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Cover

AA30470C

A Short Course

in

C a n o n EO S 40D Photography

Dennis P. Curtin ShortCourses.com h t t p :// w w w . s h o r t c o u r s e s . c o m


Short Courses Publishing Company

Short Courses Books

and

Web Site

S

hort Courses is the leading publisher of digital photography books, textbooks, and guides to specific cameras from Canon, Sony, Nikon, Olympus and others. All of these books are available on-line from the Short Courses bookstore at: http://www.shortcourses.com/store/ All recent books are available in both black & white printed and full-color eBook (PDF) versions available on CDs or as instant downloads. The list of books we’ve published is rapidly expanding so be sure to visit the store to see if there is a book on your camera. If you find any errors in this book, would like to make suggestions for imhttp://www.photocourse.com/itext/pdf/PDFguide.pdf Click to view a PDF document describing how to use this eBook.

provements, or just want to let me know what you think I welcome your feedback. ShortCourses.com 16 Preston Beach Road Marblehead, Massachusetts 01945 E-mail: denny@shortcourses.com Web site: http://www.shortcourses.com To learn more about digital photography visit our two Web sites: • http://www.shortcourses.com is our consumer site. • http://www.photocourse.com is our instructor/student site.

© Copyright 2007 by Dennis P. Curtin. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form o r by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Note on the ShortCourses.com Web Site This book is designed to work with the many of the free on-line book’s available at the author’s Web site at www.shortcourses.com. Of special interest http://www.photocourse.com/itext/copyright/circ01.pdf may be the books on displaying & sharing your digital photos, digital photogClick to view a PDF raphy workflow, image sensors and digital desktop lighting. document on how copyright law protects photographers and other artists.

• Discussion Forum is the place to discuss what’s exciting or bothering you as long as it’s related to digital photography. Click to visit • Bookstore is the home of printed copies, ebooks on CDs, and instant downloads of digital photography books published by Short Courses. Click to visit • Curtin’s Guide to Digital Cameras and Other Photographic Equipment is a guide to choosing a digital camera and understanding its features. Includes coverage of camera bags, tripods, lighting equipment and much more. Click to visit • Using Your Digital Camera clearly explains everything you need to know about using your camera’s controls to capture great photos. Click to visit

ISBN 1-928873-80-4 ii

• Displaying & Sharing Your Digital Photos discusses what digital photography is all about including printing your images as prints or books, displaying them on-screen, and moving beyond the still image into exciting new areas. Click to visit For more on digital photography, visit http://www.shortcourses.com


ShortCourses Books and Web Site • Digital Photography Workflow covers everything from getting ready to take photos to storing, organizing, managing and editing your images. Click to visit • Image Sensors, Pixels and Image Sizes describes key concepts such as resolutions, aspect ratios and color depths that have a huge impact on your photographs. Click to visit • Digital Desktop Lighting is a guide to low-cost tabletop photography equipment and the techniques used to photograph products and other small objects for eBay, Web sites, catalogs, ads and the like. Click to visit • Hot Topics/About Us points you to some of the newer or more interesting parts of the site, explains how to navigate the site, recommends other sites, and tells you a little about who we are and how to contact us. Click to visit This is the home page of the ShortCourses Web site at www. shortcourses.com

Tip • When you visit our site be sure to sign up for our newsletter. It’s only used by us and only occasionally. It’s also very easy to unsubscribe.

EDUCATORS Short Courses books have always been popular as textbooks in digital photography courses. If you are an instructor, you should know that special pricing is available for classroom use. For details on using this and other texts in the classroom, please call us at 781631-8520, Boston, Massachusetts USA time.

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iii


Preface

Preface

A

great photograph begins when you recognize a great scene or subject. But recognizing a great opportunity isn’t enough to capture it; you also have to be prepared. A large part of being prepared involves understanding your camera well enough to capture what you see. Getting you prepared to see and capture great photographs is what this book is all about. It doesn’t matter if you are taking pictures for business or pleasure, there’s a lot here to help you get better results and more satisfaction from your photography. To get better, and possibly even great photographs, you need to understand both concepts and procedures; the “whys” and “hows” of photography. • Concepts of photography are the underlying principles that apply regardless of the camera you are using. They include such things as how sharpness and exposure affect your images and the way they are perceived by viewers. Understanding concepts answers the “why” kinds of questions you might have about photography. The Canon EOS 40D is a full-featured SLR with interchangeable lenses.

The 40D can print directly to a printer without a computer.

With the optional WFTE3A wireless transmitter you can send pictures directly to a computer or network. It also doubles as a vertical grip.

The 40D accepts the full line of Canon EF and EF-S lenses.

iv

• Procedures are those things specific to one kind of camera, and explain step-by-step how you set your camera’s controls to capture an image just the way you want to. Understanding procedures gives you the answers to the “how” kinds of questions you might have. This book is organized around the concepts of digital photography because that’s how photographers think. We think about scenes and subjects, highlights and shadows, softness and sharpness, color and tone. The procedures you use with the Canon EOS 40D camera are integrated throughout the concepts, appearing in those places where they apply. This integrated approach lets you first understand the concepts of photography and then see step by step how to use the 40D in all kinds of photographic situations. To get more effective, interesting, and creative photographs, you only need to understand how and when to use a few simple controls on your camera such as focus, exposure controls, and flash. If you’ve previously avoided understanding these controls and the profound impact they can have on your images, you’ll be pleased to know that you can learn them on a weekend. You can then spend the rest of your life marveling at how the infinite variety of combinations they provide make it possible to convey your own personal view of the world. You’ll be ready to keep everything in a scene sharp for maximum detail or to blur some or all of it for an impressionistic portrayal. You’ll be able to get dramatic close-ups, freeze fast action, create wonderful panoramas, and capture the beauty and wonder of rainbows, sunsets, fireworks, and nighttime scenes. As you explore your camera, be sure to have fun. There are no “rules” or “best” way to make a picture. Great photographs come from using what you know to experiment and try new approaches. Digital cameras make this especially easy because there are no film costs or delays. Every experiment is free and you see the results immediately so you can learn step by step. This book is about getting great pictures, not about connecting your camera to your computer and using your software. That information is well presented in the user guide that came with your camera. Be sure to visit our Web site at www.shortcourses.com for even more digital photography information.

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Contents

Contents Cover...i Short Courses Books and Web Site...ii Preface...iv Contents...v How To Sections Quick Lookup...vi

Chapter 1 Camera Controls and Creativity...7 The 40D Camera...8 Jump Start—Using Full Auto Mode...9 Good Things to Know...10 Using the Viewfinder...12 Operating the Camera...13 Changing Settings with Buttons and Dials...15 Using Menus to Change Settings...16 Playing Back & Managing Your Images...19 Using the Playback Menu...21 Selecting Image Quality and Size...22

Chapter 2 Controlling Exposure...27 Understanding Exposure...28 The Shutter Controls Light and Motion...29 The Aperture Controls Light and Depth of Field...31 Using Shutter Speed and Aperture Together...33 Retaining Highlight and Shadow Details ...36 Choosing Shooting Modes...37 Using Image Zone Modes...38 Using Program AE (P) & Program Shift...39 Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode...40 Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode...41 Using Manual (M) Mode...42 How Your Exposure System Works...43 When Automatic Exposure Works Well...46 When to Override Automatic Exposure...47 How Overriding Autoexposure Works...51 How to Override Automatic Exposure...52 Using Histograms...55 Using the RAW Format...59

Chapter 3 Controlling Sharpness...61 Getting Sharper Pictures...62 Sharpness Isn’t Everything...64 How to Photograph Motion Sharply...65 Focus and Depth of Field...67 Focusing Techniques...69 Controlling Depth of Field...73 Using Deep Depth of Field...74 Using Shallow Depth of Field...76 Conveying the Feeling of Motion...77

Chapter 4 Capturing Light & Color...78 Where Does Color Come From?...79 White Balance and Color...80 Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing...83 Color and Time of Day...84 Sunsets and Sunrises...85 Weather...87 Photographing at Night...89 The Direction of Light...91 The Quality of Light...93

Chapter 5 Understanding Lenses...94 Canon Lenses...95 Focal Length...98 Zoom Lenses...99 Normal Lenses...100 Wide-Angle Lenses...101 Telephoto Lenses...103 Macro Lenses and Accessories...105 Tilt-Shift Lenses...107 Lens Accessories...108 Perspective in a Photograph...109

Chapter 6 Using Flash and Studio Lighting...110 How Flash Works...111 Using Autoflash...112 Portraits with Flash...114 Using Fill Flash...116 Using Slow Sync Flash...117 Using Available Light...118 Controlling Flash Exposures...119 Using an External Flash...122 Using Flash in Close-ups...124 Studio Lighting...125 Portrait and Product Photography—Introduction...128 The Main Light...129 The Fill Light...130 The Background Light...131 The Rim Light...132

Chapter 7 Other Features and Commands...133 Continuous Photography...134 Live View Shooting...135 Using Picture Styles...138 Registering Your Own Settings...140 Using Custom Functions...141 Using My Menu...146 Changing Other Settings...147 Entering a Print Order...152 Caring for Your Camera...153

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How To Sections Quick Lookup

How To Sections Quick Lookup Taking a Picture in Full Auto Mode

9

Using Menus

16

Managing Images—Using Buttons

19

Jumping in Playback

20

Managing your Images—Using Menus

21

Giving Slide Shows

21

Selecting Image Quality

26

Changing Shooting Modes

37

Using Image Zone Modes

38

Using Program AE (P) Mode

39

Using Program Shift

39

Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode

40

Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode

41

Using Manual (M) Mode

42

Changing the Metering Mode

45

Using Exposure Compensation

52

Using Autoexposure (AE) Lock

53

Using Autoexposure Bracketing (AEB)

54

Displaying Histograms

55

Selecting the Histogram and Highlights

55

Evaluating Histograms

56

Using the Self-timer

63

Changing the ISO

Using White Balance Correction/ Bracketing

83

Using Bulb Exposures

90

Mounting and Unmounting a Lens

95

Zooming a Lens

99

Increasing Depth of Field in Close-ups

106

Using Autoflash

113

Turning Red-eye Mode On and Off

115

Using Fill Flash

116

Using Slow Sync Flash

117

Preventing the Flash from Firing

118

Using Flash Exposure Compensation

120

Using Flash Exposure (FE) Lock

120

Using Flash Control

121

Selecting a Continuous Mode

134

Using Live View

135

Autofocusing in Live View

136

Selecting Picture Styles

138

Changing Picture Styles

139

Registering Picture Styles

139

Registering Camera Settings

140

Changing Custom Functions

142

63

Clearing Custom Functions

142

Increasing the Sharpness of Moving Objects

Registering My Menu Settings

146

66

Shooting w/o a CF Card

147

Selecting an Autofocus Mode

70

Setting the Time and Date

147

Selecting an AF Point

71

Changing the Review Time

148

Displaying AF Points

71

Specifying File Number Sequences

148

Using Focus Lock

72

Turning the Beep On or Off

148

Using Manual Focus

72

Adjusting Monitor Brightness

149

Focusing on the Hyperfocal Distance

75

Changing the Language or Video Setting

149

Zone Focusing

75

Adjusting Auto Power Off Time

149

Using Auto Depth-of-Field AE (A-DEP)

75

Formatting a CF Card

150

Decreasing Depth of Field

76

Setting Auto Rotate

150

Conveying Motion

77

Checking/Updating Your Firmware Version 151

Selecting a White Balance Mode

81

Resetting Camera Settings

151

Setting a Custom White Balance

81

Entering a Print Order

152

Selecting a Color Temperature in Kelvins

82

Cleaning the Sensor

153

Selecting a Color Space

82

Obtaining Dust delete Data

154

vi

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

and

Creativity

Chapter 1 Camera Controls and Creativity

Contents • The 40D Camera • Jump Start: Using Full Auto Mode • Good Things to Know • Using the Viewfinder • Operating the Camera • Changing Settings with Buttons and Dials • Using Menus to Change Settings • Playing Back & Managing Your Images • Using the Playback Menu • Selecting Image Quality and Size

For

S

erious digital cameras give you creative control over your images. They do so by allowing you to control the light and motion in photographs as well as what’s sharp and what isn’t. Although most consumer digital cameras are fully automatic, some allow you to make minor adjustments that affect your images. The best ones such as the Canon 40D offer interchangeable lenses, external flash connections, and a wide range of controls­—more than you’d find on a 35mm SLR. However, regardless of what controls your camera has, the same basic principles are at work “under the hood.” Your automatic exposure and focusing systems are having a profound affect on your images. Even with your camera on fully automatic, you can indirectly control, or at least take advantage of the effects these systems have on your images. In this chapter, we’ll first explore your camera and how you use it on fully automatic mode. We’ll also see how you use menus and buttons to operate the camera, manage your images and control image quality. In the chapters that follow, we’ll explore in greater depth how you take control of these settings, and others, to get the effects you want.

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

and

Creativity

The 40D Camera The Canon EOS 40D’s dust and weather resistant magnesium alloy exterior houses a 10.1 Megapixel CMOS imaging sensor that can capture images up to 3888 x 2592 pixels in size, large enough for 19 x 12 inch high-quality prints. Its high-speed continuous mode captures up to 75 Large/Fine JPEGs or 17 RAW images at 6.5 frame-per-second (fps) making it ideal for photographing wildlife, sports and other action subjects.

The Canon 40D is an SLR (single-lens reflex) camera so when you look in the viewfinder you are seeing the scene through the lens.

The camera has a large three-inch 230,000-pixel LCD monitor on which you can review your images. Using Live View, you can also use the monitor to compose and focus images, magnifying them up to 10x for the precise focus required in macro photography. Live View also has silent modes that avoid spooking people and wildlife. Using Live View, along with software and a cable supplied with the camera, you can use a much larger computer screen as the monitor/viewfinder to compose and focus images and use menu commands and change camera settings. Using an optional wireless transmitter you can even eliminate the cable and work wirelessly over short distances.

The camera has a fast 0.15-second initial start-up, a shutter rated up to http://www.photocourse.com/itext/SLR/ Click this button to play an animation that shows how an SLR works when you compose an image and press the shutter button.

100,000 cycles, a top shutter speed of 1/8000 sec, and 1/250 maximum Xsync flash shutter speed setting. ISO settings range from 100–3200. Because the APS-C size image sensor is smaller than a frame of 35mm film, the camera has a 1.6x focal length conversion factor and is compatible with the full line-up of Canon EF and EF-S lenses. The camera’s 14-bit Analog-to-Digital (A/D) conversion process recognizes four times as many colors as its predecessor, capturing images with finer and more accurate gradations of tones and colors. Highlight Tone Priority is perfect for wedding and nature photographers trying to capture details in wedding dresses, clouds, snow or other white subjects. When you don’t plan on editing your images on a computer, Picture Styles let you adjust them for printing right in the camera as you capture them, or later in playback mode.

In the Box • The 40D is available as a body only and in a kit with a lens. Both versions include the camera body as well as the BP-511A lithium-ion battery pack, Battery Charger CG-580 or CB5L, USB Cable IFC-200U, Video Cable VC-100, a wide neckstrap, 2 CDs with software and instructions, printed instruction manuals, and a 1-year Canon U.S.A. limited warranty. The lens kit includes either the EF-S 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6 IS lens or the EF-S 17–85mm f/4.5–5.6 IS USM lens.



The camera captures images in the universal JPEG format but also offers the higher-quality RAW format. You can select either a full-sized RAW image format, or a smaller and more manageable sRAW that’s identical in all other respects but one-fourth the size. The focusing system uses nine points from which you or the camera can select the one used to focus. Its 35-zone metering sensor and evaluative metering are linked to all AF points. Also available are centerweighted average metering, partial metering and spot metering—the last two covering approximately 9 percent or 3.8 percent of the viewfinder at center, respectively. The camera has E-TTL II autoflash and 12 exposure control modes, plus three custom exposure modes you use to store your own settings. As an added convenience, particularly for wireless flash operations, you can adjust the flash settings of the Canon Speedlite 580EX II directly from the camera. The camera’s integrated sensor cleaning offers a number of ways to prevent dust from affecting your images, or remove it if it does. Finally, the camera has amazing customization features including 24 custom functions with 62 options, the ability to register your own combinations of settings to C1, C2, and C3 on the Mode dial, picture styles you can edit or define from scratch, and the ability to create your own menu listing only those settings you use most frequently. For

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Jump Start—Using Full Auto Mode

Jump Start—Using Full Auto Mode The 40D’s Full Auto mode sets everything for you. All you have to do is frame the image and push the shutter button. This is a good mode to use in most situations because it lets you focus on the subject rather than the camera. • Selecting the mode. Turn the Power Switch on the back of the camera to ON and set the Mode Dial to Full Auto (the green rectangle icon).

The Mode Dial with the green Full Auto icon.

The Power Switch set to ON.

• Framing the image. The viewfinder shows about 95% of the scene you are going to capture. If the image in the viewfinder is fuzzy, turn the diopter adjustment knob to adjust it (page 12). • Autofocus. The nine small rectangles displayed in the viewfinder are AF points used for focusing. When the focus switch on the lens is set to AF, the camera focuses on the closest subject covered by one or more of these focus points (page 69). When you press the shutter button halfway down, the focusing point or points being used to set focus momentarily flashes red, the round focus confirmation light in the lowerright corner of the viewfinder glows green, and the camera beeps. How close you can get to a subject depends on the lens you are using. • Autoexposure. Evaluative metering divides the scene in the viewfinder into 35 zones and meters each of them to determine the best exposure for the scene (page 45). The shutter speed and aperture that will be used to take the picture are displayed in the viewfinder when the display is activated (page 12). • Autoflash. When the light is too dim in Full Auto mode, the built-in flash automatically pops up when you press the shutter button halfway down, and fires when you press the shutter button the rest of the way down (page 112).

Tips • If you don’t use any controls for 1 minute, the camera enters sleep mode. To wake it up, press the shutter button halfway down and release it. (You can also press the Playback or Menu buttons.) To change the auto power off time, see page 149. • When you press the shutter button halfway down in Full Auto mode the flash pops up and fires when the light is dim, or the subject is backlit. This also happens in other Image Zone modes other than Sports, Landscape, and Flash Off (page 38). It does not happen in Creative Zone modes (page 37). To close the flash, just press it down.

For

• Automatic white balance. The color cast in a photograph is affected by the color of the light illuminating the scene. The camera adjusts white balance so white objects in the scene look white in the photo (page 80). Taking a Picture in Auto Mode 1. With the Power Switch on the back of the camera set to ON, set the Mode Dial to Full Auto (the green rectangle icon). Set the focus mode switch on the lens to AF (page 69). 2. Compose the image in the viewfinder, making sure the area that you want sharpest is covered by one of the nine focus points. 3. Press the shutter button halfway down and pause so the camera can automatically set focus and exposure. When its done so, it beeps, the round green focus confirmation light in the viewfinder glows, and the focusing point(s) being used to set focus briefly flashes red. 4. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture. ● The shutter sounds, buSY may be briefly displayed in the viewfinder, and the red access lamp on the back of the camera glows while the image is being stored. You can take another photo at any time. ● The image is displayed on the monitor for 2 seconds so you can review it, press Erase to delete it, or press INFO to change the display. 5. When finished, turn the Power Switch to OFF.

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

Good Things

to

and

Creativity

Know When you first start taking photos with a new camera, it sometimes seems that there is too much to learn all at once. To simplify your getting started, here are some of the things you may want to know right off.

The battery compartment cover is on the bottom of the camera and accepts BP-511A, 511, 512 or 514 lithium battery packs.

• If your camera is right out of the box you have need to mount a lens (page 95), insert a charged battery pack, and insert a CompactFlash (CF) card on which to store your images. No CF card is included with the camera, and there may be no lens as part of the package. • When you turn the camera on or off, the image sensor is cleaned (page 153) and a logo is displayed on the monitor. • If you turn off the camera while an image is being saved, the message Recording is displayed and the power remains on until all images are saved. • The first time you use the camera, select a language (if necessary) and enter the current date and time (page 147) so your images are accurately stamped.

Icons on the LCD panel show the status of the battery as full (top), almost run down (middle), and out (bottom). The middle icon starts to blink when the battery is almost dead.

• For some reason, one of the camera’s default settings lets you shoot pictures without a CF card in the camera. (Some people believe it’s so salespeople can demonstrate the camera without having to insert a memory card.) Images are even displayed on the monitor so you think you are capturing them, but they are not saved. To ensure you don’t take unsaved pictures, turn off the Shoot w/o card setting on the Shooting 1 menu tab (page 147). • To insert a CF card, turn off the camera, slide the CF card slot cover on the right side of the camera toward the back, and swing it open. Insert the CF card with its front label facing the rear of the camera and the small holes facing inward. Press the card down until the gray eject button pops out, then close the cover. To remove a card, open the CF card slot cover and press the gray eject button to pop up the card so you can grasp it and pull it out. • Should you inadvertently open the compact flash card door while the camera is writing to the card, a warning will pop up on the LCD screen and an open door “alarm” sounds, but the image(s) will continue writing to the memory card without interruption as long as you don’t remove it. • Shooting modes are divided into two categories or zones—the Creative Zone and the Basic Zone. On the Mode Dial, Creative Zone modes are indicated with letters and Basic Zone modes with icons.

The CF card slot cover is on the right side of the camera as seen from the shooting position.

• To take pictures hold the camera in your right hand while supporting the lens with your left. Brace the camera against your face as you look through the viewfinder and brace your elbows against your body. Press the shutter button slowly and smoothly as you hold your breath after breathing in deeply and exhaling. • The shutter button has two stages. When you press it halfway down, the camera sets focus and exposure. You pause for a moment as it does so, and then when the green confirmation light comes on in the viewfinder and the camera beeps, you press it the rest of the way to take the picture. If you press the shutter button all of the way down without pausing halfway, the camera pauses before taking the picture. • When you press the shutter button halfway down it activates the viewfinder and LCD panel on top of the camera and icons or other indicators are displayed for the current settings. Some remain displayed or active for only 4, 6, or 16 seconds unless you use a control.

10

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Good Things

to

Know

• Many buttons, including Flash and the four above the LCD panel, won’t work when the camera is asleep. To wake it up, press the shutter button halfway down and release it. • You can‘t adjust exposure settings unless the current shutter speed, aperture and ISO are displayed on the viewfinder and LCD panel. To activate these displays, press the shutter button halfway down and release it. The Mode Dial with letters for Creative Zone modes and icons for Basic Zone modes.

• You can illuminate the LCD panel by pressing the button marked with the light bulb icon on top of the camera. • If the camera can’t focus, it doesn’t beep when you press the shutter button halfway down, the round green focus confirmation light in the viewfinder blinks, and you can’t take a picture. For help on focusing see page 69. • You can use the camera’s monitor to review images you’ve taken (page 19), and in Live View (page 135) use it to compose and focus them. You can adjust the monitor’s brightness to match the light you’re viewing it in (page 149). • When you take a picture, it is displayed on the monitor for two seconds but you can extend the review time (page 148). While it’s displayed, you can press the Erase button (page 19) to delete it, or INFO to change the display mode. • You can reset all camera settings to their factory defaults (page 150). This is useful if you make changes and can’t remember how to undo them. • When photographing in a studio-like setting, or using the camera to give a slide show, you can use the optional AC Adapter Kit ACK-E2 to power the camera instead of the battery pack. • When the camera is ready to shoot, press the INFO button to toggle between the Camera set. screen (that lets you change settings—page 15) and the Shoot func. screen (that displays them). • Be aware of the shots remaining displayed on the LCD panel. When the number it brackets gets to zero you can’t take any more photos unless you delete some or change memory cards.

The shutter button has two stages. When you press it halfway down, the camera sets focus and exposure. When you press it all the way down you take the picture.

• When you charge batteries the charge lamp blinks more rapidly the more charged the battery is. It blinks once per second up to 50%, twice per second up to 75%, three times per second up to 90%, and it remains lit over 90%. • A fully charged battery should capture between 700–1100 pictures depending on how often you use flash or the monitor, and how cold it is. In Live View (page 135) the number drops to 130–170. BP-511 and BP-512 battery packs have only 75% of the power of BP-511 or BP-511A battery packs so will capture only 75% of the above numbers. • Recharge batteries immediately before using them because they gradually loose their charge over time. • The battery pack cover can be attached in two directions. Align it so the blue seal shows through the battery shaped opening to indicate a battery is fully charged. Align it in the other direction on a battery that needs charging. • Although you may not notice it, the focal length of your lens is longer than it would be on a 35mm film camera (page 98). • If you encounter an error message you can’t resolve, or if the camera controls “freeze” on you, you might “reboot” it by turning it off, removing the battery for a few seconds, reinserting the battery and turning it back on. Sometimes ensuring that the lens is locked into place also helps.

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11


Chapter 1. Camera Controls

Using

the

and

Creativity

Viewfinder When taking photos with the 40D, you normally compose them in the viewfinder. Since this is your center of interest, the camera also displays focus and exposure information to guide you. Focus Screens The camera accepts three interchangeable focus screens. Should you switch them, you have to set Custom Function IV-5 (page 132) to tell the camera which one you have installed.

The Ef-D optional focus screen.

• The Ef-A focus screen comes with your camera. It displays a bright view of the scene and makes it easy to manually focus. • The Ef-D is the same as Ef-A but displays grid lines that are great for studio and architectural photography where accurately aligning vertical and horizontal lines is important. • The Ef-S is a super-precision matte screen designed for lenses with a maximum aperture of f/2.8 or larger. This screen is designed to make manual focusing easier and more precise that EF-A, but when used with a lens slower than f/2.8, the viewfinder image is darker.

The diopter adjustment knob.

When focus is achieved the AF point or points being used to set focus flash red and the green confirmation light glows steady in the viewfinder.

Tip • To start metering and display exposure information on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder, press the shutter button halfway down.

Diopter Adjustment You can adjust the viewfinder display so you can read it without glasses. To do so, remove the lens cap and look through the viewfinder at a fairly bright light source (not the sun!). If the viewfinder display isn’t sharp, try to bring the AF points into focus by turning the dioptric adjustment knob in the upperright corner of the viewfinder. If this doesn’t work, the camera also accepts the accessory E-series Dioptric Adjustment Lenses in 10 types ranging from -4 to +3 diopters. These lenses slip into the viewfinder’s eyepiece holder. Focus Points The viewfinder displays nine small rectangles called the AF points (AF stands for autofocus). When the focus switch on the lens is set to AF (page 69), the camera focuses on the closest subject covered by one or more of these focus points. The one being used to set focus can be selected manually or automatically (page 71). When you press the shutter button halfway down, the focusing point or points being used flash red. Information Display The viewfinder displays the current shutter speed and aperture, the ISO, the shots remaining in continuous mode, and the focus confirmation indicator. In Creative Zone modes it also displays an exposure scale that’s used for exposure compensation (page 52) and to set the exposure in M (manual) shooting mode. As you will see in the following chapters, there are a number of other indicators that are displayed during various procedures.

The viewfinder displays information about settings that affect the current photograph.

12

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Operating

Operating

the

the

Camera

Camera

Tips • You can quickly reset all camera settings to their original factory defaults (page 151).

The 40D has a number of buttons and dials that quickly change important settings without the time-consuming need to work your way through menus.

• You can connect the camera to a computer and use Live View (page 135) so you and others can immediately see photos as you take them. This is a great way to take portraits and close-ups.

The shutter button (top) and Main Dial (bottom).

Top View 1. Shutter button locks exposure and focus, wakes up the camera, and turns on the viewfinder and LCD panel information display when pressed halfway down, and takes the photo when pressed all the way. 2. Main Dial is used by itself and with buttons to change camera settings in shooting mode (page 37). In playback mode, turning the dial jumps you through pictures you’ve taken (page 20). After pressing a button that has two functions, turning the Main Dial changes the first setting and turning the Quick Control Dial changes the second.

3. ISO/Flash Exposure Compensation button, in conjunction with the Main Dial changes the ISO (page 63), and sets flash exposure compensation (page 120) in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial. 4. AF/Drive mode button specifies autofocus modes (page 70) in conjunction with the Main Dial and cycles the camera among the drive modes singleshot, continuous (page 134), and self-timer (page 63) modes in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial. 5. Metering mode/White balance button selects the metering mode (page 45) in conjunction with the Main Dial and sets white balance (page 81) in conjunction with the Quick Control Dial. 6. LCD Panel Illumination button lights the LCD panel. 7. Mode Dial selects one of the many shooting modes offered in the Basic and Creative Zones (page 37). 8. Flash button pops up the built-in flash when the Mode Dial is set to any mode in the Creative Zone (page 112).

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13


Chapter 1. Camera Controls

Tips

and

Creativity

Rear View

• If the camera has gone to sleep, you have to first press and release the shutter button or Playback, Menu, or AE Lock buttons to wake it up before pressing other buttons to change settings. • Throughout this book when we tell you to turn the Quick Control Dial, in many cases you can also turn the Main Dial.

• You can quickly

reset camera settings to their original factory defaults (page 151). • In Creative Zone modes (page 37), pressing the AF-ON button performs the same function as pressing the shutter button halfway down.

1. Print/Share button, when pressed in playback mode, lets you print or transfer images when connected to a printer or computer. 2. MENU button displays and hides the menu on the monitor (page 16). 3. Playback button displays the last image you captured (page 19). 4. Erase button deletes the image displayed on the monitor (page 19). 5. JUMP button jumps you between menus tabs (page 16), and between pictures in playback mode (page 20). 6. INFO/Trimming button cycles you through information about camera settings in shooting mode (page 15), or images in playback mode (page 19). 7. Picture style selection button cycles you though available picture styles (page 138). 8. Power switch turns the camera on and off and when set to the white line, activates the Quick Control Dial in shooting modes. 9. Quick Control Dial adjusts exposure by itself, and works in conjunction with buttons to change settings in shooting mode (page 37). In playback mode it scrolls through images, and in menu mode it highlights menu commands. 10. Set button in the middle of the Quick Control Dial confirms settings. 11. Multi-controller, a small joy stick, moves in 8 directions plus straight down. It selects AF points (page 71), makes white balance corrections (page 83) and scrolls around an enlarged image in playback mode (page 19). 12. AF Point selection/Enlarge button, in conjunction with the Main or Quick Control Dial, manually selects which AF point is used to set focus (page 71). In Playback mode it zooms the image up to 10x (page 19). 13. AE/FE lock/Index/Reduce button (*) locks exposure (page 53) and flash exposure (page 120). In playback mode, unzooms a zoomed image and switches to index view (page 19). 14. AF-ON button autofocuses the camera (page 69).

14

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Changing Settings

Changing Settings

with

Buttons

and

with

Buttons

and

Dials

Dials

Buttons and dials are often used together. Pressing a button initiates a procedure by activating the exposure displays in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel, and then turning a dial highlights on of the available options. Each time you press the button to initiate a procedure, you only have about 6 seconds to turn the dial or the displays become inactive. • Many buttons, including Flash and the four above the LCD panel, won’t work when the camera is asleep. To wake it up, press the shutter button halfway down and release it. When you press many buttons, their function remains active for only 6 seconds. If you are slow, just press the button again for another 6 seconds.

• After pressing buttons that have two functions, such as AF/Drive, turning the Main Dial changes the setting listed first (AF) and turning the Quick Control Dial changes the one listed second (Drive). The Main Dial Main Dial is used to change settings in shooting modes, highlight menu tabs in menu mode, and scroll through pictures in playback mode.

The four buttons above the LCD panel work with both the Main and Quick Control Dials. Pressing these after pressing the INFO button also let’s you change settings.

The Quick Control Dial only adjusts exposure settings when the Power Switch is set to the white line above ON. Setting it to ON prevents inadvertent shifts in exposure by turning the dial.

Tip • You can’t press most buttons to change settings unless the displays are active. If they aren’t press the shutter button halfway down to activate them.

The Camera set screen.

For

• When changing metering, AF mode, ISO or selecting an AF point, you first press and release a button to select a setting before you turn the dial. • When changing shutter speeds and apertures in Creative Zone modes you turn the dial without first pressing a button (pages 40–41). • After pressing MENU, turn the dial to select menu tabs listing commands (page 16). The Quick Control Dial The Quick Control Dial works in shooting modes to change settings, in menu mode to highlight menu commands, and in playback mode to scroll through images. • When changing the white balance, drive mode, flash exposure compensation or AF point, you first press and release a button to select a setting before you turn the dial. • When changing exposure compensation (page 52), selecting an aperture in manual mode (page 42), or using program shift (page 39), you turn the dial by itself. This only works when the Power Switch is set past ON to the white line pointing to the Quick Control Dial • When using the menu, after pressing MENU turn the dial to move the highlight up and down the menu. The Info Screen When the camera is ready to shoot, you can press the INFO button to cycle through two screens of information—Camera set. and Shoot func. You can use the Set-up 1 menu’s INFO button command to specify if both are displayed (the default) or only one. When the camera setting screen is displayed (it’s the one with less information and larger type), you can use it instead of the LCD panel as a guide when using buttons and dials to change settings. It has the advantage of larger type and better illumination. You can also press the AF point selection button and change the AF point using the Multi-controller (page 71).

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

Using Menus

to

and

Creativity

Change Settings To change many settings, you press the MENU button to display a series of menu tabs coded with colors, icons and dots. To charge settings from these menus you use the Main Dial, the Quick Control Dial and the SET button. • All of the camera’s menu commands and the pages on which they are discussed in this book are listed in tables on pages 17–18. On those tables, shaded menu items are only available in Creative Zone modes (page 37). • Some menus are spread across 2 or three tabs. In these cases the tab numbers (1, 2, 3) are indicated on the tabs themselves with dots.

Icons, colors and dots indicate (from top down) Shooting, Playback, Custom Functions and My Menu tabs.

• The Shooting 2, Set-up 3, Custom Functions and My Menu tabs are only available in Creative Zone modes (page 37) as are the Live View function settings and Flash control commands on the Set-up 2 menu. • RAW, sRAW, and RAW/sRAW+JPEG quality modes (page 25) are only available in Creative Zone modes. • When menus are displayed on the screen, you can press the shutter button halfway down at any time to instantly return to shooting mode. • You can place up to six frequently used menu commands on your own “My Menu” and even have that menu displayed first when you press the menu button (page 146). • The last menu you viewed is displayed the next time you press MENU. The only way to change this is to use the My Menu tab (page 146). Using Menus • To display the menu any time the camera is on, press the MENU button to the left of the monitor. • To select a tab, turn the Main Dial or press the JUMP button. Color coding and an icons indicate what menu tab is displayed. • To move the colored selection frame up and down the menu to highlight commands, turn the Quick Control Dial.

Once you press MENU, the Main Dial, the Quick Control Dial (above) and the SET button in its center are all you need to change settings.

• To display the options for a highlighted command, press the SET button in the center of the Quick Control Dial. To select a listed option (not all commands list options), turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight it, then press SET to confirm the change. • To redisplay the menu tabs at any time, press MENU. • To backup without changing to a setting, press MENU or the shutter button before pressing SET. • To hide the menu, press the MENU or shutter button.

16

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Using Menus In the tables on this page shaded commands are available only when the Mode Dial is set to a mode in the Creative Zone.

to

Change Settings

Shooting 1 (Red) Command

Settings

Page

Quality

Sets image size, compression and format

Red-eye On/Off

Turns red-eye reduction Off/On

115

Beep

Turns camera beep Off/On

148

Shoot w/o card

Specifies if the camera takes pictures without a card inserted

147

Review time

Specifies how long an image is displayed immediately after capture

148

26

Shooting 2 (Red) Command

Settings

Page

AEB

Autoexposure bracketing

54

White balance

Prevents color casts

81

Custom WB

Sets white balance in unique lighting situations

81

WB SHIFT/BKT

Adjusts and brackets white balance

83

Color space

Specifies the color space used to capture images

82

Picture Style

Lets you select predefined image settings, or create your own

139

Dust Delete Data

Locates dust on the sensor so its effects can be removed from images using software.

