Issuu on Google+

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL

Volume 2 Number 2 April 2013 p-ISSN 1857-8179 e-ISSN 1857-8187 Global Impact Factor: 0.003

LITERATURE, LINGUISTICS & INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDIES

Editors: Arburim Iseni Juan José Varela


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Anglisticum

Electronic and Printed Journal of English Literature, Linguistics and Interdisciplinary Studies

April, 2013


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Arburim Iseni Chief Editor (Macedonia) anglisticum@gmail.com

Juan José Varela Tembra Publication Head (Spain) anglisticum@gmail.com

EDITORIAL BOARD Nexhbedin Beadini (Macedonia) Sheqibe Beadini (Macedonia) Matthew C.Curtis (USA) Alexander Decker (USA) Judy S. Richardson (USA) John Hudson (UK) Isabel Jerez-Martinez (Spain) Blake Childs (USA) Robert Kirkpatrick (Thailand) Daniel Madrid (Spain) Eduardo Encabo-Fernàndez (Spain) Eduardo de Gregorio Godeo (Spain) Ricardo García Mira (Spain) Alexandra Francoise Marti (France) Bodo Herzog (Germany) Dagmar Kokavcova (Slovakia) Ana Maria Suduc (Romania) Aslı Özlem Tarakçıoğlu (Turkey) Alush Kryeziu (Kosova) Bedri Millaku (Kosova) Zelfije Abduli (Kosova) Fidane Maxhuni (Kosova) Abdullah Karjagdiu (Kosova) Gani Pllana (Kosova) Farhad Malekian (Sweden) Isabel S. Carvalho (Portugal) Syeda Ferzana (Bangladesh) Dmytro Zubov (Ukraine) Maria Nikolajeva (UK) Troy Tillis (USA) Edward Zharikov (Ukraine) Saeed Ahmed Siddiquee (Bangladesh) Kaguta Ruth Joyce Nyawira (Kenya) Danebeth Glomo (Bahrain) Romiro G. Bautista (Bahrain) Muddasir Hamid Malik (India)

Jarmila Tarnyková (Poland) Hille Pajupuu (Estonia) Purevsuren Bazarjav (Mongolia) Uva de Aragón (Cuba) Alba Teneqexhi (Albania) Albert Kopali (Albania) Jorgji Stasa (Albania) Ilir Lloha (Albania) Lirak Karjagdiu (Kosova) Gazmend Iseni (Macedonia) Hesat Aliu (Macedonia) Isa Spahiu (Macedonia) Antonio Camarda (Italy) Patrizia Battista (Italy) Elena Circella (Italy) Zuhal Yilmaz Dogan (Turkey) Karin Lesnik-Oberstein (UK) Penny Cotton (UK) Kate Ottaviano (USA) Mira Veliaj-Ostrosi (Albania) Vilma Tafani (Albania) Laura Smaqi (Albania) Leonora Lumezi (Albania) Hatixhe Sejdini-Leka (Albania) Fjoralba Dado (Albania) Arjan Shumeli (Albania) Esmeralda Sherko (Albania) Sadete Pllana (Kosova) Alen Azari (Kosova) Teuta Gashi (Kosova) Nexhdet Shala (Kosova) Sami Ibrahimi (Macedonia) Ibrahim Hoxha (Kosova) Ronnie Goodwin (Kuwait) Aleksandra Basicevic (Montenegro) Alexandra Scridon (Poland)

COVER DESIGN Recep Nuhi, (Macedonia) PRINTING AND PUBLISHING HOUSES ArbëriaDesign: Printing and publishing house, Tetova, (Macedonia).


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Editors’ Note Arburim Iseni and Juan Jose Varela Tembra Welcome to Volume 2, second issue of Anglisticum, the International Journal of Literature, Linguistics & Interdisciplinary Studies. This issue presents the researchers and teachers many interesting and stimulating articles addressing a wide range of topics currently discussed within the domain of English as an international language, ranging from the issue of redefining communicative competence in relation to English as an International Language to the issues of standards, authenticity, linguistic imperialism and the ownership of English Teaching and Learning in Albanian contexts as well as other relevant subjects. Abdulla Ballhysa and Mirela Shella, in their stimulating paper “Khayyam who Thinks and Speaks Albanian” which is a follow-up paper to previous studies on the matter. This second paper focuses on “Political Metamorphoses and European Identity of Albanians through Crossing the Borders” with plenty of definitions and concludes with a global definition of cultural competence and Albanian self-identification. “Life without Grammar equals Chaos: Introspection on the Value of Grammar & the Educator in EFL/ESL Language Acquisition” follows suit with a TESOL reflection by Ronnie Goodwin. Angjelina Nenshati-Shllaku in her article, “The Experience of Albanian School in Improving the Teaching of Foreign Language Grammar” explores new teaching and learning strategies within the Albanian context, based on her research conducted in Primary and Secondary schools. “Comparing Languages through the Process of Story Making. The Reception of Linguistic Structures from Teacher’s Training Students in Spain”, the article in which I have collaborated altogether with my close colleagues, presents how some of the recent approaches to the issue of story-telling and story-making, amongst university students are being dealt with. The sixth article by Alexandra Scridon, “Parametric Variation and the Verb-Second Constraint in Old English and Early Middle English”, examines relevant grammatical changes within one of the most important periods of the History of the English Language. Followed by Izmit Durmishi’s, “On the Toponymy of Çegran” concerning the origin and relationship between place names and what they refer. Meri Guli in her article entitled “Why and How to Present Proverbs in English Classes at Albanian Schools” reflects on the equivalence between proverbs and the grounds and ideas behind. The ninth article “The Perspective of Foreign Language Teaching in Albania” presented by Rajmonda Këçira examines the different trends and theoretical perspectives for teaching a foreign language to Albanian students while Lutfije Çota and Arburim Iseni in “Conjunction as an Element of Cohesion in English and Albanian Language” propose an approach to conjunctions with the argument that the English language shares common elements to other Indo-European languages. The eleventh contribution “Foreign Language Learning and Translation-Related Approach” by Rudina Xhillari, Shpresa Qatipi-Rira and Daniela Tamo concluded that there was a kind of linguistic method with a high relevance in past times that now has been overwhelmed mostly by the increasingly use of Information and Communication Technologies. Next article, by Lirije Raimi which could be circumscribed to the realm of Educational Psychology, “The Impact of Subjective Factors on the Success of the Primary School Pupils”, claims that once the resistance filter of the student towards a subject is lowered down by the action of its teacher a great success is achieved. Vilma Proko-Jazexhiu, in her article “Technical and Scientific Terminology in Albanian Language in the Era of Globalization”, discusses the question about the scientific labels that have


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

recently come to Albanian language as a result of the increase of technology and its implementation mainly through borrowings of words. “Linguistic Standard of Albanian Language at the News Programs of Radio Television (Kosovo and Macedonia)” by Agron Zeqiri, who studied some mispronunciation words and wrong translations that are counterparts of the Albanian Linguistic Standards. “Observations on Antonyms of Adjectives, of Adverbs and with Prefixes in Theoretical Mechanics in the Albanian Language” by Gani Pllana, who deals with some relevant words that have also recently come into Albanian language through the use of science. Rudina Mita and Lenida Lekli, in their article “The Albanian National Political Party in the USA (1917-1920)”, reflect on the organization and power of the Albanian immigration to the U.S. The sixteenth contribution entitled “Population Islamizing in Elbasan City at the End of XIXth Century and the Beginning of the XXth Century: An Anthroponomical Analysis” by Zhuljeta Kadilli deals with a common historical theme common to the southern Balkan area. Florim Salihu, with “Victimization of Albanian Female Deprived of Liberty by the State Apparatus and Social Mentality during the Monist and Pluralist System in the Republic of Albania” reflects on a social issue not so deeply studied up to now. Another political issue comes with Nejla Peka and Dritan Peka, in their article “Violence against Women and Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence by the Republic of Albania”. Another thematic area comes by the research undertaken by Nexhdet Shala, Bakir Kelmendi and Ismajl Cacaj, in their paper “Characterization of Some Cultivars of Winter Barley in Agro-Ecological Condition of Kosovo” and “The Investigation of Technical Conditions in Several Public School Buildings in Tirana”, by Merita Guri. “Teratogenesis” by Shkëlqim Hidri, Elona Gaxhja, Florenc Piligriu, Brunilda Mehilli and Ylli Alicka, reflects on that special field of knowledge interdisciplinary to many sciences altogether with “On the Preparatory Day Stay and the Subkutan Drainage on the Operated and Infected Wounds”, by Ylber Vata, complete a miscellaneous section. Such contributions bring also Mereme Tusha with her article “Risk Factors of Colorectal Neoplasia in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease” and Kace Bahushi with “Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention by Masalazine and its Derivatives”. Another contribution is entitled “Technological Advancements and their Application for the Development of the Republic of Macedonia”, by Naser Raimi. “A Dramatistic Analysis of Rhetorical Strategies of Albania Election 2009”, by Nina Nazmije Gjoçi, reflects on a common political issue particular to all electoral periods. The “Composition of Hazelnuts Grown in Albania”, by Leomira Osmani-Lataj, Valdete Vorpsi and Dritan Topi. Xhezair Abdija, Nexhbedin Beadini and Gazmend Iseni, deeply research on the “Preliminary Data for the Familia Nymphalidae of Sharr Mountain and its Surroundings”, compel a lot of information about the flora and the fauna of the area. Hesat Aliu, Nexhbedin Beadini, Sheqibe Beadini, Gazmend Iseni bring an interesting research entitled “Preventive Measures for the Long-Term Management of the Environmental Stability of the Ecosystem of Lake Ohrid”. Alush Kryeziu, in his article “The Importance of Tourism to the Economic Growth of the Republic of Kosova”, discusses the question about tourism as a factor of recovery of Kosovo through its thermal waters and monuments to foster its economy and European integration. Finally, we have to state that our goals for 2013 are based on achieving academic excellence, improve technical quality and layout, add news and resource links to the home page, recruit a higher percentage of authors from foreign countries, expand the number of countries represented by 100%, expand readership, page views and visits by 100% and build the Journal based on assessed needs and interests of readers and authors.


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Table of Contents Khayyam who Thinks and Speaks Albanian .......................................................................................... 8 Abdulla Ballhysa, Mirela Shella Political Metamorphoses and European Identity of Albanians Through Crossing the Borders ......... 16 Elvira Lumi Life Without Grammar Equals Chaos: Introspection on the Value of Grammar & The Educator in EFL/ESL Language Acquisition ................................................................................ 26 Ronnie Goodwin The Experience of Albanian School in Improving the Teaching of Foreign Language Grammar ..... 38 Angjelina Nenshati-Shllaku Comparing Languages Through the Process of Story Making. The Reception of Linguistic Structures from Teacher’s Training Students in Spain ...................................................... 46 Isabel Jerez-Martínez, Juan José Varela-Tembra, Eduardo Encabo-Fernández, Arburim Iseni Parametric Variation and the Verb-Second Constraint in Old English and Early Middle English ... 55 Alexandra Scridon On the Toponymy of Çegran ................................................................................................................. 62 Izmit Durmishi Why and How to Present Proverbs in English Classes at Albanian Schools ....................................... 70 Meri Guli The Perspective of Foreign Language Teaching in Albania ................................................................. 78 Rajmonda Këçira Conjunction as an Element of Cohesion in English and Albanian Language ...................................... 87 Lutfije Çota, Arburim Iseni Foreign Language Learning and Translation-Related Approach ...................................................... 105 Rudina Xhillari, Shpresa Qatipi - Rira, Daniela Tamo The Impact of Subjective Factors on the Success of the Primary School Pupils ............................... 114 Lirije Raimi Technical and Scientific Terminology in Albanian Language in the Era of Globalization ............... 124 Vilma Proko-Jazexhiu


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Linguistic Standard of Albanian Language at the News Programs of Radio Television (Kosovo and Macedonia)......................................................................................................................135 Agron Zeqiri Observations on Antonyms of Adjectives, of Adverbs and with Prefixes in Theoretical Mechanics in the Albanian Language ................................................................................................. 135 Gani Pllana The Albanian National Political Party” in the USA (1917-1920) – The First Albanian Political Party Created in Diaspora After the Proclamation of Independence and the Creation of the Independent Albanian State...................................................................................................................................... 139 Rudina Mita, Lenida Lekli Population Islamizing in Elbasan City at the End of XIXth Century and the Beginning of the XXth Century: An Anthroponomical Analysis............................................................................................. 147 Zhuljeta Kadilli Victimization of Albanian Female Deprived of Liberty by the State Apparatus and Social Mentality During the Monist and Pluralist System in the Republic of Albania ................................................. 158 Florim Salihu Violence Against Women and Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence by the Republic of Albania ............... 166 Nejla Peka, Dritan Peka Characterisation of Some Cultivars of Winter Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) in Agro-Ecological Condition of Kosovo ............................................................................................................................ 174 Nexhdet Shala, Bakir Kelmendi,Ismajl Cacaj The Investigation of Technical Conditions in Several Public School Buildings in Tirana ................ 182 Merita Guri Teratogenesis ....................................................................................................................................... 192 Shkëlqim Hidri, Elona Gaxhja, Florenc Piligriu, Brunilda Mehilli, Ylli Alicka Pre-operation Day Stay and the Subcutaneous Drainage on the Infected and operated Wound ...... 200 Ylber Vata Risk factors of Colorectal Neoplasia in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease....................................207 Mereme Tusha Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention by Mesalazine and its Derivatives.............................................216 Kace Bahushi


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Technological Advancements and their Application for the Development of the Republic of Macedonia ............................................................................................................................................ 221 Naser Raimi Dramatistic Analysis for Rhetorical Strategies of Albanian Election 2009 ........................................ 231 Nina Nazmije Gjoçi Composition of Hazelnuts (Corylus Avellana L.) Grown in Albania .................................................. 241 Leomira Osmani - Lataj, Valdete Vorpsi, Dritan Topi Preliminary Data for the Familia Nymphalidae of Sharr Mountain and its Surroundings (Mavrovo and Pollog) ........................................................................................................................................... 246 Xhezair Abdija, Nexhbedin Beadini, Gazmend Iseni Preventive Measures for the Long-Term Management of the Environmental Stability of the Ecosystem of Lake Ohrid………………………………………………………………………….…….241 Hesat Aliu, Nexhbedin Beadini, Sheqibe Beadini, Gazmend Iseni The Importance of Tourism to the Economic Growth of the Republic of Kosova ............................ 261 Alush Kryeziu


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Literature Khayyam who Thinks and Speaks Albanian

Kewords: recreation, himself, system, Albanian folklore, Biblical symbols

Abdulla Ballhysa

University of “Aleksander Xhuvani” Elbasan, Albania

Mirela Shella

University of “Aleksander Xhuvani” Elbasan, Albania

Abstract According to the Albanologist R. Jokli, Noli's Rubaiyat stands as the best of the many translations of Fitzgerald' version, but this translation, almost a recreation, can be considered his dearest, closest and most spiritual. Probably in none of his works did Noli express himself the way he did while translating (or better say culturally adapting into Albanian) Rubaiyat. This is the work in which he expressed his thoughts and his troubles, his vulcanic character, his creative courage, his tolerance, his humanity and his longing for freedom. In this study we will try to discuss what was said above, thus we will mainly linger over some words, terms, concepts and forms borrowed from the Bible and Christianity in general, but also from the Albanian folklore of the cycle of epic songs which Khayyam was most probably not aware of or used for that matter. When considering " Rubaiyat" and the languages they have been translated into, Noli's adaption into Albanian is acknowledged as the most poetic and melodious version. Paraphrasing what Fitzgerald scholars say about Rubaiyat, that they are FitzOmar's work, we could say that for the Albanians they are an authentic work of Fan Omar.

“For me is a fun to take from those Persian poets all the freedom I want, in my judgment […] need a bit 'of art that will grow and models them. (Lefevere A. 1998) ” This expression taken from a letter of the Victorian writer Edward Fitzgerald, the famous rewriter of the Persian poet Omar Khayyam, is probably the most wonderful example of the combination of the ideological and poetic motivations. Maybe it's this very confession of his "teacher" that drove Noli to feel free in rewriting Rubaiyat. Where is Noli in "Rubaiyat"? He is everywhere in the poem, so skillfully "translated" into Albanian. He is there with his typical choice of words and his satirical tone, somewhere through some typical words and phrases taken from the Albanian popular phraseology, because “he is not a poet of ether heights, but a writer of the salt of the earth (Çabej, 1965)”. Noli`s visible traces are noted even at a new spirit that Rubaiyat take in his translation in Albanian. A holy, wise long- bearded old man

Një plak të shenjtë, t'urt e mjekërgjatë

Who I saw running in the midst of the night

Kam parë që vraponte që menatë;

I asked him: Where is your holiness going?

I thashë: "Ku po shkon kështu, Uratë?"

In altar for masses and communions, he told me.

Më tha: "N'Alltar për Mesh' e për Kungatë"

Khayyam`s Rubaiyat has been translated into several different European languages since 1858, when Edward Fitzgerald took the Persian manuscript from the dusty Bodleian Library in Oxford. Each of the translators has tried hard to bring a very good translation of it. Let`s say, that two are considered to be the main sources that Rubaiyat came from. One of them is the English translation of Edward Fitzgerald, and the other is the original Persian version. In Noli`s case, he states that the “Albanian version – a poor version of other versions – contains parts of the Rubaiyat translated by E. Fitzgerald, parts from the Rosen`s German version and parts from the Grolleau`s French version Page | 8 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(Rushit Bilbil Gramshi, 1926)”1. This gives him the freedom that through his authentic and free translation to agree with the first version, even though he made use of the most valuable elements of the second too. He turned it into his own principle of creativity and practice. By loyally following the thought and the spirit of the original version, the ideas and the variety of feelings in the text; he made differences in form. As a consequence, he doesn`t completely respect the verse metrics, rhyme schemes, number of words and phraseology. Being himself a poet with an outstanding force of creativity, knowing and making good use of the expressive abilities of the Albanian language, its peculiarities and nuances, Noli aims to rebuild the original`s artistic and ideological values into his mother tongue by finding equivalent interchangeable or similar variants. He doesn`t hang back to sacrifice the word and the rhyme, even the metrics and verse to conserve the artistic values of his written works. By doing this, Noli has the chance to restructure the sequence of Rubaiyat. As Noli has admitted, he had translated most of Rubaiyat according to Fitzgerald`s version. But different from the English writer, who structured the Rubaiyat as a short poem so that each Rubaiyat is positioned in such way that logically preserves the time order from dawn till the sun sets; AWAKE! for the Morning in the Bowl of Night Has flung the Stone that puts the Stars to Flight...2 [...] Ah, Moon of my Delight who know'st no wane, The Moon of heav'n is rising once again3 Rubaiyat 1.

meanwhile Noli doesn`t respect such a sequence. At night while sleeping, the sprit told me: “Drink!”

