictions and probability We can make predictions and express degrees of probability in various ways.

3 Listen to the interviews again and complete the sentences.

1 We can use these modals (see Unit 2): may / may not; might / might not; could.

1 I think it’s popularity.

Scanners may / might / could replace traditional credit cards. (= it is possible)

that credit card payments will decrease in

2 It’s turn to mobile banking.

that more and more consumers will

3 So, really, easier.

whether access to credit will be be

be a great improvement in

7 The number of credit card customers is sharply over the next few years.

It will definitely be more difficult to spend. Plastic cards probably won’t be safer to use.

5 Well, plastic cards won’t become any safer to use – they’ll continue to get stolen or lost. 6 So there’s security in the next few years.

Scanners may well / might well / could well replace credit cards. (= it is more sure – the addition of well signals an increased feeling of certainty) 2 We can use will / won’t together with an adverb.

4 For those who have credit cards, it more difficult to spend.

to decline

8 It’s that debit cards will become everybody’s preferred plastic. 92

5 We use the phrases you completed in exercise 3 to show how sure or not we are about the predictions we make. Put the numbers of the phrases in what you feel is the correct place on the line. Then read the notes below. sure something will happen


Interview A = Question

→ In my country, credit card payments definitely won’t decrease in popularity.

Security will certainly continue to be an issue. Note that such adverbs normally come after will but before won’t. 3 We often use a lexical phrase: it’s (highly / quite) unlikely that / it’s (quite) probable that / I doubt whether / there’s no (little / not much) chance of / there’s sure to be, etc. >> For more information on predictions and probability, see pages 166–167.


6 Complete the second sentence in each pair so that it means about the same as the first sentence. Use between three and five words, including the word given. 1 I don’t think parking meters will ever accept credit cards. doubt

Speaking: What does the future hold? 7 Work in pairs. Which of the words or phrases from the Grammar table would you choose instead of will in these sentences? Discuss your opinions. The internet will have very serious problems.

parking meters will ever accept credit cards. 2 Consumer card usage will drop sharply. sure sharp drop in consumer card usage.


3 Credit cards are going to become less available and more expensive.

Credit cards will disappear completely. Most people will choose security over privacy. Intelligence agencies will be able to scan irises from a distance. Artificial noses in doorways will identify people by their unique body odour. Everyone will have a biometric identity card.

bound Credit cards

A: It’s highly likely that the internet will run into serious problems.

less available and more expensive.

4 Banks will never value low-end, high-risk customers.

B: Why do you think so?

chance ever valuing low-end, high-risk customers.


5 Banks are unlikely to discontinue all their reward programmes. probably all their reward programmes.


6 I’m sure credit card fees will increase significantly. definitely increase in credit card fees.


7 I don’t think I’ll apply for a credit card. I’d be in the red all the time! unlikely I’ll apply for a credit card. I’d be in the red all the time! 8 Paper money probably won’t disappear in the near future. likely Paper money

disappear in the near future.

A: Well, …

8 Write your own predictions for the distant or immediate future about three of these topics.

• • • • • • • •

yourself one of your colleagues a member of your family a celebrity of your choice a political figure of your choice your favourite football team the euro the Chinese economy

Then work in pairs and discuss your predictions. A: I’ll definitely start learning to play tennis. B: Really? Why tennis? A: Well, I …

TALKING POINT • Do you think that living on credit causes too many problems for people – and for countries? • Were things better when people saved up to buy things?



Modal perfect

Reading: Security? What’s that? 1 Answer these questions. 1 Where do security breaches usually happen? 2 What famous security breaches have you heard of?

2 Read the article and discuss these questions. 1 What did the UN security guards do wrong? 2 How do you think the actor felt before, during and after this promotional stunt?

3 2.20 Listen to Renata Miller, an American marketing executive, give her views on the incident at the UN. How positive or negative do you think she will be?

Grammar: Modal perfect 4 Read the information in the table. Then listen again and complete the examples. Modal perfect We form the modal perfect with modal + have + past participle. We can use the modal perfect to: 1 criticize or comment on past actions. This security breach 1


The guards 2 identity.

happened. the actor’s

2 speculate about events in the past. The whole idea 3 failure.

a terrible

I think the guys behind the stunt 4 everything very carefully. It 5 willing to take the risk.

easy to find an actor

>> For more information on the modal perfect, see page 167.