154

Playback 1 (Blue)

A few commands are only displayed when an optional WFT-E3/E3A wireless transmitter is mounted.

Command

Settings

Page

Protect images

Protects images from being erased

21

Rotate

Rotates images shot in portrait mode

21

Erase images

Erases images from the memory card

21

Print order

Specifies images to be printed

Transfer order

Selects images to be sent to PC

--

External media backup

Used with WFT-E3/E3A wireless transmitter to save images

--

152

Playback 2 (Blue)

For

Command

Settings

Highlight alert

Highlights overexposed areas in images

55

AF point disp.

Specifies if AF points used to focus are displayed in review or playback modes

71

Histogram

Selects type of histogram displayed

55

Auto play

Plays back images automatically

21

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Page

17


Chapter 1. Camera Controls In the tables on this page shaded commands are available only when the Mode Dial is set to a mode in the Creative Zone.

and

Creativity

Set-up 1 (Yellow) Command

Settings

Page

Auto power off

Specifies when camera turns off

149

File numbering

Specifies image file numbers

148

Auto rotate

Rotates images shot in portrait mode

150

INFO button

Specifies which INFO screens are displayed

Format

Prepares card to store images

WFT settings

Used with WFT-E3/E3A wireless transmitter

--

Recording func.+media select

Used with WFT-E3/E3A wireless transmitter

--

15 150

Set-up 2 (Yellow) Command

Settings

Page

LCD brightness

Adjusts monitor brightness

149

Date/Time

Sets camera date and time

147

Language

Specifies language used for menus and messages

149

Video system

Specifies PAL or NTSC video

149

Sensor cleaning

Cleans dust from the sensor

153

Live View function settings

Customizes the Live View display

135

Flash control

Sets built-in and external flash

121

Set-up 3 (Yellow) Command

Settings

Page

Camera user setting

Stores your own settings to C1, C2, or C3 on the Mode Dial

140

Clear all camera settings

Resets many camera settings to their factory defaults

151

Firmware version

Updates the camera’s firmware

151

Custom Functions (Orange) Command

Settings

Page

C.Fn I: Exposure

Exposure, ISO, and bracketing

141

C.Fn II: Image

Noise reduction and highlight tone

141

C.Fn III: Auto focus/Drive

Autofocus and mirror lockup

141

C.Fn IV: Operation/Others

Shutter button, AF-ON, SET dials, focusing screen and Live View

141

Clear all Custom Func. (C.Fn)

Resets Custom Functions to their defaults

141

My Menu (Green)

18

Command

Settings

My Menu Settings

Stores frequently used commands

For

Page 146

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Playing Back & Managing Your Images

Playing Back & Managing Your Images Tips • After zooming an image or displaying information, you can turn the Main or Quick Control Dials to scroll through other images using the same settings. • To immediately return to shooting mode, press the shutter button halfway down.

Pressing INFO in playback mode displays information about the image.

The Playback icon.

When taking photos, there are many times when you want to review the images you’ve taken, ideally before leaving the scene. Image Review When you take a photo, it’s displayed for 2 seconds (counting from when you release the shutter button) although you can change this with the Review time command (page 148). With an image displayed, press the Erase button to delete it, or the INFO button to change the display mode. Pressing either button also keeps the image on the screen until you press the shutter button halfway down to take another photo. Image Playback To review some or all of the images you have taken, press the Playback button to display the last photo you took. You can then display small thumbnails so you can quickly locate a specific image, erase the image, or zoom in to examine details. In playback mode, you can press the shutter button halfway down at any time to instantly return to shooting mode. INFO Display To display or hide information about images in review or playback, repeatedly press the INFO button to cycle through single image display, single image display with recording quality, histogram display, and shooting information display. On two of the screens a small thumbnail and one or more histograms are displayed (page 56). Once information is displayed for one image in playback (but not review) mode, you can turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through other images with the same information displayed. MANAGING IMAGES—Using Buttons 1. With the camera on, press the Playback button and use any of the following procedures: ● To display one image after another, turn the Quick Control Dial.

The Index/Reduce

The Enlarge icon.

● To display 4 or 9 small thumbnails in index view, press the Index button marked with the blue grid-like icon once or twice. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll the blue frame to select a specific image. To return to single-image view, press the Enlarge button. ● To zoom an image up to 10x, press or hold down the Enlarge button. When an image is zoomed, a small square on the screen indicates which part of the image you are viewing as you press the Multi-controller to scroll around. To unzoom and return to singleimage view, press and hold down the Index/Reduce button or press the Playback button. ● To erase the image displayed in single-image view or the one highlighted in index view, press the Erase button below the monitor (a trash can icon). Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase and press SET. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE ...

The Erase icon.

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

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Creativity

MANAGING IMAGES—Using Buttons, con’t.

TIP • One way to delete all images on a card (and all folders but the current one), is to format the card (page 150).

The Playback icon.

● To change the information displayed, press INFO. 2. To resume shooting, press the Playback button or press the shutter button halfway down. Jumping in Playback In playback mode, it takes time to navigate through images when there are many of them on a card. To speed things up you can use the Main Dial to jump in single-image, magnified, and index modes. (You can jump in index view or with an image zoomed but you can’t change the jump mode.) The jump modes from which you can choose include the following: • 1 image is the default. • 10 images jumps you forward and back 10 images at a time.

You can press the JUMP button to select the jump method.

• 100 images jumps you forward and back 100 images at a time. • Screen, designed for use in index mode, jumps you forward and back a screen, or page of thumbnails, at a time. As you turn the Main Dial to jump in this mode, a position bar on the screen indicates where the currently displayed images fall within the total collection of images on the card. In this mode, turning the Quick Control Dial continues to jump you one image at a time. • Date jumps you forward or back to the first picture take on the next or previous date. Jumping IN Playback 1. With the camera on, press the Playback button and display photos in single-image, magnified or index view.

Tips • Canon has an optional AC adapter kit (ACK-E2) you can use to give slide shows without draining your battery pack. • When giving a slide show, due to differences in the aspect ratio of the screen and image, images may not fill the screen, or if they do parts may be cut off.

20

2. Do one of the following: ● To select a jump method, press the JUMP button and turn the Quick Control Dial. ● To jump using the selected method, turn the Main Dial clockwise to jump forward and counter-clockwise to jump backward.

Image Recovery Software If you delete images by mistake, don’t despair. There is software that will let you recover them if you don’t first save other photos on the same card. One such program is PhotoRescue at (http://www.datarescue.com/photorescue/) but you can find others by Googling “digital image recovery.”

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Using

Using

the

the

Playback Menu

Playback Menu

Tips • When looking for pictures to erase, protect, or rotate, it’s often faster if you press the Index/Enlarge button to switch to index display. • You can rotate images automatically with the Set-up 1 menu’s Auto rotate command (page 150). • Print order is discussed on page 152. • Transfer Order is used to select which photos are transferred to your computer.

The protect icon.

Tip The best way to delete images depends on how many you are deleting. • When deleting 100% of the images, use the All images on card choice. • When deleting less than 50%, use the Erase choice. • When deleting more than 50%, protect the images you want to save, and then use the All choice to delete the rest.

The playback menu lists a variety of commands. Although only Protect, Erase, Rotate, and Auto play from the Playback 1 menu tab are discussed here, the other playback commands are discussed elsewhere in this book. MANAGING YOUR IMAGES—Using Menus 1. Press MENU and display the Playback 1 menu tab. ● To protect selected images so they won’t be inadvertently erased, or to unprotect previously protected images, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Protect images and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through images and press SET to protect or unprotect selected images. (When you select a protected image, the protect icon is displayed at the top of the screen.) ● To rotate selected images, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Rotate, and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through your images and press SET one or more times to rotate an image. ● To erase selected images, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase images, and press SET, then with Select and erase images highlighted, press SET again. Turn the Quick Control Dial to scroll through images and press SET to check those to be deleted. (Press Index and Enlarge to toggle between 1 or 3 images.) When finished selecting images, press the Erase button to delete them and select OK when asked to confirm ● To erase all images, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Erase Images, and press SET, then turn it again to select All images on card and press SET. 2. When finished, press MENU. You can display your images as a slide show on the camera’s monitor or on a connected TV. To show your images on the TV, turn both the TV and the camera off while you connect the supplied video cable to the VIDEO OUT terminal on the camera and the VIDEO IN terminal on the TV. Turn on the TV and set it for video input. Turn on the camera and set it to Auto play as described below. Auto power off does not operate in auto play mode and the show loops over and over again. Be sure to end the show and turn off the camera when finished. If you are traveling and need to switch between NTSC and PAL video systems see page 149. Giving Slide Shows 1. Press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto play, and press SET. Each picture on the CF card will be displayed for 3 seconds. ● To pause and restart the show, press SET. When paused, a pause icon is displayed in the upper left corner of the image. ● To manually scroll through images turn the Quick Control Dial. ● To specify what information is displayed, press INFO. 2. To stop the show at any point, press the MENU or shutter button.

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

and

Selecting Image Quality

Creativity

and

Size

Digital photographs are made up of millions of tiny squares called picture elhttp://www.photocourse.com/itext/dots/ Click to see how dots are used in printing.

ements—or just pixels. Like the impressionists who painted wonderful scenes with small dabs of paint, your computer and printer can use these tiny pixels to display or print photographs. To do so, the computer divides the screen or printed page into a grid of pixels. It then uses the values stored in the digital photograph to specify the brightness and color of each pixel in this grid—a form of painting by number.

Any image that looks sharp and has smooth transitions in tones (top) is actually made up of millions of individual square pixels (bottom). Each pixel is a solid, uniform color.

Tip •

The term “resolution” has two meanings in photography. Originally it referred to the ability of a camera system to resolve pairs of fine lines such as those found on a test chart. In this usage it’s an indicator of sharpness, not image size. With the introduction of digital cameras it began being used to indicate the number of pixels a camera could capture.

Number of Pixels http://www.photocourse.com/itext/resolution/

The quality of a digital image depends in part on the number of pixels used to create the image (sometimes referred to as resolution). At a given size, more pixels add detail and sharpen edges. However, there are always size limits. When you enlarge any digital image enough, the pixels begin to show—an http://www.photocourse.com/itext/pixelzoom/ effect called pixelization. This is not unlike traditional silver-based prints where grain begins to show when prints are enlarged past a certain point. Click to see the effects Click to explore the original meaning of “resolution”.

of pixelization as an image is enlarged.

22

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Selecting Image Quality

and

Size

When a digital image is displayed or printed at the correct size for the number of pixels it contains, it looks like a normal photograph. When enlarged too much (as is the eye here), its square pixels begin to show. Each pixel is a small square made up of a single color.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/imagesize/ Click to see how the output device determines image sizes.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/pixelresolution/ Click to explore how more pixels give sharper images.

The size of a photograph is specified in one of two ways—by its dimensions http://www.photocourse.com/itext/excel/math-imagesize.xls Click for Excel work sheet on image sizes.

in pixels or by the total number of pixels it contains. For example, the same image can be said to have 3888 × 2592 pixels (where “×” is pronounced “by” as in “3888 by 2592”), or to contain 10.1 million pixels or megapixels (3888 multiplied by 2592).

Image sizes are expressed as dimensions in pixels (3888 × 2592) or by the total number of pixels (10.1 megapixels).

40D Image Sizes • The 40D gives you

a choice of three image sizes: 3888 × 2592 (large), 2816 x 1880 (medium), and 1936 × 1288 (small).

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

and

Creativity

How An Image is Captured Digital cameras are very much like the rapidly disappearing 35mm film cameras. Both types contain a lens, an aperture, and a shutter. The lens brings light from the scene into focus inside the camera so it can expose an image. The aperture is a hole that can be made smaller or larger to control the amount of light entering the camera. The shutter is a device that can be opened or closed to control the length of time the light is allowed to enter. The big difference between traditional film cameras and digital cameras is how they capture the image. Instead of film, digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor. In the 40D, the image sensor is a CMOS chip. On the surface of this fingernail-sized silicon chip is a grid containing over 10 million photosensitive diodes called photosites, photoelements, or pixels. Each photosite captures a single pixel in the photograph to be. The Exposure When you press the shutter button of a digital camera, an exposure system measures the light coming through the lens and sets the aperture and shutter speed for the correct exposure. When the shutter opens briefly, each pixel on the image sensor records the brightness of the light that falls on it by accumulating an electrical charge. The more light that hits a pixel, the higher the charge it records. Pixels capturing light from highlights in the scene will have high charges. Those capturing light from shadows will have low charges. An image sensor against a background enlargement of its square pixels, each capable of capturing one pixel in the final image.

When the shutter closes to end the exposure, the charge from each pixel is measured and converted into a digital number. This series of numbers is then used to reconstruct the image by setting the color and brightness of matching pixels on the screen or printed page. It’s All Black and White After All It may be surprising, but pixels on an image sensor can only capture brightness, not color. They record only the gray scale—a series of 256 increasingly darker tones ranging from pure white to pure black. How the camera creates a color image from the brightness recorded by each pixel is an interesting story.

The gray scale contains a range of tones from pure white to pure black.

When photography was first invented, it could only record black and white images. The search for color was a long and arduous process, and a lot of hand coloring went on in the interim (causing one photographer to comment “so you have to know how to paint after all!”). One major breakthrough was James Clerk Maxwell’s 1860 discovery that color photographs could be created using black and white film and red, blue, and green filters. He had the photographer Thomas Sutton photograph a tartan ribbon three times, each time with a different color filter over the lens. The three black and white images were then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each equipped with the same color filter used to take the image being projected. When brought into alignment, the three images formed a full-color photograph. Over a century later, image sensors work much the same way.

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Selecting Image Quality

and

Size

Colors in a photographic image are usually based on the three primary colors red, green, and blue (RGB). This is called the additive color system because new colors are formed by mixing together other colors. This RGB system is used whenever light is projected to form colors as it is on the display monitor (or in your eye).

RGB uses additive colors. When all three are mixed in equal amounts they form white. When red and green overlap they form yellow, and so on.

Since daylight is made up of red, green, and blue light; placing red, green, and blue filters over individual pixels on the image sensor can create color images just as they did for Maxwell in 1860. Using a process called interpolation, the camera computes the full color of each pixel by combining the color it captured directly with the other two colors captured by the pixels around it. How well it does this is affected in part by the image format, size, and compression you select. Image Formats One of the most important choices you’ll make when shooting photos is what format to use—JPEG or RAW.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/RGB/ Click to explore how three colors are used to create full-color images on the screen.

• JPEG is the default format used by the 40D and almost every other digital camera ever made. Named after its developer, the Joint Photographic Experts Group (and pronounced “jay-peg”) this format lets you specify both image http://www.photocourse.com/itext/CMYK/ size and compression. Click to explore how three colors are used to create full-color prints.

The 40D lets you choose from three image sizes when shooting JPEGs. Because you can squeeze more 2816 x 1880 images onto a storage device than you can squeeze 3888 x 2592 images, there may be times when you’ll want to switch to the smaller size and sacrifice quality for quantity.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/compression/ The JPEG format compresses images to make them smaller and the 40D lets

you specify how much they are compressed. This is a useful feature because there is a trade-off between compression and image quality. Images captured in the 40D’s Fine mode are compressed less than those in the Normal mode. Less compression gives you better images so you can make larger prints, but http://www.photocourse.com/itext/RAW/ you can’t store as many images. Click here to see the effects of compression.

Click here to explore the differences between JPEG and RAW formats.

Tips • You can change

contrast, sharpness, saturation, and color tone settings using Picture Styles (page 138).

• When you change

image quality, the LCD panel always indicates the number of new shots that will fit on the current CF card.

For

• RAW images are often better than JPEG images because they are not processed in the camera, but on your more powerful desktop computer. These RAW files contain every bit of the captured data, unlike JPEGs which are processed in the camera with some data being discarded. RAW files are 3888 x 2592 pixels in size and can be viewed, edited, and converted to other formats using most photo-editing software such as Photoshop or Lightroom or Canon’s own Digital Photo Professional program included on a CD that comes with the camera. RAW images can be captured by themselves or with a companion JPEG image of any size and quality. The later choice gives you an identical high quality RAW file and a smaller, more easily distributable JPEG file with the same names but different extensions—.CR2 and .JPG. For more on RAW images, see page 59. sRAW images are about one-quarter the size of other RAW images (1936 x 1288 vs. 3888 x 2592) but share all of their larger sibling’s attributes and can be edited and adjusted in the same way. Their purpose is to give you highest possible image quality when you don’t need a full-size image. Selecting an Image Quality When you select an image format, size, and compression, you’re not only affecting image quality but also how many images can be stored on your

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Chapter 1. Camera Controls

and

Creativity

CF card. Sometimes when there is no storage space left, you can switch to a smaller size and higher compression to squeeze a few more images onto the card. The list that follows gives the sizes/compression ratios from which you can choose. The approximate size of photo files for each format and the number of images that you can store on a 1 GB CF card are given in parentheses. The exact file size and number that can be stored vary somewhat depending on the subject matter and camera settings being used. • Large/Fine have 3888 x 2592 pixels (3.5MB, 274) • Large/Normal have 3888 x 2592 pixels (1.8MB, 523) • Medium/Fine have 2816 x 1880 pixels (2.1MB, 454) • Medium/Normal have 2816 x 1880 pixels (1.1MB, 854) • Small/Fine have 1936 x 1288 pixels (1.2MB, 779) • Small/Normal have 1936 x 1288 pixels (0.7MB, 1451) • RAW images have 3888 x 2592 pixels (12.4MB, 76). • RAW + Large Fine gives you two identical 3888 x 2592 images–one in the RAW format and one a Large/Fine JPEG (12.4+3.5MB, 59). Image sizes are indicated by letters L, M, and S (large, medium, and small). Compression modes are indicated with pie-slicelike icons. Fine mode has a smooth edge and Normal mode has a rough stair-step edge.

The 40D allows you to have up to five different image quality settings available from the Mode Dial at the same time: • Basic Zone modes (page 37) are treated as a group. A change in any of these modes changes all of them. If you switch to any Creative Zone mode, the settings change to the new zone’s settings. • Creative Zone modes (page 37) are treated as a group. A change in any of these modes affects all of them. If you switch to any Basic Zone mode, the settings change to the new zone’s settings. • Camera user settings C1, C2 and C3 can each be set to it’s own image quality (page 140). Selecting Image Quality 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode (or to any mode in the Creative Zone if selecting RAW), press MENU and display the Shooting 1 menu tab. (The Creative Zone is discussed on page 37.)

A high capacity card lets you store the largest possible images without worrying as much about running out of storage space. Courtesy of SanDisk.

2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Quality and press SET to display a list of quality choices. 3. Highlight one of the choices (its size in pixels is displayed above the choices with the number of shots that will fit on the card at that setting displayed in brackets—999 means “999 or more”) and press SET to select it. (RAW modes are only displayed when the camera is set to one of the Creative Zone modes.) 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Chapter 2 Controlling Exposure

Contents • Understanding Exposure • Choosing Shooting Modes • Using Image Zone Modes • Using Program AE and Program Shift • Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode • Using Aperture Priority (Av) Mode • Using Manual (M) Mode • How Your Exposure System Works • When Automatic Exposure Works Well • When to Override Automatic Exposure • How Overriding Auto-exposure Works • How to Override Automatic Exposure • Using Histograms • Using the RAW Format

For

A

utomatic exposure control is one of the most useful features of your camera. It’s great to have the camera automatically deal with the exposure while you concentrate on the image. This is especially helpful when photographing action scenes where there isn’t time to evaluate the situation and set the controls manually. You shouldn’t, however, always leave the exposure to the automatic system. At times the lighting can fool any automatic exposure system into producing an underexposed (too dark) or overexposed (too light) image. Although you can make adjustments to a poorly exposed image in a photo-editing program, you’ve lost image information in the shadows or highlights that can’t be recovered. You will find it better in some situations to override the automatic exposure system at the time you take the picture. Typical situations in which you might want to override automatic exposure include scenes with interesting and unusual lighting. For example, you need to take control when you photograph into the sun, record a colorful sunset, show the brilliance of a snow-covered landscape, or convey the dark moodiness of a forest.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Understanding Exposure The most creative controls you have with any camera are the shutter speed http://www.photocourse.com/itext/exposure/ Click here to explore how changes in the exposure make pictures lighter or darker.

and aperture settings. Both affect the exposure, the total amount of light reaching the image sensor, and thus control how light or dark a picture is.

• The shutter opens to begin an exposure and closes to end it. The shutter speed setting specifies how long the shutter is open and the image sensor is exposed to light.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/focalplane/ • The aperture is the hole through which light enters the camera. The size of Click here to watch a focal plane shutter expose an image.

The 40D’s focal plane shutter uses two curtains—one opens to begin the exposure and the second closes to end it. At shutter speeds faster than 1/250 the two curtains form a slit traveling across the image sensor.

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the hole can be changed to control the brightness of the light that enters.

When you press the shutter button, a metering cell measures the light coming through the lens and sets the aperture and shutter speed for the correct exposure.

In the early days of photography, plates called waterhouse stops, were inserted into a slot in the lens to control the amount of light entering the camera. These stops had holes of various sizes drilled in them and they acted just like the adjustable iris apertures used today. A lens cap was removed from the lens to begin the exposure and replaced to end it—a primitive version of a shutter. This old wooden camera is surrounded by a number of waterhouse stops (apertures) and a lens cap (the shutter) leans against it. Photo by Ake Borgstrom at www.photographica.nu.

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The Shutter Controls Light

The Shutter Controls Light

and

and

Motion

Motion

The shutter keeps light out of the camera except during an exposure, when it opens to let light strike the image sensor. In respect to just exposure, faster shutter speeds let less strike the image sensor so the image is darker. Slower speeds let in more so it’s lighter. As the shutter speed gets slower, the image gets lighter. The reason you don’t usually see this effect in your images is because when you or the camera change the shutter speed, the camera changes the aperture to keep the exposure constant.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/G-shutters/ Click to explore the various types of shutters used in digital cameras.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/speedseries/ Click to explore the effect of shutter speed on exposure.

Katie turned a little just as the shutter opened causing unwanted blur in the image.

For

In addition to controlling exposure, the shutter speed is the most important control you have over how motion is captured in a photograph. The longer the shutter is open, the more a moving subject will be blurred in the picture Also, the longer it’s open the more likely you are to cause blur by moving the camera slightly. Although you normally want to avoid blur in your images there are times when you may want to use it creatively.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure A fast shutter speed (left) opens and closes the shutter so quickly a moving subject doesn’t move very far during the exposure. A slow speed (right) can allow moving objects to move sufficiently to blur their image on the image sensor.

Tip • To get faster shutter speeds, increase the ISO (page 63). To get slower shutter speeds, use a neutral density filter (page 108).

Shutter 1/8000 1/6400 1/5000 1/4000 1/3200 1/2500 1/2000 1/1600 1/1250 1/1000 1/800 1/640 1/500 1/400 1/320 1/250 1/200 1/160

1/125 1/100 1/80 1/60 1/50 1/40 1/30 1/25 1/20 1/15 1/13 1/10 1/8 1/6 1/5 1/4 0”3 0”4

0”5 0”6 0”8 1” 1”3 1”6 2” 2”5 3”2 4” 5” 6” 8” 10” 13” 15” 20” 25” 30”

Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an exposure, there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when you set it yourself (which you can’t do in many shooting modes). These shutter speed settings, shown in bold to the left, are arranged in a sequence so that each setting lets in half as much light as the next slowest setting and twice as much as the next fastest. The 40D’s shutter speeds are listed in the table to the left. The 40D adds two stops between each of the traditional ones—shown in the table without boldfacing. This allows you to adjust exposure in one-third stop increments for finer exposure control. • Speeds faster than 1 second are fractions of a second. A quotation mark (”) indicates a decimal point. For example 0.3 seconds is displayed as 0”3. At shutter speeds of 1/4 second and higher, only the denominator is shown and no quote marks are used. For example, 1/4000 is shown as 4000. • Speeds of 1 second or slower are whole seconds and are shown as numbers with quotation marks (”). For example, 2 seconds is displayed as 2”. The Way It Was: Early Shutter Designs

The shutter, used to control the amount of time that light exposes the image sensor, has changed considerably over the years. The earliest cameras, using imaging materials that might take minutes to be properly exposed, came with a lens cap that the photographer removed to begin the exposure and then http://www.photocourse.com/itext/shutterspeed/ replaced to end it. As film became more sensitive to light and exposure times became shorter, faster shutters were needed. One kind used a swinging plate Click to explore how the while another design used a guillotine-like blade. As the blade moved past the shutter speed affects lens opening, a hole in the blade allowed light to briefly reach the film. the capture of moving subjects.

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The Aperture Controls Light

The Aperture Controls Light

and

Depth

of

and

Depth

of

Field

Field

The aperture adjusts the size of the opening through which light passes to the http://www.photocourse.com/itext/G-apertures/ Click here to explore the standard series of apertures and the aperture’s effects on exposure.

image sensor. The aperture can be opened up to let in more light or closed (stopped down) to let in less. In respect to just exposure, smaller apertures let less light strike the image sensor so the image is darker. Larger apertures let in more so it’s lighter.

As the aperture number gets smaller (for example, from f/8 to f/5.6) the aperture opening gets larger and the image gets lighter. The reason you don’t usually see this effect in your images is because when you or the camera change the aperture, the camera changes the shutter speed to keep the exposure constant.

The aperture is a series of overlapping leaves located between the glass elements in the lens.

For

As with the shutter speed, the aperture also affects the sharpness of your picture, but in a different way. Changing the aperture changes the depth of field, the depth in a scene from foreground to background that will be sharp in a photograph. Smaller apertures increase depth of field while larger ones decrease it. For some pictures—for example, a landscape—you may want a smaller aperture for maximum depth of field so that everything from near foreground to distant background is sharp. But perhaps in a portrait you will want a larger aperture to decrease the depth of field so your subject is sharp but the background is soft and out of focus.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure A small aperture increases depth of field so foreground and background are sharp (top) and a large aperture decreases depth of field so the background is soft (bottom).

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/DOF/ Click here to explore how the aperture affects depth of field.

Tip • To get smaller apertures, increase the ISO (page 63). To get larger apertures, use a neutral density filter (page 108).

F/Stops f/1.4 f/1.6 f/1.8 f/2.0 f/2.2 f/2.6 f/2.8 f/3.2 f/3.6

f/4.0 f/4.5 f/5.0 f/5.6 f/6.3 f/7.1 f/8 f/9 f/10

f/11 f/13 f/14 f/16 f/18 f/20 f/22

Aperture settings are called f/stops and indicate the size of the aperture opening. Each f/stop lets in half as much light as the next larger opening and twice as much light as the next smaller opening. From the largest possible opening to increasingly smaller ones, the f/stops have traditionally been those shown in boldface to the left but vary from lens to lens. Notice that as the f/stop number gets larger (f/4 to f/5.6, for example), the aperture size gets smaller. This may be easier to remember if you think of the f/number as a fraction: 1/8 is less than 1/4, just as the size of the f/8 lens opening is smaller that the size of the f/4 opening. Many high-end digital cameras like the 40D add two stops between each of the traditional ones. In the table to the left these one-third stops are shown without boldfacing. How wide you can open the aperture depends on the len’s maximum aperture—its widest opening. The term “fast lens” usually applies to lenses that can be opened to a wide maximum aperture for the focal length. For example, a lens with a maximum aperture of f/2.8 opens wider, and is faster, than a lens with a maximum aperture of f/3.2. Faster lenses are better when photographing in dim light, photographing fast moving subjects, or using shallow depth of field. With most, but not all, zoom lenses the maximum aperture changes as you zoom the lens. It will be larger when zoomed out to a wide angle, and smaller when zoomed in to enlarge a subject.

The EF 85mm f/1.2 L II USM lens is currently one of Canon’s fastest lenses.

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Using Shutter Speed

Using Shutter Speed

In this book and the animations apertures are represented by these realistic icons with a small aperture (left) and a large one (right).

and

and

Aperture Together

Aperture Together

When taking photos, one of the first decisions you make is which shooting mode to use. Your choice determines if you control the aperture or shutter speed. If your shooting mode lets you select them, you can pair a fast shutter speed (to let in light for a short time) with a large aperture (to let in bright light) or a slow shutter speed (long time) with a small aperture (dim light). Speaking of exposure only, it doesn’t make any difference which combination you use. But in other ways, it does make a difference, and it is just this difference that gives you some creative opportunities. Whether you know it or not, you’re always balancing camera or subject movement against depth of field because a change in one causes a change in the other. Let’s see why. As you’ve seen, shutter speeds and apertures each have a standard series of settings called “stops.” • With shutter speeds, each stop is a second or more, or a fraction of second indicating how long the shutter is open.

In this book and the animations, shutter speeds are represented by these symbolic icons with a fast shutter speed (left) and a slow one (right). The cut out “pie slice” indicates how far an imaginary second hand would sweep.

• With apertures they are f/stops indicating the size of the opening through which light enters. The stops are arranged so that a change of 1 stop lets in half or twice the light of the next setting. A shutter speed of 1/60 second lets in half the light that 1/30 second does, and twice the light of 1/125 second. An aperture of f/5.6 lets in half the light that f/4 does, and twice the light of f/8. If you make the shutter speed 1 stop slower (letting in 1 stop more light), and an aperture 1 full stop smaller (letting in 1 stop less light), the exposure doesn’t change. (In all modes other than manual this happens automatically.) However, although the exposure is the same, the slower shutter speed increases the possibility of blur from camera or subject movement and the smaller aperture increases depth of field slightly. A one-stop change like this has only a small effect, but a 3 or 4 stop change can be dramatic. For example with a three stop change the shutter speed might drop from 1/125 to 1/15 and the aperture might stop-down from f/2.8 to f/11. The effects of those changes on motion blur and depth of field would be very noticeable. • For fast-moving subjects you need a fast shutter speed to freeze it, or a slow one to blur it (although the focal length of the lens you are using, the closeness of the subject, and the direction in which it’s moving also affect how motion is portrayed). When photographing moving subjects shutter-priority (Tv) mode (page 40) is favored because it gives you direct control over the shutter speed. • For maximum depth of field, with the entire scene sharp from near to far, you need a small aperture, and for shallow depth of field you need a large one (although the focal length of the lens and the distance to the subject also affects depth of field). When photographing landscapes and portraits aperturepriority (Av) mode (page 41) is favored because it gives you direct control over the aperture and depth of field. To be sure you are using the fastest possible shutter speed in changing light, use aperture-priority mode and select the largest aperture, or the one that gives you the depth of field you need. The camera will then always select the fastest matching shutter speed. The same principle works when you want the smallest possible aperture. Use shutter-priority mode and select the slowest shutter speed you need for sharpness. The camera will then always select the smallest possible aperture.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure Exposure—Faucets & Buckets Analogy One way to think of how apertures and shutter speeds relate is to use the analogy of a faucet for the aperture and a timer for the shutter speed. • When you open a faucet all the way, water gushes out so you fill a bucket in a very short time. This is the same as pairing a large aperture and fast shutter speed to let in bright light for a short time. • When you open a faucet just a little, water trickles out and so it takes a much longer time to fill a bucket. This is the same as pairing a small aperture and slow shutter speed to let in dim light for a longer time. No matter which combination you choose, the bucket is filled the same amount. Likewise, an image in a camera can be exposed the same amount by various aperture and shutter speed combinations while also controlling motion and depth of field.

For larger apertures or slower shutter speeds, you can use a screw on neutral density filter that cuts the light entering the lens (page 108).

1. We start with the aperture set to f/16 and the shutter speed to 1/30.

2. When you open the aperture one stop to f/11 the shutter speed has to decrease to 1/60 to keep the exposure the same. This change decreases depth of field slightly and freezes action better.

3. When you open the aperture another stop to f/8 the shutter speed has to decrease another stop to 1/125. This change decreases depth of field even more and freezes action even better.

The Way It Was: Early Apertures

For smaller apertures or faster shutter speeds, you can increase the ISO (page 63).

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A variety of designs in the past century and a half have enabled photographers to change the size of the lens opening. A form of the iris diaphragm, used in today’s cameras, was used as early as the 1820s by Joseph Nicephore Niepce, one of the inventors of photography. Waterhouse stops, used in the 1850s were a series of blackened metal plates with holes of different sizes cut in them. To change apertures the photographer chose the appropriate plate and slid it into a slot in the lens barrel. With wheel stops, different size apertures were cut into a revolving plate. The photographer changed the size of the aperture by rotating the plate to align the desired opening with the lens.

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Using Shutter Speed

and

Aperture Together

Exposure—Seesaw Analogy http://www.photocourse.com/itext/seesaw/ Click to explore the relationship between the aperture and shutter speed.

Another way to think of exposure is as a seesaw. As one child rises a given distance, the other falls by the same amount but their average distance from the ground is always the same. In photography, when you or the camera changes the aperture or shutter speed to let in more or less light, you or the camera must also change the other setting in the opposite direction to keep the exposure constant. The illustrations below show how a change in the aperture setting must be matched by a change in the shutter speed and vice versa. As these offsetting changes are made, the exposure stays constant but depth of field changes slightly and subjects are more or less likely to be frozen.

1. Here the aperture is f/4 and the shutter speed is 1/125.

2. If you reduce the aperture one stop to f/5.6 the shutter speed has to decrease one stop to 1/60 to keep the exposure the same.

3. If you reduce the aperture one more stop to f/8 the shutter speed has to decrease one more stop to 1/30 to keep the exposure the same.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Retaining Highlight

and

Shadow Details

Knowing how to control exposure is one of the most important aspects of http://www.photocourse.com/itext/exposure/ Click here to explore how changes in the exposure make pictures lighter or darker.

photography. When a scene has both very light and very dark areas, getting the perfect exposure is a lot like parking a large car in a small garage—there isn’t a great deal of room for error. The goal is to hold details in both the darkest and lightest areas so pure white is used only for spectral highlights such as reflections and pure black is used only for small areas of the scene that are black with no details.

In this scene there are details in all of the whites that give them texture and form. The small white square has been added to give you a reference to what pure white would look like.

One of the things that makes an Ansel Adams print so stunning was his ability to hold details in both the brightest and darkest parts of a scene. To do this with film he developed the Zone System that guided him in adjusting exposure and development times for the best results. Today the adjustments are made with Photoshop.

In this scene there are details in the darkest shadows. The small black square has been added to give you a reference to what pure black would look like.

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Choosing Shooting Modes

Choosing Shooting Modes Your EOS 40D offers 12 shooting modes, each of which has unique advantages in specific situations. These modes are divided into two types, or zones—Basic Zone and Creative Zone. Each zone has a number of modes you can select by turning the Mode Dial on top of the camera. Basic Zone modes, including Full Auto and six Image Zones, are indicated with picture-like icons and Creative Zone modes with letters (P, TV, Av, M, and A-DEP). Let’s take a look at these two zones and the modes each includes.

The Mode Dial indicates Basic Zone modes with icons and Creative Zone modes with text.

Basic Zone modes include Full Auto, which we’ve already discussed (page 9), and six Image Zone modes designed for specific situations—Portrait, Landscape, Close-up, Sports, Night Portrait and Flash Off. These modes are discussed in detail on page 38. To prevent mistakes, you can only change the drive mode, image quality, and red-eye reduction in these modes. Creative Zone modes give you more control of shutter speed, aperture, and

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/modedial/ other important color, ISO, and exposure settings for creative effects. Click to see why you change exposure modes.