Natën kur flinja, më tha Shpirti: "Pi!"

In sleep and tomb there is no prosperity.

Në Gjumë dhe në Varr s'ka Lumëri:

Wake up! While being alive, pour drinks and kiss girls

Ngrehu! sa rron, zbraz Kupa dhe puth Çupa

1

Rrushit Bilbil Gramshi is one of Noli’s pseudonyms. It is used in the first edition of translated Rubaiyat. This is the 8 th Rubaiyat in Noli`s version, meanwhile the following Rubaiyats, the second and third ones are the same as those in Fitzgerald`s version. This sequence is not to berespected for the following Rubaiyats.In fact, Noli had very rarely respected the Fitzgerald`s version sequence of Rubaiyats. What Noli did was not noted in any of the translated versions in French and Italian. Charles Grolleau, who Noli translated some of them from, had conserved the same sequence as E. Fitzgerald. 3 This stanza usually stands as the penulminate stanza in the translations based on Fitzgerald`s version. However, just like other Rubaiyats, this one doesn`t respect the Fitzgerald`s sequence in neither of Noli`s editions, the first edition came out in 1926 followed then by a later one. 2

Page | 9 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

There are centuries for you to sleep in quiet4! (Fitzgerald E. 1858)."

Research paper

Ke shekuj që të flesh në qetësi! Rubaiyat 1.

And when you go, you silver hand and foot

Dhe kur të shkosh, moj Dor' e Këmb' Argjende

To treat friends in those places

Për të gostitur miqtë n'ato vënde,

Where we used to drink together, and arrive where I stand

Ku pinim bashkë, e t'arrish ku rri,

Do not whisper! – But pour your own calyx5.

Mos psherëti! - po zbrasmë Kupën tënde. Rubaiyat 330 (Noli 1988)

There are theories that in his translations, Noli serves as an artistic interpreter, because by acting in such a way, he succeeds not only in transmitting the meaning of the text, but also the feelings and tone of the language, which are closely linked to the emotional sentiment and stylistic features of the original. "By following this method, in his work, despite loyal literal translations, we can also find paraphrases, adaptations, simplified passages, folkloristic patterns. (Karjagdiu A. 1971 )". He is aware of the fact that “The Albanian immigrants were villagers, and very few of them were properly educated – he afterwards explains – Thus I tried to communicate with them and the only kind of language I could use with them was a simplified and pure one. These were Noli`s readers, so to be understood by them, he has to make Khayyam speak Albanian. (Jorgaqi N. 2005)". For this reason, aiming to transplant the spirit of the original version, he doesn`t forget the reader who these Albanian version is destined to. The Albanian reader needs to be directed in his own language, a language that he is used to from the traditional creativity. As a consequence the usage of expressions taken from the Albanian everyday life and mentality is not a coincidence. … Life is short, well, we become old And we are left as the basket after the harvest

... E shkurtër është Jeta, ja, u mplakmë Dhe mbetmë si kofini pas të vjeli Rubaiyat 3

…He smiles at me with lips and eyes, as his spirit tells him “Make a good deed and throw it away”

... Më qesh me buz' e sy, se shpirti i thotë: "Bëje të mirën dhe e hidh në det" Rubaiyat 37

4

In the english, french and german editions taken into consideration there are no equivalents of this Rubaiyat. Te European Rubaiyats taken into consideration end with the one that Noli had collocated to be the penultimate in his version. It is justifiable to think that Noli, penetrating deeply into Khayyam`s world, has created both his first and last Rubaiyat according to the Persian author`s style and mentality. By so doing, he makes it possible for these Rubaiyats to stay together in a closed structure: At night while sleeping, the sprit told me: “Drink!”In sleep and tomb there is no prosperity./Wake up! While being alive, pour drinks and kiss girls/There are centuries for you to sleep in quiet/… And when dead in black dust/ When becoming mud and ash./ Bring me a bottle, pour me a drink/And you`ll see, I`ll revive again. 5

This Rubaiyat of the Fitzgerald version is the last Rubaiyat.

Page | 10 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Other elements which are taken from the Albanian mentality are figures such as: The fairy, The beauty of the earth, the girl with rose lips, cypress stature, the night`s tower, lahuta, krajli, the wise man, besa, the bud, the vulture, lilies (sometimes, tulips in the European version), figures which considering the time and place he lived should have not been created by Khajam, furthermore they are not even translated in the European versions. What kind of method did Noli implement in his process of translation? He himself gives the answer to this question. “My method, - he explains - is the following: When I started the translation of Hamlet, I translated the famous monologue (soliloquy) “To be or not to be” or he started translating “Macbeth” with the part “Tomorrow and tomorrow”. Following the same procedure, when translating “Othello”, I began with the most beautiful part and afterwards, I completed it with the missing parts (Jorgaqi N. 2005)". " He strives not only to gradually understand and digest the text, but also to experience it deeply (Jorgaqi N. 2008 )", identifying himself with the original author. Let me remind you of Çabej`s evaluation of Noli, who notifies that, behind the world greatest author`s unis, there stand Noli`s uni. This is such a true fact that even the explanations about the Rubaiyat and their footnotes are used by Noli as a means of revealing something from his own life. This idea is given by the explanation of Rubaiyat 146-147, according to the 1926 edition (Gramshi. Rr. B, 1926)6-7. Noli`s interpretation of the Rubaiyat, reminds us of his life, his relationships with friends, the disillusionments during and after the June Revolution. These feelings are transmitted in Rubiyat number 299-303. They call you wicked, if to fame you're known And an intriguer, if you live alone Trust me, though you were Khizr or Elias, It`s best to know none, and of none to be known

Të lik të bëjnë kur fiton lavdi Dhe intrigan, kur rron në vetmi: Qofsh pra Profet prej Qiellit, Shën-Elli Më mirë mos u njih, mos njih njeri.

These examples are a stable reason to understand Noli`s Rubaiyat as a way of expressing his ego. By considering them as creations and recreations, Noli, most of all, aims to give the Persian author a respected status in Albanian literature. He decided to do this by transmitting Khayyam`s most essential ideas, democratic and sometimes materialistic ones, to the Albanian reader. Noli would criticize the masterful translation of Fitzgerald`s Rubaiyat, calling them "original English variants inspired by Omar Khayyam ( Noli. F. S, 1988)". However, the analysis of his 6

In the 1988, published version entitled "Vepra I", these Rubaiyats are in this sequence 325-326. Noli tries to explain these Rubaiyats in this way: “ These two Rubaiyats reveal that, if not during the whole life, when being very old, Khayyamshould have suffered a lot. Most of his friends hated him and so abandened him. The cause of Freedom of Thinking was left without its sovereign soldiers and Royal Fanaticsms. His bravest friends and followers moved to the triumphant camp of Fanatism and asked for protection from the flag of the mystical Sofists. The firsts` infedility and the seconds` oppurtunism desperated him to death. The war is lost, the defeat is great...this is the end. Khayyam should write the Testament. Loyal to his principles until the death, he wrote the Testament drinking wine and just before his last breath, he flung to the Fantics` faces his last challenge. ... Rubajatet e Omar Khajamit"

7

Page | 11 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Albanian version of Rubaiyat showed that the same procedure was also followed by him, what he did was just rebringing them freely and beautifully into Albanian. Noli would sometimes make good use of the similarities between English and Albanian languages. Among other examples, this happens even at Rubaiyat 88, about which considering the fourth verse: Where did he go? Where, where where did he go down?, he wrote that this Rubaiyat cannot be translated in any other language better than in our language because the word that imitates the cuckoo`s howl has such a significant meaning in Albanian and Persian ( Noli F. S. 1988)". But he really wants to surpass the time limits and the reasons that made Khayyam write about summer and the freedom that it brings. In each of the Rubayyat there may be found traces of Noli as a multi faceted figure. He sometimes speaks with the language of a great democratic politician: Mosques, churches and temples; slavery

Xhami e Kish' e Tempull: robëri!

Bells and minaret; a havoc

Këmban e Minare: një patërdi!

Dervish, priest and khoja; and cross and moon

Dervish e Prift e Hoxh' e kryq e Hënë:

All obstacles of freedom.

Pengime që të gjitha për liri! Rubaiyat 226

Noli brought to Albanians some freedom - loving opportunities even through Omar Khayyami`s Rubaiyat, in which the personality of free people was so strongly and beautifully realized. Noli could find himself in those magical verses. Likewise he could find certain echoes and traces of the Albanian mentality. Although coming from Oriental regions, Khayyam`s lyric hero preached the freedom of thought and feelings, the joy of life, beauty, pleasure, all existing far away from every kind of doctrine or fanaticism. Through this hero, Noli makes blasphemies against the spiritual and social enslavement, so present in Albanian society of that time. He was so courageous and dissatisfied, that by ignoring the ethics and limits of the religious position, he proclaimed freedom as the people`s most sacred attribute. Throughout the Rubaiyat, the individual would move freely, which is also depicted by such contrasts, where the religious man stands opposed to the atheist, the Aztec to the epicurean. Such kind of creative work was Noli transmitting to the Albanians, in which his disturbed and stormy spirit found itself home (Jorgaqi. N. 2005 )". Being a priest he could write any blasphemies (and we may say that neither Khayiam nor any the European translators had ever made such kind of blasphemies, thus this Rubaiyat is not found translated by any of them, but instead Khayiam gives Noli the opportunity of expressing himself freely: Tell me that I will get burned in hell

Më thoni që do t'digjem në Skëterrë

Cause I adored Love and Wine

Se adhurova Dashurin' e Verën

Not at all! You have only a mediator

Aspak! Ju kini vetëm një Ndërmjetës,

I have two: communion and wine.

Unë kam dy: Kungatën edhe Verën Rubaiyat 282

Page | 12 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Or Around the glass approach: take it and then drink

Rreth Qelqit u afroni: merrni, pini!

Remember the grapes with nostalgia

Rrushkat me mall kujtoni: merrni, pini!

Because the vineyard said: “This is my blood”

Se Vreshta tha: "Ky është Gjaku im,

That is being poured for you! Have communions, take it and drink.

Q'u derdh për Ju! Kungoni: merrni, pini!

Rubaiyat 285

But despite this blasphemy there stands the priests, because Noli would also make use of Christian terms, which are unknown to the Persian readers. Khayyam`s use of words such as: dervish, mosque, Ramadan, Rustem, Elysium, minaret,etc is quite acceptable considering the fact that these are linked to the oriental world. While other terms such as: communion, church, priest, St Elijah, Adam, Eva, Pharisees, altar, mass etc. that were not present in Khayyam`s world. But what really signs his existence as a priest are not separated word but whole verses that seems to have been written from the mentality of a priest. For example: But we have God among us many times,

Po kemi Zotin midis nesh sa herë

With the blessed wine we`re making communions

Me verën e bekuar po kungojmë. Rubaiyat 281

Or Direct me the way, you salvation confess

Ti hiqma Udhën, ti shpëtim rrëfemë

Open me the door, God and console me

Ti çilma Derën, Zot, dhe përdëllemë. Rubaiyat 236

In fact, Noli used to handle with several creative works at the same time. The religious spirit that appears in these verses is not present in the version published in 1926, and this may have been realized as a result of the fact that Noli was meanwhile translating the Bible as well, and could not avoid the interference of certain discursive registers, even though he struggled hard to embody the spirit and the mentality of the Persian poet. Despite these examples where Noli`s religious beliefs are evident, there are also other Rubaiyat in which he depicts and praises the female beauty and love. In his 45-th birthday, he wrote the poem “The old man suitor and lamp”. He sometimes ironically admitted that senility was approaching, a lot of troubles were exhausting him, but he still remained a suitor, attracted by the joy of life, love and beauty, thus he directed theses verses to an unknown woman: Wait a while, I have a word with

Dale moj se kam një fjalë

Because waves of tears are flowing to me

se më rrjedhin lotët valë

Wait a while, I`m lame

dale moj se jam i çalë

Page | 13 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

And I cannot walk

Research paper

dhe më s'ecënj dot

Because the poet`s eyes cannot be indifferent to such a beauty and he praises it in several of his Rubaiyat. While in Khayyam`s Rubaiyat, the girl is just a girl; in Noli`s Rubaiyat, She is not just a girl, but she has specific well-defined traits which gives us the opportunity to establish a full portrait of her. In Noli`s Albanian version, She is not only depicted as Pure, but she is also depicted as having rose-bud lips, with a body as an Italian cypress, a Muse, the beauty of the Earth, with silver hands and feet. Despite being forced to wear the priest`s cassock, Noli was a human, and as such he would sing to the female beauty, leaving us through the translation in Albanian, why not, even through recreation, a clear evidence of his ability, as a poet who did not only write about politics, but love as well. This fact is clearly demonstrated in Rubaiyat 32-39. When it does not hurt It is not love

Kur s'dhëmp e s'shemp nuk është Dashuri

............................................................

.................................................................

When fire is in your breasts every day and night

Kur zjarr' e ke në gji, me nat' e ditë

Today you shine in laughter and tomorrow you die in mourning

Sot ndrit me gas e nesër ndes më zi. Rubaiyat 32

The girlfriend shone, blinding me

E Dashura shkëlqeu, më verboi,

My heart was speaking, my tongue stopped

Zemra më fliste, gjuha më pushoi:

Whose eyes had seen such a torture?

Kush pa me sy tortyrë kësisoj?

Burning from thirst, I went to the spring

Nga etja u dogja, u shova mun te kroj. Rubaiyat 39

Noli knows the Albanian readers, who he translated these verses to, very well. For this reason he tried hard that the famous world writers, through whom he talked to the Albanians, speak his language. It is clear to him that the success of the translation in Albanian depends not only in the selection of the literary works, but even on the language used by him to permeate in the Albanians` spirit and mind and to gain their respect and adoration. This kind of mentality is manifested in Noli`s presentation entitled “How did I become a writer” in the second workshop of Albanian Studies, held in USA on 07-11.08.61. Among so many tips he gave to the young writers, he would say “This means that the artist should find the inspiration in the environment where he works, he should learn techniques for the creation of artistic works, he should earn his living from selling his works and he should be appreciated and supported by his readers (Jorgaqi. N. 2005 )". Whatever the means he uses - translations, abstracts of literary works, anthologies - Noli as a rewriter of Rubaiyat aims to transform almost radically the original version by manipulating it in order to adapt it to the ideology or the needs of the time. In this case Noli is convinced that Albanian literature, in terms of poetry, needs new, more expressive forms. He knew very well what the Albanian literature needed and was certain that it needed such a development, just like world literature which had partially undergone the process of rewriting. Quoting Schmidt (2007): Page | 14 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

"literature can be analysed as a complex system of social behaviour - characterised by a special structure and the differentialism between the inner and the outer - accepted by the society in which it performs, and that is done in a way that no other system could explain." This is how we can fully understand Noli's choice to view literature as an indefinite system built on fiction which gives every translator and rewriter the freedom to deeply consider on the one hand the original text and on the other his specific status inside an ideologically well-defined system. “If the expression that the work of an author is the truest mirror of his spirit and his mental form was right, then, both the poems written by him and those translated in Albanian, left at us represent symbolically from the beginning to the end, a lone confession, a person`s or a whole life`s credo. [...] Revolutionaries and prophets, poets and active well – wishers of humanity are equally embodiments of his inner self, through them he expresses himself. In this sense even the translations in Albanian, in a deeper understanding are his creations (Çabej. E. 1965 )". References 1. Chini M. (1916), "Rubâiyât di Omar Khayyâm secondo la lezione di E. Fitzgerald", Lanciano, Carraba ed. 2. Çabej E. (1965), "Fan Noli ynë" Revista "Nëntori" Tiranë. N. 4 page 21 3. Fitzgerald E. (1859 - 1889) Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam of Naishapur, (1st, 5th ed). 4. Gramshi Rushit Bilbil (1926 ) "Rubajatet e Omar Khajam-it" Wien pg. 78-79 5. Grolleau C. (1917), "Les Rubáiyát d'Omar Khayyám", Londres, Hill. 6. Jorgaqi N. (2008), “Mbi procesin e punës krijuese dhe studimore të Fan Nolit","Profile dhe probleme letrare", Tiranë 7. Jorgaqi. N. (2005), "Jeta e Fan. S. Nolit" Tiranë OMBRA GVG, fq. 357. 369, 52-53, 7273, 54. 8. Karjagdiu. A. 1971 "Noli përballë metaforikës shekspiriane." Revista "Jeta e re" Tiranë. N. 9. Lefevere A. (1998) "Traduzione e riscrittura. La manipolazione della fama letteraria" Torino, UTET libreria, pg3. 10. Noli F.S. (1988), introduction .Rubairat e Omar Khajamit, Tiranë 11. Noli F.S. (1988), "Vepra I" Tiranë "Naim Frashëri" pg. 241. 12. Schmidt S.J. (1979) "EmpirischeLiteraturëissenschaft" as Prespective. "Poetics" 8. page. 563

Page | 15 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Contemporary Literature Political Metamorphoses and European Identity of Albanians Through Crossing the Borders Elvira Lumi

Keywords: metamorphoses, European identity, utopia, cross borders.