5 Complete the modal perfect forms to make meaningful sentences. 1 I can’t access my online account. I keyed in the wrong password. 2 Good thing you didn’t press those two keys together. You erased all the data from your hard drive! 3 Last month, ten people managed to enter the building without a pass. The head of security been too pleased with the guards on duty! 4 I’m afraid it’s too late to sign up for the computer course. You done it last week. been utterly exhausted. He 5 Milo literally fell asleep at his desk! 6 You given him your password. What if he wasn’t from the IT department as he claimed to be?


KFC at the UN? ky Fried ating the Kentuc A man imperson managed Colonel Sanders Chicken founder New York headquarters in to enter the UN ial. with a senior offic and shake hands iliar st food icon’s fam Dressed in the fa tor ck bow tie, the ac white suit and bla ss to the rity to gain acce evaded tight secu even of the complex. He restricted areas ident es pr e th th ograph wi posed for a phot the l Assembly, before of the UN Genera d. cte eje d and he was alarm was raise at an for the UN said th A spokeswoman to the been launched in investigation had t up by which was dream security breach, not ld ou sh y stunt. ‘It KFC as a publicit she said. have happened,’

B Word focus: Compound nouns 6 Match a noun from Box A to a noun from Box B to make compound nouns. Then use them to complete the article below. A












A sweet way into people’s PCs

A survey of 1 found that 71 per cent were willing to reveal their 2 for a bar of chocolate. Workers we re asked a series of qu estions which included ‘What’s your password?’, to wh ich 37 per cent immediately gave their password. If they initially refused, the res earchers made a com me nt like ‘I bet it’s to do with you r pet or child’s name’. At this, a further 34 per cent rev ealed their passwords, but realized within seconds that they had been tak en in, and said they should have been more caref ul. Many explained the origin of their passwords, such as ‘my team – Arsenal’, ‘my 3 ’s name – Sarah’. The most common passw ord categories were rel atives’ or close friends’ 4 , followed by 5 and pets. One of the mo st common passwords wa s … ‘password’!

7 Read the KFC article again and find at least five compound nouns.

Speaking: Stories from keywords 9 Work in groups of three. Take it in turns to ask and answer questions about three real stories of security breaches. Story 1: Student A: Turn to File 11, page 115. Students B and C: Turn to File 28, page 119. Story 2: Student B: Turn to File 49, page 123. Students A and C: Turn to File 56, page 124. Story 3: Student C: Turn to File 90, page 132. Students A and B: Turn to File 95, page 134.

10 Work in groups of three. Reflect on the different people in your stories. 1 How would you criticize the following people?

• • • • • •

Haisong Jiang the Newark Airport authorities the Salahis the White House security officers the Slovak authorities the Irish police Haisong Jiang shouldn’t have gone into the secure area.

8 Discuss these questions. 1 How many different internet passwords do you use? How do you remember them? 2 How would you evaluate these passwords in terms of safety and usability? a mariedeschamps (= user’s first name + surname) b vwgolf&4701 (= user’s car + & + last four digits of number plate) c 21August1990 (= user’s date of birth) d ginger (= user’s cat’s name)

2 Speculate about how the following people felt after the event.

• • • • • •

Haisong Jiang the passengers at Newark Airport the Salahis the White House social secretary the Slovak authorities the Slovak electrician Haisong Jiang must have felt sorry for what he did.

e f@23rfg$nsq%&zx495 f intermilan (= user’s favourite football team)

The passengers can’t have been too pleased about the delays.

g IMyours4ever

TALKING POINT • What could organizations do to help employees with internet security issues? • What do organizations do to ensure the personal security of their staff? 95


Breaches of privacy Listening: A Bigger Brother

Word focus: The law

1 Discuss these questions.

5 Choose the correct option to complete these sentences from the radio news item. Then go to the audio script on page 152 to check your answers.

1 How important is privacy when you are a highschool student? 2 What do schools and parents sometimes do that makes teenagers feel their privacy is being invaded? 3 Should school authorities carry out any kind of surveillance on children?