The Full Auto icon.

• P (Program AE) is like Full Auto, but you can easily select different pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings to control how depth of field or motion is captured (page 39). • Tv (shutter-priority AE, called time value by Canon, lets you choose the shutter speed, while the camera automatically sets the aperture to give you a good exposure. You select this mode when the portrayal of motion is most important. It lets you set your shutter speed fast enough to freeze the action or slow enough to blur it (page 40). • Av (aperture-priority AE, called aperture value by Canon, lets you select the aperture (lens opening) while the camera automatically sets the shutter speed to give you a good exposure. You select this mode whenever depth of field is most important. To be sure everything is sharp, as in a landscape, select a small aperture. To throw the background out of focus so a main subject such as a portrait stands out, select a large aperture (page 41).

Tips

• M (manual) lets you choose both the shutter speed and aperture so you can get just the setting you want. Most photographers select this mode only when other modes won’t give them the results they want (page 42).

• In some situations, your pictures can be too light or too dark in any shooting mode. To darken or lighten them, use exposure compensation (page 52).

• A-DEP (Auto Depth-of-field Priority) evaluates all of the focus points in the viewfinder and selects an aperture that will give enough depth of field to keep all of them in focus (page 75).

• Check the shutter speed and aperture in the viewfinder when you press the shutter button halfway down. If either is blinking, the camera doesn’t have the right exposure setting. To see how to adjust it, read the sections that follow.

Knowing how to use these various modes gives you amazing creative control over your images. Because these are the most important controls in your creative arsenal, we’ll look at them in depth in the pages that follow.

For

• Camera user settings C1, C2 and C3 are used to store your own personal combinations of settings (page 140).

Changing Shooting Modes 1. Set the Power Switch to ON or the white line above it. 2. Turn the Mode Dial to any setting so it aligns with the small silver marker.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Using Image Zone Modes The Mode Dial has six point-and-shoot Image Zone modes that work just like Full Auto, but draw on a library of settings designed for specific situations. For example, in Portrait mode the camera selects a large aperture for a shallow depth of field so the background is out of focus and softer. In Landscape mode, it does the opposite and selects a small aperture to give you as much depth of field and sharpness as possible. (For more on the concepts of depth of field, see Chapter 3.) In all Image Zone modes, the metering mode is set to evaluative (page 45). ISO (page 63) is set to Auto so it varies between 100–800 depending on the scene (except Portrait mode, where it’s fixed at 100). Portrait and Sports modes have the drive mode set to continuous mode (page 134) so you can run off a series of shots and capture an expression or action you might miss with a single shot. Also, Picture Styles are set to boost color saturation, contrast, and sharpness for sharper, more vivid images (page 139).

Image Zone icons.

• Portrait sets the camera for continuous shooting (page 134) and minimum depth of field so a portrait will have a soft, and less distracting, background. To maximize the effect, zoom in on the subject, use a long focal length lens (telephoto) so the subject fills most of the viewfinder, and make sure there is as much distance as possible between the main subject and the background. • Landscape sets the camera for maximum depth of field so everything is sharp from foreground to background. Since a slow shutter speed may be used in this mode, you may need to support the camera (page 62). This mode works best with a short focal length (wide-angle) lens, and the built-in flash doesn’t fire in this mode so it’s useful in night scenes where the flash would throw off the exposure. • Close-up is used to capture flowers and other small objects but isn’t a substitute for a macro lens (page 105). This mode works best with a long focal length lens set to its minimum focus distance. If you get too close, the focus confirmation light blinks when you press the shutter button halfway down. • Sports mode is ideal for action sports and other fast-moving subjects. The autofocus mode is automatically set to AI Servo AF (page 70) to keep a moving subject in focus. The drive mode is set to high speed continuous (page 134) so you can take pictures at 6.5 frames per second as long as you hold down the shutter button. The built-in flash doesn’t fire in this mode. For best results use a long focal length lens (page 103).

Tips • In some situations, your pictures can be too light or too dark in any shooting mode. To darken or lighten them, switch to a mode in the Creative Zone and use exposure compensation (page 52). • In Image Zone modes, most buttons are disabled to prevent you from making mistakes with settings.

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• Night Portrait is designed for photographing people or other nearby subjects at twilight, night, or dawn. The flash illuminates foreground subjects within range of the flash (page 112), and the shutter speed is set slow to lighten the background. Since a slow shutter speed may be used, you may need to support the camera (page 62). When taking a picture, be sure to hold the camera still until the shutter closes; don’t move it just because the flash fires. Also, if people are in the foreground, ask them to freeze until a few seconds after the flash has fired. In daylight, this mode operates just like Full Auto. • Flash Off disables the built-in flash or any external Speedlite flash. Using Image Zone Modes • Turn the Power Switch to ON and turn the Mode Dial to any Image Zone icon so it aligns with the small silver marker. For

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Using Program AE & Program Shift

Using Program AE (P) & Program Shift In Full Auto mode (page 9), your camera is automatically set to produce the best possible exposure. Program AE (P) mode is also fully automatic, but only the aperture and shutter speed are set automatically. You can change other settings including all of those you can change in other Creative Zone modes. Using Program AE (P) Mode

Tips • If the 30” shutter speed is blinking in the viewfinder, the image will be too dark. Use flash or a higher ISO. • If 8000 is blinking in the viewfinder, the image will be too light. Decrease the ISO or use a neutral density filter (page 108).

1. Set the Power Switch to ON or the white line above it. 2. Set the Mode Dial to P (for Program AE). One unique feature of Program AE mode is called program shift. This feature let’s you cycle through pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings that offer identical exposures. By choosing the right combination you can choose to emphasize depth of field (page 31) or motion capture (page 29). When the flash is popped up, you cannot shift the program. Using Program Shift 1. Set the Power Switch to ON or the white line above it and close the flash. 2. With the Mode Dial set to P (for Program AE), press the shutter button halfway down, and then release it to activate the exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. 3. Turn the Main Dial to scroll through pairs of aperture/shutter speed settings and select the pair you want to use. 4. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the photo. The shifted program setting is cancelled automatically if you pause a few seconds after the picture is taken before taking another one. If you take another picture before the readings disappear, you use the shifted settings. You can also hold the shutter button halfway down to keep the shifted setting from changing. When ready, press it all the way down to take the picture.

Program AE mode is so flexible it gives you the control you need for creative images.

For

One reason to use program shift mode is that it prevents you from choosing settings that exceed your camera’s exposure limits. In shutter-priority (Tv) and aperture-priority (Av) mode it’s possible to select a setting that can’t be matched. For example, you may pick an aperture that’s so large the camera doesn’t have a shutter speed that’s fast enough to prevent overexposure. Although aperture-priority and shutter-priority modes warn you when this happens (page 40–41), you may not notice the warning. Following are some of the situations you avoid when using programmed mode: When you select a...

There may be...

Result

Large aperture

No shutter speed that’s fast enough

Overexposure

Small aperture

No shutter speed that’s slow enough

Underexposure

Slow shutter speed

No aperture that’s small enough

Overexposure

Fast shutter speed

No aperture that’s large enough

Underexposure

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode When controlling motion is the most important goal, you use shutter-priority, what Canon calls time-value (Tv) mode, so you can set the shutter speed directly. Selecting a fast shutter speed reduces the effects of blur caused by subject or camera movement. Selecting a slow shutter speed increases those effects. • When selecting a shutter speed, exposure information isn’t fully displayed in full in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel until you press the shutter button halfway down. After doing so, you can then release the shutter button and have up to 6 seconds to select a shutter speed. (Actually, you can select it whenever the camera is awake, but you won’t see the matching aperture displayed on the LCD panel, or either in the viewfinder so you are flying blind.) • The current shutter speed is displayed whenever the camera is awake but the matching aperture is only displayed when you press the shutter button halfway down. • Shutter speeds are displayed as described on page 30.

A fast shutter speed (top) opens and closes the shutter so quickly a moving subject doesn’t move very far during the exposure. A slow speed (bottom) can allow moving objects to move sufficiently to blur their image.

• The range of selectable shutter speeds is from a slow 30 seconds to a fast 1/8000 in one-third stop increments. Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an exposure, there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when you set it yourself (shown boldfaced in the table on page 30). The 40D has two additional shutter speeds between each pair of traditional ones so you can change the shutter speed in one-third stops. • There is a bulb setting available in M (manual) mode that keeps the shutter open as long as you hold down the shutter button (page 90). • If you can’t get a fast enough shutter speed, try increasing the camera’s ISO (page 63). If you can’t get a slow enough one, use a neutral density filter (page 108). • Custom Function I-1 changes exposure increments to either 1/3rd or 1/2 stops. • If the light changes suddenly, the camera automatically overrides your settings for a good exposure if you have enabled Custom Function I-6 (page 142).

Shooting down from an upper level at the Guggenheim Museum, a very slow shutter speed froze the people standing, and blurred those who were walking.

Using Shutter-Priority (Tv) Mode 1. With the Mode Dial set to Tv (time value or shutter-priority) press the shutter button halfway down and then release it to activate the exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. 2. Turn the Main Dial to select a shutter speed and if the aperture value isn’t blinking, the exposure is OK. However; ● If the lens’ largest aperture (smallest f/number) blinks, the image may be underexposed and too dark, so turn the Main Dial to select a slower shutter speed. ● If the lens’ smallest aperture value (largest f/number) blinks, the image may be overexposed and too light so turn the Main Dial to select a faster shutter speed. 3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.

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Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode

Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode

f/2

f/3.5

As the aperture number gets smaller, the lens opening gets larger.

Great depth of field keeps everything sharp from the foreground to the background.

When controlling depth of field is the most important goal, you use aperture-priority (Av) mode, so you can set the aperture directly. Changing the aperture changes the depth of field, the depth in a scene from foreground to background that will be sharp in a photograph (page 31). The smaller the aperture you use, the greater the area of a scene that will be sharp. For some pictures—for example, a landscape—you may want a smaller aperture for maximum depth of field so that everything from near foreground to distant background is sharp. But perhaps in a portrait you will want a larger aperture to decrease the depth of field so that your subject’s face is sharp but the background is soft and out of focus. Aperture settings, called f/stops, indicate the size of the aperture opening inside the lens. In the traditional series of f/stops (shown boldfaced in the table on page 32), each full stop lets in half as much light as the next larger opening and twice as much light as the next smaller opening. The camera has two additional apertures between the traditional f/stops so you can adjust exposure in one-third stops. The range of apertures you have to choose from, including the maximum aperture (its widest opening), depends on the lens you are using. Lenses with large maximum apertures are better when the light is dim or you are photographing fast moving subjects because they let you use faster shutter speeds, but they cost more than slower lenses. • When selecting an aperture, exposure information isn’t fully displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel until you press the shutter button halfway down. After doing so, you can then release the shutter button and have up to 6 seconds to select an aperture. • The current aperture is displayed at all times but the matching shutter speed is only displayed when you press the shutter button halfway down. • Custom Function I-1 sets exposure increments to either 1/3rd or 1/2 stops.

The EF 85mm f/1.2 L II USM lens has a maximum aperture of f/1.2.

• To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder when using Creative Zone modes, press the depth-of-field preview button (page 68). • If you can’t get a small enough aperture, increase the ISO (page 63). If you can’t get a large enough one, use a neutral density filter (page 108). • If the light changes suddenly, if you have enabled Custom Function I-6 (page 142) the camera automatically overrides your settings for a good exposure. Using Aperture-Priority (Av) Mode

A shallow depth of field can make part of an image stand out sharply against a softer background. This emphasizes the sharpest part of the image.

1. With the Mode Dial set to Av (aperture value), press the shutter button halfway down and then release it to activate the exposure readouts in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. 2. Turn the Main Dial to select an aperture and if the shutter speed isn’t blinking, the exposure is OK. However; ● If the 30” shutter speed blinks, the image may be underexposed and too dark so turn the Main Dial to select a larger aperture. ● If the 8000 shutter speed blinks, the image may be overexposed and too light so turn the Main Dial to select a smaller aperture. 3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Using Manual (M) Mode When you want total and absolute control over exposures, you can switch to manual shooting mode. In this mode, you manually select both the shutter speed and aperture setting. Since automatic exposure combined with exposure compensation (page 52) is so easy to use, most photographer’s only resort to manual mode in those rare situations where other modes can’t give them the results they want. For example, you may use this mode when photographing a series of images for a panorama or animated GIF where you don’t want the exposure to change at all from one shot to the next. When you press the shutter button halfway down, An exposure scale shows you how much you are under (-) or over (+) exposed. If the indicator flashes at the -2 or +2 end of the scale it means you are off by more than two stops. Manual mode is often used when doing studiolike shots where you know the right exposure for the main subject but want to try variations on the background lighting.

Tip • When changing settings, the viewfinder’s information display isn’t turned on until you press the shutter button halfway down. After doing so, you can then release it while selecting settings. • You can’t use exposure compensation in M mode, and don’t need to. Just change the shutter speed or aperture to increase or decrease the exposure from that recommended by the camera.

Using Manual (M) Mode 1. With the Mode Dial set to M (Manual), press the shutter button halfway down and then release it to activate the exposure scale that shows how much you are over or under the recommended exposure. 2. With the Power Switch set to the white line above ON, turn the Main Dial to select a shutter speed and the Quick Control Dial to select an aperture as you watch the viewfinder or LCD panel. ● If the marker below the scale is centered (0), you’re set to the exposure recommended by the camera.

The exposure scale.

● If the indicator is on the minus (-) side of the scale, you may be underexposing and darkening the image. To lighten it, select a slower shutter speed or larger aperture. ● If the indicator is on the plus side (+) you may be overexposing and lightening the image. To darken it, select a faster shutter speed or smaller aperture. 3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.

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How Your Exposure System Works

How Your Exposure System Works All exposure systems, including the one built into your 40D, operate on the same general principles. A light-sensitive photocell regulates the amount of electricity flowing in the exposure system. As the intensity of the light reflected from the subject changes, the amount of electricity flowing through the photocell’s circuits changes. These changes are then used by the autoexposure system to calculate and set the shutter speed and aperture. Your camera’s meter measures light reflecting from the part of the scene shown in the viewfinder. The coverage of the meter (the amount of the scene that it includes in its reading) changes, just as your viewfinder image changes, when you change your distance relative to the scene or when you change the focal length of the lens. Suppose you move close or zoom in and see in your viewfinder only a detail in the scene, one that is darker or lighter than other objects nearby. The suggested aperture and shutter speed settings will be different for the detail than they are for the overall scene. Meter Averaging and Middle Gray Your exposure meter doesn’t “see” a scene the same way you see it. Its view is much like yours would be if you were looking through a piece of frosted glass. Your meter sees scenes as if it were looking at them through a piece of frosted glass. It doesn’t see details, just averages.

Where you see a checkerboard-like pattern (top), your camera sees only an average gray (bottom).

For

The exposure system in your camera can’t think. It does exactly what it’s designed to do that is only one thing. Regardless of the scene, its subject matter, color, brightness, or composition, the meter measures only average brightness, or how light or dark the scene is. The automatic exposure system then calculates and sets the aperture and the shutter speed to render this level of brightness as “middle gray” in the photograph. Most of the time this works very well because most scenes have an overall brightness that averages out to middle gray. But some scenes don’t and that’s when autoexposure will lead you astray. Let’s see why.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure Most scenes contain a continuous spectrum of tones, ranging from pure black http://www.photocourse.com/itext/frostedglass/ Click to see how your exposure system sees a scene.

at one end to pure white at the other. In a photograph an approximation of this continuous scale is made up of a series of discrete tones—the gray scale. When shooting JPEGs there are 256 tones in the scale (28) and when shooting RAW images there are 16,384 (214). The tone in the middle of these ranges is middle gray and reflects exactly 18% of the light falling on it.

The gray scale captured in an image is a range of tones from pure black to pure white.

When you photograph a subject, your camera’s autoexposure system sets an exposure so that the subject appears in the final image as middle gray regardless of its actual brightness. When you photograph subjects that have an overall tone lighter or darker than middle gray, they will be middle gray in the final image and therefore look too light or dark. For example, if you photograph a white card, a gray card, and a black card, and each completely fills the viewfinder when the exposure is calculated, each of the cards will be middle gray in the captured image. White, gray, and black cards will all photograph as gray cards.

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How Your Exposure System Works To make scenes that don’t average out to middle gray appear in an image the way they appear in real life, you have to use exposure compensation (page 52) or some other form of exposure control to lighten or darken the picture. Types of Metering All parts of a scene are usually not equally important when determining the best exposure to use. In a landscape, for instance, the exposure of the foreground is usually more important than the exposure of the sky. For this reason, the Creative Zone offers various metering methods. • Evaluative metering divides the scene as seen through the viewfinder into 35 zones, each of which is linked to the focus points. Each of the 35 zones is the same size and they are laid out in a 7 x 5 matrix. When using autofocus, the metering system gives special emphasis to the subject you’re focused on at the active AF point (page 69). This mode is the default in all shooting modes because it’s ideal for general shooting conditions and backlit scenes. This is the only mode available in the Basic Zone. When used with manual focus (page 72), metering is based on the center AF point. This mode differs from the three that follow in one other respect. When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default), pressing the shutter button halfway down locks both exposure and focus. When using AI Servo AF, neither is locked and both are set when you take the picture. Any other combination of metering (page 45) and focus (page 69) modes locks just focus. • Partial metering meters the part of the scene falling within the circle of AF points in the center of the viewfinder. This zone covers only 9% of viewfinder area so it’s almost a spot meter. This allows you to meter just a specific part of the scene instead of relying on an overall reading. This mode is ideal when photographing a subject against a very dark or very light background. You can also meter any part of the scene and use AE Lock (page 53) to use that reading for the overall photo. • Spot metering meters 3.8% of the viewfinder area—the area within the viewfinder’s spot metering circle. This mode is similar to partial metering but is better when you want to base your exposure on an even smaller part of the scene. The areas metered (from top to bottom) include evaluative, partial, spot, and center-weighted.

• Center-weighted average metering meters the entire scene but assigns the most importance to the center of the frame where the most important subjects are usually located. Metering can cause problems if the camera isn’t metering the main subject or when the main subject is very dark or light. For instance, a dark object located off center against a very light background may not be exposed properly if it is not located in the area the meter is emphasizing. However, you can ensure accurate exposures using exposure compensation (page 52), AE Lock (page 53) and autoexposure bracketing (page 54). Changing the Metering Mode

Metering mode icons displayed on the LCD panel include (left to right, top to bottom) evaluative, center weighted, partial and spot.

For

● With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the Metering button on top of the camera and then turn the Main Dial to cycle from evaluative (the default) through center-weighted, spot partial, and back to evaluative metering.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

When Automatic Exposure Works Well Most scenes that you photograph have an overall brightness of middle gray. Some areas of the scene may reflect 90% of the light and other parts may reflect 5%, but overall the average amount of light reflecting from the scene is 18%, the amount reflected by a middle gray subject. Whenever you photograph a normal scene with this average brightness, your automatic exposure system exposes it correctly. Typical middle gray scenes include the following: • Scenes in bright sunlight where the subject is front-lit by a sun that is behind you when you face the scene. • Scenes on overcast days or under diffused light, such as in the shade or in evenly-lit scenes indoors. This image has detail in the lightest (highlight) and darkest (shadow) areas. If just a little darker or a little lighter, details would be lost in the shadows or highlights.

Portraits in indirect light generally have the tones needed to get a good image without additional exposure control.

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When

When

to

to

Override Automatic Exposure

Override Automatic Exposure Let’s take a look at some of the most common situations where your automatic exposure system will have problems. It’s in these situations where you’ll need to override the suggested exposure settings. Scenes Lighter than Middle Gray Scenes lighter than middle gray, such as beach scenes, or bright sand or snow covered landscapes, reflect more than 18% of the light falling on them. The autoexposure system doesn’t know the scene should look bright so it calculates an exposure that produces an image that is too dark. To lighten the image so it matches the original scene, you must override the camera’s automatic exposure system to add exposure.

The snow scene here is typical of scenes that are lighter than middle gray. Most of the important tones in the scene are at the lighter end of the gray scale. The overall “average” tone would be about one stop brighter than middle gray. For a good picture you have to increase the exposure by one stop (+1) to lighten it. If you didn’t do this, the snow in the scene would appear too gray (bottom).

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure Scenes Darker than Middle Gray Scenes that are darker than middle gray, such as deep shadows, dark foliage, and black cloth, reflect less than 18% of the light falling on them. If you photograph such scenes using automatic exposure, they will appear too light. The meter cannot tell if the scene is dark or just an ordinary scene with less light falling on it. In either case it increases the exposure to make a photograph of the scene lighter. To photograph a scene that has an overall tone darker than middle gray, you need to override the autoexposure system to decrease the exposure to make the picture darker. The black cat is between one and two stops darker than middle gray. To darken the scene so the cat’s not middle gray, exposure must be decreased by one (-1) or two (-2) stops.

Subject Against a Very Light Background Subjects against a very light background such as a portrait against a bright sky or light sand or snow, can confuse an automatic exposure system, particularly if the subject occupies a relatively small part of the scene. The brightness of the background is so predominant that the automatic exposure system reduces the exposure to render the overall brightness as a middle gray. The result is an underexposed and too-dark main subject.

Here the scenes were underexposed to silhouette the people in the foreground. To show detail in the people, exposure would have had to have been increased two stops (+2).

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When

to

Override Automatic Exposure

Subject Against a Very Dark Background When a small bright subject appears against a large dark background, your autoexposure system increases the exposure to produce a middle gray tone. The result is an overexposed and too light main subject. The rising sun illuminated only one boat in this harbor scene. If the exposure hadn’t been reduced by two stops (-2), the background would be too light and the white boat would have been burned out and too white. A scene like this is a great place to use partial or spot metering (page 45).

TIP • When photographing high contrast scenes, you can decrease contrast at the time you take the picture (page 139).

Scenes with High Contrast Many scenes, especially those with brightly lit highlights and deep shadows, have a brightness range that cannot be completely recorded on an image sensor. When confronted with such scenes, you have to decide whether the highlight or shadow area is most important, then set the exposure so that area is shown accurately in the final picture. In high contrast situations such as these, move close enough so the most important area fills the viewfinder frame. Use AE lock (page 53) from that position to lock in the exposure. Another way to deal with high contrast is to lighten the shadows. A portrait, for example, lit from the back or side is often more effective and interesting than one lit from the front. But when the light on the scene is contrasty, too much of the person’s face may be in overly dark shadow. In this case use fill flash (page 116) or a white reflector card to fill and lighten the shadows.

The archway was in the shadows and dark while the cathedral was brightly lit by the sun. Both couldn’t be exposed properly, so the archway was left as a solid black.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure Hard to Meter Scenes Occasionally it’s not convenient or even possible to meter a scene. Neon street signs, spotlit circus acts, fireworks, moonlit scenes, and many similar situations are all difficult and sometimes impossible to meter. In these cases, it’s easiest simply to experiment using spot metering (page 45), exposure compensation (page 52), or autoexposure bracketing (page 54) so you have more than one exposure to select from.

This scene has a bright sky and one brightly illuminated fisherman against a dark background. A scene such as this is hard to meter because of the variety of lighting.

Tip • When photographing a TV or computer monitor, use a shutter speed of 1/30 second or slower.

A relatively small subject against a wide expanse of sky will almost always be underexposed unless you use exposure compensation.

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How Overriding Automatic Exposure Works

How Overriding Autoexposure Works When a scene is lighter or darker than middle gray you need to change the exposure to capture it the way it looks or it will be too light or dark. To lighten or darken an image many cameras let you increase or decrease exposure by two stops or more. Here are some typical settings where you’d make these changes. This lighthouse in the fog on Cape Cod would have looked too dark if exposure compensation hadn’t been used to lighten it.

• +2 is used when the light is extremely contrasty and important shadow areas are much darker than brightly lit areas. • +1 is best for sidelit or backlit scenes, beach or snow scenes, sunsets and other scenes that include a bright light source, or very light objects, such as a white china on a white tablecloth. • 0 (the default) is best for scenes that are evenly lit and when important shadow areas are not too much darker than brightly lit areas. • -1 is for scenes where the background is much darker than the subject, such as a portrait in front of a very dark wall. Also good for very dark objects, such as black china on a black tablecloth. • -2 is for scenes of unusual contrast, as when an extremely dark background occupies a very large part of the image and you want to retain detail in the brighter parts of the scene.

1. Here are three cards that you photograph with each filling the screen at the time you take the picture.

2. The camera’s exposure system makes all three cards appear gray in the photographs. Only the middle gray card in the center is exposed correctly.

3. Increasing the exposure for the white card and decreasing it for the black card captures them as they really appear. Only the middle gray card in the center doesn’t need the exposure adjusted manually.

For

+2

0

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

How

to

Override Automatic Exposure

Tips • Use + exposure compensation when the subject is bright and - when it’s dark. • You can specify exposure compensation in one-half stop increments with Custom Function I-1 (page 142). • Enabling Custom Function IV-7 simulates the image exposure on the monitor during Live View shooting.

Most digital cameras, including the 40D, provide one or more ways to override the automatic exposure system to get the exposure you want. Exposure Compensation Exposure compensation lets you lighten or darken the photograph that the camera would produce if autoexposure were used. To lighten a picture, you increase the exposure; to darken one, you decrease the exposure. The amount you increase or decrease the exposure is specified in “stops.” For example, to increase the exposure 1 stop, you specify +1 to open the aperture or slow down the shutter speed. It’s easy to use exposure compensation because you can immediately see the effects when you review or playback an image.

An exposure scale shows you how much you are under (-) or over (+) exposed. If the indicator flashes at the -2 or +2 ends of the scale it means you are off by more than two stops.

When you adjust exposure compensation you can do so in full stops and even finer one-third stop increments. When you use the command, an exposure compensation scale is displayed. The “0” indicates the exposure suggested by the camera. As you adjust the exposure toward the plus (+) side of the scale the image gets lighter. As you adjust it toward the minus (-) side it gets darker. Here you see the results as it’s adjusted from +2 (left) to -2 (right). The effect of the changes on the image are dramatic. http://www.photocourse.com/itext/expcomp/ Click to explore exposure compensation.

Using Exposure Compensation

1. With the Power Switch set to the white line above ON, and the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone except M (manual), press http://www.photocourse.com/itext/explock/ the shutter button halfway down to activate the readout, and then turn the Quick Control Dial to move the marker on the exposure Click to explore exposure lock. scale displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. ● To darken the image, move the marker toward the minus (-) end of the scale. ● To lighten the image, move the marker toward the plus (+) end of the scale. 2. When done, reset exposure compensation to 0 otherwise it will be remembered even when you turn off the camera. When you fill the screen with a gray card and press the shutter button halfway down, your camera indicates the best exposure regardless of how light or dark the scene is.

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Autoexposure (AE) Lock When the subject you want to expose correctly isn’t in the center of the screen and the camera is set to its default settings, you can use it to lock focus and exposure by pressing the shutter button halfway down, and then recompose the image. However, you can also lock exposure separately from locking focus using the AE/FE Lock button (an * asterisk-like icon). This allows you to lock For

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How

Pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure and pressing it all the way down takes the picture.

TIP • Custom Function IV-1 (page 142) specifies how the AFON and shutter buttons work together.

Point the camera so you are metering the area on which you want to base the exposure (top left). Press the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure and press the AE/FE Lock button. Release the shutter button, compose the image the way you want it (bottom right) and press the shutter button to lock focus and take the photo.

to

Override Automatic Exposure

in the exposure of a subject such as a door of a barn sitting in a snow-covered field, and then move back to shoot the barn in the context of the much lighter landscape. In this example, the exposure is locked in from close up but focus is locked from the actual shooting position. AE Lock is set by pressing the AE/FE Lock button in any Creative Zone mode. • When used with evaluative metering (page 45), exposure is based on the automatically or manually selected AF point (page 71). • When used with center-weighted, spot or partial metering, or when manually focusing, exposure is based on the central focus point. • When using the built-in or external Speedlight, the AE Lock button acts as a FE Lock button (page 120). • When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default), pressing the shutter button halfway down lock exposure and focus. However, when you then press the AE/FE Lock button you lock exposure. You can then release the shutter button, recompose the scene and press it halfway down again to lock focus. When using AI Servo AF neither is locked and both are set when you take the picture. Any other combination of metering (page 45) and focus (page 69) modes locks just focus.

Using Autoexposure (AE) Lock If you took the picture without first locking exposure, it would be too dark because the background influenced the exposure.

Tip • After locking exposure in P, Tv, and Av modes, you can turn the Main Dial to use program shift (page 39).

1. With the flash closed and the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone other than manual (M), focus on the part of the scene on which you want to lock exposure and select the AF point you want to use for focus (page 71). Using partial or spot metering (page 45) you can lock exposure on an area smaller than the entire scene. 2. Press and hold the shutter button halfway down to lock exposure, then press the AE/FE Lock button. (Each time you press it, you lock the current exposure setting.) An asterisk to the left of the shutter speed indicator on the screen indicates that exposure is locked. 3. Release the shutter button and recompose the scene. Press the shutter button halfway down to set focus and then take your photo. AE lock turns off automatically. ● To cancel AE Lock without taking a picture, release the shutter button and wait a few seconds for the * icon to disappear.

The AE/FE Lock icon.

For

● To keep it locked for other photos, press the shutter button halfway down before the icon disappears, or continue holding down the AE Lock button.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Tips • If you use continuous mode (page 134) for autoexposure bracketing, the series of three shots is taken when you hold the shutter button down. • If you use the selftimer in AEB mode, all three photos are taken automatically.

Autoexposure Bracketing (AEB) Instead of using exposure compensation, or in conjunction with it, you can use autoexposure bracketing (AEB) to run off a series of three images, each at a slightly different exposure—correctly exposed, overexposed, and underexposed. The difference from one shot to the next can be set at up to 2 stops in 1/3rd stop increments. • AEB stays in effect until you reset it to 0, turn the camera off, change lenses, or turn on the flash. If you don’t do one of these things, the camera remains set to this mode so subsequent pictures are captured at different exposure levels. • You can’t use flash or the bulb setting (page 90) with AEB. • You can use exposure compensation with AEB to shift all three exposures up or down the exposure scale. Using Autoexposure BRACKETING (AEB) 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Shooting 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight AEB and press SET to activate the exposure scale.

The AEB icon.

The exposure scale used to specify the exposure increment between shots. Here the dots indicate it’s one stop.

3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to expand or contract the exposure increment between shots and press SET. Three small bars under the scale indicate what the exposure will be for each of the three shots. The middle bar is at the exposure recommended by the camera (or shifted with exposure compensation—page 52) and the left and right bars indicate by how many stops the other images will be underexposed (-) and overexposed (+). 4. Take each of the three photos just as you normally would. ● While AEB is in effect, the AEB icon is displayed on the LCD panel and the three markers are displayed on the exposure scale in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. ● After you take the first shot, the above indicators and the AE/FE lock icon in the viewfinder flash. When you press the shutter button halfway down, the marker on the exposure scale indicates which of the three images is being captured. When the series is complete, the flashing stops. 5. When finished, repeat Steps 1–3 to reset AEB to 0.

Autoexposure bracketing captures a series of three shots at different exposures. Here the sequence is +1 (left), 0 (center), and -1 (right).

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/AEB/ Click to explore autoexposure bracketing.

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Using Histograms

Using Histograms Overexposure warning • If you enable Highlight alert, when a histogram is displayed areas in the small image next to it that are overexposed blink. To darken these areas in subsequent images, you can use minus (-) exposure compensation.

Most serious photo-editing programs such as Photoshop, Lightroom and Photoshop Elements let you use a histogram as a guide when editing your images. However, since most image corrections can be diagnosed by looking at a histogram, it helps to look at it while still in a position to reshoot the image. It’s for this reason that an image’s histogram can be displayed on the 40D’s monitor. As you’ve seen, each pixel in an image can be set to any of 256 levels of brightness from pure black (0) to pure white (255) and a histogram graphs which of those levels of brightness are in the image and how they are distributed. Displaying Histograms You can check histograms in playback mode or while reviewing an image you have just taken. Just press the INFO button until the histogram and a small thumbnail of the selected image are displayed. Once displayed in playback mode, you can scroll through other images to see their histograms. Displaying Histograms ● In playback mode with an image displayed in single image view, or when reviewing an image you just shot, press the INFO button until the desired histogram for the current image is displayed.

Histograms are displayed when you press INFO.

Pressing INFO displays two histograms—Brightness graphs the overall brightness of the composite image and RGB displays the levels of brightness of each color—red, green and blue. You can use the Playback 2 menu’s Histogram command to change the order in which they are displayed. Also, when the histogram is displayed, so is a small thumbnail of the current image. If you set the Playback 2 menu’s Highlight alert setting to Enable (the default is Disable), any overexposed areas in the image without details blink. Selecting the Histogram and Highlights 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Histogram or Highlight alert and press SET to display the choices Brightness and RGB, or Enable and Disable. Select one and press SET. 3. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Evaluating Histograms

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/highlight/ The horizontal axis of a histogram represents the range of brightness from 0 Click to explore how overexposed highlights blink.

(shadows) on the left to 255 (highlights) on the right. Think of it as a line with 256 spaces on which to stack pixels of the same brightness. Since these are the only values that can be captured by the camera, the horizontal line also represents the camera’s maximum potential tonal range or contrast. The vertical axis represents the number of pixels that have each of the 256

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/histogram/ brightness values. The higher the line coming up from the horizontal axis, the Click to explore histograms.

For

more pixels there are at that level of brightness.

To read the histogram, you look at the distribution of pixels. Here are some things to look for.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure

Using Histograms

Evaluating Histograms ● If the histogram shows most pixels toward the left (darker) side of the graph, use exposure compensation to add exposure (page 52). ● If the histogram shows most pixels toward the right (lighter) side of the graph, use exposure compensation to reduce exposure (page 52).

• Many photos look best when there are some pixels at every position because these images are using the entire tonal range. • In most images, pixels are grouped together and occupy only a part of the available tonal range. These images lack contrast because the difference between the brightest and darkest areas isn’t as great as it could be. However, this can be fixed in a photo-editing program using commands that spread the pixels over the entire available tonal range. These controls allow you to adjust the shadow, midtone, and highlight areas independently without affecting the other areas of the image. This lets you lighten or darken selected areas of your images without loosing detail. The only pixels that can’t be fixed in this way are those that have been “clipped” to pure white or black (page 57). • In a color RGB histogram, too many pixels to the left indicate that colors may be weak. If there are too many to the right, the colors may be too saturated and lack details.

The original image (top) is flat and its histogram indicates only part of the tonal range is being used. Photoshop’s Levels command was then used to expand the tonal range (bottom). You can see the change in both the image and in the histogram.

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Using Histograms

In the top image you can tell from the histogram that some of the highlight pixels are pure white and hence clipped. There is nothing you can do later to display details in the area of these pixels. However, if you reshoot the scene at a different exposure you can shift the pixels to the left and avoid the clipping (bottom).

Clipped Pixels When a histogram shows pixels at the extreme ends of the range, in the 0 and 255 positions, it means details in those tones are being lost or “clipped” in your image. These extremes should be reserved for specular highlights (reflections) and small dark shadows. When large areas lack detail an image suffers.

Tip • If highlights are being clipped in wedding dresses, clouds, snow and other bright subjects, you can enable Custom Function II-3 to give priority to highlight tones (page 142). This preserves details in these bright areas of the image and prevents them from being clipped.