“Aleksander Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania

Abstract The moral transgression and the legal code, that seems to be mixed up in order to keep the rules of society, remind us that the crime has not always been with us but it is institutionalized. Artistic work of Ismail Kadare is an accusation addressed to the governing totalitarian utopia and the society’s primitivism that he obviously considers as a heavy load of his creativity. The society is heavily controlled from the “communist party” and is led by one of the harshest Balkan dictators named “Enver Hoxha and his heavy state machine”. In Ismail Kadare’s work the state is grabbed by political and psycho-pathological metamorphosis such as: the blood corruption of the feudal face of the state, the ghoulish terror against common people, the clash of classes, and the hunt of intellectuals. The borrowing of identity, the change of thought of the “political elite”, hierarchy amongst the privileged, spying of the police and the corruption of justice, faking the truth and the wild political incest that springs from absolutism of a dictatorship ruling authority. These are paradoxes and psycho-pathological absurdities trauma of paranoia and pain that stem from a single term- political utopia.

‘You mortals, don’t dirt your bodies with disgusting meal.’ Ovid, Metamorphosis, XV, 70-490. Ismail Kadare confronting Political Utopia. Introduction The object of this research is political metamorphoses and European identity of the Albanians. The aim of this study is to identify political metamorphoses through the poetic works of Albanian writers, Ismail Kadare. The author creates political metamorphoses by means of a parabolic and allegoric metaphor with endless meanings which has a certain esthetic function. Political metamorphoses emerge from a utopist, absurd reality of political paradoxes in a totalitarian system. In this extreme reality the Albanians have managed to survive in their continuous search for their European identity. Metamorphoses are realized as a theme of utopist and human absurdum whose source is a degrading form of political power. Just like in Mackbethian scenes the crime for power is the object of political metamorphoses that have made their magic force weaker and weaker in a trivial reality. The dictator is in the center of political metamorphoses and his opponents as well as innocent people fall into his trap. The reality of metamorphoses is idealizing, which is a result of psycho-pathological trauma (shock) under dictatorship and a delirium that has gripped the society under the ideology of totalitarism.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 16


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

In this work, metamorphoses have been viewed as a model of an extreme vision and to discover them we have used a structuring, comparing and describing method. Being utopist by nature they usually appear as the essence of human phenomenon but in Albanian reality they appear (are presented) as the core of totalitarian, political power. In this reality the Albanian intellectual and common people are of no use, isolated by a barbed-wire fence, interned and under the threat of gradual death of everyday. The truth and the right have been alienated. The same holds for the identity of man and his human nature. The human nature is turned into a beast. Everything is given sterilized and artificial. Political metamorphoses are given as narrative figures of phantasmagoric where man clashes with the political power like in the myth of Sufis, an everlasting and terrifying battle. The characters appear with hidden identity, with doubled names in search of freedom of thought. Kadare appears in this way a writer of the right, an advocate of free thought but also sophisticated. The author has given Albanians in mediums looking for radio waves and links with free Europe in search of their mother continent (i.e. origin). The illusion of thought becomes the language of political metamorphoses that come from a chaotic reality and tragic drama of human being. The language of metamorphoses is mystic at times, dark, where there is no distinction between the real and the non-real and a surreal language dominates all over. In the chaotic reality of metamorphoses the characters move in terror between life and death. The desire to come to contact with Europe derived from the common origin of Albania with the old continent to which it belonged but from which the communist system of the East separated. This desire consists in the attempts of hundreds of young people who dreamt to take refuge and embrace the native Europe that they had lost for decades. Kadare through political metamorphoses describes how Albanians seek their European identity. This search is presented as a Golgotian journey of Albanians to a modern integration and civilization. They find in Europe the free soul and the break of chains of totalitarism, an act which they fulfilled only after the `90-s.Today Albanians hope to become members of the honorable European family because in it lies the truth, democracy, and freedom. Kadare appears as the descendant of the assertion of the idea that the real identity of Albanians is European. Ismail Kadare is the novelist who writes and creates the philosophy of the political thought on the genesis of Albanians across the border of political utopia towards the European Identity of Albanians. It is this universal “vision (Rella.F, 1984)” of Kadare that gives him the merit to be called the novelist of democracy. His work presents like a poetic projection artifacts that are to be studied on the following topic: - Who are the Albanians in reality and what is our connection with Europe?! There is always an ‘Altro-s’ in all things. “The courage to hope (Obama.B, 2008)” that danger and death can be prevented for the sake of public and personal good is a cause worth living. US novelists Steven H.Gifis and Wright Mill have called it ‘public use’- ‘sociological imagination ( Gifis.H.Steven, 2003)” which is the ability that enables seeing and estimating the origins of all utopist paradoxes of several human categories in their reciprocal rapport of the social Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 17


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

cycle they belong to. In other words “The European Identity of Albanians” according to Kadare’s work, comes from the tragic nature of Albanians, that stems from the “biography and history” in the state of survival during dictatorship.

Macabre terror is usual as a sophisticated work statement. It is human massacre where torture and isolation are a historical paradigm of a totalitarian political system. It was a problem of the mental historic personal exile. The life is alienating, and the human personality is violating. In the novels of Kadare: ‘The Beast (Kadare.I, 2005)’, “Long Winter”( Kadare.I, 1971).”, “The dusk of steep Gods (Kadare.I, 1981)”, “Broken April (Kadare.I, 1981”, “The Daughter of Agamemnon (Kadare.I, 2003)” , the political utopia is a state criminal system where the human hunting is sophisticated and a physic and mental genocide. The hierarchy is absolute and appears as a constant economic and cultural expansion of a wild “Beast” related to the spread of communist ideology in Albania in the form of “Stalinism”. In dictatorship conditions the state does not function as a law of justice that ensures transparency, public and personal freedom but as a wrong practice of political ruling. Justice is negated or alienated. Truth and dignity are denied. Freedom of speech is excluded as basic constitutional right and is harshly pressed by communist dictatorship. The state has no functional laws but only a strong hybrid rule. The rule of kinship, absolute obedience in thoughts and deeds towards an absurd and harsh authority such as the Dictator. Kadare writes as follows: ‘The Tiran is transformed. We felt how we were daily dragged to the mechanism of a common guilt. We had to talk, to accuse, to dirt ourselves firstly and the others afterwards… And the two sided rope of guilt would continue tying everybody (’ Kadare.I, 2003). Later on he states: “The first who came back (Lladoshnikov), was as always continuously smiling, Stalinist that had things under control in full accordance with the optimistic situation throughout the great Soviet Union. There was a solemnity of manifests, a kind of touch due to the meetings with… old heroines of Socialist Labor, a smiling party devotion and self-controlled official just like the beige color of his coat. When quoting ‘vot tak tavarishi (in Russian: so comrades)’, you would think he had the face of a model who had come from the orders of the Steering Committee of Soviet Writers Union”. “Red terror” feeds fiction scenes where the dramas of a tragic-comedy stem from, where “the gatherings of millions” are howling and are scared at the same time as in Dante’s Hell, and where a suppressing world of traps, tricks and politics masks appears. The daily gestures end up in an antique tragedy; the common features of senses are transformed in cartoon sniffs, and the instincts are reaching a disgusting upper limit were a “Nation schizophrenia” stems from. Tragic heavens of the Balkans are covered with “the smog” of former Empires and create brownish spots through escape and the legends fly where the cold metaphor of Kadare’s “eagle” glitters. Kadare’s work is a book of hours, but also a mine of facts on the language of Dictatorship in Albania and civil disobedience towards it.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 18


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Political utopia in the poetic work of Kadare is introduced as a “Beast” that wanders like Shakespeare’s ghosts and demonizes people through violence and terror by warning a quick economic devastation. The storm of range dunes seems dead and threatens people with thirst. The country’s isolation from neighbors and the world with barbed wire fences, separated the Albanian society from Europe and the world. Whoever would dare, just like the youngsters who tried to listen and watch in secret the radio and television channels, would be accused as traitor of the fatherland and as a dangerous enemy and thus end up shot dead, in prison or sent to “mental hospitals being traumatized (Focault.M, 2006)”. The negation of religious belief and prevail of a secular ideology that was spread through the force of weapons led to the lack of pluralistic thinking. Through 50 years of communist regime, the security stability and human personality was transformed and isolated in “Block” as an extreme contrast of politics with society. The socio-political system was based on a heavy military machine through the mottos “the whole nation, soldier” where you could find cloned soldiers destined to death (Kadare.I, 1980). The society was manipulated with a particular purpose by “convincing” it through the ideology of language as if it was living in “paradise” but practically speaking in an artificial and criminal way (Elezi.I,Hysi.I, 2006)”. The absurdity and paradoxes were a feature of the state transformation, the political hierarchy carried the “propaganda” and would censor its political opponents by excluding the public dialogue and compromise with the “declassed”. Court sessions were formal, illegal and arbitrary. The public opponent was ravage and advocacy did not exist. The court decisions were extremely absurd, such as hanging and shooting. The court was shaped like a hermetic “pyramidal tower” where the sunlight would never reach. There was secretly kept all the punishment documentation of the “Tower”:-acts, secret agreements, correspondence with foreign consuls, accords with Albanian government, with the first republic, with the second republic, with the kingdom, accords with the governors and commanders of invading troops of Turks, Serbs and Austrians. The articles were in different languages, but most of them were in Albanian. The huge lock whose key was hanging as a talisman at the neck political lion would remind you of the Vatican gates and “Justinians laws (Shuflaj.M, 2009 )” in search of Europe. For the society the information channels were locked gates, where everything was “top secret”. The whole Albanian society lived an euphoria of “the dictator-Zeus (Kadare.I, 2002)” and a funny craze (Kadare.I, 2009)” under the breath and whisper of fear, living in an island in the heart of Europe. According to Kadare, it is the “ ‘monstrous state machine’ that creates very complicated problems mainly economical ones (Kadare.I, 1981)”, bringing to our attention the legend of eagle, that fed on its own wounds, just like the oldest human profession facing the bullet. For the Albanian, according to the canonic laws it is called the “tax of blood” that stems from the law of the earth. During communist times, the political dictatorship started its ruling in the form of agricultural law with the form of “nationalization”, “expropriation”, and “confiscation (Meçani.D, 2006)”. In the accounts table, with a surprising accuracy there made comparisons of the taxes of Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 19


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

blood during the last four years, compared to the incomes from maize, cattle, lands sale, mines and pawn brooking percentage and the corresponding results were crazy. Together with the distortion of everything, even the foundation stones of the moral life of Kanun like “faith”, “blood feud” “friend”, “Honor”, were being distorting to despite being the highest sublime values of Albanians. With the passing of years these values were transformed just like the Tyranny, slowly changing into an inhuman machinery that superficially appeared as a “capitalist profitable undertaking”. The ethics values are in crises. To the totalitarian state, the human society, especially the person was seen as “a consumption good” with whom you could trade with just like in the times of distant slavery. According to the Stalinist concept, the value and the price of every Albanians’ life was no more than “5 astra (law price, Kadare.I, 1977)”. The state would not govern but rule with an iron fist. It is only the “plains” which are the Albanian highlands occupying “half of the kingdom” that out of state “etatist” control. According to the Constandines saga, “faith is the fundamental stone” for the Albanians in a constitutional shape. The Kanun is a Right for Albanians compared to which, the laws Hamurabi and so forth look like “children’s toys”. The state is total, the Kanun is total. They stay like two basic blocks facing one another carrying and shaking the economic and moral pillars each time that one distances from the other. This is the reason that the totalitarian state did not only dare to recognize and study Kanun but considered it as illegal, the result of a barbarian and primitive time. It is the gatherings of elder men, of “Francescans, nuns (Kadare.I, 1991)” and ‘sworn virgins” who know the value of blood that goes straightforward. This blood cannot be forgiven for the Tyranny that compared himself to God. The Kanun is the self-governing constitution of the people in the conditions of normal state lack (Ymamoto.K, 2010). On purpose and without any remorse, the state of “the communist party” for 50 years was leading the society under the cause of “a social state” around “a torture ghetto” where the violent laws of terror and fear would hide the socio-political chaos through the punishment of Article 101 and 55. The experiments with the common people could not be even compared to the other, from the length and dark side. Dictatorship is “a mined field (Lumi.E, 2008)”, which needs us to study the walls and boundaries that separate us from the Balkans and Europe. The prisons were filled with political opponents mixed with ordinary spies and criminals. Tortures were inhuman horrors for which even today in the moment we are speaking apology is not considered.The human soul would not find peace but only psychological tension and disturbance from the “red light” of the political hunt that warned an “electrical shock”. The “green light” was seen nowhere. The novelist Kadare testifies that the “blood of Albanians is like goods”. Where could you find a cleaner “bank of blood (Kadare.I, 1996) like this?”. There are hundreds and thousands of innocent lives that have fallen under the suppressions of the heavy machinery of the “state” monster. Hundreds and thousands of people are eliminated or disappeared just because of “a word”, because of “foreign music” for “a faith”, “a decadent book”, a “different painting”,

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 20


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

for “an extravagant behavior”, for a free way of escape towards distant places, for a revival from the lethargic sleep of death. Kadare states: This is the real face of things! - … The elder would groan and suspire! – Eh… Dream world!... The rise of the dead. Allah, what a terror is here … Chaos: the earth and the heaven are mixed in one… These are life projects with feminine genesis. With male genesis too… erotic dreams… Economic crisis, money devalue, property rent, banks, bankruptcy, complots. State coup d’etat suppressed from the very beginning. State intrigues. The delirium… the Ottoman dreams… people’s dreams… religious dreams… power dreams. This is not the resurrection of a dead person but of a whole nation. ‘The astern year (Kadare.I, 1985)” in 1913 when Europe decided the boundaries of the Balkans, changed the antique peninsula into a “power barrel” that explodes in every World War start. Kadare states: ‘A young lady, laid in a surgery bed. Round her the surgeons are wearing masks over their faces and keeping scalpels and scissors in their hands. Below this it was written: “Albania on the talks’ table of Great Powers in London”. After the World War II, the communist ideology provoked “10 qualities of the person with a communist moral are forged”. “The red uniforms (the sworn soldiers of the regime) just like in a “cancer ward” would fill up the train towards a death journey. Albanian and the Balkans “alike (Kadare.I, Simiç.P, 2005)” suffer the anguish and the fear of a hot and bloody battle arena, where the ethnicities and nation languages are fighting wildly. The Dictator Hoxha would cement the whole Albania with bunkers and barbed wires. His tyranny could not be compared to anyone else. The dictator has the syndrome of attack on the phantom enemy in Albania and of a “clinic shock” to himself. The neighboring boundaries are dangerous and impassable pyramids. In this situation of terrible terror, how could react, once being proud of their origins “standing on two straight legs like the wood”, and today a handful of scalps as “Pyramid” construction stones (Kadare.I, 1996). Eqerem Çabej and Rexhep Qosja, two well-known scholars of the Albanian history of language and literature place the Albanians “Between the West and East” (Çabej.E, 2002). As it seems Ismail Kadare is the only one that presents and supports the idea “of European identity of Albanians (Kadare.I, 2006)”. Is this a miscount or a fantasy of this great genius of Albanian paper work? I believe this could not be accepted and supported so easily as a thesis, but indeed it is difficult! It is Austria that asks me the same question about the European identity of Albanians. A student asked me: ‘Why don’t you Albanians openly show your identity, because they mistake you with the Slavonic people?” My answer was simple: “Thousands of years ago and many centuries after, as long as the sun will light this land, the Albanians have lived and will live in the Balkans together with the ancient neighboring Greeks and the Slavs, with the ancient Romans and the Europeans!”. The effort of survival from the Empires of the time is tragic and

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 21


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

historical-epic for Albanians and at the same time a Dream of becoming a member of European family. According to Kadare, “it has its own meeting place too: despite having its roots in the ground, the wood wouldn’t be safe the moment it was grown above the ground level. It could either be hit by a lightening, cut by an axe or fall down itself (Kadare.I, 2003)”. For “the style of his language (Sadiku.I, 2000)”, Ismail Kadare, always differs from the tragedy of “Hamlet”. The writer cold-bloodily breaks the state laws with the purpose of protecting the Right that belongs to the whole people. The relations of Kadare with the Dictator are complex. Their origin is from the same town and this was enough not to touch him, despite the fact that Kadare and his work did not escape the censorship and punishment of the dictatorial system. ‘Invitation to the studio’,‘Spiritus’,‘Chronicle in the stone, ‘Cases of Insanity’,‘The mistaken supper’ are an offer novels that the writer makes to his reader seeking the source of the so-called “universal confusion (Buçpapaj.S, 1998)”. The man is facing the Devil. He hates it with the strength of his soul but is scared from the terror it was spreading. Writing at the times of dictator was just like translating the risk of the heart of dictatorship, its wild “animal” nature, and its brainwashing that aimed to manipulate the truth. The violence was collective and individual, the punishment was from the state. Behind the façade that appeared to be calm and happy, was boiling the hunt of witches and a kind of brotherhood killing that reminded the civil war in the times of the cold war. In his works, Kadare appears to be the novelist of the Right. His prose represents a special creative practice. The artistic work of Kadare is called the art of Democracy because it is created by an independent authority, who is concerned by the public security, the personal rights and freedoms, the nature of the totalitarian state, his rapport with the tradition, order and courts… The novelist writes with the language of an artistic lawyer that could be discovered according to the nature of “common law (Smith & Hogan, 1983)”. The connections of the writer with the Dictator and the dictatorship are complex. There are two opposing powers that have many conflicts and crisis. Several novels are attacked and censored from their circulation, and it was only after 1990s that they could be published. Kadare assaults “the state-beast” in his mind that rules over the faked, deformation, mistake, rotten, abuse, life danger, intervention to the dream in order to destroy the identity of Albanians in seek of Europe (Smith & Hogan, 1983). The political metamorphosis in this way discovers a tragedy- parody of a Don Quixote with the person, that stem from the “capital (Marks.K, 1980) ” and “the change of Albanian values (Nietzche.F, 2002)” with the language of persecution and selection. The wind and breath of Europe, in the conditions of terror and isolation came to Albanians through this deep thinker named Ismail Kadare, as well as from “the soul (Huizinga.J, 1955)” and courage of Albanians to break the taboos. The boundaries and the political wall that separate Albanians