2.21 Work in pairs or in small groups. Look at these keywords from a radio news item and try to predict what the news item is about. Then listen and check. school webcam laptop lawsuit home


Listen again and answer these questions.

1 What was special about the laptop the school district gave the students? 2 How did the student and his parents discover that the computer was equipped with security software? 3 How did the school authorities justify their actions? 4 How widespread does this kind of surveillance technology seem to be?

4 Discuss these questions. 1 Were the student and his parents right to go to court? 2 Would the school’s actions be legal in your country?


1 The parents of a high-school student from Philadelphia have made / filed / complained / faced a lawsuit against the school district. 2 He was charged / sentenced / judged / accused of bad behaviour in his home. 3 The only evidence the school was able to present / judge / make / examine to support the accusation was a photograph taken from the webcam embedded in the laptop. 4 Blake’s lawyers have also expressed serious concern over the officials’ actions and said they could face criminal trials / cases / charges / verdicts.

C 6 Match these sentence halves. 1 If you don’t withdraw your allegations,

a that the defendant intended to cause bodily harm.

2 It’s highly likely that the case will be heard

b her bank account had been accessed fraudulently.

3 The former interior minister denied

c over its failure to protect its workers.

4 The company faces a number of lawsuits

d he’ll certainly contact his lawyer.

5 The prosecuting lawyer managed to prove

e charges of corruption and money laundering.

6 She produced evidence that

f in the Court of Appeal.

7 Complete this extract from a newspaper article with the verbs in the box. brought charged faced heard intervened removed

Google executives face Milan trial In 2006, an incident at a school in Turin caused outrage in Italy. Four boys were filmed teasing another boy, who has Down’s syndrome. A three-minute mobile phone recording of the incident was uploaded to Google Video, where it was seen by thousands of users over almost two months before by Google after the Italian government and police being 1 2 . An Italian prosecutor then 3 criminal charges against with criminal four Google executives. The four executives were 4 defamation against the disabled boy and with breaching the Italian privacy up to three years in prison if found guilty of charges code. They 5 of defamation and of failing to protect the boy’s privacy. The case was 6 at the Milan criminal court in February 2010.

8 Go through exercises 5, 6 and 7 and complete this record of some of the collocations that you came across. 1 to f

a lawsuit (against somebody)


to d


2 to f

a lawsuit


to b

charges (against somebody)

3 to p



to w

4 to p



to h

5 to f

allegations a case


Speaking: What’s your verdict? 9 Work in pairs. Consider carefully the Blake Robbins vs. Lower Merion School District case in exercises 2 and 3.

• First, discuss the case. What do you think the outcome was? • Then, compare your verdict against the actual court ruling (File 57, page 124). Any surprises? 10 Work in new pairs. Consider the Google case in exercise 7.

• First, discuss the case. What do you think the outcome was? • Then, compare your verdict against the actual court ruling (File 22, page 118). Any surprises? 11 Work in small groups. Telecommuting (i.e. working at home using a computer connected to a company’s main office) is a rapidly growing trend in a number of countries. It is said to be ‘the future of work’. But how should employers monitor telecommuters?

• Discuss the pros and cons of equipping telecommuters’ computers with a webcam which would allow employers to monitor them.

• Make sure you look at the issue from both the employer’s and the employee’s point of view.

TALKING POINT Some people say ‘If you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to worry about’. What do you think? 97

9 Communication strategies Indirectness Listening: Requests 1 Work in pairs. Look at these situations and answer the questions.

1 At work: Marianne’s computer has just frozen and she doesn’t know what to do about it. She asks Geoff, a colleague, for help. What could she say?

2 2.22 Listen to the conversations for the three situations in exercise 1. Work in pairs. Did the people say what you expected? The conversations were all natural except for one. Which one do you think it is and why? 3 2.23 Listen to someone talking about the way English speakers make requests in exercise 2. Some things she says are correct and some are wrong. Which ones are wrong? 4

Listen to the first part of the commentary again and complete the summary. In most English-speaking countries, the way in which we express requests is influenced by at least three 1 :

• the 2

the social

between the interlocutors (the greater , the more formal the language)


relationships (do the interlocutors have 5 6 and power, or is one inferior and the other superior?)