To avoid clipping and better place the tonal values in subsequent shots, you use exposure compensation (page 52). Increasing exposure shifts pixels to the highlight, or right end of the histogram. Decreasing exposure shifts them the other way. Unless you are deliberately trying to get pure whites or pure blacks, you should shift the pixels if any are being clipped. This then gives you a chance to correct the image in a photo-editing program.

This series of photos was taken one stop apart using exposure compensation. As the exposure increased pixels on the histogram shifted right. You can tell from the way the fan blades blur that the shutter speed was changed to change the exposure. In the image where it was faster, the image is darker and the blades are frozen. As slower speeds were used to increase the exposure, the images get lighter and the blades more blurred.

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure Sample Histograms The way a histogram looks depends on the scene you’re shooting and how you expose it. There’s no such thing as a good or bad histogram. Whether a particular histogram is good or bad depends on what you are trying to accomplish. If fact, you may prefer to trust your visual reaction to the image more than the very numeric image data provided by a histogram. However, even if you never use a histogram, you can learn about digital images by understanding what a histogram can show about an image. Following are some histograms from good images along with a brief summary of what the histogram reveals. In this well exposed portrait there is a fairly even distribution of values in both the shadow and highlight areas of the image. There are no pure blacks in the image as shown by the gap at the far left end of the scale.

This brown moth on a gray card has most of its values in the midrange. That’s why there are a number of high vertical lines grouped in the middle of the horizontal axis.

This high-key fog scene has most of its values toward the highlight end of the scale. There are no really dark values in the image. The image uses only a little more than half the camera’s dynamic range.

The distinct vertical line to the left of middle gray shows how many pixels there are in the uniformly gray frame border added in Photoshop.

This low-key scene has the majority of its values in the shadow area with another large grouping around middle gray. There are wide levels of brightness that have only a few pixels.

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Using

Using

the

the

RAW Format

RAW Format One of Ansel Adam’s better know expressions, drawn from his early experiences as a concert pianist, was “The negative is the score, the print is the performance.” In digital photography, the image file is your score and your photo-editing program is where you perform. The printer then just does what you’ve told it to do as you edited the image. To get the highest possible quality, you want to start with the best possible score—a RAW image file. These files contain all of the image data captured by the camera’s image sensor without it being processed or adjusted. You can interpret this data any way you want instead of having the camera do it for you. If you want total control over exposure, white balance, and other settings, this is a format you will learn to love. Only four camera settings permanently affect a RAW image. They are the aperture, shutter speed, ISO, and focus. Other settings may affect the appearance of the thumbnail or preview but their effects can be undone in an editing program. Since each camera company has defined its own proprietary RAW format, many operating systems and even photo-editing programs are unable to recognize some or all of these files. If the camera supports the RAW format the camera manufacturer always supplies a program along with the camera. Advantages of Using the RAW Format There are a number of advantages to using the RAW format: • RAW lets you decide on most settings after you’ve taken the picture, not before. For example, when you shoot a JPEG image under fluorescent lights, the camera adjusts the image to remove the yellow-green tint. Any changes you make later are on top of this initial change. If you shoot the image in RAW format, the camera just captures the images as is and you decide what white balance setting to use later. You can even create different versions of an image, each with its own white balance. • RAW images aren’t compressed using a lossy compression scheme that throws out data to make image files smaller. Although some cameras have a compressed RAW format, these images are compressed using lossless compression. When you open these images, they contain all of the original image data. • RAW images aren’t processed in the camera as JPEG images are. When you take JPEG photos, a processing chip with the power of a small computer manipulates them based on the camera settings you have used and then compresses them to reduce their size. The changes made to your images cannot be undone later because it’s the final, altered image that is saved in the image file. Some of the original image data is lost for good. With RAW images, all of the original data captured by the camera is saved in the RAW image files so you can process them later on your computer. The settings used to take RAW images are saved, but they are not permanently applied to your images until you save them in another format such as JPEG or TIFF. The images displayed on the screen when you use the camera’s playback mode are just thumbnails. • RAW images have greater color depth and that gives you smoother gradations of tones and more colors. For example, JPEG images use only 8 bits per color (RGB) or 24 bits total. This means that JPEG images can have only 256 tones (28) and 16,777,216 colors (224). Meanwhile RAW images are processed by the sensor in 42-bit RGB (14 bits per channel) but are reduced to 24 bit RGB (8 bits per channel) when converted into JPEG files. The full 42 bits

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Chapter 2. Controlling Exposure are retained in the RAW file format after the images are processed on your computer because the original file isn’t overwritten with your changes. You can even retain all 14 bits per color by saving images in a format such as TIFF and Photoshop’s PSD format. • RAW images can be processed again at a later date when new and improved applications become available. Your final image isn’t permanently altered by today’s generation of photo-editing applications. • You can use a RAW image to generate alternate versions of the same image. For example, many photographers will adjust highlight and shadow areas and save these versions separately. Using a photo-editing program, they then combine the two images and by selectively erasing parts of the top image let areas of the lower image show through so all areas have a perfect exposure. Disadvantages of Using the RAW Format Admittedly, there are drawbacks to using RAW images—the size of their files and the need to process them. When you are done shooting for the day, there is still work to do. • RAW files in the camera are quite large. If you use this format a great deal you will need more storage space in the camera and computer and processing times will be longer.

Tip • To use the RAW format, set Quality to any RAW or sRAW format with or without an accompanying JPEG (page 26).

• Since RAW images aren’t processed in the camera, you have to process them on the computer and this takes time. You need to convert them to another format when you want to e-mail them, post them on a Web site, print them, or import them into another program to create a slide show or publication. Many cameras help you get around this by simultaneously capturing JPEG versions at the same time they capture RAW images. You can use these more universally supported images for many of your applications and reserve the high quality RAW versions for when you need the highest possible quality. • RAW images are not always noticeably better. Where they shine is when you have exposure or white balance problems. Because RAW images have 16 or 12 bits per color instead of the 8 bits used by JPEG’s you have dramatically more information to work with when making adjustments.

A RAW image before processing (above) and after (right).

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness

Chapter 3 Controlling Sharpness

Contents • Getting Sharper Pictures • Sharpness Isn’t Everything • How to Photograph Motion Sharply • Focus and Depth of Field • Focusing Techniques • Controlling Depth of Field • Using Deep Depth Of Field • Using Shallow Depth of Field • Conveying the Feeling of Motion

O

ne of the first things you notice about a photograph is whether or not it is sharp. Extremely sharp photographs reveal a richness of detail, even more than you would normally notice in the original scene. If the entire image isn’t sharp, your eye is immediately drawn to the part that is. When learning to control sharpness, the first goal is to get pictures sharp when you want them sharp. If your photos aren’t as sharp as you want them to be, you can analyze them to see what went wrong. • Focus. If nothing in your image is sharp or if your central subject is not sharp but other parts of the photograph are, your camera was improperly focused. • Depth of Field. If your central subject is sharp but the background or foreground is less so, you may not have used a small enough aperture to get the depth of field you wanted. • Camera Movement. If the image is blurred all over, with no part sharp, the camera moved during the exposure. Some dots appear as lines and edges are blurred because the image was “painted” onto the moving image sensor. • Subject Movement. When some of the picture is sharp but a moving subject appears blurred, your shutter speed was too slow.

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness

Getting Sharper Pictures TIP • When using a tripod or other support, you can use a remote control device to trigger the shutter so you don’t move the camera when you press the shutter button.

Unwanted camera movement when the shutter is open is one of the major causes of unsharp photographs. You can reduce this problem in bright light and when using flash simply by holding the camera steady and depressing the shutter button smoothly. At slow shutter speeds, such as those you get in dim light, particularly with a long focal length lens, you need a camera support.

• Custom Function III-7 (page 142) lets you lock up the mirror so it doesn’t introduce vibrations when you take a picture.

Supporting the Camera As the focal length of your lens changes, so does the minimum shutter speed you need to hand-hold the camera without getting any blur from camera shake. The rule of thumb is never to hand-hold the camera at a shutter speed lower than your lens’ focal length times the 1.6x lens focal length factor (page 98). For example, a 100mm lens can be handheld at a shutter speed of 1/160 or faster. (The camera displays the current shutter speed on the LCD panel, and in the viewfinder when you press the shutter button halfway down.)

• Canon makes image stabilization (IS) lenses that get you sharper pictures when you handhold the camera (page 97).

When photographing in dim light without flash, you need to support the camera to prevent blur in your images. One way to do this is to lean against a wall or tree and brace yourself with your elbows tight to your body. You can also find a branch or railing to rest the camera on. For real stability you need a small tripod or an even easier to carry monopod. To hand hold the camera as steady as possible, brace the camera against your face and brace your elbows against your sides. Just before taking a shot, inhale deeply, then exhale and hold your breath while smoothly depressing the shutter button. When holding the camera for both horizontal and vertical photographs use your right finger to press the shutter button and your left hand to support the camera.

The camera was steady for the left picture and moved for the right one.

Monopods by Gitzo.

Placing the eyepiece cover over the viewfinder blocks light from entering and affecting the exposure when using the selftimer or remote.

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Using the Self-timer/Remote Switch The 40D has self-timer settings that give you a 2-second or 10-second delay between the time you press the shutter button and the picture is taken. Although often used to give you time to get into a picture, the self-timer is also a great way to reduce blur when photographing in dim light. Just place the camera on a stable surface, compose the image, and use the timer to take the picture without any camera shake. The 2-second timer is especially useful when doing macro photography since it takes pictures without camera shake caused by pressing the shutter button. Don’t stand in front of the camera when you press the shutter button to start the timer. If you do so, you’ll prevent the camera from focusing correctly. If using the timer to photograph yourself, focus it on something at the same distance at which you will be positioned. For

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Getting Sharper Pictures The 40D also has an N3 type remote control socket into which you can plug a Remote Switch RS-80N3 with a 2.6 foot (80cm) cord that works much like a shutter button. You can press the remote’s button halfway down or all the way down, or even lock the shutter open for bulb exposures. The 10 second selftimer icon. The 2 second timer is the same but with a number “2.”

In Basic Zone modes, ISO is set to Auto and this icon is displayed on the LCD panel when you press the DRIVE-ISO button.

Using the Self-Timer 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode for the 10-second timer, or to any mode in the Creative Zone for the 2 second timer, press and release the AF/DRIVE button and turn the Quick Control Dial until one of the self-timer icons is displayed on the LCD panel. 2. With the camera on a stable surface or tripod, and pointed at the subject you want to focus on, press the shutter button halfway down to set focus, then all the way down to take the picture. The self-timer lamp on the front of the camera flashes, the camera beeps, and the LCD panel displays a countdown timer. Two seconds before the picture is taken, the lamp glows steady and the beep rate increases. (To cancel the timer, turn off the camera.) 3. When finished, repeat Step 1 to return to single-frame mode.

When changing ISO, the “H” icon represents an ISO of 3200.

Increasing Sensitivity Increasing the camera’s ISO means less light is need to expose a picture. This lets you use a faster shutter speed to reduce blur caused by camera or subject movement, use a smaller aperture for more depth of field, or add range to your flash. Increasing sensitivity is also a good way to get pictures without using flash in places such as concerts and museums where flash is prohibited. The downside is that this also adds noise to the image. This is because increasing sensitivity amplifies the captured signal, but also amplifies the background noise captured along with it. This noise appears in images as randomly spaced bright pixels. In Basic Zone modes the camera sets the ISO automatically, but in Creative Zones you can change it in one-third stop increments. • In Basic Zone modes, the ISO is set between 100–800. The exception is Portrait mode where it’s fixed at 100.

• In Creative Zone modes, you can set the ISO to Auto, or manually set it between 100–1600 in one-third stop increments. A setting of 3200 (H) is available if you turn on Custom Function I-3 ISO expansion (page 142). To reduce noise in photos taken with a high ISO you can turn on Custom Function II-2 High ISO speed noise reduction (page 142). When ISO is set to Auto in P, Av or A-DEP modes, it varies between 400–800. (The ISO to be used is displayed when you press the shutter button halfway down.) However, if this will cause overexposure it’s set as low as 100. In Tv mode it is normally set http://www.photocourse.com/itext/noise/ to 400 but for very bright or dark subjects it can vary in the range 100–800. Click here to explore In M mode, the ISO is fixed at 400. When Auto ISO is used with flash in any the effect of noise in an image. shooting mode, it is normally set to 400. However, if this will cause overexposure it will be set as low as 100.

Noise appears in images as random color pixels especially when you use long shutter speeds or high ISO settings.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/ISO/ Changing the ISO Click to see the effects of increasing ISO.

For

● With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press and release the ISO button on top of the camera and then turn the Main Dial to scroll through the available ISO settings displayed on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder.

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness

Sharpness Isn’t Everything Your photos don’t have to be sharp to be effective. In many cases, it’s better to have part of the scene sharper than the rest. Your pictures can be sharp or unsharp in different ways. The first way concerns motion. Several factors affect the way motion is captured in images. These include your image sensor’s ISO, the overall brightness of the scene, lens focal length, and subject speed, direction, and distance. Another kind of sharpness concerns depth of field, how much of the scene will be sharp in the image from foreground to background. Even if you are photographing a static scene, your picture may not be sharp if you do not have enough depth of field. However, a shallow depth of field can be used to make a busy background less distracting by having it out of focus in the picture. Several factors affect depth of field, including lens aperture, lens focal length, and subject distance. Motion in a scene can be frozen or blurred depending on the shutter speed and other factors. Blur can be used creatively to evoke a feeling of motion as in this shot of a waterfall in Yosemite National Park.

Shallow depth of field can focus attention on a foreground subject by making the background less sharp.

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How

How

to

to

Photograph Motion Sharply

Photograph Motion Sharply The sharpness of different parts of an image helps direct the viewer who tends to look first at the most sharply focused part of the picture. In addition, sharpness itself can be part of the message of the photograph. The immobility of a frozen figure can be made more apparent by blurring people moving in other parts of the scene. Blur in an image is caused when all or part of a subject focused onto the image sensor moves when the shutter is open. To show a moving subject sharply, the shutter needs to open and close before the image on the sensor moves a significant amount. In other words, you need to use a fast shutter speed. But just how fast is fast enough? The answer depends on several factors. Because several variables are involved, you can’t always predict how motion will be portrayed in the final photograph. So use different settings and take more than one shot if possible. Try shooting from a different angle or perhaps wait for a pause in the action. You are much more likely to get a good shot if you have several to choose from. Just be aware that sharpness and blur are hard to evaluate on the camera’s monitor. Speed of Subject The faster a subject is moving, the faster the shutter speed you need for a sharp image. However, it’s not the speed of the subject in the real world that determines blur. It’s how far the subject moves on the image sensor while the exposure is being made. This depends not just on the subject’s actual speed, but also on the direction of its movement, its distance from the camera, and the focal length of the lens.

The shutter speed froze the central dancer but was slow enough to blur the others. This makes the central dancer the most important person in the photograph.

Direction of Movement When the shutter is open, a subject moving parallel to the image sensor crosses more of the pixels on the sensor and is more blurred than a subject moving directly toward or away from the camera. This is why you can use a slower shutter speed to sharply photograph a subject moving toward, or away from you, and not the same subject moving from one side of the scene to the other. For

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness Distance to Subject and Focal Length of Lens http://www.photocourse.com/itext/distance/ If a subject is close to the camera, even slight movement is enough to cause blur. A subject—or part of one—far from the camera can move a considerable distance before its image on the image sensor moves very much. The focal length of the lens can also affect the apparent distance to the subject. Increasing the focal length of your lens—for example, zooming in on a subject—has http://www.photocourse.com/itext/shutterspeed/ the same effect as moving closer to your subject. The longer the focal length Click to explore how of the lens, the less a subject has to move for its image to move on the image shutter speed affects sensor and become blurred. sharpness. Click to explore how camera-subject distance affects shutter speeds.

The shutter speed needed to control the sharpness of a moving object is determined by the subject’s speed, direction of movement, and distance.

Shutter Speed Needed

Faster

Slower

Speed of Subject

On this speeding train, the part closest to the camera looks the most blurred while the farthest part looks sharper. Since all parts of the train are moving at the same speed, this shows how distance affects blur.

Direction of Movement

Amount of zoom and Distance to Subject

Tip To visualize the effects of distance on blur, look out the side window of a speeding car (but not when you’re driving). The objects in the foreground seem to fly by while those on the horizon don’t seem to move at all.

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Increasing The Sharpness of Moving Objects ● Photograph fast-moving subjects heading toward or away from you and not from side to side. ● Move farther away from the subject or use a shorter focal length lens. ● Switch to Tv (shutter-priority) mode (page 40) or use program shift (page 39) and select a fast shutter speed such as 1/500. ● Increase the camera’s ISO so you can use a faster shutter speed although this adds some noise to the image (page 63). For

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Focus

Focus

and

Depth

of

and

Depth

of

Field

Field

If you look around you—the book in your hand, the chair across the room, http://www.photocourse.com/itext/criticalfocus/ Click to explore how focusing shifts the plane of critical focus.

the far wall—everything seems to be sharp. That is because your eyes refocus every time you look at an object at a different distance. But the sharpness you see when you glance at a scene is not always what you get in a photograph of that scene. To understand why not, you have to understand focus and depth of field. Focus A lens can only bring one part of a scene into the sharpest possible focus. This part of the scene falls on what is called the plane of critical focus. Subjects falling on this plane will be the sharpest part of the picture. You move this plane toward and way from the camera as you focus. The plane of critical focus in your image will be the area that falls on the active AF point in the viewfinder—the one that flashes red. A

The shutter button has two stages. When pressed halfway down, the camera locks focus and establishes the plane of critical focus.

Tip • To control depth of field, switch to Av (aperture-priority) mode and select a small aperture for great depth of field, or a large aperture for shallow depth of field (page 41).

Imagine the part of the scene on which you focus as a flat plane (much like a pane of glass) superimposed from one side to the other of a scene, so that the plane is parallel to the back of the camera or the image sensor. Objects falling exactly on this imaginary plane will be in critical focus, the sharpest part of your picture. This plane of critical focus is a very shallow band and includes only those parts of the scene located at identical distances from the camera. As you point an autofocus camera at objects nearer or farther away in the scene, the plane of critical focus moves closer to or farther away from the camera. As the plane moves, objects at different distances from the camera come into or go out of critical focus.

Depth of Field If you look at photographs, you can see a considerable area of the scene from near to far that appears sharp. Even though theoretically only one narrow plane is critically sharp, other parts of the scene in front of and behind the most sharply focused plane appear acceptably sharp. This area in which everything looks acceptably sharp is called depth of field. Objects within the depth of field become less and less sharp the farther they are from the plane of critical focus. Eventually they become so out of focus that they no longer appear sharp. Often it doesn’t matter so much exactly what you are focused on. What does matter is whether or not all of the objects you want to be sharp are within the

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness depth of field so they appear sharp. If you want a large part of the scene to be sharp, you can increase the depth of field. You can decrease it if you want less of the scene sharp. In some scenes, you can significantly increase or decrease the depth of field simply by shifting the point on which you are focused or by changing the aperture setting. B

A

C

This photo of a page from this book shows how shallow depth of field can be when you get close to a subject.

Tip • Canon digital SLRs have an anti-aliasing filter over the image sensor to improve colors and prevent moire. The filter also reduces sharpness so you should sharpen your images in the camera (page 138) or using a program such as Photoshop.

The near and far limits of depth of field are shown here as two planes (B and C), parallel to the plane of critical focus (A). Actually, they are usually not visible as exactly defined boundaries. Nor can you usually find the plane of critical focus by looking at a picture. Instead, sharp areas imperceptibly merge into unsharp ones. In most situations depth of field is not evenly divided. At normal shooting distances, about one-third of the depth of field is in front of the plane of critical focus (toward the camera), and two-thirds is behind it (away from the camera). When the camera is focused very close to an object, the depth of field becomes more evenly divided.

In both of these images the plane of critical focus has been placed on the middle face. In the left image a large aperture was used to give shallow depth of field. In the right image a small aperture was use to give great depth of field.

To check depth-offield in the viewfinder press the depth-of-field preview button.

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Checking Depth of Field To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder in a Creative Zone mode, even while using Live View, press the depth-of-field preview button on the lower left side of the lens mount. (In A-DEP mode (page 75) you have to press the shutter button halfway down to select an aperture, and continue to hold it there while pressing the depth of field button.) Pressing this button locks exposure and closes the lens aperture down to the f/stop you’ve selected so the viewfinder gives you an idea of what’s sharp and what isn’t. However, when using small apertures, the viewfinder image is very dark. When the maximum aperture is selected, as it often is in dim light, you’ll see no change at all.

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Focusing Techniques

Focusing Techniques When the lens switch is set to AF and you press the shutter button halfway down, or press the AF-ON button with your thumb in Creative Zone modes, the camera focuses on the nearest subject covered by one or more of the nine AF points displayed in the viewfinder. The AF point or points used to set focus briefly flash red when focus is achieved. (You can turn this off with Custom Function III-4—page 142.)

Lens focus switch set to autofocus (AF).

• The plane of critical focus in your image will be the area that falls on the active AF point in the viewfinder—the one that flashes red. As you point the camera at various subjects and press the shutter button halfway down, you’ll see them pop into focus. • To check depth-of-field in the viewfinder when using Creative Zone modes, press the depth-of-field preview button (page 68). In A-DEP mode (page 75) you must hold the shutter button halfway down as you press it.

Tip • When using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens with a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode, you can turn the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called fulltime manual focusing). • Zoom before focusing since zooming can through off focus. • In Basic Zone modes the AF mode, AF point selection, and drive mode are set automatically. • One of the main reasons the camera won’t focus is because you are too close.

The 40D’s autofocus system uses contrast to set the focus. In dim light, if you have trouble focusing, you can pop up the flash and it will strobe an AF-assist beam when you press the shutter button halfway down. (The flash pops up automatically in Basic Zone modes other than Landscape, Sports, and Flash Off.) The technique works up to about 13.2 feet (4m) with the built-in flash and up to 32.8 feet (10m) with the external 580EX II Speedlite. If you want the AF-assist beam enabled, or disabled because it’s drawing attention, or if you want the flash to help focus, but not fire when the picture is actually taken, you can do so with Custom Function III-5 (page 142). As good as the autofocus system is, there are times when it has trouble focusing. If the camera can’t focus, the focus confirmation light flashes in the viewfinder. This happens with: • Subjects with very low contrast including those with even expanses of a single color or brightness, such as a blank wall or clear blue sky. • Subjects that are backlit or have reflective surfaces. • Subjects in very dark settings. • Overlapping subjects at different distances or with repetitive patterns. In these situations you might want to try selecting the AF point manually, use focus lock, or manually focus the lens. Lets see how these techniques work. But first, let’s look at the autofocus modes you have to choose from. Autofocus Modes The 40D has two autofocus modes—One-Shot AF and AI Servo AF, and a third—AI Focus AF—that automatically switches between the first two. In Basic Zone modes, the camera selects one of these modes for you, but in Creative Zone modes, you can choose any of the three depending on whether a subject is moving or not.

When autofocus is locked, the focus confirmation lights green and the active AF point flashes red in the viewfinder.

For

• One-Shot AF mode works best for still subjects. It locks focus on a subject covered by one of the AF points when you press the shutter button halfway down and focus remains locked as long as you hold the button down. This mode is best for portraits and landscapes and when using focus lock (page 72). In this mode, the camera won’t shoot until focus is locked and the focus confirmation light lights. When using evaluative metering (the default) when focus locks, so does exposure. To change focus once it’s locked, you must

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness release the shutter button, recompose the scene, and then press it halfway http://www.photocourse.com/itext/focuszone/ Click to explore the way focus zones work.

down again. One-Shot AF is selected for you in Portrait, Landscape, Close-up, and Night Portrait modes and is selectable in all Creative Zone modes.

• AI servo AF is designed to help you keep a moving subject in focus, and is great for sports and nature photography, or any other situations where http://www.photocourse.com/itext/servofocus/ you are photographing moving subjects. Autofocus begins when you press Click to explore the the shutter button halfway down and as long as you continue to hold it effects of servo focus. halfway down, the autofocus system keeps the subject in focus as it’s distance from the camera changes, provided it is covered by one of the nine AF points. When focus is achieved in this mode, the AF point used to focus isn’t displayed in red, the focus confirmation light doesn’t light, and the beeper doesn’t sound—except in A-DEP mode. In this mode the camera will shoot even when a subject isn’t in focus and exposure is determined just before the Tip picture is taken. AI servo AF is the mode selected for you in Sports mode and • Custom Function is selectable in all Creative Zone modes. III-3 lets you change the way you manually select AF points (page 142). • When using the Multi-controller to select a focus point, repeatedly pressing it in the same direction toggles between selecting one AF point and selecting them all.

The AF-Drive button.

● When the AF point is being selected automatically, the camera first uses the center AF point to focus. If the subject then moves away from this point, focus tracking continues as long as it is covered by one of the other AF points. ● If you have selected the AF point manually, the camera uses that point to focus track. ● In A-DEP mode, the camera focuses on the subject nearest the camera covered by one of the AF points and when focus is achieved the focus confirmation light does light and the beeper does sound. • AI focus AF mode focuses on the subject using One-Shot AF mode, but if the subject then starts to move, the camera automatically switches to AI servo AF mode so it can keep the subject in focus. AI focus AF mode is automatically selected for you in Full Auto and Flash Off modes and can be manually selected in any Creative Zone mode. If focus is achieved in this mode using servo AF, the focus confirmation light doesn’t light up, but the beeper sounds softly. Selecting An Autofocus Mode 1. With the camera in any Creative Zone mode and the focus switch on the lens set to AF, press and release the AF/Drive button. 2. Turn the Main Dial to cycle through ONE SHOT, AI FOCUS, or AI SERVO on the LCD panel.

The selected AF point is displayed in red in the viewfinder.

The selected AF point is displayed on the LCD panel. When all nine AF points are displayed, the camera selects the one to use.

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Selectable Focusing Points The 40D has nine AF points and in A-DEP and Basic Zone modes, the one(s) used to set focus are selected automatically by the camera. However, in Creative Zone modes other than A-DEP you can easily switch from automatic to manual selection. When manually selecting an AF point the one currently being used, called the active AF point, is indicated on the LCD panel and is shown in red in the viewfinder immediately after selecting it, or anytime you press the shutter button halfway down. Manually selecting an AF point lets you choose which part of the scene is used to focus the camera and also lets you get shots off more quickly since the camera doesn’t have to take time calculating where to focus.

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Focusing Techniques When using the Multi-controller to select AF points, there are shortcuts. • Pressing it straight down once selects the center AF point and pressing it again selects all of them. The AF point button

Tips • You can lock focus and exposure independently using AE Lock (page 53). • Custom Function IV-1 (page 142) lets you change the way you lock focus and exposure.

• Repeatedly pressing it in the same direction toggles between selecting one AF point and selecting them all. Selecting an AF Point 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone other than A-DEP, press the AF point selector button (five dot icon) on the back of the camera to display the active AF point in red in the viewfinder and the AF point indicator on the LCD panel. 2. Turn the Main or Quick Control Dial to select an AF point or press the Multi-controller to select a point directly. (When all nine points are indicated, the camera is in auto mode and will pick the AF point for you.) 3. When finished, repeat Steps 1 and 2 to reset AF point selection to auto (all nine dots). If you don’t do so, the setting remains in affect even when you turn the camera off. Displaying AF Points in Playback When you play back images shot in One-Shot AF, or view them in review mode, you can display the AF point or points used to set focus. This lets you confirm that you focused on the right part of the scene. The points are displayed on the images in review and playback modes and on the same screens as the histograms when you press INFO.

Click to explore focus http://www.photocourse.com/itext/focuslock/ lock.

Displaying AF Points

1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and select the Playback 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight AF point disp. and press SET to display the choices Enable and Disable (the default). Tips • You can lock exposure on one part of a scene and lock focus on another. You can then take the picture or even recompose the scene a third way first. • With most lenses having a maximum aperture larger than f/2.8 the center AF point is twice as sensitive to vertical and horizontal lines as the other points. The exceptions are the EF 28–80mm f/2.8–4L and EF 50mm f/2.5 Compact Macro lenses.

For

3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET. Using Focus Lock To change the position of the plane of critical focus in One-Shot AF mode (page 70), you can use focus lock. The 40D has a two-stage shutter button. When you press it halfway down, the camera sets focus, and also exposure if you are using evaluative metering (page 45). When the focus confirmation light in the viewfinder glows a steady green, these readings are locked in. If you don’t release the shutter button, you can then point the camera anywhere else and the settings remain unchanged. This lets you set the focus at any distance from the camera to control both focus and depth of field. When using evaluative metering with One-Shot AF (the default), pressing AF-ON or pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure and focus. When using AI Servo AF, neither is locked and both are set when you take the picture. AI Servo AF is used in Sports mode, possibly in Full Auto and Flash Off modes, and you can select it in Creative Zone modes other than

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness A-DEP. Any other combination of metering (page 45) and focus (page 69) modes locks just focus. Using Focus Lock 1. With autofocus set to One-Shot AF (page 70), point it so the subject you want to lock focus on is covered by one of the AF points in the viewfinder. 2. Press the shutter button halfway down and hold it there to lock in focus. The green focus confirmation light lights up and the AF point being used to set focus briefly flashes red in the viewfinder. 3. Without releasing the shutter button, recompose the scene and press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture.

The lens focus switch.

Tip • In Live View you can enlarge part of the image up to 10x for very precise manual focusing (page 135).

Manual Focus To manually focus, set the lens’ focus switch to M or MF (for Manual) and focus by turning the lens’ focus ring until the image looks sharp in the viewfinder. You can also manually focus with the lens set to AF if you are using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens that has a distance scale, in One-Shot AF mode. You first autofocus and then turn the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune the focus (called full-time manual focusing). Manual focus is extremely useful when autofocus has problems, or when you want to quickly focus on an off-center subject or a subject that is in a busy setting where the camera has trouble isolating the subject you want. • To see which AF point or points are being used to set focus, press the shutter button halfway down to see which flash red in the viewfinder. • Hold the shutter button halfway down as you manually focus. When the subject covered by the active AF point comes into focus, it flashes red and the focus confirmation light glows a steady green. • After achieving focus, you can recompose the scene at will without focus changing or having to use focus lock. Using Manual Focus 1. Set the focus switch on the lens to M or MF. 2. Position one of the AF points over the part of the scene you want critically sharp. 3. Hold the shutter button halfway down and focus by turning the focus ring on the lens. When focus is achieved, the AF point used to set focus flashes red and the focus confirmation light glows a steady green.

Manual focus is useful when the main subject doesn’t fall on one of the AF points, or when you want to focus on a very specific spot such as the eye of a moth.

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Controlling Depth

Controlling Depth

of

of

Filed

Field

Sharpness—or the lack of it—is immediately noticeable when you look at a photograph. If you are making a portrait, you want only the person to be sharply focused, but not a distracting background. In a landscape, on the other hand, often you will want everything sharp from close-up rock to far away mountain. Once you understand how to control depth of field, you will feel much more confident when you want to make sure something is—or isn’t—sharp. To control depth of field, you have three factors to work with.

This photo of a page from a book shows how shallow depth of field can be when you get close to a subject.

• Aperture size. The smaller the aperture, the greater the depth of field. The larger the aperture, the shallower the depth of field. • Camera-to-subject distance. As you move father from the subject you are focused on, you increase depth of field. As you move closer, you decrease it. • Lens focal length. A shorter focal length lens increases depth of field and a longer one decreases it. Each of these three factors affects depth of field by itself, but even more so in combination. You can get the shallowest depth of field with a lens zoomed in on a nearby subject using a large aperture. You get the greatest depth of field when you are far from a subject, with a wide-angle lens, using a small aperture.

Here the camera’s depth of field was just deep enough to keep the bird in focus. Parts of the image closer to the camera and further away become increasingly less sharp.

Effect on Depth of Field

Deeper

Shallower

Aperture Size

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/DOF/ Click to explore how the aperture affects depth of field.

Camera to Subject Distance

To check depth-offield in the viewfinder press the depth-of-field preview button (page 68).

For

Amount and direction of zoom

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness

Using Deep Depth

of

Field

Often you will want to get as much depth of field as possible because important parts of a scene that you want sharp are both near to and far from the camera. Maximum depth of field seems particularly important for photographs of landscapes and other scenes where a distant horizon is a part of the picture.

Tip

Focusing on the Hyperfocal Distance When a subject extends to the far distance, many photographers unthinkingly focus on that part of the scene. When you are focused on that distant point, everything beyond it will be sharp. But since one-third of the available depth of field falls in front of the point on which you are focused and two-thirds behind it, you are wasting two-thirds of your depth of field. That may mean that some other part of the scene in the foreground will not be included in the one-third remaining depth of field and consequently will not be sharp.

• In Live View shooting, the image on the monitor previews the brightness of the captured image when you press the depth of field preview button.

Instead of focusing on infinity, if you focus on some object one-third of the way between you and the horizon, you bring forward the point on which you are focused and increase the depth of field in the foreground of your picture. This new point of focus is called the hyperfocal distance. You can use this procedure not just for landscapes, but whenever you want to shift depth of field toward and away from the camera.

Zooming out and using a small aperture keeps everything in the foreground and background in focus.

When you focus on the most distant part of the scene, here it’s the mountains, all available depth of field to the right of that point is wasted. As a result, the middle and foreground are not sharp because they don’t fall within the range of available depth of field.

By focusing on the hyperfocal distance, the most distant part of the scene remains in focus but the near point of depth of field moves closer to the camera. The entire scene is sharp.

The icon for landscape mode.

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Understanding hyperfocal distance has a side benefit. It lets you pick the sharpest possible aperture while still getting the depth of field you want. The smallest apertures may give greater depth of field, but they also have interference patterns that soften the image. For the sharpest possible images, you should use a midrange aperture such as f/8 provided it will give you the depth of field you need. For

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Using Deep Depth

of

Field

Focusing on the Hyperfocal Distance

Here the infinity symbol on the distance scale has been aligned with f/11 (the selected aperture) on the right side of the scale. On the left side of the scale, read up from f/11 to see that everything from about 2.5 feet (0.7m) to infinity is in focus.

1. With the focus switch on the lens set to M or MF, set the Mode Dial to M (manual) or Av (aperture-priority) mode so you can select the aperture. 2. Turn the lens’ focus ring to align the infinity mark on the right side of the lens’ depth of field scale with the f-stop you’re using (1 in illustration left). Read the nearest focus distance by reading up from the same aperture number on the left side of the scale (2 in illustration left). For action photography, you can use a variation of this technique, called zone focusing, to prefocus and set depth of field so a specific range is always in focus. If anything happens within that range you can quickly capture it without focusing. Zone Focusing 1. With the focus switch on the lens set to M or MF, set the Mode Dial to M (manual) or Av (aperture-priority) mode so you can select the aperture.

Here 6 feet (2m) on the distance scale has been aligned with f/11 on the right side of the scale. On the left side of the scale, read up from f/11 to see that everything from about 1.75 feet (0.6m) to 6 feet (2m) is in focus.