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 22


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

from the Balkans and Europe are the reason of fight that call for a solution in the moment of speaking. Beyond the physical and moral borders Ismail Kadare confirms that he is endangered with his life and family because of his ideas. The town and the love of Kadare for the country and for the Albanians need no “advertisement (Kadare.I, 2001)”. He observes the history vertically, and the history leads him to the beginnings of the “Albanian nationalism (Clayer.N, 2012)”. The voice of Kadare is an echo-call from the depth of the soul in order to shake and emancipate the society and the state about the freedom and the human rights that are the constitution of the constitutions. The imagination and fantasy of this writer go beyond the boundaries of a creative abstract nature. The deep pleasure that the work of Kadare offers goes beyond the vanity and emptiness of human life as well as beyond the common deaths and trauma. The text is an appeal on ‘criminal Correspondence (Warner.M, 1990’) of the state totalitarian character. The artistic work of Kadare is a “search of literary arguments” about the European identity of Albanians by breaking every political and conventional boundary. The Albanians desire in search of European family is a thousands years saga, just like the tower house that would give one ram and one girl each year. The Albanians orientation towards Europe has its roots in the Greek-Roman antiquity and the Byzantium alike, as well as to the connections with Turkey and communism culture. The Albanians are cosmopolitan people with a liberal belief and proud of their nation. It is the ideological boundaries and historical conflicts with the Empires and neighbors alike that have made Albanians appear like “Zulu tribes (Konica.F, 1993)”, sank in the chaos of their life. But a nation can never be enslaved without being firstly drowned or extinguished from its literature, art, science and culture. It is Kadare and the work of other Albanian well-known novelists that remind us about the truth which is quite different with the Albanians, despite being tragic. As a nation we are grown up side by side to the “oldest nations of Europe (Encyclopaedia Britanica’ , 1768) and beyond every limit we deserve to break the physical and moral boundaries in order to certify the identity of who we are, where do we come from and where we want to go? The price that the Albanians should face is the battle with a rotten and faded system like socialism that stretches like “the shadow (Kadare.I, 2007)” of a beast’s long tail, in the fog and storm of the night. It is an ancient desire just like the world itself that had wandered Albanians between the east and west without understanding and knowing that being a prince for the Balkans and Europe is as difficult as Hamlet and King Lear himself (Kadare.I, 2007). The 21st century obviously is in search of Europe not like a wish of an Albanian stubborn child but as a new road that opens the path of an old and “ancient psalm (Kadare.I, 2000)”. The hidden strength of the Albanian spirit is saved in its marrow, hidden in a box of the “high mountains (Kadare.I, 2000)”, and wanders from Albania to Europe trespassing borders individually and collectively. It has turned into an unimaginable clew with the boundaries and Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 23


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

courage of every Albanian to trespass all the boundaries in search of Europe and contact with the family it belongs to. These paybacks of the Zeus to the ancient Europe, and the falling lightening have no more similarities to the human fire Prometheus. After the ’90 the Albanians’ exodus towards Europe as West dream has been rather massive. The Albanian brain drain is drowned in the never ending stream of globalization. Kadare states that: “When the fire started to shine the cold logic was interrupted just like the sanking of Titanic’. Albanians in the work of Kadare are shown as being resistant versus the dictatorship. Having a western dream Albanians have crossed borders in order to join European citizenship. Conclusion The gates of Europe are heavy but real. This time the roads are paved and the Albanians hurrying to be known again like the Doruntine of Kadare (Kadare.I, 2000)”. The literary memory of Kadare informs us that we should not make compromise with corruption and hysteric calls about the chosen nation. Political prostitution brings chaos and anarchy. The court and the law is sold or bought to the groups of interest or it stops acting in balance to the pan human values. It is the faith that reminds people of ‘Urbis and Orbit’. The Albanian citizens’ emancipation is an emergent need connected to every kind of reform especially with the old mentality on the true prospective of Albanians to enter and honor the European family. Let us leave the boundaries in their “sacredness” and reach the speed that Europe travels itself in the 21st century towards free spaces, on behalf of European identity as citizens of a free and secure world. References 1. Arendt, H, (1951), ‘The Origins of Totalitarianism’, Publ “ Schocken Books”, NY, USA. 2. Buçpapaj, S, (1998), “An art that revolts against universal confusion”. Trebeshiana,Tiranë. 3. Çabej, E, (2002), “Albanians between west and east”, Publ. Cabej,, Tiranë. 4. Clayer, N, (2012), “In the beginning of Albanian nationalism”,Perpjekja, Tiranë. 5. Elezi.I, Hysi.I, (2006), “Criminal politics”, Pegi,Tiranë. 6. “Encyclopaedia Britanica”, (1768), Knowledge in Depth ,Vol 8. 7. Focault, M, (2006), “The story of madness”, Routledge,NY,USA. 8. Gifis H.S, (2003), ‘Law Dictionary’, Barron's Educational Series, Inc.; 5th edition, NY. 9. Huizinga, J, (1955), ‘Homo Ludens’, Roy, USA. 10. Kadare, I, (2009), “Cases of madness”, Onufri, Tiranë. 11. Kadare, I, (1996), ‘Spiritus’, Onufri, Tiranë. 12. Kadare, I, (2002), “A boring season in Olympus”, Onufri, Tiranë. 13. Kadare, I, (1981), “Broken April”, Naim Frasheri, Tiranë. 14. Kadare, I, (2003), “Cases of madness”, Publ Onufri,Tiranë. 15. Kadare, I, (2007), “Hamlet, this difficult prince”, Onufri,Tiranë. 16. Kadare, I, (1990), “Invitation in the studio”, Onufri, Tiranë. 17. Kadare, I, (1996), “Spiritus”, Onufri, Tiranë. 18. Kadare, I, (1985), “The astern year”, Onufri, Tiranë. 19. Kadare, I, (2005), “The beast”, Onufri, Tiranë.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 24


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

20. Kadare, I, (2000), “The cold flowers of March”, ‘Onurfi”, Tiranë. 21. Kadare, I, (2003), “The daughter of Agamemnon”,Onufri, Tiranë. 22. Kadare, I, (1981), “The dusk of the steep Gods”, Onufri, Tiranë. 23. Kadare, I, (2006), “The European identity of Albanians”, Onufri, Tiranë. 24. Kadare, I, (2007), ‘Hamlet, a difficult prince’ , Onufri,Tiranë. 25. Kadare, I, (2001), “The town without advertisements”, Publ by ‘Onufri”, Tiranë. 26. Konica, F, (1993), “Four tales from Zululand”, Naim Frashëri. 27. Lumi, E, (2006), “Metamorphoses”, Publ.Skanderbeg Books, Tiranë. 28. Marks, K, (1980), ‘Kapitali’,”The capital”, Publ.Naim Frasheri”, Tiranë. 29. McLaughlin, Muncie,J, Hughes G, (2002),‘Criminological Prespectives’, Publications Ltd; Second Edition edition , London. 30. Meçani, D, (2006), “The land ownership”, Pegi, Tiranë. 31. Nietzche, F, (2002), “The change of all values into a tragedy”, Eugen, Tiranë. 32. Obama, B, (2008), ‘Audacity of Hope’, Vintage; Reprint edition, USA. 33. Orwell, G, (2005), ‘1984’,Publ “Zenit”, Tirana. 34. Plasari, A, (2003), “The war of Troy continues”, Tiranë, Sejko. 35. Rella, F, (1984), ‘Metamorfosi-Immagimi del pensiero’, Feltrineli, Milano. 36. Sadiku, I, (2000), “Kadare, this great stylist”, Pasqyra, Tiranë. 37. Shuflaj, M, (2009), “The towns and castles of Albania”, Onufri, Tiranë. 38. Smith & Hogan, (1983), “Criminal Law”, Oxford University Press, UK. 39. Strauss, N, (2009), ‘Emergency’,Harper,.USA. 40. Warner, M, (1990), ‘The Leters of the Republic’, Harvard University Press, USA. 41. Ymamoto, K, (2010), “The ethics structure of Kanun”, Rilindja, Prishtine.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

SAGE

Page | 25


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Life Without Grammar Equals Chaos: Introspection on the Value of Grammar & The Educator in EFL/ESL Language Acquisition Ronnie Goodwin

Research paper

Linguistics Kewords: English as a Foreign Language, Composition, Writing, Discourse Analysis, Grammar usage.

Gulf University for Science and Technology, Hawally, Kuwait

Abstract Communicating coherently in the English language requires a comprehensive understanding of the proper use of grammar. Instruction of English as a Second Language (ESL) or English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the rudimentary levels may not collectively include sufficient instruction that enables students to successfully transition to English language courses in higher learning institutions. Education is construed as an imperative aspect of an individual’s life in America and the cornerstone of any educational model is undoubtedly the teacher (Lam, 2006). The efficacy of the teacher’s ability to grammatically instruct his/her students additionally impacts the individual’s ability to acquire the second language. Furthermore, students who are attempting to become bi- or multi-lingual do not always speak properly, illustrating that code-switching and code-mixing are common phenomena in speech when at least two languages exist in a community (Annamali, 1989). The ability of the teacher to effectively interpret student communication and respond in grammatically appropriate manners is imperative to the proper development of the target language as it models such actions for the student to mimic. This discourse will discuss the importance of grammatical comprehension for ESL/EFL students with respect to educator efficacy, examining how teachers impact grammar and overall literacy development.

1. Introduction Regardless of whether an individual speaks English as a first language (L1) or is learning English as a Second Language (ESL) or English as a Foreign Language (EFL), grammar is extremely important. The specifics of grammar help us, as well as with those whom we communicate, understand specifics such as when an event occurred, which requires the use of grammatical incidentals (Goldenberg, 2008). Theorists who ascribe to the naturist perspective surmise that grammar is innate, positing that it will emerge when it is ready and basically hope their students will learn grammar via reading, writing, listening, and speaking (Dai, 2010). In some societies, the expected means of communication is code-switched speech and code-mixing, which were previously thought of as interference phenomena among imperfect bilinguals, but these entities have come to be recognized as imperative and indispensable communication strategies (Gluth, 2008). Consequently, instruction based on this method does not rely on formal classroom instruction of grammar, which has been evidenced to be erroneous since students’ progress to freshman English classes without a proper comprehension of grammar and freshman courses are designed to teach writing and not grammar (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). This discourse will demonstrate that grammar must be a taught course in non-English speaking environments, such as ESL/EFL/Foundation classes in order for students who do not speak English as their native language to properly grasp the grammatical foundations necessary to progress further with English reading and writing courses.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 26


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

2. Research Questions Research has indicated that a teacher’s effect on his/her students is often the result of the students’ psychological responses to the teacher’s behavior, and the instructor’s behavior is dependent upon his/her satisfac-tion with the job (Wei, Brok, & Zhou, 2009). The rep-utation of an educational institution and its subsequent influence on the lives of those within the community it serves invariably depends on the kind of instructors em-ployed therein, which is a reflection of the training they have received. In this dimension, the degree of satis-faction an educator experiences from his/her employment deeply impacts their dedication to successfully fulfilling their duties, and thus, their efficacy as an educator (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008). The many dimensions influencing job satisfaction has been com-bined within these four facets, which includes: teacher learning, professionalism, inter-personal relations, and innovation (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). Teacher learning denotes the accessibility of new pedagogical knowledge to instruct the educator in the most relevant methods to successfully cope with new situations, suc-cessfully preside over his/her classes, encourage his/her student’s active participation in the lessons, implement innovative techniques for teaching, and develop a sys-tematic plan to present the curriculum (Suryanarayana & Luciana, 2010). Professionalism is strongly relative to the degree of job security and social prestige the educational professional associates with the instructor’s role in molding young minds, the amount of appreciation expressed from the community for their efforts, and the individual’s per-ception of his/her ability to help students resolve their problems (Suryanarayana & Luciana, 2010). In-terpersonal aspects are correlated with the types of rela-tionships educators form with their peers, colleagues, students, parents, higher authorities, and any additional personnel who participate in the successful functioning of the school (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008; Chow, 1993). Innovation is indicative of the level of creativity, novel techniques in teaching, participation in cultural activities, and co-curricular or social welfare activities the educator implements during his/her tenure (Suryanarayana & Luciana, 2010). All of these attributes are relative to successful instruction in grammar because the pedagogical training an instructor receives can be directly measured or linked to the progress of his/her students, as well as their satisfaction. However, despite the establishment of these benchmarks, gauging the level of a teacher’s job satisfaction remains a difficult task and this calibration is essential to the successful instruction of grammatical basics, as well as other concepts, to EFL/ESL students (Suryanarayana & Luciana, 2010). Each individual having a proper grasp of basic gram-matical concepts is foundational to future success in higher level English courses.This research will seek to determine answers to the following research questions in order to add to the existing knowledge regarding instruction of EFL/ESL students in English grammar:

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 27


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Is it feasible for teachers to wait for innate or inherent grammatical capacities to emerge in EFL/ESL students with diminished grammatical capacities within typical English Composition I collegiate level courses and be-yond? Can EFL/ESL students pass university composition courses, as well as other university courses, if their grammar comprehension has not emerged? Should collegiate Composition professors teach grammar in freshman courses, detracting from the time dedicated to teaching writing and would this benefit the EFL/ESL learner in such a freshman class? 3. Research Methods This research will primarily examine existing studies to consolidate the most recent, relevant professional deductions through archival research, which prin-cipally involves drawing conclusions by analyzing exist-ing sources of data, including both public and private records. The archival research process typically in-volves making decisions ahead of time so that the process of data collection is smooth, simple, and systematic (Newman, 2011). Archival research provides a test of the hypothesis by examining existing data and, thereby, avoids most of the ethical and practical problems of other research designs (Babbie, 2007). Relative to this aspect, archival research also avoids common complications associated with participant reactivity, as well as partici-pant inclinations to behave in a different way when they know they are being observed (Newman, 2011). All participant based research will incur the difficulty of forging through invalid responses to maintain the integ-rity of the research. In contrast, this study will only use peer-reviewed sources from archival data that involves making use of records of people’s natural behaviors and relies on data that is considered validated. Furthermore, archival research requires the use of relatively few resources while the majority of laboratory experiments allows for the examination of only one participant at a time, sometimes requiring the dedicated attention of more than one re-search assistant over a period of an hour or more, which can be expensive and time consuming (Babbie, 2007; Newman, 2011). In contrast, once data has been col-lected through the archival research process, it is a rela-tively simple matter to conduct statistical analyses. However, archival research limits the extent of control the researcher has since this process relies on whatever form the researchers have presented the information, with no control over the way it was collected and, because archival data often represent natural behavior, it can be difficult to categorize and organize responses in a meaningful and quantitative way. Archival research often requires some creativity on the researcher’s part, such as analysis and the challenges mentioned will be addressed by careful selection of the studies used to avoid inclusion of invalid details.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 28


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4. Literature Review Most countries teach English language as part of their public education, but unfortunately, even in countries in which English is the primary language, parents, educators, and officials remain unsatisfied with these programs due to the poor results, outcomes, and performances of many students, especially EFL/ESL students. Hence, it is easily noted that the quality of instruction has inhibited students’ English language proficiency over the years due to the scarcity of instructional programs de-signed based on the maintenance approach, which seeks to maintain the student’s native tongue while adding the target language to the EFL/ESL student’s linguistic repertoire (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010; Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). This literature review will examine approaches to EFL/ESL linguistic instruction in diverse countries, such as China, and the U.S., as well as the relevance of the teacher’s instructional ability and the various linguistic theories relative to linguistic develop-ment. 5. English Language Acquisition in China In developed countries like China, education is collectively regarded as a vital aspect of a pupil’s life, including their psychological development (Lam, 2006). With this perspective in the forefront, the Chinese gov-ernment has attempted to afford educational opportunities to both urban and rural citizens with the objective of improving the nation’s literacy rates (Chan, 1999). The educational design was intended to foster the cultural values of the country and improve the overall skills of the Chinese citizens (Chan, 1999). The scholastic en-vironment, including factors like a supportive school atmosphere and the classroom context as well as language barriers, was determined to be directly related to school satisfaction (Bai, 1995; Lam, 2006). The numerous studies conducted that examine the effect of the classroom environment, degree of support provided by the educator, the student’s perception of acceptance within their academic environment, level of academic achievement, and peer pressure on the self-perception and moods of the students have demonstrated that these dynamics have a direct influence on learning as well as classroom behavior (Lam, 2006). Furthermore, the presence of scholastic satisfaction has been quantified as a cognitive-based appraisal of a student’s overall contentment with their educational experience, which is correlated to comprehension of curricular input, such as grammar (Lam, 2006). 6. Middle Eastern EFL/ESL Language Acquisition Arabic-English bilinguals do not always speak in the same way, illustrating that code-switching and code-mixing are common phenomena in speech, provided that at least two languages exist in a community (Annamali, 1989). When used in Middle Eastern communities, the connotation in code-switching is de-rived from within the stylistic relationship between phrases or sentences, which is an indication that grammar plays no significant role in it (Lefkowitz, 1991). Defining conversational code-switching has been chal-lenging because it frequently occurs in conjunction with other kinds of language contact phenomena including convergence, borrowing, and interference (Gluth, 2008; Halmari, 1997). In addition, codes themselves involve a high degree of Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 29