• the 7

or a small




3 Shopping: Anya, the customer, has decided to buy the Vectra anti-virus software package. What could she say to the shop assistant?

2 At work: Rick has a problem changing his computer password. He calls someone from the IT department for help. What could he say?

of the request (are you asking for a big ?)

6 Listen to the conversations again and complete the examples in the table. Indirectness: request openers and softeners 1 bother you, A: 1 do something for me? Would you at it when you have a minute? B:



you a look


at all.

2 A: I know you’re very busy, but do you think 5 go through this translation for me? B: No problem. 3 A: I 6 if you could 7 Thursday and Friday, 8 B:

do some overtime on .


, I’ve got to be home by six Thursday evening. We’ve got a family reunion.

Think about your culture. Are requests influenced by the same or other factors? In what ways?


5 2.24 Listen to four conversations between colleagues and decide what the requests are about. Number the topics 1–4 as you hear them.

B: I’d 12 trial version.

• • • • • • • •

• Instead of starting a request simply with Could you, we often use an ‘opener’ (e.g. I wonder if you could / Do you think you could, etc.). We may also use a ‘softener’ before the opener to show we understand that the hearer might be inconvenienced by our request (e.g. I know you’re busy / Sorry to bother you, etc.).

working overtime working during the coffee break translating a letter from Russian into English sending out conference invitations

A: 10 I ask you something? 11 I copied it onto my laptop? to help you, but I’m 13

it be all right if it was only a

editing some photos

• Sometimes, instead of expressing a request literally, we just give the hearer a hint:

copying a computer program

A: It’s rather cold in here. (= Could you shut the window?)

installing computer software

checking a translation

D Speaking: Sounding less direct 7 Work in pairs. Look at these requests, which are not expressed directly. What are these people requesting? Can you ‘decode the hints’? 1 Oh no, my printer’s jammed!

2 Those biscuits look delicious.

3 It’s dark in here, isn’t it?

4 Erm ... Have you got a minute?

8 Work in pairs. How would you turn these requests into ‘hints’? 1 Do you think I could borrow your camcorder for the weekend?

2 Can I help myself to some fruit?

3 Would you mind helping me move this desk over there?

4 Could you lend me 20 euros?

9 Here is an extract from a conversation between two managers discussing surveillance. Put the lines in the correct order. A: Don’t worry about the unions. We always win them over. A: I doubt it. Cameras are a powerful deterrent. And they are the cheapest solution. A: Right. But first we need to think about our bottom line. We need to stop employee theft, so we need to increase surveillance. A: We should install CCTV cameras everywhere. It’s the best solution. What do you think? B: I don’t think that’s true. Cameras may be relatively inexpensive, but installing the whole system costs a small fortune. B: That’s true, but we need to think about the well-being of our staff, too. B: Well ... erm ... I’m not sure. The unions definitely won’t like the idea. B: Yes, but what I’m saying is, there are better ways of doing that than CCTV cameras.

10 Underline the phrases in exercise 9 that Speaker B uses to disagree with Speaker A. Indirectness: disagreeing In conversation, we don’t often use phrases like I agree or I disagree, and we usually avoid direct confrontations like You are wrong. We often disagree by saying Yes, but …, and then asking a challenging question or raising an objection. However, we sometimes want to express our opinions more forcefully (e.g. Yes, but what I’m saying is … / I don’t think that’s true.).

11 Work in pairs. Rewrite this conversation to make it more appropriate by using suitable requests and ways of expressing disagreement where necessary. A = project manager; B = research assistant B: Sure. What’s up? A: Well, we’re running behind schedule. So you and the rest of the team will be working on Saturday morning. OK? B: What? Saturday? No way. A: I know it’s not easy, Nathan. But make a special effort this time. We really need an extra project meeting. B: Plan it for Thursday instead. A: Impossible.

12 Work in the same pairs. Practise your new dialogue, and add four lines at the end (B / A / B / A). Then work with another pair and take it in turns to perform your dialogue. 13

2.25 Listen to another version of the conversation in exercise 11. How is it different?

Communication strategies

A: Hi, Nathan. I want to have a word with you about our project.