2. Turn the lens’ focus ring to align the maximum focus distance on the lens’ depth of field scale with the f-stop you’re using on the right side of the scale (1 in illustration left). Read up from the f-stop on the left side of the depth of field scale to see what the minimum focus distance is (2 in illustration left). Auto Depth-of-field AE (A-DEP) The 40D’s auto depth of field (A-DEP) mode is specially designed to help you get the depth of field you want. In this mode the camera evaluates all nine AF points and selects an aperture that will give enough depth of field to keep all of them in focus. Since the aperture setting is given priority, the shutter speed may be so low you need to use a tripod or other support. This is an ideal mode when photographing groups and landscapes because it keeps everyone or everything in focus. If you use flash, this mode works just like P. Using Auto Depth-of-field AE (A-DEP) 1. With the focus switch on the lens set to AF, set the Mode Dial to ADEP and close the flash if it’s open. 2. Compose the image so the nearest and farthest points of the scene that you want in focus are covered by one of the nine AF points in the viewfinder. 3. Press the shutter button halfway down and the AF points covering subjects that will be sharp flash red in the viewfinder. ● If the aperture value blinks exposure is OK, but the camera won’t capture the desired depth of field. Recompose the image, use a wider focal length lens, or move farther away and try again. ● If the 30” shutter speed blinks, the image may be underexposed and too dark, so turn the Main Dial to select a larger aperture. ● If the 8000 shutter speed blinks, the image may be overexposed and too light, so turn the Main Dial to select a smaller aperture.

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Chapter 3. Controlling Sharpness

Using Shallow Depth

of

Field

Shallow depth of field, sometimes called selective focus, is a great way to

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/selectfocus/ isolate a subject from a distracting foreground or background. When everyClick to explore selective focus.

thing in a picture is equally sharp, the viewer gives equal attention to all parts of the scene. But if some parts of an image are sharp and others are not, the viewer is drawn to the sharpest part. You can selectively focus the camera and your viewer’s attention on the most important part of the scene by limiting depth of field so the significant elements are sharp while the foreground and background are less so.

Only the bubble gum blower is sharp while figures in the foreground and background aren’t.

Here attention is drawn to the sharp monarch butterfly caterpillar and the boy’s face is soft and less distracting, but sharp enough that you can see the expression.

Decreasing Depth of Field ● Use a neutral density filter for a larger aperture. ● Zoom the lens in or move closer to enlarge the subject. ● Use aperture-priority mode or program shift to select a large aperture such as f/2.8. 76

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Conveying

Conveying

the

Feeling

of

the

Felling

of

Motion

Motion

Although sharpness is a laudable goal, it isn’t the only one. The creative use of blur can lead to some interesting photos—especially when conveying the feeling of motion. The shutter speed can be selected to blur some or all of an image. Many times you don’t do anything but benefit from a happy accident. Anything that moves day or night is a candidate for creative blurring. Your only limitation is getting a slow enough shutter speed in bright light.

Panning with this barred owl blurred the background and created an impressionistic image.

Panning the camera in the same direction as a moving subject produces an image where the subject is relatively sharp against a blurred background. Your movement should be smooth and controlled to get a good pan, so begin to pan the camera before the subject enters your viewfinder. Smoothly depress the shutter button as you follow the motion of the subject, keeping it in the same position in the viewfinder. Follow through as you would in golf or tennis. Panning takes practice so take as many images as you can. Results are quite unpredictable because your body motion adds yet another variable to the final picture.

Here a fast shutter speed froze everything but the ball.

Conveying Motion ● Try blurring images in lowlight situations. In bright light, the shutter will open and close too fast. ● Use shutter-priority mode program shift to select a slow shutter speed. ● Use a neutral density filter to get a slower shutter speed. ● When panning with a moving subject, use AI Servo AF mode (page 70) to keep the image focused as long as you hold the shutter button halfway down. For

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color

Chapter 4 Capturing Light & Color

Contents • Where Does Color Come From? • White Balance and Color • Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing • Color and Time of Day • Sunsets and Sunrises • Weather • Photographing at Night • The Direction of Light • The Quality of Light

I

mage sensors in digital cameras are designed to produce colors that match those in the original scene. However, there is a lot of variation among sensors and among the circuits and software that process raw images into final photographs. The results you get depend, in part, on the accuracy with which you expose the image and how the camera handles white balance. With film cameras, photographers usually explore a wide variety of films before settling on the one or two they like best. This is because each film type has it’s own unique characteristics. In some the grain is small, in others it’s larger. A film may have colors that are warmer than other films, or slightly colder. These subtle variations among films are what make photographers gravitate to one or the other. With digital cameras, you don’t have the same choice offered by film cameras. The “film” in the form of an image sensor is built into your camera. Whatever its characteristics are, they are the characteristics you have to live with until you buy another camera. In this chapter, we explore the world of light and color and how you manage it in your photos.

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Where Does Color Come From

Where Does Color Come From? Why do we see colors? Light from the sun or from a lamp seems to have no http://www.photocourse.com/itext/color/ Click here to explore color and prisms.

Although light from the sun appears colorless or “white,” it actually contains a range of colors similar to a rainbow. You can see these colors using a prism to separate them out.

particular color of its own. It appears simply to be “white” light. However, if you pass the light through a prism, you can see that it actually contains all colors, the same effect that occurs when water droplets in the atmosphere separate light into a rainbow. A colorful object such as a leaf appears green because when white light strikes it, the leaf reflects only the green wavelengths of light and absorbs the others. A white object such as a white flower appears white because it reflects most of the wavelengths that strike it, absorbing relatively few. Ink dyes or pigments in color prints also selectively absorb and reflect certain wavelengths of light and so produce the effect of color.

White objects reflect most of the wavelengths of light that strike them. When all of these wavelengths are combined, we see white. On the other hand, when all of them are absorbed, and none reflected, we see black.

A green object such as a leaf reflects only those wavelengths that create the visual effect of green. Other colors in the light are absorbed by the leaf.

“White” light actually contains light of different colors. The overall color cast of the light changes as the proportions of the colors change.

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color

White Balance Tips • Color temperature ranges from high temperature blues to low temperature reds. As color temperature increases it moves through the colors red, orange, yellow, white, and blue white in that order. • If you shoot images in the RAW file format (page 26), you can adjust white balance on your computer instead of having the camera do it.

and

Color

Although light from the sun or from a light bulb looks white to us, it not only contains a mixture of all colors, it contains these colors in varying proportions. Light from the midday sun, for example, is much bluer than light from a sunrise or a tungsten lamp. To produce what appears to us to be normal or accurate color balance, the image we capture must contain the colors in the original scene. These colors are affected by the color of the light source. The color of a light source can be described by its color temperature, specified in degrees Kelvin, somewhat like a thermometer that calibrates heat temperatures in degrees centigrade. The color temperature scale ranges from the lower color temperatures of reddish light to the higher color temperatures of bluish light. Daylight has a color temperature of about 5,000–5,500 K and adds no color cast to pictures. If white balance isn’t adjusted, light sources with a lower color temperature, such as incandescent or fluorescent, add a red or yellow cast. Those with a higher color temperature, such as open shade, add a blue cast. To adjust colors so photos look like they were shot outdoors at midday, we use a system called white balance. You can check white balance by looking at the captured image on the camera’s monitor. If you examine an image closely, you may notice that white areas in particular have some color cast to them. If so, you may want to adjust white balance for subsequent shots, or shoot in the RAW format so you can adjust it later on your computer.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/whitebalance/ Using Preset White Balance Settings Click here to explore how the white balance setting affects the way images are captured.

The 40D offers a variety of white balance settings, each for a different lighting situation. When you select a shooting mode in the Basic Zone, Auto white balance (AWB) is automatically selected. For modes in the Creative Zone you can select Auto, one of the six presets, or use the Custom or Kelvin settings for even greater control. The numbers in parentheses following each mode below indicate the setting’s approximate color temperature in degrees Kelvin. • Auto (AWB) automatically selects the white balance to match the current light source. Select another mode if this mode doesn’t give you the results you want. (3000–7000 K) • Daylight is best when photographing outdoors in sunlight. (5200 K) • Shade is best when photographing in open shade. (7000 K) • Cloudy is best when photographing outdoors in cloudy or overcast conditions. (6000 K) • Tungsten is best when photographing indoors under incandescent lights. (3200 K) • White Fluorescent is best when photographing indoors under white fluorescent lights. (4000 K)

Clockwise from top, auto (AWB), daylight, shade, cloudy, tungsten, florescent, flash, custom, and Kelvin icons.

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• Flash is best photographing with the built-in or external flash. (6000 K) • Custom (page 81) is best when other settings don’t give you the results you want. (2000–10000 K) • Kelvin (page 82) is best when setting a specific color temperature. (2500– 10000 K) For

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White Balance

Tips • If you like the warm glow of incandescent lights, you can capture them by setting white balance to daylight. • You can save three user defined Picture Styles for color saturation and tone and then select any one of them for a specific situation (page 138). You can also select the widegamut Adobe RGB color space to attach to your images (page 82). • You can also use the White balance command on the Shooting 2 menu tab to set white balance.

and

Color

Selecting a White Balance Mode 1. With the camera on and the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the WB button and then turn the Quick Control Dial to select a white balance icon displayed on the left side of the LCD panel (AWB is the default). 2. Take photos using the changed setting. 3. When finished, repeat Step 1 to reset white balance to AWB (Auto) or the mode will be remembered even when you turn off the camera. Creating and Using a Custom White Balance Setting If none of the preset color settings give you the results you want, you can create your own. To do so, you first photograph a sheet of plain white paper or a commercially available 18% gray card while it fills the spot metering circle in the viewfinder. You then use the captured image to set and save a custom white balance. Once saved you can access the custom setting at any time by selecting the custom white balance icon just as you select any other white balance setting. • When photographing a white or gray card, you may want to use manual focus to ensure it’s in focus. • If you photograph a white paper, use +1 or +2 exposure compensation to lighten it. It you capture it so it look gray, white balance may not be as accurate.

The spot metering circle in the viewfinder.

• If you take pictures of a standard white object or gray card under various lighting situations and keep them on your CF card, you can select one at any time with the Custom WB menu command. It’s like having a library of custom settings to choose from under various types of light. • If you take a photo with Picture Style set to Monochrome (page 138), it cannot be used to set white balance. Setting A Custom White Balance

The custom white balance icon.

1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, and white balance set to any setting, photograph a white subject or gray card while it fills the spot metering circle in the viewfinder. 2. Press MENU, select the Shooting 2 menu tab, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Custom WB, and press SET to display the image you took in Step 1. 3. Press SET to use the image to set white balance, or turn the Quick Control Dial to display another picture first and then press SET. When asked to confirm setting white balance from the image, select OK and press SET. When reminded to set white balance to Custom, press SET. 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to exit the menu.

A gray card.

For

5. Press the WB button and turn the Quick Control Dial to select the icon for custom white balance on the LCD panel.

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color

The Color temp icon.

Using a Specific Color Temperature As you’ve seen, one way to describe the color of a light source is by its color temperature in degrees Kelvin. Lower color temperatures will make the image bluer and higher ones will make it redder. If you know the color temperature of your lights or have a color meter to measure them you can set the camera to an exact match. • When using color temperature under artificial light, you may need to use white balance correction to adjust magenta or green bias (page 83). • If you use a color temperature meter to determine the color temperature of the light, you should take test shots and use white balance correction to ensure the best possible results. Setting Color Temperature in Kelvins

The effects of color balance are most obvious in the early morning and late evening when the sunrise or sunset often changes the color of everything you see.

1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Shooting 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight White balance and press SET, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight K which is displaying the current color temperature setting. 3. Turn the Main Dial to change the setting to any temperature between 2500–10000K in 100K increments (5200 K is the default) and press SET to select it. 4. Press MENU to exit the menu, and white balance is set to Kelvin with the letter “K” displayed on the LCD panel. 5. When finished, reset white balance to AWB (Auto) as described on page 81 or the selected color temperature will be used even when you turn the camera off and back on.

Tip • All image filenames begin with IMG_ except for those shot using the Adobe RGB color space which begin with _MG_.

Selecting a Color Space You can switch between the default sRGB and the wider gamut Adobe RGB color space. sRGB, which supports fewer colors is the color space used in Basic Zone modes and is suitable for images that will be displayed on a monitor. However, if you plan on editing your images and making high-quality prints, Adobe RGB is a better choice. The only drawback is that when displayed on a non-compatible screen, colors look very subdued. However, using a program such as Photoshop or Lightroom, you can always convert images from Adobe RGB to sRGB without any loss in quality.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/colorspace/ Selecting a Color Space Click to explore how sRGB and Adobe RGB color spaces compare when it comes to the number of colors they can capture.

1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Shooting 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Color space and press SET to display the choices sRGB and Adobe RGB. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice and press SET. 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing

Using White Balance Correction & Bracketing Tips • When white balance bracketing is in effect the current white balance icon on the LCD panel blinks and the remaining pictures readout shows only one-third the number of images it would normally show. • Much of what you do to adjust white balance at the time of shooting is done more easily after taking pictures when you use the RAW format (page 26). • Each level of blue/ amber is equivalent to 5 Mireds of a color conversion filter. • Custom Function I-4 and I-5 specify when bracketing is cancelled and the order of the bracket sequence (page 141). • You can return color corrections and bracketing to their default values by pressing INFO.

When you want to fine-tune white balance you can do so by correcting or bracketing it. You can also combine white balance bracketing with exposure bracketing (page 54), but you will get 9 images in each series. • You can correct the color temperature used for white balance much as you would on film cameras with a color temperature conversion or color compensating filter. To do so, you move a dot around the WB correction/WB bracketing screen with the Multi-controller selecting any one of nine levels. • You can bracket white balance by having a single image processed into three pictures with different color tones having up to + or – 3 levels of a blue/ amber bias or magenta/green bias (but not both at the same time). The first version is processed at the selected white balance and the other two are made more bluish (decreased compensation) and reddish (increased compensation). You cannot bracket white balance when using the RAW format, and don’t need to. It is fully adjustable in a RAW editing program. While an image is being processed into a series you cannot take another picture. Using White Balance Correction/Bracketing 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU, select the Shooting 2 menu tab, select WB SHIFT/BKT and press SET to display the WB correction/WB bracketing screen. 2. Do one or both of the following: ● To make color corrections use the Multi-controller to move the dot towards B (blue), G (green), A (amber), and M (magenta). In the upperright corner of the screen SHIFT shows the bias direction and correction amount. When the shift is 0,0 there is no correction. ● To set the bracketing direction and level turn the Quick Control Dial. This expands the single dot to three dots that indicate what the white balance will be for each of the three shots. The middle dot is at the white balance recommended by the camera and the left and right dots indicate by how many stops white balance is decreased (bluish) and increased (reddish). Turning the dial clockwise sets B/A bracketing and counterclockwise sets M/G bracketing. The BKT indicator to the right of the grid shows the bracketing direction and level. 3. Press SET to return to the menu. ● If you have made color corrections, a WB +/- icon is displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. ● If you have set bracketing, the current white balance icon on the LCD panel flashes. 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to exit the menu and take your photos.

The color correction icon displayed when using white balance correction or bracketing.

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5. When finished, repeat Steps 1–3 to reset BKT and SHIFT to 0. If you don’t every shot you take will be corrected or bracketed.

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color

Color

and

Time

of

Day

In photography, there is a color of light called “daylight.” However, this type of light occurs only at a specific time on clear days. Over the course of the day, the light can change from a warm red at sunrise, to a cold blue at noon, and then back to a warm red or orange at sunset. “Daylight” on the color temperature scale is really set for midday sun between 10 A.M. and 2 P.M on a clear day. During these hours, colors appear clear, bright, and accurately rendered in a photo. Before and after midday, light from the sun is modified by the extra distance it travels through the Earth’s atmosphere. Some of the blue light is filtered out, leaving the light with a more reddish cast than at midday. This is easily seen very early or late in the day when the light is often quite red-orange in tone. The change in color will affect your pictures strongly, but this reddish cast is a wonderful light to photograph in. Just before dawn and at dusk, colors often appear muted or monochromatic. During these hours when light is relatively dim, you often have to use an extralong exposure time.

Midday light on a sunny day will produce colors that appear natural and accurately rendered.

Early morning and late afternoon light produce a more reddish color balance than you get at midday.

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Sunsets

Sunsets

and

and

Sunrises

Sunrises Sunsets and sunrises are relatively easy to photograph because the exposure is not as critical as it is with some other scenes. If you underexpose the scene slightly, the colors will simply be a bit richer and darker. Slight overexposure will make the same scene slightly lighter.

The sun often takes on a flattened appearance as it rises above the horizon. When partially obscured and softened by a haze, its warm, red glow illuminates the foreground.

Sunrises and sunsets by themselves aren’t very interesting. It’s objects in the foreground, such as a skyline, or unusual atmospheric effects such as this dark cloud that give them some punch.

The colors in the sky are often richest in the half hour before the sun rises and the half hour after it sets. It pays to be patient as you watch the sky change during these periods. For one thing, the sun itself is below the horizon and not in the image so exposure problems are greatly reduced. Also, clouds in the sky often light up dramatically and in some cases, reflect the light to other clouds until you find yourself under a wonderful canopy of reflected color. Every sunrise and sunset is unique and the variations can be truly amazing. It’s certainly not true that “if you’ve seen one sunrise or sunset, you’ve seen them all.” If you want the sun in the photo, it’s best if it is softened and partly obscured by a mist or haze. If it rises as a hot white or yellow ball, find an-

With the bright disk of the sun included in a sunset or sunrise, your picture may come out somewhat underexposed and darker than you expect it to be. Add 1 or 2 stops of exposure to a sunset or sunrise that includes the disk of the sun.

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Warning! • Never look at the bright sun through the viewfinder. You can seriously damage your eyes.

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color other subject or turn around and photograph the scene it’s illuminating. The rich, warm light changes the colors of everything it hits. This is a magic time to capture images that will really stand out. Colors take on a warm, soft glow that can’t be found at any other time of the day. Instead of shooting into the sun at sunrise or sunset, shoot with it behind you to capture rich, warm colors of scenes bathed in the sun’s light.

A long-focal-length lens enlarges the disk of the sun so that it becomes a more important part of the picture. Foreground objects silhouetted against the bright sky, can also add interest.

Here the camera was positioned so the rising sun was behind one of the grain elevators where it wouldn’t burn out the image with its glare.

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Anticipating the Sun and Moon When planning to integrate the sun or moon into an image it helps to know when it rises or sets and what phase the moon is. This information is available in almanacs and on the Web at the U.S. Naval Observatory (http://www.usno.navy.mil).

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Weather

Weather There’s no need to leave your camera home just because the sun hasn’t come out. In fact, rain, snow, fog, and mist can add interest to your pictures. Objects at a distance often appear diffused and gray in such weather, with foreground objects brighter than normal because they are seen against a muted background. Remember to take a little extra care in bad weather to protect your camera against excessive exposure to dampness. Snow covered scenes are not only beautiful to look at, they make great photographs.

Tip • Canon L series lenses are sealed and weather resistant as is the 580EX II Speedlight. Unfortunately, the 40D isn’t as well protected.

A light fog subdues colors and softens objects in the background.

A very light mist can dim the sun enough to include it in a photograph. If it weren’t partially obscured by the fog, it would appear as a white dot against a very dark background.

For

Rainbows always make good pictures. The problem is, you rarely find them where you want them, when you want them. To get better at capturing them, you should know how they form so you can anticipate them. Rainbows are formed when sunlight is refracted by raindrops. You’ll usually find the combination of rain and sun at the leading or trailing edge of a summer storm. You

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color

CAMERA CARE

can’t see rainbows at all times of the day. To understand why, visualize the way the rainbow works.

• In the cold, batteries run down a lot faster. To prevent this, keep the camera or battery under your coat or in an inside pocket so the battery stays warmer.

If you stand with your back to the sun while looking at a rainbow, imagine a line from the sun passing through your eye, through the Earth, and out into space. (This is called the antisolar point.) The rainbow forms a complete circle around this imaginary line, however from ground level part of it is always below the horizon. A line drawn from your eye to the top of the rainbow forms a 42-degree angle with the imaginary line from the sun through your eye. (If there is a secondary rainbow, it forms an angle of 51-degrees.) Because these angles determine the position of the rainbow in the sky, it will sink as the sun rises and rise as the sun sinks. At some points, the entire rainbow, not just the bottom half, will be below the horizon where you can’t see it. That’s why you’ll never see a summer rainbow at midday.

From a plane you can sometimes see all 360degrees of a rainbow. Here you see a section of one shot through an airliner window. To the right of the brighter primary rainbow is a dimmer secondary one.

Here a rainbow dramatically appears in a New England seascape.

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Photographing

Photographing

at

at

Night

Night You can photograph many different things outdoors at night, so don’t put your camera away just because the sun is gone for the day. Light sources (street lights, automobile lights, neon signs, or fires) or brightly lit areas (illuminated buildings or areas under street lights) will dominate pictures at night because they stand out strongly against darker backgrounds. Plan to use these bright areas as the dominant part of your picture. A tripod or solid surface will support your camera during long exposures and prevent blur caused by camera motion during the time the shutter is open.

This scene of Faneuil Hall in Boston was shot at night with just illumination from street lights.

Fireworks can be dramatic, but are difficult to capture. You need to experiment and a digital camera is perfect for that because you can instantly review your results.

Tip • If the camera has trouble focusing, switch to manual focus, or pop-up the flash so it can strobe to assist focus. (It does this automatically in most Basic Zone modes.) To use the flash to assist focus but not fire during the exposure, use Custom Function III-5 (page 141).

For

To capture interesting images of fireworks, put people or water in the foreground. It also helps if there are identifiable objects in the image such as an illuminated building or monument to give the viewer a sense of place. Get upwind from the show since fireworks generate a lot of smoke that can become a problem if you are downwind. If you are upwind, the smoke will become part of the image, illuminated by the fireworks. Set your exposure for fireworks by switching to Av (aperture-priority) or Tv (shutter-priority) mode and try for a setting of f/2.8 at 1/30 second. Try a series of exposures of different bursts because there is a certain amount of luck involved. If there are foreground figures you might try fill flash (page 116) or Night Portrait mode (page 38). You might also want to try increasing sensitivity, use exposure compensation, and try different combinations of aperture and shutter speed as well as those recommended here. Finally, for really interesting effects, you might switch to manual exposure and use the bulb setting (page 90) to capture multiple bursts. You might also explore using Program AE and shifting the program to get the slowest possible shutter speed (page 39). The moon, especially when full, adds a lot to an image. The best time to capture the moon is when it’s near the horizon. Because it is close to foreground objects at that time, it looks much larger than when it’s higher in the sky.

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Tips • You might want to switch to Tv (shutter-priority) mode so you can use shutter speeds as slow as 30 seconds (page 40) or M (manual) mode and use the bulb setting. • Turn on Custom Function II-1 to reduce the effects of noise on long exposures (page 141).

Keep in mind that the moon is relatively dim and usually requires long exposures. Since it’s moving relative to the Earth, longer exposures can actually blur it, giving it a slightly oblong shape. To reduce the chances of this happening, shoot just before sunrise or just after sunset when there is still some light in the atmosphere from the recently set sun. (It bends around the Earth’s curvature due to refraction in the atmosphere.) Try Night Portrait mode when photographing people at twilight, night, or dawn. It illuminates foreground subjects with the flash and the shutter speed is set slow enough to lighten the background. This mode is especially good for outdoor shots with foreground subjects. Since a slow shutter speed may be used in this mode, you may need to support the camera (page 62). To get exposures at night, you can use the bulb setting. Bulb makes it possible to capture light trails from moving cars and star trails as the Earth rotates under a canopy of stars. When in this mode, the timer goes to 999 seconds as long as you hold down the shutter button and moving lights paint lines in the image. To avoid blur from camera shake, you must use a tripod or other secure support. It can be tiring to hold the shutter button down, and hard to keep from moving the camera. It is much easier to use the remote switch RS-80N3 (page 63) to lock the shutter open for long exposures. Keep in mind that when using bulb, you can’t see through the viewfinder while the exposure is being made. Also long exposures add noise to an image but you can turn on Custom Function II-1 to reduce it. Using Bulb Exposures 1. Set the Mode Dial to M (manual) and the Power Switch set to the white line above ON.

Pressing the LCD Panel Illumination button lights the LCD panel so it’s readable in the dark. It turns off after 6 seconds of inactivity. Turning the Mode Dial or pressing any shooting related button extends it.

2. Turn the Main Dial to select buLB, then turn the Quick Control Dial to select an aperture. 3. Press and hold down the shutter button for as long as you wish. A timer is displayed on the LCD panel to guide you and counts up to 999 seconds.

At twilight you may want to use the Night Portrait setting (page 38).

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The Direction

The Direction

of

of

Light

Light The direction that light comes from relative to your camera’s position is important because it determines where shadows will be visible in your picture. It can also affect your exposure. Backlighting, for example, can have your subject silhouetted against a background so bright that your automatic exposure system will underexpose the scene and make the subject even darker. This is fine, if you want a silhouette. If you don’t, you should use exposure compensation to lighten the image. Four main types of lighting are illustrated here: front-lighting, side-lighting, backlighting, and top-lighting. Notice the position of the shadows in these photographs and how they affect the subjects.

Side-lighting, increases the sense of texture and volume because it casts shadows visible from the camera’s position. Landscape photographers often prefer to work early in the morning or late in the day because the low sun sidelights scenes and adds interesting surface textures.

Front-lighting decreases visible shadows and minimizes surface details as well as the apparent depth or volume of the subject.

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Chapter 4. Capturing Light & Color Backlighting puts the side of the subject that is facing the camera in shade. Automatic exposure tends to make backlit scenes too dark. You can add exposure to lighten the picture, especially those parts that are in shade.

Top-lighting can occur outdoors at midday or indoors where ceiling lights predominate. If you are photographing a person, you will notice that top-lighting tends to cast shadows in eyesockets and illuminate the top of the nose brightly. To avoid this effect, you might try moving the person into the shade.

Tip • In Basic Zone modes other than Landscape, Sports, and Flash Off, the built-in flash will pop up and fire automatically in backlit conditions.

Top-lighting, such as that found at midday, can selectively illuminate things, such as this flag in the man’s back pocket, that would be in shadow with light coming from a lower angle.

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The Quality

The Quality

of

of

Light

Light Light not only has direction, it can be direct or diffused. Direct light that comes mainly from one direction produces relatively high contrast between bright highlights and dark shadows. Diffused light bounces onto the subject from several directions, lowering contrast. Contrast, in turn, affects the brilliance of colors, the amount of visible texture and detail, and other visual characteristics. In direct light you may have to choose whether you want highlights or shadows to be correctly rendered because image sensors can accurately record only a limited range of contrast between light and dark areas. If this creates a problem because both highlights and shadowed areas are important, you can sometimes add fill light to lighten shadows and decrease contrast or adjust the contrast setting (page 138). In diffused light, colors tend to be softer than in direct light and textures are also softened because shadow edges are indistinct.

Direct light comes from a point source, such as the sun on a clear day. It produces dark, hardedged shadows that crisply outline details. Here the light and shadows almost form an abstraction.

Diffused light comes from a light source that is so large relative to the subject that it illuminates from several directions. On a hazy or overcast day, illumination comes from the entire dome of the sky, not from the brighter, but smaller, sun. Indoors, light bounced into an umbrella reflector or onto a wall or ceiling creates a broad source of light that wraps around the subject.

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses

Chapter 5 Understanding Lenses

Contents • Canon Lenses • Focal Length • Zoom Lenses • Normal Lenses • Wide-Angle Lenses • Telephoto Lenses • Macro Lenses and Accessories • Tilt-Shift Lenses • Lens Accessories • Perspective in a Photograph

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T

he Canon 40D is one of the latest affordable digital cameras that lets you draw from a vast array of interchangeable lenses. These range from fish-eye lenses for extreme wide-angle shots, to lenses that will capture an athlete’s expression across the width of a football field. If you’re new to photography, you’ll be amazed at the difference high-quality interchangeable lenses can make. If you are an experienced digital photographer with a background in SLR cameras, you’ll just say “It doesn’t get any better than this.” A favorite lens of many photographers is a high quality zoom lens that lets you quickly zoom in or out to meet different photographic opportunities. Zoom in on a subject and you can capture distant action at sporting events or in the field. Zoom out and you can capture a wide-angle view of a large group, a roomy interior, or of an expansive landscape. The ability to change your angle of view as you frame your image is one of your most powerful creative controls. But there are many more lenses to choose from. They include macro lenses, tilt-shift lenses, and even soft focus lenses.

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Canon Lenses

Canon Lenses One of the best things about the 40D is that it can use any one of the 50 or so lenses from the Canon line. Let’s take a look at some of the things that Canon lenses have in common and how they differ.

If you have the money, Canon has the lens.

Tip • The mount on an EF-S lens works with the 40D and other EOS digital camera models that use the APS-C sized sensor. It won’t work with cameras using fullframe sensors. • If you intend to someday upgrade to a full-frame Canon camera, you might consider buying only EF lenses.

Electronic Lens Mount The Canon family of EF (Electronic Focus) lenses was introduced with the first EOS camera in 1987. Instead of mechanical linkages, all communications between the lens and the camera pass through electrical contacts. These connections provide the power needed by a small motor in the lens that controls autofocus and the electromagnetic diaphragm (EMD) that controls aperture settings. This electronic system is much more accurate, reliable, and flexible than older mechanical linkages. Until recently all Canon’s lenses were designed to work with all EOS film and digital SLR cameras. With the introduction of EF-S lenses (the “S” stands for short back focus), this has changed. These lenses work only with EOS digital cameras having an APS-C sized image sensor such as the 40D. They can’t be used with cameras such as the 5D because their reduced image circle isn’t large enough to cover a full-frame sensor. To prevent you from trying to use them on such cameras, they have a different mount. These lenses have a white index mark in addition to the traditional red marking, and a rear rubber ring that prevents any damage should you try to mount an EF-S lens on a camera it’s not designed for. When you change lenses, be careful that dust or other debris doesn’t enter the camera through the lens opening. In fact, keep this opening covered with a lens or the body cap as much as possible. Don’t change lenses or remove the body cap in a dusty environment, and when you do remove the cap or lens, keep the opening pointed down. Should foreign matter find its way onto the image sensor it will show up as specks or blotches in your photographs. If you notice this, see page 153. Mounting and Unmounting a lens 1. In a dust and wind free environment, twist the rear lens cap counterclockwise until it stops, then lift it up to remove it. Remove any body cap from the camera the same way. 2. Align the red dot on the lens, or the white dot if it is an EF-S lens, with the dot of the same color on the camera body’s lens mount.

The lens release button.

3. Insert the lens into the mount and turn it clockwise (as you face the lens) until it clicks into place. Gently try to turn the lens in the other direction to ensure that it’s securely locked in place. Set the focus switch to AF or MF (M on some lenses). 4. To remove the lens, press the lens release button and turn the lens counterclockwise so the red or white index mark is at the top, then remove it.

The lens focus switch.

For

Focusing Technology Canon EF lenses have a focus switch that let’s you select autofocus (AF) or manual focus (M on older lenses and MF on newer ones). When set to M or MF you focus by turning the focus ring on the lens. When using an USM (Ultrasonic Motor) lens with a distance scale in One-Shot AF mode, you can turn the focusing ring on the lens to fine tune focus after focus is achieved (called

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses

On some zoom lenses, setting the Distance Limiter Switch to FULL lets the lens try to focus over it’s entire range. When set to LIMIT, it will only try a specific range of distances.

full-time manual focusing). This let’s you override the autofocus system to “fine-tune” the focus without having to look up from the viewfinder to find the focus switch to change modes. Full-time manual focus comes in two versions. Electronic manual focusing detects how much you’ve turned the focus ring and then uses the focusing motor to focus the lens by the same amount. Mechanical manual focusing adjusts the focus manually as you turn the focus ring. As the lens focuses, it uses one of five different focusing methods that include the following: • Overall extension where the entire optical system moves forward or backward. • Front group extension where only the front-most lens group moves forward or backward. • Front group rotation extension, used only in zoom lenses, where the frontmost lens group rotates as it moves forward or backward. • Inner focusing where only the lens group between the front lens and the aperture diaphragm is moved.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/canonlenses/canoneflenses.pdf Click for a PDF listing Canon lenses.

• Rear focusing when only the lens group behind the aperture diaphragm is moved. Some lenses have a focus preset feature so you can store the desired focusing distance in memory and later instantly focus the lens at that distance. This lets you focus elsewhere and then instantly return to the preset focus distance if necessary. This is ideal in sports and nature photography where you are monitoring action at a specific point such as a nest or goal, but where you also want to capture other action. A few lenses have an AF stop feature that prevents focus from shifting when something passes between you and the subject you’re focused on. You turn this feature on by pressing an AF Stop button on the lens. You can control the effect with Custom Function III-2 (page 142). Ultrasonic Motors

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/antishake/ Since electronically coupled lenses need to move lens groups to focus the Click to explore how image stabilization reduces but doesn’t eliminate blur caused by camera movement.

To turn image stabilization on, you set the switch to the vertical line. To turn it off you set the switch to the “o”.

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image, Canon developed small, light, and powerful motors that fit inside the lens. One of their most impressive is the Ultrasonic Motor (USM). Unlike traditional motors that use a magnetic field to rotate an armature, these motors use ultrasonic vibrational forces to rotate a ring. The motor contains two rings; one that is fixed and one that rotates. As electricity is applied to piezoelectric ceramic elements on the fixed ring, the ring generates ultrasonic vibrations that rotate the movable ring with significant force. The result is a motor that is fast, reliable, accurate and almost silent. Image Stabilization If you’ve ever photographed in dim light, or tried to hand-hold a long telephoto lens, you know how easy it is to get blur in your images from camera shake. In most cases, we resort to tripods or other camera supports. However, Canon has introduced a new way; image stabilization (IS). Lenses with this feature contain gyro sensors that sense movement of the lens and micro-motors that instantly shift a special image stabilization lens group to compensate for the motion and keep the image steady on the sensor. These lenses break the old rule that you should never hand hold a lens using a shutFor

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Canon Lenses

The Canon EF 400mm f/4 DO uses the technology called MultiLayer Diffractive Optical Element that makes it smaller and lighter than it would otherwise be.

The Canon Tripod Collar B supplied with some lenses provides a tripod mount so you can mount the lens, rather than the camera, to a tripod. With longer lenses in particular, this provides a much better balance point for the combined weight of the camera body and lens.

ter speed slower than the reciprocal of the lens focal length times the 1.6x focal length factor (page 98). For example, when using a standard 125mm lens, you normally shouldn’t use a shutter speed slower that 1/125. Image stabilized lenses let you add two stops to that calculation. You can hand hold an image stabilized 125mm lens at 1/30 of a second shutter speeds. Stabilization starts when you press the shutter button halfway down and stops 2 seconds after you release it. When on, you can the effects of its stabilization on the image in the viewfinder. Note that when using an image stabilized lens on a tripod, you should turn off image stabilization. If you don’t, you can actually add blur to the image. (A few lenses have a mechanism that prevents this problem.) This is because when image stabilization is on, the special image stabilization lens group is free to move. If it moves or vibrates while everything else is perfectly stable, blur results. When image stabilization is off, the image stabilization lens group is locked in place so it can’t move. Also, turn it off in bulb mode (page 90) to avoid unpredictable results. Some Canon lenses have two IS modes. IS Mode-1 works for normal shooting and IS Mode-2 stabilizes the image as you pan the camera to follow a moving subject. Information on a Canon Lens When you look at Canon lenses, or read about them, you may be confused at first by all of the information cryptically provided. Here is what each of the terms or abbreviations refers to. EF—The lens is one of the EF (electronic focus) family of lenses that works with the 40D and with any EOS SLR, Advanced Photo System EOS SLR, and any camcorder with a VL mount. EF-S—These lenses work only with Canon digital cameras using a smaller APS-C sized image sensor. 28–105mm—The lens’s focal length or zoom range in millimeters. Since the 40D’s sensor is smaller than a frame of 35mm film, the effective focal length of a lens is greater than it is on a film camera.