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

variability and are often viewed as non-standard, in particular when bilinguals lack profi-ciency in what is known or perceived as standard codes (Gluth, 2008). Furthermore, research has proposed that code-switching is performed only for the duration of a conversational discourse, while the code-mixing is not performed with full sentences and has the grammar structures from other languages (Annamali, 1989). Intriguingly, preceding studies determined that one needs to perceive differently the process of selecting one definite code from the process of mixing as many as two existing codes, to generate the product that may be re-garded as a third code (Bentahila & Davies, 1983). This phenomenon may be referred to as code-switching, meaning “the use of two languages within a single conversation, exchange or utterance” (Bentahila & Davies, 1983, p. 302). Additionally, it is suggested that code-mixing is essentially the mechanism of mixing el-ements from a minimum of two languages within one utterance, differentiating it from code-switching in that the latter is the product of this mix (Bader, 1995; Myers-Scotton, 1993). 7. Paradigms of Grammar through Code-Switching in Language Acquisition Individuals who are attempting to become bi or multi-lingual do not always speak in the same way, illustrating that code-switching and code-mixing are common phenomena in speech, provided that at least two languages exist in a community (Annamali, 1989). When used in ESL/EFL communities, the connotation in code-switching is derived from within the stylistic rela-tionship between phrases or sentences, which is an indi-cation that grammar plays no significant role in it (Lefkowitz, 1991). Defining conversational code-switching has been challenging because it frequently occurs in conjunction with other kinds of language contact phenomena including convergence, borrowing, and interference (Gluth, 2008; Halmari, 1997). In addition, codes themselves involve a high degree of variability and are often viewed as non-standard, in par-ticular when bilinguals lack proficiency in what is known or perceived as standard codes (Gluth, 2008). Further-more, research has proposed that code-switching is per-formed only for the duration of a conversational discourse, while the code-mixing is not performed with full sentences and has the grammar structures from other languages (Annamali, 1989). Intriguingly, preceding studies determined that one needs to perceive differently the process of selecting one definite code from the process of mixing as many as two existing codes, to generate the product that may be regarded as a third code (Bentahila & Davies, 1983). This phenomenon may be referred to as code-switching, meaning “the use of two languages within a single conversation, exchange or utterance” (Bentahila & Davies, 1983, p. 302). Additionally, it is suggested that code-mixing is essentially the mechanism of mixing elements from a minimum of two languages within one utterance, differentiating it from code-switching in that the latter is the product of this mix (Bader, 1995; Myers-Scotton, 1993).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 30


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

8. Bilingual Education in America Education is construed as an imperative aspect of an individual’s life in America and the cornerstone of any educational model is undoubtedly the teacher (Lam, 2006). As such, our understanding of how students learn has developed and the ways we instruct students has also progressed (Eliason & Jenkins, 2012). The scholastic setting is expected to act as a cushion and pro-tect the psychological well-being of students as they learn (Lam, 2006). Furthermore, the burgeoning populace of culturally diverse America has unequivocally amplified the probability that there will be a multitude of students entering scholastic institutions who are not fluent in English (Goldenberg, 2008; Hinkel & Fotos, 2002). There are numerous factors that affect language acquisition which must be considered by the instructor, such as the individual traits of the learner, the social set-ting, and the quantity and quality of the linguistic input the student receives, all of which are influential factors in the student’s ability to assimilate the target language (Otto, 2010). It is estimated that 157,000 educators leave the educa-tional field every year in the U.S. alone, and an additional 232,000 instructors change schools in pursuit of better working conditions found in prestigious, high-er-performing schools as opposed to the environment in low-performing innercity schools (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008). Combined, this represents approximately 12% of the teaching workforce, excluding the teachers who leave due to retirement (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008). Furthermore, the popula-tion of EFL/ESL students has splurged from two to five million since 1990, which denotes a 150% increase during this period despite the overall school population in-creasing by only 20% (Goldenberg, 2006). Even greater increases have been noted in states such as North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, and Indi-ana, where the increase in the EFL/ESL population during the 1993-94 through 2003-04 school years increased by at least 400% in these states (Goldenberg, 2006). In areas of such high concentrations of EFL/ESL learners, linguistic diversity is that much more crucial to the suc-cess of the student and has an astounding impact on a student’s ability to learn in classroom settings that do not consider his/her degree of language acquisition (Otto, 2010). Language development can become detrimental when the teacher has not received training to accommodate the needs of these students, as is often the case in public school settings (Otto, 2010). The exit of teachers from the profession and the movement of teachers away from low-performing schools are a costly phenomenon in re-gards to the loss students experience in the value of being taught by an experienced teacher, the time lost for the schools and districts to recruit and train their replacements, and the overall financial costs of teacher attrition (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008). 9. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction The current consensus is that the status of teachers in most countries, both developed and developing, has declined substantially within recent decades (Wei, Brok, & Zhou, 2009). However, the circumstances that en-courage the ‘de-professionalization’ of the teaching pro-fession tend to be Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 31


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

more prominent in low-income devel-oping countries (LICs) and many countries still do not have enough teachers (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010). These circumstances include prolonged economic and social crises in many LICs, collective diversification of the teaching force with increasing dependence on less educated and under-qualified instructors with diminished job security, generally degraded standards of teaching, feminization, and dramatic regressions in the standard of living for teachers (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). Incentives for schools and teachers in the public education system intended to inspire teachers to perform well are frequently weak due to ineffective enticements and sanctions (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). Addition-ally, very low pay forces large proportions of teachers to earn secondary income from private tutoring or other activities and poor human resource management also seriously de-motivates employees (Chow, 1993). Moreover, teacher management at the national and sub-national levels is nothing short of chaotic in many countries (Dai, 2010). In these situations, teaching positions are little more than sinecures, which means that teachers do not feel accountable to school managements, parents or the wider community. Furthermore, being employed at a school with predominantly struggling students is likely to be de-motivating for most teachers, especially since this is likely to mean they will have to work longer hours, teach larger class sizes, more subjects, and constantly changing curricula (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010). What is expected from teachers, in regards to the implied ‘social contract’, is not pitched at a realistic level in many countries given material rewards, workloads, and work and living environments available based on the majority of teaching professionals’ salaries (Goldenberg, 2006; Goldenberg, 2008). 10. Language Development Theories It is currently understood that students with mastery of strong oral competencies tend to be more successful in scholastic settings than those students with weaker oral competencies are (Eliason & Jenkins, 2012). The five aspects of language knowledge are phonetic, semantic, syntactic, pragmatic, and morphemic (Otto, 2010). These five aspects form the building blocks which comprise the three levels of language knowledge, which are linguistic, metalinguistic, and metalinguistic verbalization (Otto, 2010). Linguistic competency also includes listening skills, which are a large part of the literacy acquisition and the comprehensive development of grammatical acumen (Otto, 2010). Furthermore, linguistic development can be significantly hindered by the language barriers that may exist in the home and the student must be taught to communicate collaboratively within the home and school settings for optimal efficacy (Sharp, Ward, & Hankin, 2009). For this reason, the student’s language and familial background must be considered when making the decision regarding what communicative approach to use for instructional purposes. The background of the student shapes his/her capacity to flourish within various settings and is vital when considering the whole student to make determinations about his/her imminent educational expe-rience. Students from families whose primary home language is not English will have a very

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 32


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

difficult time communicating at home if they are taught to speak Eng-lish without regard for the language barrier that exists in their homes (Otto, 2010). Linguist Naom Chomsky is the primary theoretician correlated with the nativist perspective of language de-velopment, which emphasizes innate linguistic capabili-ties as the primary contributory factor to language de-velopment in students (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). This perspective of linguistic acquisition encourages ed-ucators to employ a curriculum that will allow numerous opportunities for students to explore language, as well as various aspects of their growing knowledge and keep their language acquisition device (LAD) active (Otto, 2010). Alternatively, the cognitive development perspective is based on the theories of Jean Piaget and speculates that linguistic acquisition comes with maturation and cognitive development, which is the foundation for language learning (Eliason & Jenkins, 2012). This perspective of linguistic development encourages educa-tors to scrutinize the cognitive developmental stages of their students and encourage stimulatory activities as precursors to the onset of linguistic development (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010). Conversely, the behaviorist perspective emphasizes the role of “nature,” including stimuli, responses, and rein-forcements that occur in the student’s environment based on B.F. Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning along with the notion that students are blank slates before they are taught through various situations and learn language through imitative speech (Otto, 2010). This perspective encourages teachers to focus on the types of stimuli and reinforcements regarding language that students encounter and to communicate verbally. Similarly, the interactionist perspective is based on the sociocultural exchanges that help students improve their linguistic aptitudes and is based on the philosophies of Lev Vygotsky, whose premise posits that language development is formed through social interactions with those in their surroundings that create a language acquisition support system (LASS) (Otto, 2010). This theory requires the instructor to create conditions for effective development and to be aware of the student’s zone of proximal development and know what the student can accomplish on his/her own and what will require scaffolding from the supervising adult (Sadker & Zittleman, 2009). 11. Discussion The analysis of both qualitative and quantitative re-search reveals that the levels of anxiety and confidence of students influence their participation in oral activities, as well as their classroom behaviors (Cheung & Hui, 2003; Forrester & Lok, 2008; Tong, 2010). Increasing the confidence levels of the student while decreasing his/her anxiety and discomfort will help the teacher achieve better behavior patterns in his/her students, which can be accomplished by allocating a sufficient amount of time to allow students to organize their responses to teachers’ questions or to formulate questions (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010). Students should be allowed to talk about the lessons and compare notes with their classmates before they give responses, which will give them the confidence to voice their opinions while their fellow student’s work, like when classmates are doing exercises or completing compositions (Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). Additionally, students were more comfortable with verbal communication when they were not called upon Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 33


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

individually to speak in front of their classmates and displayed more cooperative behavior in groups (Tong, 2010). Under these conditions, students were able to give complete answers to their teachers’ questions in a collective way and classroom disruptions were reduced to a minimum (Tong, 2010). It has been established that language learning is espe-cially successful when the objective language is used to facilitate an understanding of the language overall, as well as for the purpose of enhancing students reading or listening skills (Nassaji & Fotos, 2011). To achieve this end, EFL educators encourage his/her students to participate vocally in language classrooms and produce intelli-gible feedback (Hinkel & Fotos, 2002). Such involve-ment can help students establish a foundation that will enable them to accurately communicate what they want to say and can be the determining factor in whether they are able to say it (Tong, 2010). Furthermore, student “participation in verbal interaction offers language learners the opportunity to follow up on new words and structures to which they have been ex-posed during lan-guage lessons and to practice them in context” (Tong, 2010, p. 240). These factors can provide students with the motivation to learn and improve their conversational skills and behavioral patterns. There are numerous specific needs that must be met for the successful bilingual education of EFL/ESL students. Chief among these are (1) primary language instruction enhances EFL/ESL students’ academic achievement, (2) in many important respects EFL/ESL students learn in much the same way as non-EFL/ESL individuals, and (3) certain accommodations must be made when EFL/ESL students are instructed in English, primarily, although not exclusively, because of the students’ language limitations (Sadker & Zittleman, 2009). These accommodations must probably be in place for many years, at least for some students, until students reach sufficient familiarity with academic English to permit them to be successful in mainstream instruction. Policies, such as in California, that block use of the primary language and limit instructional accommodations for English learners are simply not based on the best scientific evidence available (Goldenberg, 2006). Reviews concerning the efficacy of pairing EFL stu-dents in groups to encourage oral participation found that when second language learners worked in groups, their motivation increased, they took more initiative, and they experienced lower levels of anxiety regarding their learning (Tong, 2010). Such participation is of particu-lar importance to researchers due to the supposition that a relationship may exist between student oral participation and the teachers’ questioning techniques and selection of classroom activities, which can encourage students to continue talking (Wong, 2010). Studies suggest that “students’ oral participation is increased if application and presentation activities are used; the right vocabulary is offered when students need it to continue; questions related to students’ prior experiences are asked; and an informal and friendly classroom atmosphere is present” (Tong, 2010, p. 240). Research conducted to determine the level of student participation in classroom activities requiring verbal proficiency in qualitative and quantitative findings support the proposal that teaching about involvement in classroom activities can “increase students’ oral participation in class, and lead to the improvement of students’ speaking proficiency” (Tong, 2010, p. 240). The more proficient in Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 34


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

English the students were, the more willing they were to participate in speech communication and the more positive they were about it (DeCapua, 2008). In order to support student communications in English, teachers could make clear that student oral participation is an integral part of the teaching and learning processes at the beginning of the term/course (DeCapua, 2008). These lessons can be combined with the teachers’ unremitting support or gentle reminders for students to orally participate in the lessons (Suryanarayana & Luciana, 2010). The teaching of conversational English can promote turn-taking skills, which can be useful in numerous ways (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010). Silent behavior and inflection patterns in turn-taking can be built in the pronunciation course and students’ attention can be used to draw insinuations of silence in target language conversations (Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010). In addition, students’ understanding of the intonation patterns in the conversational turn-taking processes can be raised and conclusions drawn that contributory instruction will im-prove students’ speaking proficiency, and also cultivate a positive attitude towards English lessons (Tong, 2010). Subsequently, students learn to spot the moments when they are to take turns in conversations (Tong, 2010). Additional noteworthy points demonstrate that “there is a continuation of high ontask level, conduct co-operation and rules compliance in the non-target classrooms when token reinforcement or increased teacher approval is adopted” (Chow, 1993, p. 111). Reinforcements can include praise and encouragement from the instructor, prizes, or incentive programs implemented by the teach-ers, which can successfully deflect the 'side-effects' pro-duced by the stressful conditions (Goldenberg, 2008). Furthermore, ensuring that the ESL/EFL students encounter multiple opportunities to hear or engage in the target language outside of the classroom has been proven especially effective and helps elicit verbal responses from particularly troublesome students (Nassaji & Fotos, 2011). The open approval of the teacher is also an encouraging aspect that can be beneficial to their students (Chow, 1993). Students at secondary schools should be able to behave themselves and without the necessity of praise form their teacher, but the need for encouragement among students is a universal phenomenon affecting all school teachers (Chow, 1993). 12. Conclusion The growth and progress of the students in all de-velopmental areas is the goal of not just literacy, but the entire educational process (Hinkel & Fotos, 2002). These determining characteristics allow educators to evaluate the progress of the students and the effectiveness of the educational models being implemented so that students who are not progressing developmentally can receive the needed attention and so dysfunctional educational models can be replaced with functional ones (DeCapua, 2008). To be the most effective educators we can be, it is necessary to be aware of the best tools of the trade, which includes the best educational procedures, books, and various other associative media useful in fa-cilitating learning and the highest level of retention among students. In summation, instruction for EFL/ESL students must either include or ensure that students are proficient in formal grammar, which has been evidenced by numerous researchers to be lax since students’ progress to freshman English classes without a proper comprehension of grammar and Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 35


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

freshman courses are designed to teach writing, not grammar (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2008; Annamali, 1989; Casteel & Ballantyne, 2010; Chen, Kyle, & McIntyre, 2008). Collegiate classes must teach curriculum based on the purpose of the course rather than foundational material, and EFL/ESL students with improper grammatical foundations may require in-struction be taught in their native language or fundamental classes. The integrated approach allows the teacher to successfully teach the required curriculum through a variety of flexible approaches that engage and keep the student’s attention with holistic input. Successfully integrating all of these criteria into the foundation of your literary selective process will help ensure consistently beneficial and appropriate selections are made for the literature program. References 1. Alliance for Excellent Education. (2008). What Keeps Good Teachers in the Classroom? Understanding and Reducing Teacher Turnover. MetLife Foundation. As accessed in November 2012 from http://www.all4ed.org/files/TeachTurn.pdf 2. Annamali, E. (1989). The language factor in code-mixing. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 74, 47–54. 3. Babbie, E. (2007). The Practice of Social Research (11th ed.). California: The Thomas Wadsworth Corporation. 4. Bader, Y. (1995). Code-switching to English in daily conversations in Jordan: Factors and attitudes. Abhath Al-Yarmouk (Literature and Linguistics Series), 13(2), 9-27. 5. Bai, X. S. (1995). Adapting to a new environment: the problems facing Hong Kong youth. Beijing: Beijing University of Foreign Language. 6. Bentahila, A., & Davies, E. D. (1983). The syntax of Arabic-French code-switching. Lingua, 59, 301–330. 7. Casteel, C., & Ballantyne, K. (Eds.). (2010). Professional development in action: Improving teaching for English learners. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. As accessed in November 2012 from from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/files/uploads/3/PDF 8. Chan, S. (1999). The Chinese learner- a question of style. Education & Training, 41(6/7), 294-304. 9. Chen, C. T., Kyle, D. W., & McIntyre, E. (2008). Helping teachers work effectively with English Language Learners and their families. School Community Journal, 18(1), 7-20. 10. Cheung, H. Y., & Hui, S. K. (2003). Mainland Immigrant and Hong Kong Local Students’ Psychological Sense of School Membership. Asia Pacific Education Review, 4(1), 67-74. “PDCA12-70 data sheet,” Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland. 11. Chow, Y. M. (1993). A behavioral approach to classroom management at secondary level. As accessed in December 2012 from http://hdl.handle.net/10722/40900 12. Dai, W. T. (2010). Examine the relations of perceived classroom environment to effectively and emotion regulation of students in Hong Kong. 13. DeCapua, A. (Ed.). (2008). Grammar for Teachers A Guide to American English for Native and Non-Native Speakers . New Rochelle, New York: Springer Science & Business Media, LLC. 14. Eliason, C. F., & Jenkins, L. (2012). A practical guide to early childhood curriculum. New Jersey: Pearson. 15. Forrester, V., & Lok, B. (2008). Native English Teachers in Hong Kong Building Communities of Practice? Asian Social Science, 4(5), 3-11. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 36


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

16. Gluth, E. (2008). Code-switching: Grammatical, pragmatic and psycholinguistic aspects: An overview paper. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag. 17. Goldenberg, C. (2006). Improving achievement for English learners: Conclusions from 2 research reviews. As accessed in January 2013 from Colorín Colorado: http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/12918 18. Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English Language Learners what the research does-and does not-say. American Educator Summer, 8-23, 42-44. 19. Halmari, H. (1997). Government and code-switching: Explaining American Finnish. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 20. Hinkel, E., & Fotos, S. (Eds.). (2002). New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, Inc 21. Lam, S. C. (2006). Hong Kong primary students' perception of satisfaction with their schools. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong. As accessed in December 2012 from http://hdl.handle.net/10722/51395 22. Lefkowitz, N. (1991). Talking backwards, looking forwards: The French language game verlan. Germany: Gunter Narr Verlag Tubingen. 23. Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Duelling languages: Grammatical structure in code-switching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 24. Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. (2011). Teaching Grammar in Second Language Classrooms Integrating Form-Focused Instruction in Communicative Context. New York: Routledge Taylor & Francis. 25. Newman, M. (2011). Research methods in psychology. San Diego,CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. 26. Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. 27. Sadker, D., & Zittleman, K. (2009). Teachers, schools, and society: A brief introduction (2nd ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. 28. Sharp, J., Ward, S., & and Hankin, L. (2009). Education studies: An issue based approach.. UK: Learning Matters. 29. Suryanarayana, N. V., & Luciana, M. Z. (2010, August 23). Teaching competency and teacher job satisfaction among secondary school teachers. Articlesbase. As accessed in October 2012 from http://www.articlesbase.com/tutoring-articles/teaching-competencyand-teacher-job-satisfaction-among-secondary-school-teachers-3108434.html 30. Tong, J. (2010). Some Observations of Students’ Reticent and Participatory Behavior in Hong Kong English Classrooms. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 7(2), 239–254. 31. Wei, M., Brok, P., & Zhou, Y. (2009). Teacher interpersonal behavior and student achievement in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in China. Learning Environmental Resources, 12, 157–174. 32. Wong, R. M. (2010). Mainland students learning English in Hong Kong: Does place-oforigin affect motivation? TESOL Journal, 2, 109-129. As accessed in January 2013 from http://www.tesol-journal.com

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 37


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics The Experience of Albanian School in Improving the Teaching of Foreign Language Grammar Angjelina Nenshati-Shllaku

Keywords: activities, grammar teaching, method, questionnaire, renovation.