Interaction Monitoring at work


Making predictions page 92 + Grammar reference pages 166–167 Modal perfect page 94 + Grammar reference page 167 Indirectness pages 98 and 99

Word focus: Easily confused words and expressions 1 Reflect on your experience as a language learner. Answer these questions. 1 Which English words and phrases do you tend to confuse with other English words and phrases? Write them down. 2 Which English words and phrases do you tend to confuse with words and phrases in your mother tongue? Write them down.

2 Work in small groups. Compare your lists. Tell each other what you do in order to try and stop confusing those words and phrases. 3 Complete each sentence with the best word. 1 I think use of the internet for private purposes during office hours is bound to the quality of an employee’s work. a effect

b accept

c affect

d except

2 An employer should have the right to communications by an employee. a control 3

b overview

c test

the use of electronic

d oversight

my opinion, video monitoring of teachers is a guarantee of quality. a By

b In

c From

4 At work, we a used to

d According to being watched all the time, so nobody complains.

b used

c use to

5 Companies should least during breaks. a make

d are used to

employees to send and receive personal emails at

b allow

c grant

d let

6 In my country, the number of complaints against improper monitoring procedures at work has considerably. a raised

b rose

c risen

d arose

from an IT expert on how to 7 I think all managers should get some monitor their employees’ electronic communications at work. a advise

b advising

c advises

d advice

8 How much monitoring is necessary at work depends trust between workers and management. a on

b for

c at

d from

9 A lot of people complain about being monitored at work nothing of sharing details of their private lives on social networks. a despite

b however

c in spite

10 If you are responsible and work about being monitored. a much

b hardly

the amount of

c a lot of

they think

d although all the time, you don’t need to worry

d hard

4 Read the completed sentences in exercise 3. Tick (✓) the ones that you agree with. Then work in small groups to compare and discuss your answers. 5 Rewrite the sentences in exercise 3 that you don’t agree with so that they express your own opinion. 100

E Listening: Employee monitoring 6 2.26 Listen to an extract from a radio documentary programme about internet monitoring in US firms. Complete the extract with the missing statistics.

According to a US survey: • • • • •

more than 1 per cent of employers monitor their workers’ website connections 2 per cent of firms use software to monitor external (incoming and outgoing) email 3 only per cent take advantage of technology tools to monitor internal email conversations that take place between employees 4 per cent of employers have implemented a written email policy almost 5 per cent of employees report sending and receiving inappropriate and potentially damaging content (e.g. jokes, gossip, confidential information about the company, etc.)

7 Make predictions about internet monitoring in your country based on the US statistics in exercise 6. The number of employers who monitor their workers’ website connections will certainly go up. It’s unlikely that employees will agree to having their internal email conversations monitored.

Speaking: The boss never blinks 8 Exchange information in pairs to find out more about how employers can monitor their staff. Student A: Turn to File 58, page 125. Student B: Turn to File 87, page 132.

9 Reifert Ltd is a private pharmaceutical research company which employs 250 people. Many of them have access to data and information that should not be divulged. Read the notes about the company’s workplace monitoring policy.

Current measures: all employees’ incoming and outgoing *emails are monitored, as well as all their

Possible future measures: s and social networking sites to find

website connections

itoring of blog *outmon about the company what employees might be saying

all internal and external phone calls on *company telephones are monitored

on the use of *houban available for urgent rs (a new hotline could be made

video surveillance is used for security *purposes only (e.g. laboratories, warehouse, parking lot, etc.)


private mobile phones during wor

personal messages)

on eillance for performance evaluati

use of video surv *purp oses as well

rding the time *andreco smoking breaks

employees spend on bathroom

Now work in pairs. The aim of your discussion is to:

Student A: Turn to File 61, page 126. Student B: Turn to File 89, page 132.

Writing: Memo – monitoring measures 10 Work in the same pairs as in exercise 9. Draft a memo to staff. In your memo, you should explain:


• review the current monitoring measures and decide whether to keep all of them. • decide which new measures you want to introduce, and provide convincing arguments for them.

• why the current measures are being kept. • if relevant, why any of the current measures are being dropped. • which new measures are being introduced and what their purpose is. 101

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