Lenses with larger maximum apertures let you use faster shutter speeds and are often called “faster” lenses.

f/2.8—The maximum aperture that you can use with the lens (page 41). On many lenses it’s listed on the lens as a ratio such as 1:2.4 or 1:3.5–5.6. On zoom lenses, two maximum apertures are given because the aperture changes as you zoom the lens in and out. Canon makes a series of f/4L lenses that don’t change the aperture as you zoom the lens. This lets you set exposure and zoom all the way through the lens’s zoom range without the aperture or shutter speed varying. L—An indication that the quality of the lens is especially high (or Luxury). USM—The lens features an ultrasonic motor. II—The Roman numeral indicates that the lens has been revised or improved upon from an earlier version. IS—The lens has image stabilization built in. TE-S—The lens is a tilt-shift lens used for perspective and depth of field control. Macro—The lens is designed for close-up photography.

The EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM lens.

For

DO—Diffractive Optical Element.

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses

Focal Length A zoom lens lets you choose any focal length within the range the lens is de-

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/sensor/ signed for. When you change focal lengths by zooming the lens, two imporClick to explore sensor sizes.

tant effects are immediately obvious in the lens’ angle of view and its magnifying power.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/imagecircle/ • Angle of view refers to how much of a scene the lens covers. A wide-angle Click to explore how the size of an image sensor determines the focal length of a lens.

lens captures a wide expanse of a scene. A longer focal length narrows the field of view and you can isolate small portions of the scene without moving closer to the subject.

• Magnification is related to the lens’ angle of view. Since a wide-angle lens includes a wide sweep of the scene, all of the objects in the scene are reduced http://www.photocourse.com/itext/focallength/ to fit into the image. A longer focal length lens, with its narrower angle of view, makes objects in a scene appear larger. Click here to explore how the focal length of a lens determines its angle of view.

Canon has a wide variety of zoom lenses covering various focal length ranges between 10mm and 600mm. The focal length of a lens determines it’s angle of view. The focal length is based on its physical attributes so it’s an absolute value. However, a given focal length lens may have an “effective” focal length on different cameras. This is because the effective focal length depends on the size of the film or image sensor being used. As these get smaller, a given focal length lens appears to magnify more because it’s capturing a smaller area of the image circle. Since the 40D’s image sensor is smaller than a frame of 35mm film, it essentially captures only the central section of the focused image projected by the lens. As a result, the effective focal length increases by a factor of 1.6 times compared to the indicated focal length of the lens. For example, a 35 mm lens is equivalent to 56mm on the 40D. This multiple works across the entire range of focal lengths, making wide-angle lens less so on the digital SLR than on a film or full-frame digital SLR, and making telephoto lenses more so. • The 40D penalizes you when used with shorter focal length lenses because no wide angle lens is as wide as indicated. • The 40D with its smaller sensor gives you a bonus when used with long focal length lenses or macro lenses because a lens’ focal length is always 1.6x more than indicated.

The longer a lens’ focal length, the narrower its angle of view.

A lens projects a circle of light and the size of the film or image sensor determines how large an area of the circle is captured. The 40D (smaller frame) captures a smaller area than a camera using a full-frame sensor (larger frame).

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Zoom Lenses

Zoom Lenses A zoom lens lets you choose any focal length within the range the lens is designed for. Zooming a lens is like walking toward or away from the scene but without changing the perspective (page 109). Here, a lighthouse in Maine is photographed a number of times from the same spot. The images vary from wideangle to telephoto.

Zooming a Lens â—? To zoom a Canon EF lens, turn the zoom ring on the lens one way to zoom in and the other way to zoom out.

The zoom indicator on a lens.

Tip • Zoom before focusing since zooming can throw off focus.

The lens was zoomed during a long exposure.

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses

Normal Lenses A “normal lens” for a 35mm camera usually refers to a lens with a 50 mm focal length (35 mm equivalent). When you zoom your lens to this focal length and look at the image on the screen, the scene looks about the same as it does to the unaided eye. With the lens zoomed all the way out things appear closer than they actually are. With it zoomed out to a wide-angle, everything looks farther away. A normal-focal-length zoom isn’t necessarily the one photographers normally use. Many photographers prefer the wider angle of view and greater depth of field provided by a shorter focal length.

It’s hard to look at a photo and tell what focal-length lens was used to take it. However, objects in an image taken with a normal lens look normal in their spatial relationships.

See for Yourself A lens is called normal because it captures a scene just as the human eye does even though the eye’s angle of view is much wider than any normal lens. However, you can demonstrate for yourself why a specific focal length is normal for your camera. When a passenger in a car, try zooming the lens or change focal lengths as you watch the traffic ahead through the viewfinder. A longer focal length makes distant cars appear right on top of you. A shorter focal length makes cars look far ahead, even when relatively close. A normal focal-length makes the cars appear in the same distance relationship as you perceive them ordinarily. Canon’s EF 50mm f/1.0L USM lens, although not made anymore, has a maximum aperture of f/1.0–extremely fast!

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Another demonstration is to take two photographs of greatly different size and tape them to a wall. Look at them one at a time through the viewfinder with the lens zoomed to a normal focal-length. Move close enough so each fills the monitor. You’ll discover you are at the correct distance for viewing the prints. With a longer focal-length you would feel too far away, and with a shorter one, too close.

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Wide-Angle Lenses

Wide-Angle Lenses Wide-angle (short focal length) lenses capture a wide expanse of a scene. This wide angle of view is ideal for use in tight spaces, when photographing landscapes, and in small rooms where you can’t position the camera a great distance from the subject. If you don’t get too close to your subjects, a wide-angle lens is good for indoor portraits where including the setting is important.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/panorama/ Click to see how extreme wide-angle lenses can be used to create 360 degree interactive panoramas.

A wide-angle lens also has great depth of field that makes it ideal for street or action photographs. When out to capture quickly unfolding scenes, you can also use zone focusing (page 75) so you’ll have maximum depth of field when you respond quickly to a photo opportunity. Wide-angle lenses are ideal when you need great depth of field because part of the scene is close to the camera and part farther away. It also makes focusing less critical so you can capture those fleeting moments you might otherwise miss.

Tip • Avoid using small apertures with wide angle lenses. They can create diffraction patterns that degrade image sharpness.

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses Short lenses also let you focus very close to your subject, and the effect this can have on the perspective in your images can be dramatic. Objects very close to the camera loom much larger than those farther away. This distortion in the apparent size of objects can deliberately give emphasis and when carried to an extreme will give an unrealistic appearance to a scene. Wide-angle lenses have tremendous depth of field. Here one was used to shoot through a toy space station and make Quinlan look like a giant.

Canon’s 15mm fisheye lens gives a circular “fisheye” look to images.

Canon’s 14mm wide-angle lens is a rectilinear lens so its images don’t have the distorted look of some fisheye lenses.

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Telephoto Lenses

Telephoto Lenses A telephoto (long focal length) lens acts somewhat like a telescope: It magnifies the image of your subject. This is especially useful when you can’t get close to your subject—or don’t want to. These lenses are ideal for wildlife, portrait, and candid photography, whenever getting close to a subject might disturb it. As the focal length increases, depth of field gets shallower so you must focus more carefully. Also, a long lens visually compresses space, making objects in the scene appear closer together than they actually are. The primary drawback of longer lenses is that they often have smaller maximum aperture­s that require longer shutter speeds. Also, since a long lens magnifies movement, just as it magnifies the subject, you may have to support the camera better to get maximum sharpness.

Telephoto lenses come in fixed focal lengths and as zooms. This is a 10x 35–350mm zoom.

Zooming in makes distant objects appear compressed. Here a long lens has been used to “compress” a street scene at the foot of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.

A long lens makes the sun look larger in relation to foreground When the lineup of cement trucks (bottom) is shot head-on with a long lens (top) they appear much closer together then they really are. This is actually due to the distance from the subject, not the focal length of the lens, but the effect is easy to get with a long lens.

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses A telephoto lens is an excellent portrait lens, especially for head-and-shoulders portraits. It lets you keep your distance and still fill the viewfinder frame with the subject. Keeping at a distance eliminates the exaggerated perspective caused by working very close to a subject with a shorter focal length lens. It also helps relax your subjects if they get uneasy, as many people do, when a camera comes close. A long lens lets you get portraits without crowding in on the subject. This let’s you capture more natural expressions.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/distortion/ Click here to explore how a wide angle lens can distort a subject.

Using a wide-angle lens close to the subject adds some distortion to the portrait but it still works as an image. Perhaps not as flattering as it might be, the image is probably more interesting to others than to the subject.

Extenders fit between the lens and camera body to increase focal lengths by 1.4x or 2x. The II series works with both EF and EF-S lenses.

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You can extend the focal length of a fixed focal length lens (without affecting the minimum focus distance) using an extender, an optical device that mounts between the lens and camera body. With the 40D, you can use both 1.4x and 2.4x extenders. The 1.4x extender requires you to open up one stop and the 2x requires 2 stops. If a lens’ maximum aperture is smaller than f/4 for the 1.4x extender or f/2.8 for the 2x, you have to use manual focus. For

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Macro Lenses

Macro Lenses

and

The camera body has a symbol that indicates the position of the image plane should you ever need to know where it is.

and

Accessories

Accessories

When photographing small objects from coins to insects, your lens’ focal length and minimum focusing distance affect how small objects are captured in photos. For example, if you’re photographing a small coin, you probably don’t want it to appear as a tiny coin surrounded by a large background. More likely you’d like a photo showing a large coin surrounded by a small background. For many pictures, just zooming your lens in on the subject will suffice. However, macro lenses allows you to get a lot closer to the subject, making smaller subjects much larger in the final image. If you can’t get close enough to an object to fill the image area, you can always crop out the unwanted areas later. However, the more you crop, the smaller the image becomes.

This small, but very colorful caterpillar was captured with a macro lens.

Tip • For maximum magnification, zoom all the way in, set the lens focus mode to M or MF (manual), and turn the focus ring to the minimum focus distance. Look through the viewfinder as you focus the subject by moving in and out.

Canon offers a wide range of macro lenses that are compatible with Canon’s extension tubes and macro flash units (page 124).

The 50mm macro lens.

The 180mm macro lens gives you plenty of working distance when doing close-up photography.

For

• The EF 50mm f/2.5 Compact Macro focuses up to 9.1 inches (231mm) for 1:2 (half life-size) magnification. At 9.1 inches and f/11, depth of field is 0.24 inches (6mm). The EF Life Size Converter for the lens extends its range to between 1:4 and 1:1 magnification and also compensates for spherical aberrations. • The EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM lens focuses over the full range from infinity down to life size (1:1 reproduction ratio). The lens allows full-time manual focusing so you can override autofocus whenever you want. When shooting at life size (1x) magnification, the minimum working distance between the lens and the subject is approximately 6 inches (152mm), providing enough room for an additional light source. • The EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM Telephoto Lens shoots throughout the focusing distance range from 1x to infinity. The lens has full-time mechanical manual focusing and focuses as close as 1.5ft (0.48m).

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses • The amazing manual focus MP-E 65mm f/2.8 Macro Photo Lens extends the capabilities of conventional macro lenses and is designed exclusively for high-magnification close-ups from 1x to 5x. Working distances (from the front of the lens to the subject) range from 4 inches at 1x (life size) to 1.6 inches at 5x. The lens is equipped with a detachable tripod collar.

The Canon MP-E65mm f2.8 1–5x Macro lens.

• Extension tubes EF 12 II and EF 25 II fit between the lens and the camera body and allow the lens to focus much closer than normal, giving increased magnification. The larger the amount of extension and the shorter the focal length of the lens used, the greater the increase in magnification. (The newer series II extension tubes work with both EF and EF-S lenses. Older extension tubes work only with EF lenses.)

• Canon’s Angle Finder C attaches to the viewfinder eyepiece so you can http://www.photocourse.com/itext/macromag/ Click here to explore macro lens enlargement factors.

photograph from a low angle without kneeling or lying down. It’s also great when doing copy work and macro photography. It features a rubber eyecup, a built-in adjustable diopter, and a roof prism that keeps the image correctly oriented. The viewfinder has switchable magnification (1.25x or 2.5x). The 1.25x setting shows the entire frame including exposure data outside the picture area, while the 2.5x setting provides a magnified view of the center of the image area—excellent for critical focusing with macro lenses and other specialty optics.

A monarch butterfly captured with a macro lens.

Angle Finder C.

Increasing depth of Field in Close-ups The Canon Life-size Converter EF is an extension tube.

● Increase the illumination of the subject to stop down the aperture. ● Don’t get any closer to the subject than you have to. ● Focus on the middle of the scene (front to back) since in close-ups, depth of field is half in front and half behind the plane of critical focus. ● Use aperture-priority (Av) or program shift to select a small aperture (pages 39 and 41).

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Tilt-Shift Lenses

Tilt-Shift Lenses Tilt-shift lenses serve two very important purposes. The tilt controls depth of field and the shift controls the way vertical lines appear in the image. Until Canon developed these kinds of lenses, their effects could only be achieved on a large format camera. The lenses charge a small penalty for all of their flexibility. They can cause metering errors and require you to open up one or two stops.

A Canon TS-E lens.

A bubble level that slips into the hot shoe assures you that the camera is perfectly level when using the camera’s shift control. This is the Bl2 from Kaiden.

• Tilting the lens allows you to control depth of field in an image without changing the aperture. Normally, the glass elements in a lens are parallel to the image sensor. To change the depth of field for a given subject and camera position you have to open or close the aperture. With a lens that tilts from side to side or top to bottom, the plane of critical focus can be tilted one way to dramatically increase depth of field or the other way to dramatically decrease it. This makes it possible to use a large aperture and still get great depth of field. The larger aperture allows faster shutter speeds so you can capture scenes you might have missed before, such as a field with flowers blowing in the wind. • Shifting the lens helps you correct for converging vertical lines that occur when you tilt the camera to capture trees, buildings, or other tall subjects. These lines converge in the image whenever the camera is tilted and the image sensor is no longer parallel to the subject. Using the lens’ shift function, the lens can be shifted upward to eliminate the foreground while keeping the image sensor parallel to the subject. • You can create panoramic images, or even stereo pairs, by taking two photos with the lens shifted in opposite directions. • When photographing reflective subjects, you can eliminate your reflection by moving the camera to a position where the reflection doesn’t show, and then shifting the lens to center the subject in the picture area. The same technique can be used to eliminate unwanted subjects in the foreground. Canon has three Tilt-Shift (TS-E) lens in different focal lengths. All three can rotate 90 degrees, be tilted +/-8 degrees, and be shifted +/-11 mm. On the 24 mm lens, some of the shift and tilt ranges are marked in red because images may be vignetted if shifted or tilted into these zones on a 35mm camera. This happens because the lens focuses a circle of light on the image plane and as you tilt and shift, the film captures different parts of the circle. However, on the 40D the image sensor is smaller so the lens can be shifted and tilted farther without vignetting.

The house on the left, shot by pointing the camera up to get in the entire house, has converging vertical lines and looks tilted. In the photo on the right taken with the lens shifted, the house looks rectangular and all vertical lines are parallel.

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Chapter 5. Understanding Lenses

Lens Accessories TIP • If you use more than one filter at a time you may get vignetting (dark corners in your images).

All Canon lens have threads into which you can screw filters and other accessories. However, keep in mind that many of the effects created by traditional screw on filters can now be done with software filters in programs such as Adobe Photoshop. Applying the effects after capturing an image not only lets you experiment with effects and see what they do in real-time, it also allows you to have an unaffected version of the image. Also, if you are using the Picture Styles Monochrome setting, there are a number of software filters built into the camera (page 138). If you do want to use lens attachments, here are some to consider. • Lens hoods protect the front element from bumps and keep stray light from striking the front of the lens and causing flare or ghost images. • Caps protect the front and rear of the lens when it’s not in use. A body cap protects the camera when no lens is attached. • Protect filters keep the front element of your lens from getting scratched or dirty.

Lens hoods protect the front element and reduce lens flare.

• Circular polarizing filters remove reflections from glass, water, and other reflective surfaces, darken blue skies, and improve color saturation. If you use a linear polarizing filter, you can’t use autofocus.

A polarizing filter (top) darkens the sky and removes reflections from foliage so it has more color. A shot without a filter is shown at the bottom.

For larger apertures or slower shutter speeds, you can use a screw on neutral density filter that cuts the light entering the lens.

• Skylight filters reduce the blue casts you often get when photographing subjects in the shade on sunny days. • UV filters absorb ultraviolet light and cut the haze when photographing landscapes or from airplanes. • Neutral density filters cut the light entering the camera so you can use slower shutter speeds or wider apertures in bright light. • Soft focus filters soften the focus to make portraits more flattering and to make hazy, romantic landscapes. Cases protect lenses from shocks and other abuse. Courtesy of Kenesis.

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• Close-up lenses magnify the subject without affecting aperture settings. • Color conversion filters let you fine-tune the way you capture colors. For

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Perspective

Perspective

in a

in a

Photograph

Photograph A photograph can appear to compress space so that objects appear closer together than you expect. Another photograph of the same scene can seem to expand space so that objects appear farther apart than normal. These apparent distortions in perspective—the appearance of depth in a photograph—are often attributed to the focal length of the lens being used but are actually caused by your distance from the subject.

As the camera is moved closer to the foreground subject and zoomed out to keep it the same size (top), the background diminishes in size relative to the foreground. When you move back and zoom in, the background looms over the foreground subject (bottom). This changing relationship between the size of objects in the foreground and background creates the difference in perspective.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/perspective/ Click to explore perspective.

As you move closer and select a focal length that keeps the subject the same size, the angle of view widens and the background diminishes in size.

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash

Chapter 6 Using Flash and Studio Lighting

Contents • How Flash Works • Using Autoflash • Portraits With Flash • Using Fill Flash • Using Slow Sync Flash • Using Available Light • Controlling Flash Exposures • Using an External Flash • Using Flash in Close-ups • Studio Lighting • Portrait and Product Lighting—Introduction • The Main Light • The Fill Light • The Background Light • The Rim Light

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A

utomatic electronic flash is so convenient and easy to use that you are usually unaware it even fires. With your camera on automatic, it’s always ready when your autoexposure system decides it’s needed. But this on-camera flash lighting has certain characteristics that can make a difference in the way your pictures look. For example, the pictures will have a “flat” lighting typical of flash-on-camera shooting. Alternative approaches, such as using an external flash to bounce light off walls or ceilings, or even just turning the flash off may produce more interesting results. In any event, you will be able to use flash to better advantage as you become more familiar with its characteristics. But flash isn’t your only source of controlled lighting. You can also use the camera in a home studio setting, perhaps taking formal portraits, or photographing smaller items for your records, insurance, sharing, or even selling on eBay. In this chapter we explore all of these forms of lighting, from the built-in flash, to an external flash, to studio lighting. In the process you’ll learn what makes lighting more effective and when, where, and how to use and control it.

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How Flash Works

How Flash Works The 40D has a built in pop-up flash and a hot shoe into which you can slip any Canon EX-series flash when you want more power or features. Both options give you access to Canon’s advanced flash technology. Every flash has a maximum useful range. How bright the light from a flash is when it reaches a subject depends on the flash’s power and on how far the light has to travel. The further the subject is from the flash, the less light will reach it and so the less light will be reflected from the subject back toward the camera. The built-in flash pops-up on top of the camera.

Flash light falls off (becomes dimmer) the farther it travels. Objects near the flash will be lighter in a picture than objects farther away. You can use this to advantage; for example, at night you can isolate a subject against a dark background.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/inverse/ Click to explore the inverse square law.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/excel/guidenumbers.xls The power of a flash is indicated by its guide number. Click here for an Excel worksheet you can use to explore these numbers.

When the flash fires, the beam of light expands as it moves father from the camera so it becomes weaker the farther it travels. The rate at which the light falls off is described by the inverse square law. If the distance between the flash and subject is doubled, only one quarter the amount of light will reach the subject because the same amount of light is spread over four times the area. Conversely, when the distance is halved, four times as much light falls on a given area. When subjects in an image are located at different distances from the camera, the flash exposure will only be correct for those at one distance—normally those closest to the camera or in the area metered by the autoexposure system. Subjects located farther from the flash will be increasingly darker the farther they are from the flash.

As the distance doubles, the amount of light illuminating the subject is only one-quarter of the original amount.

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash

Using Autoflash Tips • Remove the lens hood if it blocks the flash and casts a shadow on the subject. If the lens does the same thing you may need an external flash. • Using the Set-up 2 menu’s Flash control setting (pages 117, 121) you can have the flash fire as soon as the shutter is fully open (1st curtain sync), or just before the second curtain closes (2nd-curtain sync). • EX series speedlites let you use high-speed sync so you can use shutter speeds faster than 1/250 with flash (page 117, 121).

The 40D’s built-in flash lets you get better photos in dim light or backlit situations. In all modes flash metering is linked to the active AF point (page 71). Flash Coverage and Range The built-in flash has the following coverage and range: • The flash can cover the same area as a 17mm lens. Using a wider-angle lens may leave image corners dark from light fall-off. Some lenses and lens hoods may block part of the flash and cast a shadow on the scene. If this happens move farther from the subject or use an external flash. • The flash has a guide number of 43/13 (ft/m) at ISO 100 and its range varies with the ISO and the focal length of the lens. If you use flash and the photo is dark, you may be too far from the subject. Here are some examples at various ISO settings, one with a 18mm lens and the other with an 55 mm lens. In both cases, the minimum distance is 3.3 feet or 1 meter. Only the maximum distances vary as shown in this table: EF-S 18–55mm f/3.5–5.6 IS Lens ISO

Wide angle (18mm)

Telephoto (55mm)

100

12.1’ (3.7m)

7.5’ (2.3m)

200

17.4’ (5.3m)

10.8’ (3.3m)

400

24.3’ (7.4m)

15.1’ (4.6m)

800

34.4’ (10.5m)

21.7’ (6.6m)

1600

48.9’ (14.9m)

30.5’ (9.3m)

H: 3200

68.9’ (21m)

43’ (13.1m)

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/guidenumbers/guidenumbers.pdf The power of a flash is indicated by its guide number. Click here for a PDF explaining how you use these numbers.

Flash and Focus Assist The flash does more than supply light for the exposure. If the camera has trouble focusing in Basic Zone modes other than Landscape, Sports, and Flash Off, the flash pops up and strobes an AF-assist beam to assist focusing. It also emits the beam when needed in Creative Zone modes if you first raise the flash manually. When you want the AF-assist beam enabled, or disabled because it’s drawing attention, or when you want the flash to help focus, but not fire when the picture is actually taken, you can do so with Custom Function III-5 (page 142). http://www.photocourse.com/itext/sync/ Click here to explore the flash sync speed.

Slow sync flash (page 117) lets you get interesting effects.

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Flash and Shutter Speeds The shutter works with two curtains. When you press the shutter button all the way down, the first curtain slides out of the way so light can expose the image sensor. At that point the second curtain slides over the sensor to cover it and end the exposure. At fast shutter speeds, the second curtain starts to close the shutter before the first curtain fully opens it so a slit between the two curtains moves across the image sensor “painting” the image as it goes. Were the flash to fire in this situation, its burst of light wouldn’t fully expose the image sensor because parts of it would be covered by one or both curtains. To prevent this from happening, the camera is set so you can only use shutter speeds at which the shutter fully opens. The fastest of these, called the flash synchronization speed, is 1/250 second.

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Using Autoflash Flash in the Basic Zone When the Mode Dial is set to any mode in the Basic Zone other than Sports, Landscape, or Flash Off the flash pops up automatically and fires when the light is dim, or the subject is backlit. You can’t pop it up yourself in this zone, and when up, the only way to keep it from firing is to select the Flash Off mode or select any mode in the Creative Zone and close the flash.

The flash button that pops-up the flash in Creative Zone modes.

Tip • If the built-in flash is fired rapidly in succession, at some point flash firing stops to prevent heat damage to the builtin flash cover and fresnel lens diffuser.

Flash in the Creative Zone When the Mode Dial is set to any mode in the Creative Zone (P, Tv, Av, M, or A-DEP), you have to manually pop up the flash by pressing the Flash button (marked with a lightning bolt icon) on the left side of the lens mount. (You can’t pop it up if the camera is in sleep mode.) When up, it fires regardless of the ambient light. • In A-DEP and P (Program AE) modes the flash is fully automatic. The shutter speed is automatically set to between 1/250 and 1/60 and the aperture is set automatically. • In Tv (shutter-priority) mode, you select a shutter speed of 1/250 second or slower, and the camera selects the aperture. The exposure of the main subject is determined by the flash and the exposure of the background is determined by the shutter speed. • In Av (aperture-priority) you set the aperture and the shutter speed is automatically set to 1/250 seconds or slower. ● When used with a dark scene, flash exposes the main subject and a slow shutter speed lightens the dark background. This process, called slow-sync flash is described on page 117. ● Using Custom Function I-7 (page 141) you can set the shutter speed to vary automatically or remain fixed at 1/250 when using flash in Av mode. Auto allows a slow shutter speed to lighten the background when photographing in dim light as described above, and fixed prevents it from doing so. • In M (manual) mode, you set the shutter speed to 1/250 or slower, including bulb, and select a matching aperture. The exposure of the main subject is determined by the flash and the exposure of the background is determined by the aperture and shutter speed settings. Using Auto Flash 1. With the camera on do one of the following: ● In Basic Zone modes, set the camera to any mode other than Landscape, Sports, or Flash Off where the flash won’t fire.

The flash icon.

● In Creative Zone modes, press the Flash button (a lightening bolt icon) on the left side of the lens mount to pop up the flash. 2. While at least 3.3 feet (1m) from the subject, press the shutter button halfway down. (In Basic Zone modes the flash will pop-up if needed.) When the flash icon lights up in the viewfinder, the flash is ready to fire. 3. Press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture. 4. When finished with the flash, press it down to close it.

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash

Portraits

with

Flash Flash is a good source of light when you want to make portraits, particularly of children. The light from the flash is so fast that you rarely have to worry about your subject moving during the exposure and blurring the picture. For the same reason you don’t have to be quite as careful about camera motion blurring the image; you can hand-hold the camera and shoot as rapidly as the flash will recharge. Positioning the Flash and Subjects You may want to choose carefully the position of the flash. Light from a flash built-into the camera often produces less attractive results than if you use an external flash to bounce the light onto the subject off a wall, ceiling, or umbrella reflector.

When photographing more than one subject, each is given the same importance when lined up parallel to the camera because each receives the same amount of flash illumination. If subjects are at different distances from the flash, they will be illuminated differently. This is a good way to make one more visually dominant than others in the image.

When a subject is placed close to a wall, there will almost always be a distracting shadow in the image cast by the light from the flash. By moving the subject away from a wall, these shadows disappear.

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Portraits

with

Flash

Red-eye http://www.photocourse.com/itext/redeye/ Click here to explore red-eye.

When photographing people, you’ll often see images with what’s called “red eye.” The light from a flash has entered through the subject’s pupil, reflected off the back of the eye (the retina), and bounced back out to the camera. Since the retina is full of thin blood vessels, the eyes take on a red color. To reduce red-eye when using the built-in flash, the 40D has a red-eye reduction mode that lights a bright red-eye reduction lamp that closes the subject’s iris when you press the shutter button halfway down. The best way to eliminate red-eye is to use an external flash (page 122) because it’s positioned farther away from the axis of the camera lens and you can also use it to bounce flash off a wall or ceiling. If you have to use the builtin flash, turn on red-eye reduction, and tell the subject to look directly at the camera. Red-eye reduction works best in brighter settings with the camera relatively close to the subject. You can remove red-eye with photo-editing software, but it’s a lot easier to avoid it to begin with.

In black & white, redeye can look eerie. In color it’s even more so.

There is no way to illustrate red-eye in a book that’s printed in black and white. However, for your entertainment, Eric shows one way it can be avoided.

With red-eye turned on, when you press the shutter button halfway down and the camera focuses, the red-eye reduction lamp lights and the countdown timer appears in the viewfinder. You can shoot anytime the indicator is displayed, but for the greatest effect press the shutter button all the way down to take the picture just after this indicator goes out. Turning red-eye Mode On and Off

The red-eye countdown timer in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel displays fewer and fewer bars as it gets closer to finishing. When the last bar goes out, take the picture.

For

1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Red-eye On/Off and press SET to display choices. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight On or Off and press SET to select it. 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash

Using Fill Flash When photographing people or other subjects in bright sun, shadow areas

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/fillflash/ can be so dark in the image that they show little or no detail. If the shadows Click here to explore fill flash.

cover a large part of the subject, as they do when it’s backlit, the effect can be distracting and unattractive. You can lighten such shadows by using flash to “fill” the shadows to lighten them. Using fill flash is also a good way to get accurate color balance under unusual lighting. With the 40D, you do so by popping up the flash so it fires even when there is enough available light to take the picture. It should pop-up and fire automatically in Basic Zone modes other than Landscape, Sports and Flash Off, but to be sure, switch to a Creative Zone mode and press the flash button to pop it up.

With no fill flash (left) the bright background has caused the main subject to be underexposed. Using fill flash (right), the subject is properly exposed. Photo courtesy of Tim Connor.

One reason to use fill flash outdoors is to add catch lights to eyes—hot spots that make the eyes sparkle.

Using Fill Flash ● With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the Flash button (a lightening bolt icon) on the left side of the lens mount to pop up the flash. The flash button that pops-up the flash in Creative Zone modes.

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● With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Basic Zone other than Landscape, Sports, and Flash Off, the camera will recognize a backlit situation and pop up and fire the flash automatically. For

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Using Slow Sync Flash

Using Slow Sync Flash

A slow shutter speed and flash combined to create this photo showing both sharpness and blur.

Normally, when you combine a slow shutter speed with flash, the flash fires at the very beginning of the exposure just as the first curtain fully opens (known as “first curtain sync”). If the scene you are photographing contains bright lights, such as automobile head or tail lights, you’ll get streaks in your image if either the camera or subject moves. These can be interesting effects and used creatively. To give you even more creative control, the 40D also offers second curtain sync (page 124). In this mode, the flash fires just before the second curtain starts to close. The differences are quite significant.

If you photograph a moving car at night with a very slow shutter speed, first curtain sync captures it with the streaks from the head or tail lights streaming out in front of the car, making the car appear to be moving backward. http://www.photocourse.com/itext/flashsync1/ (The flash fires to freeze the car, but the car then continues to move forward with it’s lights painting trails in the image in front of the car until the shutter Click here to explore closes.) Second curtain sync captures the streaks flowing behind the car. (The first curtain sync. shutter opens to capture the light trails in the image as the car moves forward, then the flash fires to freeze the car with the trails behind it.) http://www.photocourse.com/itext/flashsync2/ Click here to explore second curtain sync.

In aperture-priority (Av) mode, the camera automatically uses slow synch mode in low-light situations to lighten the background. At a shutter speed of 1/250 or even 1/60, the effects of first curtain and second curtain sync are often identical. However, as shutter speeds get slower, the effects get more pronounced.

Show synchro flash lets you use blur creatively as shown here with the streaked lights highlighting the champaign glass.

Tips • Night Portrait mode (page 38) uses slow sync flash and is a good way to start exploring how it affects your images. • When using slow sync flash, long exposure times may create unwanted blur in the image. At times like this, you may want to use a camera support (page 62).

For

Using Slow Sync Flash ● To use first curtain sync automatically, set the Mode Dial to Av (aperture-priority). ● To better control slow sync effects, set the Mode Dial to shutter-priority (Tv) mode and control the amount of blur by varying the shutter speed. In a fairly dim room try 1/20 or so to start. ● To use 2nd-curtain sync, select Flash control from the Set-up 2 menu tab (page 121).

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Using Available Light There are times when the light is dim but you want to capture the unique colors of the available light, or you want to photograph in places where flash isn’t allowed. In these circumstances you need to prevent the built-in flash from firing and support the camera for a long exposure. If the flash fires, foreground subjects will appear as if photographed in daylight and the background is likely to be very dark. Using available light will often even out the lighting, however if you don’t support the camera you will likely have blur from camera movement. Available light can add beautiful colors to a photograph.

Preventing the Flash from Firing

Tip • When the Mode Dial is set to any mode in the Basic Zone, other than Sports, Landscape, or Flash Off you can’t prevent the flash from firing in dim light. • You can also use slow sync flash to lighten the background (page 117).

● In the Basic Zone, set the Mode Dial to Sports, Landscape, or Flash Off. ● In the Creative Zone, close the built-in flash if it’s popped up. When photographing in dim light there are things you can do to get better results without using the flash. Try the following procedures described on pages 62–63: • Increase the camera’s ISO although it will add noise to the image. • Use the camera’s self-timer to trigger the shutter so you don’t introduce camera motion when pressing it with your finger. • Support the camera or use a tripod and a remote control.

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Controlling Flash Exposures

Controlling Flash Exposures When using flash there are times when the main subject is too dark or light. In these situations, you can adjust the flash power to lighten or darken the part of the scene illuminated by the flash. As you’ve seen, you can use exposure compensation, exposure lock and autoexposure bracketing to control daylight exposures (pages 53–54). You have access to the same controls when using flash—although flash bracketing is only available on the flash, not the camera. What’s E-TTL II? The 40D features an E-TTL II (evaluative; through the lens) flash system that gives outstanding natural-looking flash pictures. For example, when used for fill flash outdoors, E-TTL II balances the light so well that it isn’t even obvious that flash was used. E-TTL II flash works by firing a preflash in the brief instant after you press the shutter button and before the camera’s reflex mirror goes up. The camera uses the preflash to set focus and exposure. The exposure of the main subject to be illuminated by the flash is determined by evaluative metering based on all AF points with special emphasis given to the one that’s active. However, if an object with an unusually strong reflection, such as a mirror or window, is detected in any of the other metering zones the reading from that zone is factored out or adjusted to prevent incorrect exposure. The camera also uses evaluative metering (page 45) to calculate the background exposure. It combines the two readings to calculate and set the flash output required for optimum exposure of the main subject, while maintaining a subtle balance between flash and natural lighting. Using this approach the flash output determines the exposure of the main subject covered by the active AF points, and the camera’s aperture and shutter speed determine the exposure of the background.

Tips • If the camera and EX-series Speedlite are both set for exposure compensation, the EX-series speedlight setting takes precedence. • You can switch between evaluative and average metering using the Flash control setting (page 121).

For

Flash Exposure Compensation Flash exposure compensation lets you manually adjust the output of the flash and hence the exposure of the subject without changing the camera’s aperture or shutter speed. This is an ideal way to balance flash and natural light when using fill flash and to correctly expose scenes or subjects that are darker or lighter than normal (middle-gray). The 40D’s flash exposure compensation function lets you vary flash exposures plus or minus 2 stops in onethird stop increments for both the built-in flash and any attached EX-series Speedlite. (If you set flash exposure compensation on both the camera and the external flash, the external flash takes precedence.) You can use flash exposure compensation in conjunction with regular exposure compensation. Doing so lets you use regular exposure compensation to lighten or darken the background that’s illuminated by natural light, and use flash exposure compensation to lighten or darken the subject illuminated by the flash. This is a powerful combination of exposure controls that let’s you capture images just the way you want them.

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Using Flash Exposure Compensation 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, pop up the flash or attach an EX-series Speedlite. The flash exposure compensation icon marks the Flash Compensation button and is displayed on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder when flash compensation is set to anything but 0 and you press the shutter button halfway down.

An exposure scale shows you how much you have adjusted flash output in stops.

2. Press and release the Flash Exposure Compensation button and then turn the Quick Control Dial to move the marker on the flash exposure scale displayed on the LCD panel or in the viewfinder. ● To underexpose the flash illuminated part of the image and darken it, move the marker toward the minus (-) end of the scale. ● To overexpose and lighten it, move the marker toward the plus (+) end of the scale. When flash exposure compensation is set to anything but 0, the flash exposure compensation icon is displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. 3. Take your picture, and when finished reset flash exposure compensation to 0 otherwise it will be remembered even when you turn off the camera.