University of Shkodër, Faculty of Foreign Languages, Albania

Abstract The aim of this article is to bring the experience of Albanian schools in renewing the teaching of foreign language grammar. Grammar occupies a significant place in the process of foreign language teaching and learning at all teaching levels in the Albanian schools. It has been long since it constitutes the focus of seminars organized by the department of education of the region and the institutions of both high and higher education. Grammar has been considered as the main linguistic component in foreign language classes. Grammar exercises practiced in there are multifarious. Teaching grammar is based on the grammar material informed by grammar French language textbooks and teachers’ ability to integrate grammar as a significant component of foreign language teaching with other components as the lexis, phonetics and so on, in order that it could better serve communication in a foreign language. Through examples and questionnaires this article brings out the experience of Albanian teachers concerning the teaching of French grammar.

The National Curriculum of Modern Languages for the Pre-university Public Education developed by the Albanian Ministry of Science and Education provides a clear picture of the objectives for the teaching and acquisition of grammar and the place it occupies in the high and nine-year school curriculum. Grammatical knowledge constitutes an important goal in the curriculum content. “The experience of the Albanian school has shown that when the teacher uses various teaching methods and activities reasonably connected to each other, students’ interest is kept alive. They become more active and motivated to learn the foreign language” (Konci,1984) In conformity with specific situation, it fully utilizes the communicative potential of a functional approach with situational learning of foreign languages, and as such, it provides students with opportunities to have a good command of the necessary phonological, lexical, and grammatical systems in their respective level. The didactic materials emphasize this aspect by providing the objectives of communicative learning and realizing them through special linguistic interactive means. In this way, “acquisition of structural knowledge gets intertwined with the free development of the functional aspect, reducing in this way the traditional structural gradation in the teaching process.” (Mash, 2000) Grammar which includes knowledge on morphology, word formation, syntax and word order is studied in the course of communication. The criterion for the selection of grammatical issues is based on the direct practice with didactic materials on functional basis. The pedagogical goals of the teaching programs in the three levels of education in Albania have been clearly defined and they intend:

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 38


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

• •

Research paper

To include knowledge on the foreign language system in the direct context of communicative practice To clarify the grammatical, lexical, and phonetic knowledge to be acquired by the student

Grammar acquisition begins in the third grade of the primary school and goes on until the last year of the high school. The national curriculum of modern languages clearly describes the grammar skills that should be developed in the foreign language classes. “Principles of curriculum design are based on the development of multi-linguistic and multicultural capacities of an individual to enable him to confront problems of communication in a multi-linguistic and multicultural Europe”. (Krashen,1981). Based on an analysis of French text-books prepared by Albanian and foreign authors, it can be noticed that in many of them, explanation and different activities are focused on grammar issues. This testifies to the attention paid to grammar as one of the most important components in the process of foreign language teaching/learning. This ascertainment also holds true for the textbooks written lately in the light of the National Curriculum of Modern Languages. The table of the subjects with a focus on the morphologic-syntactic structure is displayed by levels below. (Mash, 2000) The third class

-Le présent (trois formes : affirmative, négative, interrogative) -Les articles un, une, des, le, la, l’, les -Le pluriel des noms -Le féminin des noms etc The fourth -Les adjectifs qualificatifs (singulier, pluriel) class -Il faut + infinitif -Le comparatif des adjectifs (masculin, féminin) -Les adverbes de quantité (beaucoup, peu) etc The fifth class -Les pronoms personnels -L’interrogation -Le passé composé avec “être” et “avoir” -Les formules de politesse: s’il te plaît, s’il vous plaît, j’aimerais, je voudrais etc... The sixth -Les noms et adjectifs de couleur class -Les adverbes: quand, combien, comment -Les pronoms personnels COD: le, la, les (cd) -Les pronoms personnels COI: me, te, nous, vous, lui, leur etc... The seventh -Les structures interrogatives: qui est-ce qui/ qu’est-ce qui? quand? comment? class pourquoi? -Les conjonctions de coordination: mais, où, est, donc, or, ni, car -Les adverbes en, y -Les pronoms relatifs: qui, que, où etc... The eighth -Les adjectifs indéfinis: même, tout class -L’ordre des mots dans la phrase -La structure si + présent + présent/futur simple -Les adverbes en –ment etc... The ninth -Les indicateurs temporels: depuis, il y a, ça fait que

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 39


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

class

The tenth class

The eleventh class

The twelfth class

Research paper

-Les verbes pronominaux (présent, passé composé) -Le participe présent et le gérondif -La conjonction de subordination “que” etc... -Le discours direct et indirect -Les formes impersonnelles du verbe: il est, il arrive, il pleut -Le passif -Les subordonnées circonstancielles: cause, but, condition... -Les différentes expressions du temps -Les pronoms relatifs composés -Situer dans l’espace -Situer dans le temps etc... -La concordance des temps -Les subordonnées: relatives, complétives, circonstacielles de temps, de manière, de conséquence, de concession et de condition -La comparaison etc...

Acquisition of these structures demands the application of contemporary methods of teaching grammar. “These methods give grammar its due importance in the process of teaching and learning foreign languages”. Cuq, . (2004). If a parallel line is drawn with Albanian language textbooks, it can be noticed that Albanian authors have made evident efforts into writing text-books to teach the Albanian language to Albanian students. This analysis contributes to the understanding that they have also shown special importance to the teaching of grammar. Albanian and French languages are both characterized by rich grammar systems. This is evidenced by the text-books used to teach these languages in Albania. Problems that show up while teaching them are numerous. A consideration of the text-book used to teach Albanian language to foreign students written by professors E.Hysa and Gj.Shkurtaj shows that “texts have been purposefully selected is such a way as to incorporate both grammar issues that are to be explained in the respective units devoted to grammar and words and expressions which gradually increase in number along with the respective grammatical knowledge involved in each lesson” (Shkurtaj, Hysa 1996). This parallel is drawn to make people aware of the similarities and differences between the grammar systems of Albanian and French, a thing which will be noticed further in the study. Opinions concerning the renovation of grammar teaching which are various but often contradictory are related to • A shift from traditional grammar teaching to teaching grammar to the benefit of communication. • A new vision of teaching with a focus on the Common European Frame of References for Languages. • Communicative exercises to the benefit of grammar acquisition and grammatical error correction and shunning. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 40


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

• The place grammar occupies in foreign language classes. • Use of new text-books which involve authentic documents to instill communication in foreign language in life-like situations. To have a clear idea about the way the grammar of the French language is taught in the Albanian schools, a questionnaire has been prepared. It was completed by teachers of the primary and secondary schools. The analysis will focus on two aspects: • The place grammar occupies in foreign language classes versus other linguistic disciplines. • The way teachers introduce grammar to students. The questionnaire was completed by 82 teachers of the French language from the cities of Shkodër, Lezhë, Elbasan, Pogradec and Korçë. The teachers quested were mainly women and their age ranges from 30 to 45. All teachers graduated from Tirana University for French and they have had a relatively long teaching experience. Actually, it is very difficult to create an exact idea concerning the practices used in foreign languages classes about the teaching of grammar. “This component has currently assumed special importance by being considered as an indispensable element for whoever wants to learn a foreign language”. (Newby 2001) It can be noticed that teachers use various methods to effectively teach grammar. Some of them are very interested in contemporary methods, others keep using traditional methods to teach grammar by considering them as fruitful. The following is an analysis of the above mentioned aspects. 1. Position of grammar in foreign language classes In view of all teachers interviewed, grammar occupies the main place in foreign language classes, it comes prior to lexis, civilization and phonetics. On the one hand, this can be explained by the fact that to communicate in a foreign language, students need to necessarily study the grammar of that language. On the other hand, care must be taken not focus on grammar only in foreign language teaching, neglecting in this way other components. In general, teachers of the French language apply the principles of the communicative method which advocates foreign language acquisition through communicative activities, grammar teaching included. In classroom conditions, the communicative situations in foreign language teaching is carried out through text-books whose authors managed to intertwine grammatical activities with communicative situations because students estimate grammar acquisition of special importance. It can be noticed in the questionnaire that what teachers recommend is in line with students’ requirement. The question that can be raised is: “Why is teaching grammar estimated of primary importance by both students and teachers”? On the one hand, grammar acquisition probably gives some sort of confidence. When the student learns a grammatical rule, he might think that he has acquired part

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 41


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

of the linguistic system, even though he may commit mistakes as he applies the rule. “Grammar rules are acquired more easily when the student rationalizes and contributes to their elaboration. Only in this way does the teacher become convinced whether students have acquired grammar knowledge. In this way, he becomes a mediator of acquisition“.(Tagliante,1994) Nevertheless, even when grammar knowledge is conveyed through the traditional method, “grammar acquisition is considered as an element of stability by the students distinguishing it from other linguistic activities”. (White, 1989) On the other hand, teachers include grammar in their syllabuses too, and they devote grammar issues special time. However, every teacher has his own way of teaching. Based on teachers’ answers, it can be pointed out that time devoted to grammar varies from 2070% of the lesson. If these data were interpreted, it can be stated that teachers who devote 20% of the time, or about 10 minutes of every lesson to grammar propose balanced teaching. To better judge about the efficiency of grammar teaching, pedagogical activities which the teacher employs in this period should be taken into account. Time described by each teacher does not pinpoint to one and the same thing. Some teachers dedicate half of the teaching time i.e. 50% of the lesson to grammar, some others devote 70% of the teaching time to grammar. The graph below displays the time teachers devote to grammar acquisition.

Figure 1: Results of the questionnaire about the place grammar occupies in foreign language classes

Besides, based on various views about the place grammar occupies in foreign language classes, it can be noted that teachers devote certain time to grammar, without overestimating it, despite students’ desire to acquire as many grammar rules as possible. Nevertheless, “grammar contributes to efficient communication in foreign language classes only when it is integrated with other linguistic components”. (Moirand, Porquier and Vives, 1989).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 42


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

2. Introducing grammar in foreign language classes This issue is related to the way the teacher introduces grammar in foreign language classes. In the questionnaire, a combination of the traditional method with elements of the communicative approach can be noted. This means that teachers try their best to provide students with teaching that favors the development of skills to communicate in a foreign language. “Combination of the traditional teaching of grammar with the contemporary instruction shows that teachers consider the former even more efficient, and that they find abandoning it difficult”. (Guirad, 1974) Teachers admit that they use the terms of traditional grammar. What is more, 30% of them use a simple meta-language to avoid students’ vagueness. They are of the opinion that “discussion of grammatical issues should be made in compliance with students’ needs and level, avoiding at the same time simplification or complication of the issue under discussion”. (Roulet, 1971) Based on the results of the questionnaire, it can be stated that, about 20% of the teachers that completed the questionnaire practice the inductive method to teach grammar. Examples extracted from contexts allow students to elaborate grammar rules for themselves. The rest of the teachers apply the inductive method. This depends on the degree of the difficulty of the grammar issue that is being discussed and the students’ level. This combination fits teachers’ main objective to adjust to students’ level. Worth of mentioning is a small number of teachers who applied implicit grammar, though they always intertwine it with the inductive or deductive methods, so that every grammar rule could be understood by students The data of the questionnaire show that the deductive method slightly predominates, however, from both the synthetic and the analytic views, the two methods are applied. 85% of the teachers admit that the treatment of a grammatical issue is realized through a text, whose type is not always determined. It can be stated that the semantic meaning outweighs the form of the subject matter that is being analyzed, which means that every teaching text is discussed in a certain context, then grammar issues that will later on be discussed and analyzed are set aside. This testifies to the fact that actually, “foreign language teachers perceive the development of communicative skills in a foreign language closely linked with the semantic aspect”. (Vigner, 2004) In this way, they help students to submit the acquired grammatical knowledge to communication which constitutes the main goal of the process of foreign language teaching. They accomplish it thanks to the authentic materials they use to teach grammar. Thus, “grammar no longer constitutes a linguistic component mastered only by the teacher who transmits it to students”. (Roulet, 1971)

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 43


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Conclusions Grammar is considered by Albanian teachers like one of the most important components in the process of foreign language teaching/learning. The criterion for the selection of grammatical issues is based on the direct practice with didactic materials on functional basis Teachers no longer dictate grammar rules, they invite students to rationalize about the grammar issue being treated. They admit that the two main elements in foreign language classes are grammar rules and grammar exercises. The latter help students to apply the grammar rule and check whether students have understood it. Treatment of the grammar rule in foreign language classes is viewed from different viewpoints by the teachers. Most teachers do not provide formulated rules, they elaborate them in collaboration with their students. They realize this by offering part of the rule which is then completed by students. Only 10% of the teachers provide formulated rules to be acquired. Interpretation of these data depend on the level of the students and the degree of the difficulty of the grammar issue to be studied. With a group of beginners, explanation of grammar rules is implemented in several stages because the students do not have the necessary linguistic capacity to understand the whole content of a grammar rule. Unlike beginners, the advanced students manage to elaborate grammar rules for themselves through examples taken from authentic materials or formulated by them, and in this way, they create an atmosphere of class interaction As for the ranking of grammar issues, teachers are free to choose how to organize the lesson. They respect the guidelines provided by the textbook of the French language, however, they frequently go by their own pedagogical instinct to adapt teaching of grammar rules to students’ level. Questionnaire analysis leads to the understanding that grammatical practices used in the French language classes in the Albanian schools rely on modern methods, notwithstanding the fact that there are teachers who find it difficult to break from traditional methods of teaching grammar. Most French language teachers try to give students grammar knowledge that assist them to communicate in specific situations. Language teaching/learning in based on use of new text-books which involve authentic documents to instill communication in foreign language in life-like situations. Teachers should receive appropriate training to meet the requirements of students for a fruitful and contemporary teaching. The renovation of grammar teaching is related to a new vision of teaching with a focus on the Common European Frame of References for Languages. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 44


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

References 1.Cuq, J-P(ed). (2004). Dictionnaire de didactique du français langue étrangère et seconde, CLE International. Paris Asdifle. 2.Guirad, P.(1974) La grammaire. Que sais-je? PUF. 3.Konci, R.(1984).Metodikë për mësimin e gjuhëve të huaja, Tiranë, 96. 4.Krashen,S.(1981).Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. New York Pergamon Press, Oxford. 5.Mash.(2000). Kurrikula kombëtare e gjuhëve moderne për arsimin parauniversitar, Botimet Toena,Tiranë. 6.Moirand, S., & Porquier, R.,& Vives, R. (coord.). (1989). " Et la grammaire " in Le Français dans le monde. Numéro Spécial Recherches et Applications. 7.Newby, D: Grammar for communication. Exercices and activities. Auflage. Nachdruck, 2001. 8.Newby, D: Grammar for communication. Nachdruck, 2001. 9.Roulet, E : Les modèles de grammaire et leurs application à l’enseignement des langues vivantes. « F.D.M. ». Decembre, 1971. 10.Shkurtaj, Gj.,& Hysa.E. (1996). Gjuha shqipe për të huajt dhe shqiptarët jashtë Atdheut. Botimet Toena, Tiranë. 11.Tagliante, C. (1994). La classe de langue. CLE International, Paris,124. 12.Vigner, G : La Grammaire en FLE. Hachette. 2004. 13.White, L: Universal Grammar and Second Language Acquisition. Benjamins. Amsterdam, 1989.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 45


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics

Comparing Languages Through the Process of Story Making. The Reception of Linguistic Structures from Teacher’s Training Students in Spain

Keywords: Stories, Fairy tales, Teaching of Language and Literature, Story making methodology, Intercultural Education.

Isabel Jerez-Martínez

Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (Spain)

Juan José Varela-Tembra

Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (Spain)

Eduardo Encabo-Fernández

Universidad de Murcia (Spain)

Arburim Iseni

Universidad de Tetova (Macedonia)

Abstract The article will consider the role that fairy tales may have in the background of future Preschool and Primary teachers as language learning promoters. By increasing their knowledge on fairy tales and providing them, with suitable contact with different languages we are promoting an Intercultural character of Education and at the same time, we are demonstrating that, taking as a reference a fairy tale, we can work with different linguistic structures. The text will present an experience with more than one hundred future teachers in which we tried to demonstrate that they can start their learning of new languages using a story. The Story making methodology will support this language learning, once we know that it is possible for students to identify the key parts of the texts.

1. Children´S Literature, Fairy Tales and Linguistics Children’s literature continues to be one of the most rapidly expanding and exciting interdisciplinary academic studies, and being of enormous interest to anyone concerned with literature, education, internationalism, childhood, or culture in general. One of the most important topics in schools is the story. This is a suitable resource either for teachers, librarians or educators and in it we can find values and contents which are relevant to broad educational matters. Our aim in this article is to deal with stories and Fairy tales which constitute the material we have used to demonstrate the importance of these resources in the process of teaching/learning languages. As Zipes states (1983: 1) the fairy tale may be the most important cultural and social event in most children’s lives. Fairy tales for children as universal, ageless therapeutic, miraculous, and beautiful, are how they have come down to us throughout History. These characteristics allow us to include them in our syllabus and, its transversal dimension implies that the levels in which we can use stories and fairy tales may be different; as going from Preschool level to Higher Education. Although fairy tales are, still arguably, the most powerfully formative tales of childhood and permeate mass media for children and adults, it is not unusual to find them deemed of marginal cultural importance and dismissed as unworthy of critical attention. Yet the staying power of these stories and their widespread and enduring popularity, suggests that they might be addressing issues

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 46


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

which have a significant social function –whether critical, conservative, compensatory, or therapeutic (Tatar, 1999: 11). 1.1. The importance of stories Stories are our most primitive, and enduring, means of human communication. People telling stories about themselves and other people, and the day-to-day things that they care about. Shannon (1995:11) writes: “...stories are important to people, politics, and education. Stories are how people make sense of themselves and their worlds. In young children's spontaneous stories that they act out as they play, we can see how they believe people relate to one another, who they hope to become, and how they will behave. We can see adolescents play roles in their own and other people's stories in order to figure out where they fit into their ever-expanding worlds. As adults, the true and imaginary stories we wish to tell and believe suggest what we value most in this world. In a real sense, stories make people”. We do agree with him and we bear in mind his thought in this text. But, what do we mean by ‘stories’? Wright (2000) uses the word stories with an extensive meaning; any description of a series of events whether true or untrue. Stories, for him, include: myths, legends, fairy stories and fables which originated in the oral form. But stories also include written fiction and especially short stories, also theatre and film. Furthermore, for him the word ‘story’ includes our own personal anecdotes, descriptions of the development of a firm or a nation. As we can see, stories have a crucial role in our society and are in present in its roots. This reason encourages us to bear in mind that stories are fundamental in Education and specifically in teaching languages. 1.2. Language education and the use of stories Wright (2000) points out that the main reason for language teachers to take the use of stories in very seriously their teaching for all kinds of students; from children to adults and from beginners to advanced, regards that we are the stories we hear and make. He explains that all teachers do affect the personal growth of students, particularly young students. Because of this, stories play a central part in our society at the adult level as well as for children. Stories are certainly not only for little children. There are several fields in which we can use stories. It is not usual to find professionals from economics or business using tales and the techniques associated to them to improve their skills and become better workers. In this article we will deal with the concept of Story making. This is a term borrowed from Harvey and Martin (1995) that refers to the construction, recall, comprehension and telling of stories. One of the dimensions of the teacher training regards being an actor, and storyteller (Bradshaw, 2004). This is because the audience of a teacher expects performances which include knowledge but, at the same time, non verbal communication and above all, motivation. Stories have a fun and

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 47


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

educative dimension and this is the reason why we must encourage teachers to read again the stories and to tell them to their students. In our case, the stories help the language learning process and try to bring different cultures together. 1.3. Stories and Linguistics The selected material is important but the user should be trained in this field in order to use it properly. In our case our mission is to train teachers (either Preschool or Primary teachers). These teachers must be facilitators and at the same time leaders in the classroom. An effective leader must be a competent storyteller who can use oral communication skills to create a vivid and passionate narrative. This is the perfect combination for Children’s Education: a good fairy tale and a good storyteller. Since ancient times, sharing stories and unified metaphors has created commonality in our seemingly separate yet interpenetrating realities. Through stories, the chaos of experience is put into a simple linear form by the storyteller. Ironically, real life is not linear. A multiple story reality with conflicting plotlines is closer to the truth of human interaction (Boje, 2001). One of the aspects in which we are interested is the story’s structure. The beggining and the ending are relevant to identifying this type of text. Moreover, we will see that using the Story making methodology we will be able to include other key aspects such as triple functions. These techniques applied to verbs, allow the new learners of a language to see which are the words which have the same function as in their own language. Obviously, we have to be careful with transference because the possibility of errors and mistakes always remains. Since the 1930’s, we have known the theory of the Prague school, in which we can identify the interest of researchers in Syntax. The two key topics related to this issue are Theme and Rhyme. In functional grammar, these are two parallel and interrelated systems of analysis that concern the structure of the clause. The first is the information structure, which is in essence listener-oriented. The present section will deal with the second, called thematic structure, which is speaker-oriented. The constituents involved in the information structure are labelled Given (information) and New (information), and those in the thematic structure are labelled Theme and Rhyme. On repeated occasions, throughout his many studies on thematic issues, Halliday (1994: 52) states that the theme of a sentence extends from its beginning up to the first element that fulfils a function in transitivity and that this thematic constituent mainly, if it is a participant, tends to be topical. Thus, in every story we can find a similar Theme reflected in the sentences: Once upon a time, A long time ago, and so on. The rhyme will be the content that follows these structures (Thompson, 1996). Both Fairy tales and the mentioned linguistic topic will be the basis of our study. In the following section we are going to describe the Story making methodology that, as we have stated, will serve as the next step in the process of learning languages.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 48


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

2. The Story Making Methodology and its Implications for our Study In this section, we have to mention the project entitle PALLPS (Parents as Language Leaning Partners). This project was funded by the European Union within the Lifelong Learning Programme (Grundvigt). We have considered the role that adults and parents could play as language learning partners. By increasing adults and parents’ knowledge of an innovative second language learning methodology they were going to be provided with access to adult learning opportunities, so that they would be able to understand how they could support their children’s learning process. The project has been developed From 2007 to 2009 and the partners involved were: The International Learning and Research Centre (UK), Prosper-ASE Language Centre (Romania) and the University of Murcia (Spain). 2.1. Defining the stages Corbett (2009) explains that the ability to tell a story arises out of building up and drawing upon a bank of well-known tales. The best writers in a class are always avid reader, strugglers may are unfamiliar with the language patterns. Story making is a three stage methodology which aims to develop the linguistic and personal skills of children by using stories either from folklore or from classic fairy tales. In the process we can define the three stages in this way: Imitation, Innovation and Invention. In the first, the tasks required are to learn, to remember and to be able to repeat. In the second, the steps are the same: to learn and to remember but in the third action using and adapting this learning. Finally, the invention part consists of applying the internalised knowledge of structures and creating new texts. Corbett (2009) specifies these stages, indicating that in the imitation the most important aspect is getting to know the story through – storytelling or rereading, make it memorable (drawing it) and try to spell it. In the second phase (innovation), we are going to re-use a well-known text and we will substitute, add or make an alteration on it. Finally, in the invention stage we will make the text up, building up a story: drawing, drama, images, video and so on. 2.2. Benefits from the Story making methodology The PALLPS Project aimed the learning challenge inherent in better understanding the link between speaking and writing, in order to raise standards and improve the quality of children’s literacy. The following improvements in children’s language skills and language are consequence of the mentioned methodology: oral language, explaining thought processes orally, the evident understanding of developments and implications in a story; how to use voice, expression, intonation and learning to make meaning from this. Regarding written language, enjoyment, motivation and determination to be a writer are key findings of the project.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 49


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The project methodology has had a positive impact on language skills development and motivation. Emerging models of practice provided interesting case study material with findings that would in time be transferable across different settings. The diversity of practice in relation to different approaches and project beneficiaries was adding richness to the project. On the other hand, we have had the opportunity of remembering and working with classic tales such as Peter and the Wolf, Billy Goats Gruff, Princess and the Pea or Red Riding Hood and above all, in order to explore the resemblances and differences between cultures. Working along with people from diverse countries it is possible to compare the classic stories and to identify elements shared by Intercultural Education. 2.3. Implication for our study/experience To develop the mentioned stages we consider a suitable framework and some assumptions such as spoken language as the first and the most important resource that children as writers have. Because of this, there is a need to build enriching learning experiences in children’s spoken language. To do this there is the neccesity of increasing the linguistic ‘bank’ that children draw from their writing. Previously, we have stated that the storyteller has to have particular skills in order to improve the perception of the story that children have. This is the reason why we need key teaching strategies which help children to internalise the patterns of language. Some of these useful strategies for teachers and librarians in their role as storytellers are: emphasis on pattern; emphasis on rhythm; sounds and actions; experimentation; and emphasis on sentence structure. Regarding the design of our study, we have to select stories which have specific characteristics in order to be adapted to Story making. Because of this, the rule of three related to the triple function has been very important in testing whether the students were able to identify the key linguistic structures. Besides, opportunities for role play are also important. Cumulative must be an important dimension because allows the learner to understand better the new language and its contents. This is the methodology that is a consequence of this study. Once we know that children and teachers are able to identify the linguistic structures they can be trained in the methodology and then they can use it in their future practice. 3. The Study/Experience We thought that it would be interesting to know if future teachers could identify linguistic structures from other languages by using one story adapted to the story making methodology. If they are able to do this, we think that they will be ready to try this with Children (of course, they have to be trained in the mentioned methodology).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 50


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

3.1. Objectives and Hypothesis of this study There was one main objective and several secondary ones in planning this study, although all were intended to help reach a conclusion concerning the reception of linguistic structures by future teachers. Main Objective: To ascertain the reception of linguistic structures by future teachers using fairy tales in foreign languages. Objective number one: To ascertain whether future teachers are able to identify the key aspects of a story that will allow them to learn a new language. This first objective will help us to attain the main objective since we attempt to find out whether teachers can use the story to learn aspects of a new language. Objective number two: To search for a starting point that will be followed by training in Story making methodology. Through stories we try to obtain evidence concerning teachers’ capacity to learn languages and to transmit them to Children using the Story making methodology. With these objectives, we put forward some hypotheses that will help us understand academic reality in order to design possible changes which will also affect social reality. Hypothesis: future teachers are able to identify key linguistic structures in stories written in a foreign language. Because of this, it is possible to apply the stories in schools using the Story making methodology with Children in order to promote language learning. With this objective and hypothesis we are ready to know more information about the sample and the procedure we used in this study. 3.2. Sample As a sample body, we have decided to use future Preschool and Primary teachers because they are in contact with stories, and these resources will be keys in their future practice. Three different groups were selected. A first one from the Nursery level with seventy three students, a second one from the Primary level (speciality foreign languages: French) with seventeen students; and the last one from the Primary level (speciality foreign languages: English) with twenty two students. The overall sample was one hundred and twelve students. Total (French speciality) Total (English speciality) Total (Nursery speciality) Total

17/17 100% 22/22 100% 73/73 100% 112/112 100% Table number 1: sample

We considered that it was not necessary to take into account the gender variable because in these classes the ninety percent of the students are female.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 51


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

3.3. Procedure Our study has been designed taking as a reference one story adapted to the Story making process “Little Jack”. We have the translations of this story in several languages: Romanian, French, English, German, and Spanish. Our objective was to demonstrate that the students (future Preschool and Primary teachers) were able to identify key structures of the texts in each of the aforementioned languages. To do this, it is very important to bear in mind the concepts of Theme (A fost odata, Il était une fois, Once upon a time, Es gab einmal, Érase una vez) or the rule of three (triple function), because readers can find the verb three times in the same paragraph. We presented the following stories to students taking into account that paragraphs were not in order. They had to find the right place for each paragraph for all the versions of the story (four languages). They could read the correct Spanish version. In addition, they have different question in order to complete the activity: - To identify the beginning of the story (theme) - What is the name of the main character? - To identify the different cases of triple function In one session they completed the requested activity. There were different versions of Little Jack (Spanish, French, German and Romanian) –see appendix-. 3.4. Analysis of results By analysing the answers from students we can see that our study was successful and we can accept our hypothesis. If we organise the results in a table we can see the following data: English

French

German

Romanian

Other aspects

Total (French speciality) 17/17 100%

16/17 94%

14/17 82%

16/17 94%

9/17 52%

Total (English speciality) 22/22 100%

22/22 100% 22/22 100% 22/22 100% 4/22 18%

Total (Nursery speciality) 73/73 100%

71/73 97%

Total

64/73 87%

71/73 97%

20/73 27%

112/112 100% 109/112 97% 100/112 89% 109/112 97% 33/112 29% Table number 2: results

We have divided the aforementioned data into the three different lines of study (Nursery, French and English students) and its correspondence to the columns in which we have included the different languages in which the story was translated. The first one was English in which we notice that there are no errors regarding the activity of giving the right order to each paragraph, the question related to the beginning of the story (linguistic structure), the activity of identifying the name of the main character and the last question concerning the triple function. Neither student Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 52


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

had problems with this language, this is normal because it is the second language that they learn in academic training. In the second case, the French language, the percentage was also high. Only three students had problems with this language. German was the language in which we could find most errors, above all when we ask the students to identify the theme (beginning of the story). Finally, regarding the Romanian language the situation is the same as in French. We have to mention that the task was easy for the students but we thought that it would be important to include a column with those errors that show us that they do not know completely what they were doing. Thus, although in many cases they gave the right answers when asked about the theme (beginning of the story); we found that they gave too much information. For example, “Once upon a time there was” It is not necessary to mention “there was”. The same situation was found with the other languages. If we take this into account the percentage related to the students that completed all the activities perfectly is reduced to 29%. The French group was the best of three because the half of students answered all the questions perfectly. The other two groups have low percentages. This data gives us a new perspective of the experience, because it was not as successful as we thought. However, we must think of the short time of the study and keep the good impression that the overall results left. 4. Conclusions The results suggest that it was possible to think of training future teachers in developing the Story making methodology because they were able to identify the key elements of the story in different languages. Although the results of the study have not been excellent due to the fact that they did not have complete dominance of linguistic structures and languages, it is possible to affirm that they have the potential to work with foreign languages and the most important conclusion is that they can transmit it to children. Without any doubt, teaching of languages is a great challenge in our contemporary society, and the mentioned PALLPS project is a good opportunity to search for new ways of innovation and impact in society and more concretely, in Education. In the language and literature Classroom, we can go for an education based on knowledge building and the inner approach to that knowledge by reflecting on the different contents considering –mainly – the linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing and oral interaction. Following this trend, we think that the Story making methodology fulfils this aim, and this is the reason why we have designed this study: to demonstrate the possibilities of the project in teacher training and then in schools. This educational scheme means that teachers should have new challenges, a chance to improve, and an opportunity for social improvement. Due to the importance of the way in which language is used, in this contribution we have attempted to expose some key points related to the teaching of language and literature and to link them to the Story making methodology. The main conclusion of this study were the possibilities given by the methodology and materials used in PALLPS were quite important, and this assures that its use in the classroom or in other educational contexts would contribute to the field of teaching languages and cultures. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 53


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

5. References 1. Bradshaw, C. (2004). Tell it again! The new storytelling handbook for Primary Teachers (book). ELT Journal: an Internacional journal for teachers of English to speakers of other languages, 58 (1), 94-96. 2. Boje, D. M. (2001). Narrative methods for organizational and communication research. 3. London ; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 4. Corbett, P. (2009). Jumpstart! Storymaking. New York: Routledge. 5. Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). An introduction to functional grammar. London: Arnold. 6. Harvey, J. and Martin, R. (1995). Celebrating the story in social perception, communication and behaviour, In R. Wyer (Ed.). Knowledge and memory. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 87-97. 7. Shannon, P. (1995). Texts, lies and videotape: stories about life, literacy and learning. Portsmouth: NH, Heinemann. 8. Tatar, M. (1999). The classic Fairy tales. New York: Norton. 9. Thompson, G. (1996). Introducing Functional Grammar. Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd. 10. Wright, A. (2000). Stories and their importance in language teaching. Humanising Language Teaching, 2 (5), http://www.hltmag.co.uk/sep00/mart2.htm (Last review 30/06/2010). 11. Zipes, J. (1983). Fairy tales and the art of subversion. The classical genre for children and the process of civilization. New York: Routledge.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 54


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Parametric Variation and the Verb-Second Constraint in Old English and Early Middle English1 Alexandra Scridon

Research paper

Linguistics Keywords: parameters, verb-second, cliticization, head movement

Faculty of Letters, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Abstract Syntactic variation and change has attracted increasing interest within the field of historical linguistics during the past few decades. Much recent work on diachronic syntax has followed a Chomskian approach, adopting the Minimalist framework (Chomsky 1995). Taking into account recent contributions to current generative work on syntactic change, this paper will focus on the notion of parameters (e.g., verb-movement parameter, verb-second parameter) and the theories which account for parameter variation and change in Old and Middle English (e.g., van Kemenade 1987, 1997; Pintzuk 1999). Therefore, we will discuss the exploitation of functional heads within the Principles and Parameters framework and will focus on V-to-I movement and V/I-to-C movement. Considering the CP domain, we will present how C interacts with V (yielding verb-second word order) and with DP by discussing the role and position of the first constituent in a clause.