Flash Exposure (FE) Lock Flash exposure lock (FE Lock) acts much like AE Lock (page 53), but works when the flash is popped up or an external flash is attached in Creative Zone http://www.photocourse.com/itext/flashcomp/ modes. When you use this feature, a preflash is fired and the exposure system reads the flash exposure at the active focus point. The captured reading is Click here to explore stored for about 16 seconds so you have time to recompose the scene or make flash exposure compensation. exposure or focus adjustments without losing your flash exposure information. (If you don’t do anything for 16 seconds, FE Lock is cancelled.) FE lock is extremely useful when you wish to place the main subject in a part of the TIP picture area that is not covered by one of the AF points. • To switch from flash exposure comp to regular exposure comp, press the shutter button halfway down. • You can also set flash exposure compensation from the menu (page 121).

The AE/FE Lock icon marks the flash exposure lock button and is displayed in the viewfinder when flash exposure is locked.

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Using Flash Exposure (FE) Lock 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, pop up the flash or attach an EX-series Speedlite. 2. Press the shutter button halfway down and hold it there to focus on the subject that you want to lock flash exposure on, then press the AE/FE Lock button (an asterisk or star icon). A preflash fires, FEL is displayed briefly in the viewfinder, and the AE/FE Lock icon is displayed in the viewfinder to indicate flash exposure is locked. (If the flash icon in the viewfinder blinks, move closer and repeat this step or the image will be underexposed. 3. Release the shutter button, recompose the scene and press the shutter button halfway down to set focus before taking the picture. To cancel FE Lock, release the shutter button and wait for the * icon to disappear or close the flash. To keep it locked, continue to hold the shutter button halfway down or hold down the AE/FE Lock button.

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Controlling Flash Exposures

The Flash control menu.

Using the Flash Control Setting You can control both the built-in and some external flash units such as the 580EX II using the Flash control setting on the Set-up 2 menu’s tab. (At the time this is being written, the only Speedlite that is fully compatible with the 40D is the 580EX II.) One big advantage of being able to change flash settings from the camera is that you can set the flash when it’s connected to the camera wirelessly. Here are the choices you have, although they vary depending on the specific EX-series flash you are using: • Flash firing is normally set to Enable, but you can set it to Disable when you want to AF-assist beam to fire but not the internal or external flash. • Built-in flash func, available only when an external flash isn’t attached, displays a submenu with the following settings: • Flash mode is grayed out and can’ be selected. • Shutter sync. lets you select 1st curtain (the default) or 2nd curtain sync (page 117). When you use 2nd curtain, two flashes are fired, once for metering purposes when you press the shutter button all the way down and then again just before the shutter closes to end the exposure. • Flash exp. comp lets you increase of decrease flash exposure (page 120) • E-TTL II is normally set to Evaluative but you can change it to Average so the exposure is based on the entire scene. You may need to adjust the exposure using flash exposure compensation (page 120). • External flash func setting, fully available only when a compatible external flash is attached, displays a submenu you can use to change the Flash mode, Shutter sync, FEB (flash exposure bracketing), Flash exp. comp, E-TTL II, Wireless set and Zoom. When Zoom is set to Auto the flashhead automatically zooms the flash as you zoom the lens. As you zoom in on a subject, the flash beam narrows, and when you zoom out, it widens. The result is that you have flash coverage of the image area at all times. The 580EX II also zooms to adjust to the size of the sensor on a digital camera. • External flash C.Fn setting, available only when an 580EX II Speedlite is attached, lets you set or cancel the Speedlite’s Custom Function settings (C.Fn-0 to 13) from the camera.

Tip • You can press INFO to return the internal and external flash settings to their defaults.

Using Flash Control 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Set-up 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Flash control and press SET to display the flash control menu. 3. Make any of the choices described above.

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Using

an

External Flash The small automatic flash built into your camera is convenient, however its range is short and it is so close to the lens that photos of people often capture them with red eyes. It also emits a hard, direct light and can’t be rotated to bounce flash off a wall or ceiling to soften it.

The 580EX II is compatible with all digital EOS cameras as well as G-series and other cameras in the Canon line. It’s range is 98.4 feet with a 50mm f/1.4 lens at ISO 100.

Tips • The built-in flash doesn’t support FP high-speed sync operation flash. To use this feature you need a compatible EX flash such as the 580EX II. • When using an external flash in dim light, it may strobe before the exposure to assist focusing. • If you have trouble focusing, use the center AF point.

For better flash photography you need Canon EX-series Speedlite such as the 580EX or earlier models mounted on the camera’s hot shoe or attached by a sync cord for off-camera use. When using these flash units, the camera controls the exposure just as it does with the built-in flash and you can set almost all autoflash controls from the camera. One of the biggest advantages of these units is that they let you swivel or rotate the flash head so you can bounce light off walls and ceilings. This lets you get softer light on the subject so contrast is reduced and hard shadows are minimized. Let’s take a look at some of the features you’ll have access to the 580EX Speedlite, and some other models. The 580EX II Speedlite The Speedlite 580EX flash has a maximum guide number of 190 at ISO and 100 feet or 58 meters. Using the 40D’s E-TTL II (which also works with other EX-series flash units) the camera uses subject distance and other information to automatically modify flash power, so exposures are better regardless of the subject’s size, reflectance, or photographic composition. On the 40D the 580EX II auto-compensates for the smaller size of the CMOS sensor, and zooms the flash head automatically to match the effective focal length of an EF or EF-S lens on a digital camera (page 95). This maximizes the efficiency of light distribution and produces more flashes from a set of batteries. When used with the EOS 40D, the flash and camera also communicate with each other to adjust auto white balance based on the charge level of the batteries and the duration of each flash burst, resulting in consistently accurate color for every shot. The Speedlite 580EX II features an AF-assist beam with a range up to 2–32.8 feet (0.6–10m), a swiveling flash head that turns a full 180 degrees in both directions, while a single release lock controls tilt and swivel adjustments. A wide-angle diffuser covers focal lengths as short as 14mm (22mm on the 40D). The flash also features a new catchlight reflector for optimal lighting quality during bounce-flash photography. The Speedlite 580EX flash has 14 custom functions that let you control flash functions such as recycling with external power and auto-zooming to match sensor size.

The flash gives you the ability to control flash functions and settings from the camera menu (initially for the 40D and EOS-1D Mark III only, but also future cameras). Many settings can be set from either the camera or the flash. For http://www.photocourse.com/itext/tilthead/ example, flash exposure compensation can be set from either but the range of adjustment is greater on the flash. Flash bracketing is set only on the flash. Click here to explore how a flash head can FE lock is set only on the camera. Following are some of the features you’ll pivot up and down and find on the 580EX II and some other EX-series flash units. rotate for bounce flash. High-speed Sync (FP) The shutter speed you use when shooting with flash is important. When you take a flash photo, the first shutter curtain opens to begin the exposure, then the second curtain closes to end it. At shutter speeds above 1/250 the second curtain starts to close before the first curtain is fully open. As a result, a “slit” 122

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Using

an

External Flash

formed by the two curtains moves across the image sensor and normally only a part of the image can be captured by the brief burst of flash. The rest of the sensor is blocked by one or both curtains. To get a fully exposed image, the flash must fire when the shutter is fully open. This timing between the flash and the shutter is called flash synchroniThe high-speed sync zation or X sync. On the 40D, the shutter is fully open only at shutter speeds icon. of 1/250 second and slower. Faster shutter speeds require what’s known as high-speed sync flash (also called FP or focal plane sync). High-speed sync can capture a fully exposed image because the flash fires repeatedly as the http://www.photocourse.com/itext/fpflash/ “slit” moves across the image sensor during the exposure. The only drawback is that the flash power is reduced so you can’t be positioned as far from a subClick to explore high speed sync. ject. The higher the shutter speed you use, the closer you have to be. There are at least three situations where you might find it useful: • When using fill flash out of doors, you can use a fast shutter speed to freeze action, or a wide aperture to throw the foreground or background out of focus. • When doing a portrait and want catchlights in the subject’s eyes. • When using fill flash outdoors to lighten shadows.

The flash exposure bracketing icon.

Tips • Don’t connect any flash unit to the PC terminal that requires 250 volts or more. • You can’t use the hot shoe and PC terminal at the same time. • The Speedlite 580EX has an optional external power pack called the Compact Battery Pack CP-E3. This battery pack reduces recycling time and increases the number of flashes per charge.

For

Flash Exposure Bracketing (FEB) Flash exposure bracketing (FEB) takes a series of three consecutive pictures exposed at slightly different settings up to three stops above or below the exposure recommended by the autoexposure system in one-third stop increments. The flash output changes with each image while the background exposure level remains the same. Wireless Remote Flash Wireless flash lets you mount a master flash such as the 580EX, or a transmitter (ST-E2) on the camera’s hot shoe and trigger other remote flash units. This allows you to get lighting effects you couldn’t possibly get with a single flash unit. The on-camera flash or transmitter (the master unit) transmits wireless signals to the units (the slaves) telling them when to fire. The master flash on the camera can be set to flash or not as it transmits signals to the remote units. When using wireless remote flash, you can use a modeling light that illuminates the subject for a full second so you can preview flash effects such as shadows and light balance before taking a picture. If you are using one or more slave units, the modeling light uses the flash ratios you have chosen. Stroboscopic Flash Stroboscopic flash fires the flash a number of times at high speed to capture multiple images of the same subject in the same photograph. You’ve probably seen examples of this mode in sports photography where it can be used to demonstrate or analyze a swing of a bat or club. PC Terminal The 40D has a PC (Prontor-Compur) terminal so you can use cables to connect the camera to a studio flash. When you take a picture, a signal is sent from the camera along the cable to fire the studio flash. To access the terminal you unscrew the small round cover on the left side of the camera marked with a lightening bolt icon.

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Using Flash

in

Close-ups There are two important reasons to use flash in close-up or tabletop photography. With flash, you can use smaller apertures for greater depth of field, and extremely short bursts of light at close distances prevent camera or subject movement from causing blur. Using electronic flash with predictable results takes a little effort and you may need to practice and experiment. For example, direct on-camera flash doesn’t give a picture the feeling of texture and depth that you can get from side-lighting. If you use an external flash (page 122), you can bounce the flash off a reflector to illuminate the subject from an angle for a better lighting effect. A special kind of flash is the ring flash. These units fit around the lens and fire a circle of light on the subject. They are ideal for shadowless close-up photography such as that used in medical, dental, and nature photography. Because ring flash is so flat (shadowless), the unit can be set to fire just one side of the ring, or one side of the ring can be fired with more intensity than the other so the flash casts shadows that show surface modeling in the subject.

The Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX (top) and the Macro Twin Lite MT-24X (bottom) are designed for close-up photography.

Flash was used to freeze the katydid and stinkbug.

Canon’s Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX provides you with full E-TTL II flash capability when used with the 40D. With a Guide Number of 46 (ISO 100/ft.), the MR-14EX mounts directly to Canon macro lenses. It offers flash exposure lock, FP high-speed sync, and a number of other features. The flash has two flash tubes that can be used together or independently. When used together, lighting ratios between the two tubes can be set in one-half stop increments up to +/- 3 stops. The Macro Ring Lite is also equipped with twin focusing lamps and a set of 7 Custom Functions that allow you to modify flash operation for specific shooting conditions. The MR-14EX requires 4 AA-size batteries and is equipped with a socket for optional external power supplies such as the Canon Compact Battery Pack CP-E2 to reduce recycling time and increase the number of flashes per set of batteries. The Macro Twin Lite, designed for serious close-up, nature, and macro photography, gives a directional quality of light, rather than the flat light characteristic of the ring flash. Two separate flash heads can be swiveled around the lens, can be aimed separately, and even removed from their holder and mounted off-camera. Like the MR-14EX, the new Macro Twin Lite MT-24EX is fully E-TTL II compatible with all EOS bodies, including digital SLRs, and even allows Wireless E-TTL II flash control with one or more EX-series “slave units.” It also provides easy ratio control of each flash head’s output, over a six-stop range.

When photographed without flash, the background can be light and distracting (left). Photographed with flash and using exposure compensation to darken the background, sets off the main subject (right).

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Studio Lighting

Studio Lighting Using flash or other artificial lighting in a studio setting lets you better control the illumination of the subject, placing highlights and shadows to reduce or emphasize modeling. Candidates for Studio Lighting There are a number of subjects that lend themselves to being photographed under controlled lighting. Here are just some of them. • Portraits can be either candid or more formal. Candid portraits are usually captured during the flow of action. It’s the more formal ones that give you the time needed to arrange lighting. • Small objects need to be illuminated properly to bring out details and colors. You can light a subject in several ways, depending on your objectives. A flat object needs to be illuminated evenly while an object with low relief, such as a coin needs to be cross-lit to bring out details. Your options are many, limited only by your willingness to experiment.

When lighting flat objects you want the light even over the entire surface. To do this you need two lights set at 45 degree angles so there are no hot spots or reflections. Lights courtesy of tabletop studios— http://www.ezcube.com

• Flat copy such as posters, stamps, prints, or pages from books require soft, even light over their surface and the camera’s image sensor must be exactly parallel to the subject to prevent “keystoning.” Even then, most lenses will curve otherwise straight lines at the periphery of the image because they are not designed for copying and are not perfectly rectilinear. (This is called curvilinear distortion.) There are other lens aberrations that make it difficult to keep the entire image in focus at the same time. One suggestion is to use a small aperture that increases depth of field and uses the center portion of the lens where aberrations are least likely to affect the image. Lighting For good portraits or product shots, you need to improve on the camera’s built-in flash. Direct on-camera flash gives a hard light that doesn’t give a picture the feeling of texture and depth that you can get from side-lighting or the overall detail revealed by soft, diffuse light. If you use an external flash, you can position the flash to illuminate the subject from an angle for a better lighting effect. There are also other things you can do:

Light tent with red goblet— http://www.ezcube.com

5000k compact fluorescent bulb highly recommended for product photography.— http://www.ezcube.com

For

• Light tents bathe a subject in soft, even lighting and are particularly useful for complex subjects such as bouquets, highly reflective subjects such as jewelry, and translucent subjects such as glassware. A subject placed in the light tent is surrounded by a translucent material which is lit from the outside. If the subject is small enough, you can use a plastic gallon milk bottle with the bottom cut out and the top enlarged for the camera lens. When positioned over the subject and illuminated by a pair of floodlights, the light inside the bottle is diffused by the translucent sides of the bottle. The result is a very even lighting of the subject. • Studio lights are usually just reflectors mounted on adjustable stands. Keep in mind that the color of the light you use to illuminate an object may affect the colors in the final image. For best results you need bulbs that are daylight balanced. The best of these are fluorescent because they don’t give off any heat. • Reflectors. When the light illuminating a small subject casts hard, dark shadows, you can lighten the shadows by arranging reflectors around the

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash subject to bounce part of the light back onto the shadowed area. You can use almost any relatively large, flat reflective object, including cardboard, cloth, or aluminum foil (crumpling the foil to wrinkle it, then opening it out again works best). Position the reflector so that it points toward the shadowed side of the subject. As you adjust the angle of the reflector, you will be able to observe its effects on the shadows. Use a neutral-toned reflector so the color of the reflector doesn’t add a color cast to the image. A light tent can make an amazing difference in table-top photos— http://www.ezcube.com

This very complex subject was shot in a lite tent. The soft diffuse light reached every part allowing it to be captured without dark shadows and burned out highlights. http://www.ezcube.com

• Light panels are an ideal source of light. When you place an object on the illuminated panel and shoot from above, the area surrounding the object is captured as pure white. If you cut a hole in a sheet of background paper and arrange it as a sweep, a glass placed on the hole appears to glow from within as light streams through the hole and through the glass. Finally, by tipping a panel on its side, it can be used as a background or used like any other light source.

A medallion placed on a light panel and shot from above has a pure white background. A small lamp is used to side light the coin to bring out its relief. http://www.ezcube.com

• Flash. There is definitely a role for on camera flash in studio photography. It doesn’t hurt to see what results you get from the built-in flash. You might even want to try the Macro Twin Lite MT-24X because you can rotate the two flash heads to bounce light off reflectors or off the walls of a light tent.

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Studio Lighting Backgrounds Some thought should be given to the background you use. It should be one that makes your subject jump out, and not overwhelm it. The safest background to use is a sheet of neutral gray poster board that can be formed into a sweep, a curved “L” shape that gives a nice smooth gradation of light behind the subject. It’s safe, because it reduces potential exposure problems and most things show well against it. Other options include black or white backgrounds but they may cause some exposure problems unless you use exposure compensation. Finally there are colored backgrounds, but these should be selected to support and not clash with the colors in the subject. The texture of the background is also a consideration. For example, black velvet has no reflections at all while black poster board might show them. Here a crystal glass was shot in a light cube against a black background to set it off.

A hole was cut in a piece of black paper and placed on a light panel. The glass was then placed over the hole and looks like it’s illuminated from within.

There are times when you don’t want a background in a photo so the subject is silhouetted against a pure white background. You’ll often see this technique used in catalog photos but it’s also a great way to make it easy to select an object in a photo-editing program so you can cut it out and paste it into another image. To get this effect you need to overexpose the background so it’s pure white without details. In some cases this is as easy as pointing lights at it. In the case of a small object, photographing the object against an illuminated light panel makes it very easy. Focus and Exposure The exposure procedure for close-up and tabletop photography isn’t a lot different from normal photography but you have the opportunity to control lighting. The biggest difficulty may arise from automatic exposure. Many close-up photographs are of small objects that don’t entirely fill the viewfinder frame. Automatic exposure systems can be fooled if the brightness of the small object is different from the brightness of the larger background. The meter averages all of the light reflecting from the scene and may select an exposure that makes the main subject too light or too dark. To correct this, you can use exposure compensation (page 52) to lighten or darken the main subject. Macro lenses (page 105) are useful when you want to get close to small subjects so they fill the frame. Just keep in mind that in macro photography, depth of field gets very shallow. You can also try Close-up mode in the Basic Zone with a normal lens (page 100). Tips and Tricks • When taking macro close-ups you can use spot or partial metering (page 45) to meter just a small part of the image so the background doesn’t influence the exposure. • When using flash for macro close-up images the flash may not fully illuminate the subject. Be sure to take a test shot. • To control exposure, use the neutral density filter (page 108), or use flash exposure compensation (page 120).

A white background (top) causes the clock to be underexposed while a gray background (bottom) gets the exposure correct.

For

• White balance can compensate for most lighting but when there is more than one light source, you may get color tints in your image. You’ll have to experiment with this aspect using white balance settings (page 81). In other cases, you may find that you like the artificial colors or you may be able to adjust them in your photo-editing program.

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Portrait

and

Product Photography—Introduction In the studio, you usually use more than one light to illuminate a portrait or product. The goal is often to create light that looks like that found outdoors. The lights can be hot lights, strobes, or slave flash units–or even fill cards. Sometimes you can get away with only one or two lights but the use of main, fill, background and rim lights is a classic studio lighting setup for portraits that can be adapted to other subjects. • The main light is positioned somewhat to one side of the subject and somewhat above it. • A fill light is placed opposite the main light, but more nearly at the subject’s level. • A background light is used to control the lighting on the background behind the main subject.

Most photographers without studios use continuous lights that usually have three parts—stands, reflectors, and bulbs.

• A rim light is placed quite high and behind the subject to highlight edges and separate the subject from the background. For most purposes you can get by with just the main light and a fill light. In fact, you can often get along with just the main light by replacing the fill light with reflectors to bounce light into the shadows. The way you position a light relative to the subject is very important.

• As you move a light farther away from the subject you reduce the light fallhttp://www.photocourse.com/itext/lightquality/ Click to explore hard and soft light.

ing on it. Because there is less light you may have to use a larger aperture which gives less depth of field.

• Moving a light back hardens its light, while moving it closer softens it. By moving a light farther away, you also reduce the light it illuminates the subject with. On strobes, you do it by adjusting the light’s intensity. On continuous lights you can do the same with a dimmer switch. You can have one light illuminate the subject with more intensity than another light. The difference between the two lights is called the lighting ratio. • Positioning the light at an angle to the subject will make the light uneven over the subject with the part closest to the light getting more light. The exposure will only be correct for those at one distance—normally those in the area metered by the autoexposure system. Parts of the setup located farther from the light source will be increasingly darker the farther away they are.

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The Main Light

The Main Light Outdoors the brightest source of light is usually the sun. In the studio, the sun’s role is filled by the main light. Like the sun it’s the brightest source of light and casts the darkest shadows. Like the sun, the main light is often positioned above and slightly to the side of the subject. Placing the light above the subject creates light on the subject that is familiar, as are the shadows it creates.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/main/ Click to explore the main light.

Here the main light is set to the left, above, and right of the subject.

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash

The Fill Light A fill light represents the light that falls on an outdoor subject from the broad expanse of an open sky, or reflecting from surfaces in the landscape. The fill light is almost always less bright than the main light, in fact about half as bright. Its relative brightness can be controlled in a number of ways. For example, it can be placed farther away from the subject, you can add a diffuser, or you can use a less powerful light. The fill light, placed opposite the main light, opens shadows by lighting the dark side of the subject facing away from the main light.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/fill/ Click to explore the fill light.

The fill light on the right of the subject is moved from close to the subject (left) to farther away (middle and right). The closer it is, the more it lightens shadows created by the main light.

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The Background Light

The Background Light A background light controls how light or dark the background behind the subject is. A lighter or darker background can help visually separate the subject from the background. It can also lighten shadows cast on the background by other lights. In fact, if made bright enough, it can silhouette the subject. The background light is off to the side and lights the background behind the subject without lighting the subject itself.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/background/ Click to explore the background light.

The background light can be varied for different effects. When only spillover light illuminates the background (far left) it’s a uniform gray. When not illuminated at all (second from left) it’s black. When the background is lit by a spot it is graduated (second from right). When illuminated with a bright light it is burned out to pure white (far right).

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Chapter 6. Using Automatic Flash

The Rim Light A rim light positioned behind the subject and facing toward the camera illuminates the edges of the subject from behind so they glow and are visually separated from the darker background. In portrait photography a rim light is often used to back light the hair. The rim light is often set up behind the subject and slightly higher than the other lights. Because this light is facing the camera, it’s important that it be completely blocked by the subject or out of the field of view. If not you may get lens flare and lowered contrast. One way to block the light is to position a piece of cardboard (called a gobo) between the light and subject.

http://www.photocourse.com/itext/rim/ Click to explore the rim light.

The final image is beautifully lit and well separated from the background. It’s a visually interesting image.

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Chapter 7. Other Features

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Commands

Chapter 7 Other Features and Commands

Contents • Continuous Photography • Live View Shooting • Using Picture Styles • Registering Your Own Settings • Using Custom Functions • Using My Menu • Changing Other Settings • Entering a Print Order • Caring for Your Camera

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he 40D has many settings that control how your camera operates or perform other useful functions. In this chapter we discuss those features not covered elsewhere in the book. You’ll see how to use Live View to compose and focus images on the monitor, shoot up to 6.5 frames per second in continuous mode, use the monitor to compose and focus images in Live View, use and customize picture styles, save your own settings and menus, set custom functions, and make many other useful settings. You should find a great deal of useful information here that you’ll be glad to know. Finally you’ll see how to care for your camera and remove the dust that tends to accumulate on the surface of the image sensor.

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Continuous Photography To be sure you catch those fleeting moments so common in sports and wildlife photography, you can choose one of two continuous modes to capture up to 75 Large/Fine JPEG or 17 RAW images: • High speed continuous mode captures images at 6.5 frames per second. • Low speed continuous mode captures images at 3 frames per second. To capture more images in a single burst, reduce the image size, quality or format (page 26). Also, other settings may slow down the capture rate. For example, a low battery, a slow shutter speed or using the flash takes photos more slowly as does taking repeated short bursts instead of one long one. RAW images have the highest quality but you can only capture about 17 images per burst in either mode. Images are first stored in a buffer, basically internal memory, because this can be done faster than storing them to a CF card. When the buffer becomes full, buSY is displayed in the viewfinder and the camera starts capturing images much more slowly as it frees up room in the buffer by moving images to the CF card. After an image is moved and room is again available in the buffer, the camera will capture another image. A faster CompactFlash card can improve the performance slightly. When the viewfinder display is active, a readout to the left of the focus indicator shows how many more images will fit in the buffer. The readout doesn’t go above 99, so when 99 is displayed it means you can capture 99 or more. In One-Shot AF, focus doesn’t change after the first picture. In AI servo AF it does. • Low-speed continuous is the only continuous mode available in Portrait mode. • High-speed continuous is the only continuous mode available in Sports mode. Continuous mode can capture a series of positions in sports photography.

• Single-frame is the only mode available in Full Auto, Landscape, Close-up, Night Portrait, and Flash Off modes. • All modes are available in Creative Zone modes.

You can then choose the best image from the sequence or use all of them to create an animation on your computer. One way to do this is to create an animated GIF. When viewed with a Web browser, the images are quickly displayed one after the other like frames in a movie. http://www.photocourse.com/itext/continuous/ Click to see how continuous mode can be used creatively.

The single frame (top) low speed continuous (bottom, left) and high speed continuous (bottom, right) icons.

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Selecting a Continuous Mode 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the AF/DRIVE button and then turn the Quick Control Dial until the desired continuous mode icon is displayed on the LCD panel. (One of the continuous mode is selected automatically in Portrait and Sports modes in the Basic Zone.) 2. To run off photos, hold down the shutter button until you or the camera decides enough is enough. The shots remaining count is displayed at the bottom of the viewfinder next to the focus confirmation indicator when you release the shutter button. The last photo in the burst is briefly displayed on the monitor. 3. When finished, repeat Step 1 but select a different drive mode. For

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Live View Shooting

Live View Shooting Tip • A side benefit of Live View is that it reduces vibration by lifting the reflex mirror out of the way long before the exposure takes place. In this respect it is much like mirror lockup (page 141).

You can use the monitor, or even a connected computer, to compose and focus images—a procedure called Live View. In most ways using Live View is just like using the viewfinder. The difference is that in Live View the camera lifts the mirror up and out of the way (the viewfinder blacks out) and opens the shutter so the image sensor can capture the scene in real time and display it on the monitor. You’ll find this mode especially useful when using a tripod and macro lens to capture close-ups requiring very precise focusing. It’s also useful in a studio setting because you can tether the camera to a computer and use the larger computer screen to compose and focus the image. Although usually used with manual focus, Custom Function III-6 allows you to autofocus in Live View just by pressing the AF-ON button. Using Live View 1. With the camera set to P, Av, Tv or M mode, set the lens focus mode switch to MF, press MENU and select the Set-up 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Live View function settings, and press SET. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Live View shoot, press SET, highlight Enable, and press SET. Press MENU twice to hide the menu. 4. To shoot, press SET to raise the mirror and open the shutter so the scene is displayed on the monitor and the viewfinder blacks out. Focus the image and take the picture. 5. When done, press SET while a Live View is displaying the scene on the monitor and restore the view through the viewfinder.

Clicking this button on EOS Utility displays the scene the camera sees on your computer screen. You can then remotely adjust white balance and focus, check histograms and depth of field, and take pictures.

General Tips in Live View • Pressing MENU in Live View ends the Live View session until you press SET again. Make changes to menu settings before entering Live View. • The four buttons above the LCD panel continue to let you change some settings—white balance, drive mode, ISO and flash exposure compensation. • Canon recommends you not use a hard disk based memory card. The high temperatures created by Live View might harm the card. • A tripod is recommended to avoid blur in your images from camera shake. • Using the EOS Utility software and the video cable supplied with the camera you can use a computer’s screen as the monitor/viewfinder. Using an optional wireless transmitter you can make the connection wirelessly at distances up to almost 500 feet (150m). • Don’t point the camera at the sun or you can damage the image sensor. • The monitor displays 100% of the area that will be captured in the photo. • Press the INFO button to change the information displayed and change shooting settings (page 15). • Live View consumes more power than normal operation. You can shoot up to 170 pictures in a warm setting, and as few as 130 when the temperature falls toward freezing.

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Chapter 7. Other Features

Tip • When using flash you can’t use FE lock, modeling flash, custom functions, test firing or change the 580EX II’s wireless setting.

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Commands

• You can use flash, and when it fires the mirror drops down briefly so the camera can measure the preflash used to set the flash exposure. There are two shutter sounds but only one photo is taken. Shooting Modes in Live View • Live View works only in Creative Zone modes—P, Av, Tv or M. • Changing the shooting mode during Live View display, ends Live View. • In Live View A-DEP mode works exactly the same as P mode. Focusing in Live View • To focus the image when the lens focus mode switch is set to MF, turn the focus ring on the lens.

The focusing frame can be moved about the screen.

• To check focus, press the Multi-controller to move the rectangular focusing frame over an important area of the scene (press it straight down to center the frame), and press the Enlarge button to magnify the area within the frame. Each time you press it you cycle through Full view > 5x > 10x and then back to Full view. When the scene is magnified on the monitor, the camera enhances image sharpness from what it will on the captured image to help you better evaluate focus and sharpness on the screen. Also AE lock is turned on (page 53) and the shutter speed and aperture settings are displayed in orange. • To check depth of field, press the depth of field preview button (page 68). • You can’t use the focus preset feature on super telephoto lenses.

Tip • During autofocusing no AF points are displayed on the screen but they are still operational. Canon recommends that you position the focusing frame at the center and select the center AF point for autofocusing.

Auto Focusing in Live View Although not as precise as magnified manual focus, you can autofocus by setting Custom Function III-6 AF during Live View shooting to Enable. When enabled, pressing the AF-ON button lowers the reflex mirror so the camera can autofocus. Releasing the AF-ON button then returns you to Live View so you can take a picture. Autofocusing in Live View 1. Set Custom Function III-6 AF during Live View shooting to Enable (page 141), set the lens focus mode switch to AF (page 95), set the AF mode (page 70) and select an AF point or all AF points for auto AF point selection (page 71). 2. Press SET to display the scene on the monitor. 3. Cover the subject with a previously selected AF point or the focusing frame (you can move it with the Multi-controller) and press the AF-ON button. The Live View image turns off, the reflex mirror goes down, autofocus is performed, and the reflex mirror goes back up. If autofocus is successful the beeper sounds. 4. Release the AF-ON button and the Live View image is displayed. 5. Check the focus and take the picture. Exposure in Live View • When manually focusing, the area within the focusing frame and evaluative metering are used to set exposure. Also, in manual focus you can’t change

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Live View Shooting the drive mode or select an AF point, but when autofocusing you can, provided you change them before entering Live View. Although you can’t see the selected AF point(s) on the monitor, they do affect focus. • Pressing the AE lock button won’t lock exposure when the image is magnified and the aperture and shutter speed are displayed in orange. In direct sunlight, or other situations that might heat the camera, the high temperature icon (above) may be displayed to indicate that image quality may be degraded by noise or irregular colors. If you continue shooting, Live View may discontinue automatically and not resume until the camera’s temperature falls.

• If a light source within the scene varies, the image on the screen may flicker. If this happens press SET once to end shooting, and then again to resume once you have adjusted the lighting. • If you recompose the scene, the image brightness on the monitor may briefly change. Wait until it readjusts or your photo’s exposure may be off. • Custom function IV-7 Live View exposure simulation, when enabled, adjusts the brightness of the image on the monitor to roughly match the brightness of the image you will capture (page 141). You can even press INFO to display a histogram to guide you in getting the best possible exposure (page 55). If you use flash or bulb mode (page 90) the histogram is grayed out but still works. In extremely bright or dark situations, the brightness of the screen image won’t reflect the exposure settings but the captured image will. • You can use continuous shooting (page 134) and exposure is locked in with the first image. If you recompose the image the exposure isn’t readjusted until you stop shooting, so images may be under- or overexposed. • Extremely bright sources in the scene are dimmed on the screen but will be captured correctly. Silent Shooting Using the Set-up 2 menu’s Live View function settings command you can change Metering timer (to specify how long the metered exposure setting is retained) and Grid display (to make it easier to align horizontals and verticals in an image). You can also set Silent shoot to Mode 1, Mode 2, or Disable to avoid alarming people or wildlife. • Mode 1 (the default) is quieter than normal camera operation. Normally, when you press the shutter button to take a picture in Live View, the second shutter curtain closes, and the image sensor is cleared. The first shutter curtain then opens to begin the exposure, and the second closes again to end it. In silent modes, the camera leaves the second curtain open. Instead, it simulates its opening by activating the sensor one row of pixels at a time just as if the curtain were sliding over it to uncover the rows. The second curtain then closes to end the exposure. At shutter speed faster than 1/250 this combination of an electronic first curtain and mechanical second curtain creates a slit moving across the sensor. The result is that you can shoot up to 6 fps with only the sound of the second shutter closing once for each picture. Also, since the first curtain is an electronic shutter the release time is infinitesimal so you can capture instantaneous actions.

Tip • When the camera is set to Mode 1 or 2 and flash is used, the camera operates as if it were set to Disable.

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• Mode 2 takes a shot and then suspends camera operations if you hold the button down. When you release the shutter button back to the halfway position the camera sounds softly as the shutter cocks. Delaying the shooting sound can minimize the disturbance in some situations. • Disable is used when making vertical shifts with a tilt-shift lens (page 107), extension tubes (page 105) and non-Canon flash units. When you release the shutter button in this mode it sounds as if two pictures are taken although only one is.

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Using Picture Styles Tips • Style settings, including monochrome, affect RAW image thumbnails and previews, but make no changes to the actual images. • The Neutral and Faithful styles assume you will adjust the images using a photo-editing program. These settings are not for images you will print directly from the camera or at a kiosk. • Using Canon’s Picture Style Editor you can design the look of your photographs by inputting your own preferred style, color and tone curves.

Picture Styles store settings, in some cases for specific situations such as portraits and landscapes. The settings have been chosen by Canon, but you can change them in Creative Zone modes to better suit your own tastes. Selecting Picture Styles The styles from which you can choose include the following: • Standard images are sharpened to look crisp, and the color tone and saturation are set to render vivid colors. • Portrait images have color tone and saturation set to obtain natural skin tones. Sharpness, one step weaker than in Standard, is kinder to skin. • Landscape has color tone and saturation set for deep, vivid blues and greens for skies and foliage. Sharpness is set one step more than Standard so that the outlines of mountains, trees and buildings look crisp. • Neutral captures natural color and no sharpness is applied. This is the setting preferred by professionals who edit their images in a program such as Photoshop because it has the least effect on the images. • Faithful applies no sharpening and renders colors as “faithfully” as it can to the original subject. In Canon’s terms “ When the subject is photographed under a color temperature of 5200K, the color is adjusted colorimetrically to match the subject’s color, even with JPEG images.” • Monochrome lets you shoot in black and white, or another tone of your choice. When you select this setting B/W is displayed on the LCD panel and in the viewfinder. For best results in this mode, adjust white balance for the available lighting. • User defined 1–3 can be set to any settings you prefer (page 139). The initial settings are the same as Standard. Selecting Picture Styles 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the Picture Style selection button to display choices on the monitor. (You can also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab.)

The Picture Styles Editor tool palette.

Tips • For additional pictures styles and more information visit Canon at: web.canon.jp/imaging/picturestyle/file/ • To see the effects of Picture Styles, select them one after another while watching the scene on the monitor in Live View.

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2. To select a style, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight it and press SET. 3. Take your photos and when finished repeat Steps 1–2 and select Standard (the default). Editing Picture Styles For each of the styles, you can adjust sharpness, contrast, saturation and color tone. In Monochrome the color saturation and tone choices in the other styles are replaced by choices for filter and toning effects. Toning effects add an overall tint to the image, and filters act like the glass filters that can be attached to lenses. • Yellow makes clouds crisper while leaving the blue sky unaffected. • Orange darkens a blue sky and makes sunrises/sets more brilliant. • Red is like orange, only more so, and also brightens fall foliage. For

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Using Picture Styles

On the Picture Styles screen, the icons refer to (from left to right) sharpness, contrast, saturation, and color tone. When you select the Monochrome style, the last two icons are replaced with ones for filter effects and color toning.

Tip • Sharpness can be set from 0 (less sharp) to +7 (sharper). • Contrast can be set from -4 (low) to +4 (high) • Saturation can be set from -4 (low) to +4 (high) • Color tone can be set to -4 (reddish skin tone) to +4 (yellowish skin tone) • Filter can be set to None, Yellow, Orange, Red or Green. • Toning effect can be set to None, Sepia, Blue, Purple or Green.

• Green improves skin tones in portraits and makes green foliage crisper and brighter. There are three unspecified styles (User defined 1–3) that you can set up for your own situations. Initially the first three Picture Styles, Standard, Portrait and Landscape, include sharpness levels 3, 2 and 4, respectively, settings that are best for images that won’t be edited in a program such as Photoshop. Changing Picture Styles 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the Picture Style selection button. (You can also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab.) 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the style you want to edit and press INFO to display the Detail set screen for that style. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight a setting you want to adjust, and press SET to activate its scale or display a list of choices. (You can return a style to it’s default values by highlighting Default set and pressing SET.) 4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to adjust the setting or select a choice from the list, and press SET to return to the Detail set screen. 5. Adjust other settings or press MENU to return to the Picture Style Screen. Any setting that’s been changed is displayed in blue. 6. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Registering a Picture Style You can adjust any existing Picture style, and save those changes in one of three user definitions. This allows you to reuse the settings at some point in the future without having to readjust them. Registering Picture Styles

Tip • The following disclaimer appears on Canon’s site “The provided Picture Style files are intended to only be effective in a very limited number of scenes. Consequently, they do not guarantee that images can always be generated as users expect. In addition, if they are used to shoot casual scenes, they may cause unnatural images to be generated. Users are asked to accept these points before using Picture Style files.”

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1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press the Picture Style selection button. (You can also select Picture Style from the Shooting 2 menu tab.) 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the User Def settings and press INFO to display the Detail set screen. 3. Highlight Picture Style, press SET, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the style you want to base your user definition on, and press SET again to return to the Detail set screen. 4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight a setting you want to adjust, and press SET to activate its scale. 5. Turn the Quick Control Dial to adjust the setting, and press SET to return to the Detail set screen. 6. Adjust other settings or press MENU to return to the Picture Style Screen. Any user definition that’s been changed is displayed in blue. (You can return a style to it’s default values by highlighting Default set and pressing SET.) 7. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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Chapter 7. Other Features

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Registering Your Own Settings Tips • Picture Styles (page 138) provide another way to store settings for future use. • A great thing about registering settings is that they are not affected when you clear all camera settings or clear all custom functions (page 142). • To see what settings are registered, set the Mode Dial to any C mode and press INFO.

If you use the same settings over and over again it may be worthwhile saving them for future use. The 40D allows you to save three sets and then instantly access any one of them at any time just by turning the Mode Dial to C1, C2 or C3. Storing your own settings is as simple as setting the camera the way you want it and then selecting the menu’s Camera user setting. Some settings such as date/time information, language, communication setting, video output and others cannot be registered. Those that can be are listed in the column to the left. • Changes you make to settings in C1, C2 or C3 are reset to the registered settings when the camera goes to sleep or you turn it off. In other Creative Zone modes, changes are remembered, and may affect future shots. If remembered changes cause you problems, switch to a custom mode even if you don’t register your own settings. The default settings are the same as Program AE (P) mode, but changes won‘t be remembered from one session to the next. • When revising custom settings you’ve already registered, start with the Mode Dial set to C1, C2, or C3 so your original settings are used as the starting point. (You can’t do this if one of the changes you want to make is the shooting mode.) • You cannot register My Menu settings (page 146). • When the Mode Dial is set to C1, C2 or C3 the Set-up 2 menu’s Clear all camera settings and the Custom Function menu’s Clear all Custom Func (C.Fn.) commands don’t work. To clear settings use the Clear settings command described in the QuickSteps box that follows.

Settings you can Register Shooting Settings AF mode AF point selection Metering mode ISO speed Drive mode Exposure compensation Flash exposure compensation White balance Menu Settings Quality Beep Shoot w/o card AEB WB SHIFT/BKT Custom WB Color temperature Color space Picture Style Review time AF points Histogram Auto power off Auto rotate LCD brightness File numbering (method) Custom functions

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• To check the settings, turn the Mode Dial to one of the settings and press INFO. Registering Camera Settings 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, and the settings you want to save already made, press MENU and select the Set-up 3 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Camera user setting and press SET to display two choices. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Register and press SET to display a list of the three custom modes. 4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight C1, C2 or C3 and press SET. When asked to confirm, highlight OK and press SET. 5. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. 6. Do any of the following: • To use the stored settings, turn the Mode Dial to C1, C2 or C3. • To change the stored settings, select the mode, change settings and then repeat Steps 1–5 to store them in place of the current settings. • To reset the settings to their defaults which are the same as P (Programmed) mode, repeat Steps 1–3 but select Clear settings. Select the mode you want to clear and press SET. Highlight OK and press SET again. For

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Using Custom Functions

Using Custom Functions The 40D has twenty-four custom functions you change in Creative Zone modes to control camera operations. Since there are so many custom functions they are grouped into four categories numbered with Roman numerals—I: exposure, II: Image, III: Auto focus/Drive, and IV: Operation/Others. Within each category are custom functions numbered with Arabic numbers. To identify a specific function, we use both numbers. For example, to identify the function AF-assist beam firing, we refer to it as III-5. The Custom Functions menu tab icon.

The Custom Function icon is displayed on the LCD panel if any Custom Function has been changed from its default setting.

C.Fn I: Exposure Number

Settings

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Exposure level increments

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ISO speed setting increments

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ISO expansion

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Bracketing auto cancel

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Bracketing sequence

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Safety shift

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Flash sync. speed in Av mode

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C.Fn II: Image Number

Settings

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Long exposure noise reduction

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High ISO speed noise reduction

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Highlight tone priority

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C.Fn III: Auto The shaded Custom Functions in these tables are not available in Live View.

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Number

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Lens drive when AF impossible

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Lens AF stop button function

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AF point selection method

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Superimposed display

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AF-assist beam firing

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AF during Live View shooting

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Mirror lockup

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C.Fn IV: Operation/Others

The AE/FE Lock icon.

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Shutter button/AF-ON button

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AF-ON/AE lock button switch

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SET button when shooting

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Dial direction during Tv/Av

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Focusing Screen

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Add original decision data

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Live View exposure simulation

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Tip • When you clear all custom functions, it has no effect on the setting for custom function IV-5 Focusing Screen.

Changing Custom Functions 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Custom Functions menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the custom function groups C. Fn I–C. Fn IV and press SET to display the custom functions in the selected group. The current setting for each function is listed below its number. The default settings are all 0. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the custom functions and press SET to display choices. 4. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight one of the choices and press SET to select it. 5. Change other functions in the group, or press MENU to return to the main Custom Functions menu. 6. Select another group or press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

Clearing Custom Functions 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Custom Functions menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Clear all Custom Func. (C. Fn) and press SET. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to clear the functions (except IV-5 Focusing Screen) and return to the menu. 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. C.Fn I: Exposure 1 Exposure level increments selects 0: 1/3-stop or 1: 1/2-stop increments for shutter speeds, apertures, exposure compensation and other exposure settings other than ISO. 2 ISO speed setting increments selects 0: 1/3-stop or 1: 1-stop increments for ISO settings. 3 ISO expansion can be set to 0: Off and 1: On. When On you can select an ISO of 3200 by selecting H (page 63). 4 Bracketing auto cancel specifies when AEB and white balance bracketing are cancelled. • When On, AEB (page 54) and WB-BKT (page 83) are cancelled when you turn off the camera, clear camera settings, or when the flash is ready to fire. • When Off, AEB and WB-BKT settings are retained even when you turn off the camera. When the flash is ready to fire, AEB is cancelled although the AEB amount is retained in memory. 5 Bracket sequence can be set to 0: 0,-,+ or 1: -, 0, +. The 0, - and + mean different things depending on other autoexposure and white balance bracketing settings as shown in the following table: 142

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Using Custom Functions

AEB

WB Bracketing B/A Direction

M/G Direction

0: Standard exposure

0: Standard white balance

0: Standard white balance

-: Decreased exposure

-: More blue

-: More magenta

+: Increased exposure

+: More amber

+: More green

6 Safety shift in AV or TV can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable (Tv/Av). When enabled, exposure is automatically adjusted at the last possible moment if the lighting changes. 7 Flash sync speed in AV mode sets the shutter speed to 0: Auto or 1: 1/250sec. (fixed) when using flash in Av mode. When set to Auto, slower shutter speeds are used to lighten the background just as they are in slow sync photography (page 117). Fixing the shutter speed prevents a slow shutter speed when photographing in dim light, so backgrounds will be darker.

Tips • The time it takes to process an image to remove noise is the same as the exposure time. You can’t take another picture while the previous one is being processed so longer exposures mean there will be longer between shots. • An image, even in Live View, isn’t displayed on the monitor until noise reduction processing is complete.

C. Fn II: Image 1 Long exposure noise reduction sets the noise reduction mode. • 0: Off turns off noise reduction for long exposures. • 1: Auto uses noise reduction only when noise is detected in an image. • 2: On reduces noise in all images taken at exposures of 1 second or more. 2 High ISO speed noise reduction can be set to 0: Off or 1: On. When On noise reduction is used at all ISO settings, but has the most effect at high ISOs. At low ISOs, noise in shadow areas is reduced. When On, the frame rate in continuous shooting drops dramatically. 3 Highlight tone priority can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable. When enabled, highlight details are improved although noise in shadow areas may be increased. The dynamic range is expanded between 18% middle gray and the brightest highlights. As a result, the gradation between the grays and highlights becomes smoother. This is a good setting for weddings and landscapes since it captures more detail in white subjects such as wedding dresses, clouds, and snow. Also, the ISO range is 200–1600, and to remind you it’s on, zeros in the ISO are displayed in small type on the monitor and in the viewfinder. C.Fn III: Auto focus/Drive 1 Lens drive when AF impossible can be set to 0: Focus search on or 1: Focus search off. When Off, if the camera can’t achieve focus, it stops trying instead of going dramatically out of focus. This setting is especially useful with macro and super telephoto lenses. 2 Lens AF stop button function has settings that control focus, exposure, and image stabilization on super telephoto lenses with AF stop buttons. If you have one of these lenses refer to the manual that came with the lens and page 158 in the Canon 40D user manual. The choices include 0: AF stop, 1: AF start, 2: AE lock, 3: AF point:M->Auto/Auto->center, 4: ONE SHOT-AI SERVO and 5: IS start. 3 AF point selection method gives you three ways to manually select an AF point (page 71): • 0: Normal works by pressing the AF Point button and then the Multicontroller.

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• 1: Multi-controller direct lets you press the multi-controller to directly select an AF point without first having to press the AF Point button. Pressing the AF Point button selects all AF points for automatic AF point selection. • 2: Quick Control Dial direct lets you turn the Quick Control Dial to select AF points without having to press the AF Point button first. In this mode, AF points are not displayed on the LCD panel. Holding down the AF Point button while turning the Main Dial sets exposure compensation. Indicators in the viewfinder (top) and on the LCD panel (bottom) show which AF point is selected.

Tips • The AF-assist beam doesn’t just illuminate the subject, it also projects a striped pattern on it that the camera can use for focusing. • The AF-assist beam does not fire in AI Servo focus mode.

Tip When using mirror lockup: • Don’t leave the mirror up for long in bright light, or point the camera at the sun. • Use the Remote Switch RS-80N3, or the self-timer, to avoid blur caused by camera movement as you press the shutter button. Doing so can damage the shutter curtains. • In continuous mode, only one picture can be taken at a time when using mirror lockup.

4 Superimposed display determines how AF points in the viewfinder react when focus is achieved. 0: On has the AF point(s) used to set focus flash red. 1: Off turns off the red flash, however, if you manually select an AF point (page 71) the selected AF point still flashes red. 5 AF-assist beam specifies when and if the flash’s AF assist beam fires when using One-Shot autofocus. You may want to turn it off in some circumstances since it draws attention. ● 0: Enable enables the AF-assist beam. ● 1: Disable disables the AF-assist beam. ● 2: Only external flash emits enables the AF-assist beam on external Speedlites and disables it on the built-in flash. For this to work, the Speedlite’s custom function controlling its AF-assist beam must also be enabled. (See the manual that came with your Speedlite.) 6 AF during Live View shooting can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable. When enabled during Live View shooting, you can hold down the AF-ON button for a moment to interrupt the Live View image display and autofocus. If you release the button before you hear the beep, focus won’t be achieved. 7 Mirror lockup lets you 0: Disable or 1: Enable mirror lockup. When enabled, you can lock the mirror up so it doesn’t add any image-softening vibrations when you take a photo. This is a very useful feature when taking macro close-ups, or using very long lenses. When enabled, here is how it works: ● Pressing the shutter button all the way down raises the mirror (the viewfinder goes dark), and pressing it again fires the shutter and lowers the mirror. If you don’t press the shutter button within 30 seconds, the mirror lowers automatically. ● When using the self-timer (page 63), pressing the shutter button all the way down raises the mirror (the viewfinder goes dark) and then fires the shutter 10 seconds or 2 seconds later. If you don’t have a remote control, this is a great way to avoid camera shake from pressing the shutter button. ● When using bulb and the self-timer, press and hold down the shutter button until the photo is taken. C.Fn IV: Operation Others 1 Shutter button/AF-ON button specifies how the shutter button and AF-ON buttons work together. When a slash (/) is used in a setting below, the part before the slash refers to the function of the shutter button, and the part after the slash refers to AF-ON: 0: Metering + AF start has either button start metering and autofocus.

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Using Custom Functions

Tip

1: Metering + AF start/AF stop has the shutter button start metering and autofocus and the AF-ON button stop autofocus.

• Metering is the same as pressing the shutter button down to turn on metering and the exposure displays in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel.

2: Metering start/Meter + AF start has the shutter button start metering, and the AF-ON button start metering and autofocus. This is used for subjects that repeatedly move and stop. In AI Servo AF mode, you can press AF-ON to repeatedly start and stop AI Servo AF focus. Exposure is set at the last possible moment.

• AF start in OneShot autofocus mode is the same as focus lock. In AI servo mode its the same as pressing the shutter button halfway down to start focusing. • Metering + AF start is the same as pressing the shutter button halfway down to set exposure and focus. • AF stop in OneShot autofocus mode, is the same as pressing the shutter button halfway down to lock focus. In AI servo more it’s the same as pressing the shutter button all the way down to set focus and exposure just before the picture is taken.

3: AE lock/Metering + AF start lets you set focus and exposure on different parts of the scene. Pressing the shutter button halfway down locks exposure, while pressing the AF-ON button starts metering and autofocus. 4: Metering +AF start/disable disables the AF-ON button. 2 AF-ON/AE lock button switch can be set to 0: Disable or 1: Enable. When enabled, the functions of the AF-ON and AE lock/FE lock/Index/Reduce, button are switched. 3 SET button while shooting specifies how the SET button functions. (When using Live View, choices 1–4 are overridden.) ● 0: Normal (no function) pressing SET makes choices when you highlight commands on the menu. ● 1: Change quality changes image quality (page 26) when you press SET and then turn the Quick Control Dial. ● 2: Change Picture Style selects a style (page 138) when you press SET and then turn the Quick Control Dial. ● 3: Menu display displays the menu when you press SET (page 16). ● 4: Image replay switches to playback mode when you press SET (page 19). 4 Dial direction during Tv/Av can be set to 0: Normal or 1: Reverse Direction. When reversed: • The effects of the Quick Control Dial and Main Dial are reversed when selecting a shutter speed and aperture in manual (M) mode. • In other shooting modes the Main Dial is reversed, but the direction of the Quick Control Dial remains unchanged when setting exposure compensation.

When C.Fn IV-6 is On, the verification icon is displayed.

5 Focusing Screen is used to specify which focusing screen is installed in the camera. The choices include 0: Ef-A (the standard screen that comes with the camera), 1: Ef-D and 2: Ef-S. Your choice here is not affected by the commands used to clear Custom Functions (page 142). 6 Add original decision data, when on, appends data to the image file that lets you verify if an image is original or not. When played back a padlock icon is displayed. To verify if the image is an original you’ll need the Data Verification Kit OSK-E3. 7 Live View exposure simulation can be set to 0: Disable (LCD auto adjust) or 1: Enable (simulates exposure). When enabled during Live View shooting, the image on the monitor previews the brightness of the captured image. In bright and dim light the image on the screen may not accurately reflect the brightness of the image you’ll capture.

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Using My Menu You can store up to six frequently used menu commands or custom functions so you can access them more quickly. Normally the commands you add to the menu are displayed when you select the My Menu tab. However, if you enable Display from My Menu they are displayed first when you press MENU, regardless of which menu tab was displayed last. The My Menu tab’s icon.

Registering My Menu settings 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and display the My Menu tab listing any menu settings you have already registered. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight My Menu settings and press SET to display a submenu. 3. Highlight any of the following commands and press SET: ● Register let’s you turn the Quick Control Dial to select menu commands and press SET to add them. When asked to confirm the addition, highlight OK and press SET. ● Sort changes the order of the registered items on the menu. ● Delete and Delete all items delete one or all of the previously listed menu items. ● Display from My Menu, when enabled, displays My Menu first when you display the menu. 4. When finished with any step, press the MENU or shutter button to return to Step 3. 5. To hide the menu, press the shutter or MENU button.

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Changing Other Settings

Changing Other Settings The 40D has a number of commands that change the basic settings of your camera. Shooting Without a CF Card For some reason, one of the camera’s default settings lets you shoot pictures without a CF card in the camera. They are even displayed on the monitor so you think you are capturing them, but they are not saved. To ensure you don’t take unsaved pictures, turn off the Shoot w/o card setting. Shooting without a CF Card 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Shoot w/o card and press SET to display the choices On (the default) and Off. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Tip • The date and time clock is powered by a CR2016 lithium battery that should last 5 years. Should you need to access this battery, remove the camera’s main battery, then slide its holder up and out.

Setting the Date and Time When you first use the camera, or when the batteries have been removed or run down for an extended period, you need to set the date and time so your image files are correctly dated. Setting the Date and Time 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set-up 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Date/Time and press SET to display the Set Date/Time screen. ● To change the setting in the yellow frame, press SET, turn the Quick Control Dial, then press SET again. ● To move the yellow frame to the next setting, turn the Quick Control Dial. 3. When finished, highlight OK and press SET. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Changing the Review Time When you take a picture, it is normally displayed on the monitor for two seconds so you can review it. You can change this setting to Off so the image isn’t displayed, or change the review time to 2, 4, or 8 seconds, or Hold. If you select Hold, the image stays displayed on the monitor until you press the shutter button halfway down to clear it, or the camera goes to sleep. While the image is displayed, you can press the Erase button to delete it or press INFO to change the display format.

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Changing the Review Time 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Review time and press SET to display a list of times, Hold and Off. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

Tip • All image filenames begin with IMG_ except those taken using the Adobe RGB color space. Those begin with _MG_. • In Continuous and Auto reset modes, if the new card already has images on it, numbering may begin for the highest number. The only way to ensure the first image is 0001 is to format the card before using it.

Reset File Numbers By default, each photo you take is given a unique sequential number from 0001 to 9999. The images, up to 9999, are stored in folders numbered from 100 to 999. There are two ways to manage numbering when you change CF cards: • Continuous (the default) continues numbering in sequence so you don’t have duplicate filenames. • Auto reset restarts numbering at 0001 when you change cards. This can cause problems if you copy images into the same folder on the computer because there can be duplicate file names. • Manual reset does what Auto reset does, but only when you use this command, which also creates a new folder on the card. This can be a useful way to organize images. If you use the same card, you can use this command each day and each day’s photos will be stored in their own folder. You can also use the command when you change projects or assignments to the same effect. Specifying File Number Sequences 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set-up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight File numbering and press SET. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Turning the Beep On and Off You can turn off the camera’s beep in situations where it may draw attention, as at a wedding or when photographing wildlife. Turning the Beep on and Off 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Shooting 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Beep and press SET to display the choices On (the default) and Off. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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Changing Other Settings Adjusting Monitor Brightness You can adjust the brightness level of the monitor so it better matches the lighting under which you are viewing it. Adjusting Monitor Brightness 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set-up 2 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight LCD Brightness and press SET to display a thumbnail, the brightness adjustment scale and a gray scale. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial so all segments of the gray scale can be distinguished from one another and the thumbnail looks good, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Traveling Options—Language

and

Video Settings

At rare times you may need to specify a different language for the menus, or change the video system (NTSC or PAL) to give a slide show on a TV. Changing the language or Video Setting 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU, select the Set-up 2 menu tab, then do one of the following: ● To change the language, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Language and press SET to display the language choices. ● To change the video system, turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Video system and press SET to display the choices NTSC and PAL. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Setting the Auto Power Off Time Normally the camera will go into sleep mode if you don’t use any of the controls for a minute. You can select a longer time or even turn this feature off so the camera never goes to sleep. When it does turn off, pressing the shutter button turns it back on. All Is Not Lost This might be a good point to introduce some good news. If you ever delete files or format a memory card by mistake, you can recover your images. The first step is to stop taking pictures because new ones can overwrite the old and make them impossible to recover. Next, get a program that recovers the files. To find one Google the term “image recovery.”

For

Adjusting The Auto Power Off Time 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set-up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto power off and press SET to display a list of times and Off. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. Formatting CF Cards When you get a new CF card, you often have to format it to work with the camera or reformat a card if you encounter problems. Just be aware the formatting a card erases all of the files on it, including any that have been protected.

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Formatting a CF Card

Tip • If you going to share or dispose of a CF card, keep in mind that formatting it does not actually delete the data.

1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set-up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Format and press SET to display the prompt Format CF card and the choices Cancel and OK. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight your choice, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button when the menu reappears.

Tip • If you turn Auto Rotate off, you can still rotate images for playback using the Rotate command in playback mode (page 19).

Turning Auto Rotate On and Off When you rotate the camera into a vertical position to take a photo and then play it back on the computer screen or TV, you have to tilt your head to see it. To avoid this, the 40D’s orientation sensor senses the position of the camera and automatically rotates pictures you take vertically so they are displayed vertically when played back. Images are not rotated in review mode and if the camera is pointed up or down, the orientation sensor may be confused and not automatically rotate an image. Setting Auto Rotate

Icons for rotating images on both the camera and computer (left) and just on the computer (right).

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1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and select the Set-up 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Auto rotate and press SET. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight the icon for On for camera and computer (the default), On for computer only, or Off, press SET, then press the MENU or shutter button when the menu reappears.

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Changing Other Settings Resetting Camera Settings As you change settings, it is sometimes easy to forget what you’ve done or it’s time consuming to reset them to their original values. In these situations you can quickly reset all of the settings to their original factory default settings. This command does not affect: • Custom Functions (page 141). • The Set-up 3 menu’s Camera user setting (page 140) that registered settings to C1, C2, and C3 modes. Shooting Settings

Image-recording Settings

AF mode

One-Shot AF

Quality

Large/Fine

AF point selection

Automatic

ISO speed

Auto

Metering mode

Evaluative

Color space

sRGB

Drive mode

Single

White balance

Auto

Exposure comp

0

WB correction

Cancelled

AEB

Cancelled

WB bracketing

Cancelled

Flash comp

0

Picture Style

Standard

Resetting Camera Settings 1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU and select the Set-up 3 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Clear all camera settings and press SET. 3. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight OK and press SET to clear the settings and return to the menu. 4. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

Firmware Version If Canon releases updated software for the camera you use this command to install it. Follow the directions that come with it. If you want to see what version is currently loaded, this command lists it. Checking/Updating Your Firmware Version 1. With the camera in any mode, press the MENU button and select the Set-up 3 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Firmware Ver and the version number.

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Print Order If you have a DPOF (Digital Print Order Form) compatible printer with a CompactFlash card slot, or if your photofinisher has one, you can create a print order right on the same CompactFlash card storing your images. The same procedure can be used to make prints on a printer capable of direct printing. When creating a print order, there are three basic steps: • Set up specifies print types (standard, index, or both) and lets you specify if the date an image was taken and its file number are printed on each photo. • Sel. Image selects the images to be printed and specifies how many copies of each are to be made. • All image is used to select all pictures for printing, or to clear all previously specified print quantities.

Tips • It’s faster to scroll through images displayed in index mode (page 19). • RAW images (page 22) cannot be marked for printing, even when you select All image nor can images captured by some other cameras. • Even when you turn on printing Date and File No., some printers may not print them. • When printing an index, both Date and File No. can’t be turned on at the same time. • Print orders are stored on the CF card so when images are transferred to a computer the settings are lost. • Some printers, even if marked DPOF compatible may not print your order correctly.

Entering a Print Order 1. With the camera in any mode, press MENU and display the Playback 1 menu tab. 2. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Print order and press SET to display the Print Order menu with three commands—Set up, Sel. Image and All image. (Print is also displayed when connected to a printer.) 3. Do one of the following: ● To specify the print type, highlight Set up and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Print Type, press SET, then turn the same dial to select Standard, Index, or Both and press SET again. (You can also specify if the date and file number is printed on the image by turning those features on.) When finished, press MENU to return to the Print order menu. ● To select individual images to be printed, highlight Sel. Image and press SET to display the last image taken. Use the Quick Control Dial to scroll through the images, pressing the Index/Reduce button for a 3-image view, or the Enlarge button for single image view. To print an image, press SET, turn the Quick Control Dial to specify the quantity, and press SET again to resume scrolling. (If ordering just index prints, a check mark is displayed instead of a number.) The number of copies of that image, and (if you are not printing just an index) the running total of all images to be printed are displayed at the top of the monitor. When finished, press MENU to return to the Print Order menu. ● To print all images, highlight All image and press SET. Turn the Quick Control Dial to highlight Mark all on card, or Clear all on card and press SET again to return to the Print Order menu. 4. Do one of the following: ● If printing from the CF card after removing it from the camera, press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu. ● If directly connected to a printer, highlight Print (it only appears when connected), and press SET. Select paper settings and print styles, then OK to begin printing.

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Caring For Your Camera

Caring

for

Your Camera Some of the best opportunities for interesting photographs occur during bad weather or in hostile environments. You can take advantage of these opportunities as long as you take a few precautions to protect your camera.

Cleaning the Image Sensor http://www.photocourse.com/itext/dust/ Click to see the effects of dust on your images.

Tip • Change lenses in a dust free environment and out of the wind. • Store the camera with a lens or the body cap attached. • Remove dust from the body cap and lens mounts before attaching them.

The sensor cleaning icon that is displayed on the monitor during automatic sensor cleaning.

Tip •

If you change lens a lot, or even once in a windy or dusty environment, dust can enter the camera and stick to the low-pass filter covering the image sensor. This dust creates dark spots on the images. One way to check if this has happened is to take a few photos of a clear sky or white card. Open the images in your photo-editing program and flip through them. (On a PC running Photoshop, zoom the pictures to the same size then Ctrl-Tab through them quickly and the dust spots jump out at you.) If all of the images have dark spots in the same place, that’s dust on the sensor. The 40D uses state-of-theart technology, called the EOS Integrated Cleaning System, to automatically eliminate this problem. It has the following stages: Reduce. Canon minimizes the dust and particles created by the camera itself, by using materials in the body cap and shutter that don’t create dust and other particles during normal wear and tear. Repel. Canon treats the camera’s low pass filter with an anti-static charge to prevent static-charged dust from adhering to it. Remove. The low pass filter in front of the CMOS image sensor, designed to eliminate moiré patterns and give accurate color under all conditions, is attached to an ultrasonic vibrating unit that literally shakes the loose dust particles off of the surface. The newly liberated dust is then captured by an adhesive material that keeps the particles from becoming airborne again once the camera moves. The low-pass filter, normally a single unit, is also divided into two components, a front and a rear. The front component, where any dust would accumulate, is positioned far enough out from the sensor so it’s out of focus on the image and any dust is less likely to show. The self cleaning sensor unit’s ultrasonic anti-dust shake activates automatically for one second whenever the camera is powered on or off, ensuring that the camera will be as relatively dust free as possible, and can be activated at other times through a simple menu selection. If you want to manually clean the camera or disable this function, you can do so as follows: Cleaning the Sensor

When cleaning the sensor set the camera down on a flat surface. For best results, don’t tip it forward or back.

1. With the Mode Dial set to any mode, press MENU, display the Set-up 2 menu tab, highlight Sensor cleaning and press SET.

• Repeat cleaning doesn’t have much, if any effect.

● To clean now, highlight Clean now and press SET.

● To turn auto cleaning on or off, highlight Auto cleaning and select Enable or Disable. ● To manually clean the sensor, highlight Clean manually and press SET. See the next page and follow the instructions on pages 131–132 of the user guide that came with your camera. 2. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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In addition to the EOS Integrated Cleaning System, the 40D lets you clean the sensor with sensor swabs and cleaning fluid. NEVER used compressed air, or other cleaning products, on the sensor. Cleaning supplies are available from B&H and Calumet. The most popular products seem to be those from Photographic Solutions (http://www.photosol.com). For more information Google “cleaning image sensor” but proceed at your own risk. One of the best Web sites I’ve found on this topic is Cleaning Digital Cameras at http:// www.cleaningdigitalcameras.com/howto.html. To clean a sensor you use the camera’s Set-up 2 menu’s Sensor cleaning command to access Clean manually. This locks the mirror up and out of the way and opens the shutter so you can get to the surface of the image sensor. This is a high-risk procedure and we recommend extreme caution. It’s more prudent to have it done by you camera company’s service center. In addition to removing dust, the 40D will also work around it if it can’t be removed. You just photograph a white wall or sheet of paper (or, in a pinch, removing the lens from the camera) and the camera’s Dust Delete Data function maps the size and position of the dust particles remaining on the low pass filter. Once the dust is “mapped”, that information is attached as metadata to all subsequently shot images regardless of recording format, RAW or JPEG. When the images and appended dust data map are transferred to a computer using the 40D’s Digital Photo Professional software, the dust information can be subtracted from the images simply by selecting the “apply dust delete data” option. You can update the Dust Delete Data at any time as follows: Obtaining Dust Delete Data 1. Get ready: Here are the five steps recommended by Photographic Solutions for cleaning your image sensor with their sensor swabs and Eclipse cleaning fluid. http:// www.photosol.com.

● Find a solid white surface. ● Set the lens focal length to 50mm or more. ● Set the lens focus switch to MF and set focus to infinity. (If the lens has no focus scale, face the front of the lens and turn it all the way counter-clockwise as viewed from the back of the camera. 2. With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone, press MENU, select the Shooting 2 menu tab, highlight Dust Delete Data and press SET to display a confirmation screen. 3. Highlight OK to display an instructional screen. 4. At a distance of 0.7–1.0 feet (20–30cm) completely fill the viewfinder with the white surface and press the shutter button all the way down. ● If successful, you see the message Data obtained. (The image data is stored internally and is not saved to the CF card.) OK is highlighted so press SET. ● If unsuccessful, you’ll be asked if you want to try again. If so, repeat Step 3–4. 5. Press the MENU or shutter button to hide the menu.

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Caring For Your Camera Cleaning the Camera and Lens Clean the outside of the camera with a slightly damp, soft, lint-free cloth. Open the “flaps” to the memory and battery compartments occasionally and use a soft brush or blower to remove dust. Clean the LCD monitor by brushing or blowing off dirt and wiping with a soft cloth, but don’t press hard and be sure there is no grit on the cloth that can scratch the surface. Cleaning kits are available at most office supply stores. The first rule is to clean the lens only when absolutely necessary. A little dust on the lens won’t affect the image, so don’t be compulsive. Keep the lens covered when not in use to reduce the amount of cleaning required. When cleaning is necessary, use a soft brush, such as a sable artist’s brush, and a blower (an ear syringe makes a good one) to remove dust. Fingerprints can be very harmful to the lens coating and should be removed as soon as possible. Use a lens cleaning cloth (or roll up a piece of photographic lens cleaning tissue and tear the end off to leave a brush like surface). Put a small drop of lens cleaning fluid on the end of the tissue. (Your condensed breath on the lens also works well.) Never put cleaning fluid directly on the lens; it might run between the lens elements. Using a circular motion, clean the lens surface with the cloth or tissue, then use the cloth or a tissue rolled and torn the same way to dry. Never reuse tissues and don’t press hard when cleaning because the front element of the lens is covered with a relatively delicate lens coating. Protecting your Camera from the Elements Your camera should never be exposed to excessively high temperatures. If at all possible, don’t leave the camera in a car on a hot day, especially if the sun is shining on the car (or if it will later in the day). If the camera has to be exposed to the sun, such as when you are at the beach, cover it with a light colored and sand free towel or piece of tinfoil to shade it from the sun. Dark materials will only absorb the heat and possibly make things worse. Indoors, avoid storage near radiators or in other places likely to get hot or humid. When it’s cold out, keep the camera as warm as possible by keeping it under your coat. Always carry extra batteries. Those in your camera may weaken at low temperatures just as your car battery weakens in winter. Prevent condensation when taking the camera from a cold area to a warm one by wrapping the camera in a plastic bag or newspaper until its temperature climbs to match that of its environment. If some condensation does occur, do not use the camera or take it back out in the cold with condensation still on it or it can freeze up camera operation. Remove any batteries or flash cards and leave the compartments covers open until everything dries out. Never place the camera near electric motors or other devices that have strong magnetic fields. These fields can corrupt the image data stored in the camera. Always protect equipment from water, especially salt water, and from dust, dirt, and sand. A camera case helps but at the beach a plastic bag is even better. When shooting in the mist, fog, or rain, cover the camera with a plastic bag into which you’ve cut a hole for the lens to stick out. Use a rubber band to seal the bag around the lens. You can reach through the normal opening in the bag to operate the controls. Screwing a skylight filter over the lens allows you to wipe off spray and condensation without damaging the delicate lens surface.

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Chapter 7. Other Features

and

Commands

Protecting when Traveling Use lens caps or covers to protect lenses. Store all small items and other accessories in cases and pack everything carefully so bangs and bumps won’t cause them to hit each other. Be careful packing photographic equipment in soft luggage where it can be easily damaged. When flying, carry-on metal detectors are less damaging than the ones used to examine checked baggage. If in doubt, ask for hand inspection to reduce the possibility of X-ray induced damage. Storing a Camera Store cameras in a cool, dry, well ventilated area, and remove the batteries if they are to be stored for some time. A camera bag or case makes an excellent storage container to protect them from dust. Digital cameras have lots of components including batteries, chargers, cables, lens cleaners, and what not. It helps if you have some kind of storage container in which to keep them all together. Caring for Yourself When hiking outdoors, don’t wear the camera strap around your neck, it could strangle you. Don’t aim the camera directly at the sun, it can burn the eye. Now that you know how to use your camera, you can fit right in with everyone else who is taking photos.

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A.Short.Course.in.Canon.EOS.40D.Photography.2007