1. Introduction The recent development of historical linguistics and comparative syntax has paved the way to a more rigorous study of word order change in the history of the English language. One of the most basic cases of parametric variation regards the position of the head element within a constituent. Questions have been raised as to the precise definition of the parametric theory of head-positions, and one of the most significant current discussions concerns second position systems, how they are innovated and what leads to their loss. We start by outlining the analysis of head movement as it was presented in the syntactic theory from the early 1980s till present-day. In the first section, we discuss the approaches to the head movement parameter within the Principles and Parameters framework and present the triggers for head movement. Then we focus on verb movement to functional positions higher in the clause than VP (Inflection and Complementizer, respectively), by discussing each of them in turn. We present the verb-second phenomenon by focusing on the position of verbs in Old English and early Middle English, and taking into account two main perspectives: van Kemenade (1987, 1997) and Pintzuk (1999). 2. The Head-Movement Parameter and the Principles and Parameters Framework Work within the Principles and Parameters model (henceforth, P&P) has been dominant within the generative framework since Chomsky’s (1981) theory of Government and Binding (henceforth, 1

Acknowledgements - This work was possible with the financial support of the Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, co-financed by the European Social Fund, under the project number POSDRU/107/1.5/S/76841 with the title "Modern Doctoral Studies: Internationalization and Interdisciplinarity.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 55


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

GB). Thus, the Principles and Parameters approach involves both the Government and Binding theory and the more recent Minimalist Programme (henceforth, MP). A distinction between the two models will be drawn when necessary in the paper. Since the implementation of the Government and Binding theory, the Principles and Parameters model has offered a solution to the conflict between descriptive and explanatory adequacy, the system of rules within the Extended Standard Theory being replaced by universal principles that allowed for linguistic variation (parameters of variation). Thus, the phrase structure system for a particular language has been restricted to a set of parameters which determine the ordering of head-complement, head-adjunct, and specifier-head (Chomsky 1995: 53). A series of transformations responsible for the derivation of various kinds of constructions such as topicalization, wh-movement, extraposition, I-lowering, verb-raising, I-raising have offered a more accurate picture of the generative perspective. The general operation to which all these transformations reduce is the general process of Move α, with α being a category which ranges over all categories. The approach was generalized by Travis (1984) and has as a central idea: (1) Head movement is the case of Move-α, where α is the head. Head movement2 is subject to well-formedness conditions applying to movement operations, such as: structure preservation, locality and the requirement that the trace created by the movement operation meet the relevant well-formedness conditions on traces (Roberts 2011:196). The main locality condition on head movement is the Head Movement Constraint, originally proposed by Travis (1984) in (2): (2) Head Movement Constraint or HMC (Travis 1984) Head movement may not skip intermediate heads. With the implementation of MP, the formal complexity of the previous models has been reduced to economy conditions which obeyed a “least effort” condition (Chomsky, 2000: 99). Thus, parameters are no longer logically independent entities, but features on functional entities within the lexicon, e.g. the categories C(omplemetizer) and T(ense). Therefore, movement in MP is a last resort operation, consisting of the application of Merge and Copy which result in various types of feature checking. In a P&P approach, the main cases of head movement are instances of verb movement, where the head is a verb, and the target of movement is a position in the clausal functional structure The head category which governs the VP, is Infl,, and the head category which governs IP, is C. According to the Head Movement Constraint, movement of the verb is restricted to Infl.

2

Head-movement operations have been analyzed both in earlier versions of generative grammar such as Pollock’s (1989) influential proposal of the split-IP hypothesis; den Besten’s (1983) analysis of Germanic Verb-second) and in later works of GB and minimalism.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 56


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

2.1. Verb Movement and the Structure of the Inflectional Phrase Within the minimalist framework (Chomsky, 1995), the visibility of rich morphological features at LF (Logical Form) triggers overt verb movement to Infl before Spell-Out in order to check and erase its Infl features. The feature varies parametrically as either strong or weak. Feature checking takes place through specifier-head or head-to-head adjunction, with V raising overtly to I where the V-feature is strong, and movement applying only in the covert, post-Spell-out part of the grammar where the V-feature is weak. Following Pollock (1989), Chomsky (1995:147) argues that Infl can split into Agreement (AgrP) nodes, hosting non-interpretable agreement features related to the subject (Pollock’s) and the object (person, gender and number). An intervening Tense Phrase (TP) expresses the eventive structure of the sentence. In Modern English, verb movement does not occur overtly because, contrary to earlier stages of the language, its V-feature is weak, and movement occurs only in the covert part of the grammar. 2.2. Verb Movement and the Structure of the Complementizer Phrase Subject-auxiliary inversion in English, and Verb-Second (V2, henceforth) operations in Germanic languages have been assumed to involve movement of I to C (den Besten 1983). Given the HMC, V cannot move directly to C, prior to the operation of V-movement into the I-system. Examples with overt verb movement in English include standard copula constructions (“Is John happy about the book?”); auxiliary be (“Is John learning?”), auxiliary have (“Has John read the book?”); standard modals (“May John watch the film?”); negative-initial clauses (“Never have I been so happy!”); interrogative contexts with dummy do or auxiliaries (“Who did you talk to yesterday?”). 3. Symmetric and Asymmetric Verb-Second The label “verb-second” is understood as a strict requirement that the tensed verb appear in second position in a root environment (i.e., in main clauses). The fundamental word order properties of main clauses (and some embedded clauses) in the Germanic languages (except for Modern English) involve an initial constituent followed by the inflected verb, with the rest of the clause in third position: (3) [XP V + Infl […]] Under X-bar Theory, an instance of Specifier-Head-Complement configuration (see Chomsky 1986:1-2) is provided. Thus, the initial position of the clause (den Besten 1983) is filled with the inflected verb moving to the CP domain, and a constituent (the subject, object or the adverbial) moving to the specifier of C, with the third position being realized as the complement of C, the IP (Belletti and Rizzi 1996: 4).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 57


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

According to recent studies, V2 languages fall into two major groups: symmetric and asymmetric languages. On the one hand, a subset of the Germanic languages, including Yiddish and Icelandic, manifest V2 in both main and embedded clauses. V2 is realized by movement of the tensed verb to I, and topicalization of a constituent to Spec, IP, which is an XP position, rather than an NP positon (e.g., Pintzuk 1999). The above category contrasts with languages such as German, Dutch or Mainland Scandinavian which manifest an asymmetry between subject-initial and non-subject initial V2 clauses, the former being IPs (Spec, IP is the canonical position for the nominative subject) and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984). Here, Verb-Second is restricted only to main clauses. Non-V2 languages (ModEn, ModFr) are characterized by movement of V to I (overt in ModFr and covert in ModEn), and no movement to C, except under restricted circumstances stated in 2.2. 4. The Verb-Second Phenomenon in Old English and Early Middle English In Old and Middle English, the situation is generally similar to that in Dutch or German as far as V2 is concerned. If the complementizer is not filled lexically in the main clause, the finite verb moves to C, whereas in subordinate clauses the complementizer is filled and verb movement does not occur (example 4): (4) “Þæt him his winemagas georne hyrdon” So that him his friends and kinsman with pleasure obeyed (Beowulf 65-66) Following Travis’s (1984) asymmetric account of V2 languages, Ans van Kemenade (1987) assumes that Old English has S(ubject)O(bject)V(erb) word order with systematic verb movement to C in main clauses and head-final projections below C (I and V) in subordinate clauses. Nonetheless, in contexts where a non-subject constituent is fronted, subject pronouns systematically occur between the fronted constituent and the finite verb giving rise to verb-third order (example 5). In topic-initial constructions, subject-verb inversion is the norm only when the subject is nominal (example 6). Furthermore, systematic subject-verb inversion with pronouns and full NP (DP) subjects occurs only in operator fronting contexts: questions, negation, elements like þa or þonne (examples 7 and 8). In the latter case, the first constituent is in Spec, CP, the finite verb in C and the clitic follows the finite verb. Personal pronouns are positioned to the left of a preposed finite verb leading to potential counterexamples of a V2 analysis. (5) Æfter þyssum wordum he gewende to þam ærendracan After these words he turned to the messenger “after these words he turned to the messenger” (Aelfric’s Life of Saint Edmund 83) (6) On twam þingum hæfde God þæs mannes sawle gegodod In two things had God the man’s soul endowed

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 58


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

“With two things God had endowed man’s soul” (Aelfric’s Homilies.1.20.1, as cited in van Kemenade 1987:17) (7) Ne geseah hine nan man nates-hwon yrre. (Aelfric’s Lives of Saints XXXI, 306 as cited in van Kemenade 1987: 114) Not saw him no man so little angry No one ever saw him so little angry. (8) Hwæt sægest Þu yrÞlincg? (Aelfric’s Colloquy 22, as cited in van Kemenade 1987: 138) What saist thou, ploughman What do you say, ploughman? Van Kemenade (1987, 1997) analyzes OE personal pronouns as Wackernagel clitics3, which means that they are not to be counted as constituents in assessing the position of the verb . Thus, a large number of cases where the verb is apparently in third or fourth position is eliminated. (9) “God him worhte Þa reaf of fellum” (Homilies of Aelfric I, 1.18.18 as cited in van Kemenade 1987: 114) God them wrought then garments of skin “Then God made garments of skin for them.” Thus, in the analysis of van Kemenade (1987), the position of the pronoun is analysed as follows: in (5) the clitic subject is cliticized on the left of V/I (see 10) whereas in (7) and (8) procliticization is blocked by the operator character of the first constituent (hwi, þa, ne contracted with the verb) so that pronouns are enclitic on the finite verb (see 11) (van Kemenade 1997: 334). (10)

topic pron-Vfin

(11)

WH/NEG/Þa

… ]]]

Vfin-pron

…]]]

The root/non-root asymmetry is obvious when taking into account the position of subjects and verbs in embedded clauses, where only complements of bridge verbs may have topicalization (example 12). (12) “Gregorius se trahtnere cwæđ þæt forđi wolde drihten getrahtnian þurh hine sylfne þæt bigspel đe…”(Aelfric’s Homilies.II.88.13, as cited in van Kemenade 1997: 333) Gregory the interpreter said that therefore wanted God interpret through himself the parable that… 3

Pintzuk (1999) analyzes OE adverbs as clitics roughly the same type as the personal pronouns

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 59


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

As far as the Verb-Second phenomenon in Old and early Middle English is concerned, alternative analyses have been recently proposed. With respect to the analysis of main clauses, two main assumptions have been discussed regarding the distributional properties of nominal (full DP) and pronominal constituents (e.g. Fischer et al. 2000, Kroch and van Taylor 1997; Pintzuk 1999). Following a symmetric account of V2 in Old and Middle English, Pintzuk (1999)4 argues that clitic pronouns in OE move to the boundary between CP and IP and appear sentence-initially. Hence, when the verb moves to I, the pronominal subject appears immediately before it, between the topic and the verb. On the contrary, movement is to C in operator-initial clauses5. Thus, while the finite verb is in C when Spec, CP is filled by an operator, it is in a lower position when the sentence-initial constituent is a topic6. Within a minimalist framework where elements move for the purpose of feature checking, the Split-IP parameter leads to the following clause format: AgrSP-TP-AgrOP-VP. Thus, in an interrogative context, for example, the [Q] and [WH] features would attract the finite verb and the wh-expression. The loss of V2 was attributed to the loss of empty expletives (Haeberli 2002) and to a decliticization phenomenon (van Kemenade 1987) whereby pronominal and nominal subjects start behaving alike yielding verb-third order (around 1400). Given Pintzuk’s symmetric account of V2, she argues the loss of V2 corresponds to the loss of V-to-I movement. Contact situations between northern and southern dialects have also been identified as a reason for the loss of V2, given the Scandinavian influence in the north-west and north of England (Kroch and Taylor 2000). As a result of internal and external factors, verb-second declined and the word order of present day English, SVO, emerged. 5. Conclusion Within the Principles and Parameters framework, three main parameters could be distinguished: V moves to I; V/I moves to C; and Spec, IP is a subject position. The Verb-second constraint characteristic of the Germanic languages involves movement to either of two different positions, depending on the language investigated. Van Kemenade (1987 and subsequent work) and Pintzuk (1999 and later work) present two attractive accounts of the V2 phenomenon in the history of 4

Susan Pintzuk (1991, 1999) presents an alternative to the analysis of van Kemenade that is inspired by the idea of phrase structure variation. She demonstrates that OE texts manifest competition between two underlying phrase structures for clauses, one I-final and the other I-medial. Old English is assumed to exhibit head-final IPs with rightward V movement in non-V2 contexts, and head-medial IP, with leftward V movement in V2 clauses. Main clauses are more often I-medial and subordinate clauses more often I-final. 5 This hypothesis is in contrast to CP-V2 languages, where the verb is always found in a higher functional projection. Pintzuk concludes that V-movement in embedded clauses and topic initial main clauses involves movement to I, with the topic in Spec, IP. 6 The distinction between questions and topicalizations in OE helps explain that the fronting of the finite verb to C has remained unchanged in ModEn where the finite verb raises to C whenever there is an operator in Spec, CP. This conclusion is shared with van Kemenade (1987, 1997). Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 60


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

English. In Old and Middle English there are two potential landing sites for the finite verb, depending on the nature of the first constituent in the clause: C when an operator occurs in clauseinitial position and the head of a head-initial inflectional projection below C when a non-operator is in initial position. As for the nature of clitic pronoun subjects and full nominal subjects, the former may occupy Spec, AgrSP, while the latter may be positioned either in Spec, AgrSP, or in Spec, TP when preceded by an operator. We follow Kemenade’s hypothesis in assuming OE was an ‘asymmetric’ language and dedicate further work to the analysis of clitics and the the loss of verb second in Middle English. References 1. Beletti, Adrianna, and L. Rizzi (1996) Parameters and Functional Heads. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2. den Besten, H. (1983) “On the interaction of root transformations and lexical deletive rules,” in W. Abraham (ed) On the Formal Syntax of the Westgermania. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 47-131. 3. Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris. 4. Chomsky, N. (1986). Knowledge of Language. Its Nature, Origin and Use. New York: Praeger. 5. Chomsky, Noam (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge, Massachussets: The MIT Press. Chomsky, Noam (2000). “Minimalist Inquiries: The Framework.” in Martin, Roger, D. Michaels and Juan Uriagereka (eds.) Step by Step: Essays on Minimalist Syntax in Honour of Howard Lasnik, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 89-156. 6. Haeberli, Eric. (2002). “Inflectional Morphology and the Loss of V2 in English”in Lightfoot, D. (ed.) Syntactic Effects of Morphological Change. New York: Oxford University Press. 7. Hulk, A. and Ans van Kemenade (1995). “Verb-Second, Pro-Drop, Functional Projections, and Language Change” in Battye, Adrian and Ian Roberts (ed.). Clause Structure and Language Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 227-255. 8. Kemenade, A. van (1987). Syntactic Case and Morphological Case in the History of English. Dordrecht: Foris. 9. Kemenade, A. van (1997). “V2 and Embedded Topicalization in Old and Middle English”. in Kemenade, A van and N. Vincent (eds.) Parameters of Morphosyntactic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 326-52. 10. Pintzuk, Susan (1999). “Phrase Structures in Competition: Variation and Change in Old English Word Order”. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania. 11. Pollock, Jean-Yves (1989). “Verb Movement, Universal Grammar, and the Structure of IP” in Linguistic Inquiry 20, pp. 365-424. 12. Roberts, Ian (2011). “Head Movement and the Minimalist Program," in Boeckx, C. (ed) The Oxford Handbook of Minimalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 195-219 13. Travis, L. (1984). “Parameters and Effects of Word Order Variation”. Ph.D. Dissertation, MIT.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 61


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics On the Toponymy of Çegran

Izmit Durmishi

Keywords: toponyms, direct toponyms and toponyms with composed structure, Cegrane, Gostivar, etc.

Faculty of Philology, Study Program of Albanian Language, State University of Tetova, Republic of Macedonia

Abstract The collection and study of the toponymic material for Cegrane with the vicinity is important, if we take into account that toponymy is one of the disciplines that, for many reasons serves to indicate the traces and the social – historical road of the nation. There are fastened the big and small things, is interlaced the old with the new, by leading us to the paths of a interdisciplinary successful research. In this work we have tried in a resourceful way to give Cegrane’s toponyms as primary words and the composed ones, as other parts of speech. In a special way is made the overview of the toponyms from the lexical point of view, where clearly are seen nouns of the mountains (oronyms), nouns that are linked with flow or stale waters (hydronyms), words that are linked with names of plants (fitonyms), toponyms that are linked with animal names (zoonyms), etc. During the research and study of the onomastic material of this region are noticed these elements: Illyrian, Albanian, Slavic, Turkish element, where as dominating comes out anyway the Albanian element, as an evidence of antiquity of the nation through the centuries and in these parts. Generally seen, the onomastic of Cegrane with the vicinity proves convincingly for the autochthony of Albanians in these territories and for an Albanian – Illyrian continuation. The toponyms of this region from the semantic and etymological composition are clear, but there are also such the etymological meaning of which is not known because of their antiquity and their phonetic transformations that have undergone during the passage of years.

Introduction The Upper Polog with Gostivar as capital – center, includes a large number of villages, that mainly are settled in the stem parts of Vardar and around the city of Gostivar. Just 7 km far from it, in the southeastern part, lies Cegrane, one of the biggest villages in Macedonia. Cegrane as a big locality of this side has around these villages: Korita (E), Tumceviste (W), Volkovija (N) and Forino (S). The geographical position of the village, with a lot of natural wealth, enabled the resident suitable conditions for living. Even though today, at the times of an emphasized dynamism, a large number of people, have the road of migration towards the West countries (Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Austria etc.) in order to provide a better existence and standard. In this work we will give an overview of the onomsatic of Cegrane with the vicinity, by concentrating mainly in the direct toponyms (nouns) and those with a composed structure (other parts of speech) respectively, their lexical point of view. We have treated the nouns of mountains (oronyms), nouns that are linked to flow or stale waters (hydronyms), words that are linked with animal names (zoonyms) etc.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 62


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

I. Direct toponyms 1. Oronyms: ball-i: Ballsori – rrafshnaltë. breg: Bregu Di(e)llit. gurë-i: Gurt e Shkul, Guri Keç, Guri Behares, Guri Hotës. kodër-a:Kodre Qose, Kodra e Kolovere, Kodre Betës. krastë-a: kodër e zhveshur me gurë : Krasta, Kraste Epër,Kraste Poshtme . lug-i(u): Lugu i Madh, Lugu Kojres(Lugu Korijës). lak-i(u): Laku i Parë. ledinë-a: Lidinë e Sallake, Lidinë e Epërme. osoj : (Slavic .ocoj, vend që nuk e zë dielli): Usoj Bunarit. rudina (vend i gjërë dhe i thatë). razdoll (Macedonian .razdolje, fushëz, grykëz,luginë): Razdollka - majë mali. rrafsh-i : Rrafshat e Plloshit , Rrafshe Epërme, Rrafshe Poshtme. skapeci (Slavic . Skap, i shtrenjtë) : Skapeci – majë mali. shulla: Shullani Madh. shkallë: Shkalla . shumeca (Slavic .shuma, mal,pyll): Shumeca. vllag-u: Vllagu Lilës. 2. Toponyms that are related to the mineralogy cërvenek (sllav.cërvenica,tokë e kuqe): Cërvenek - ara. zall-i : Ke Zalli – ara. 3. Hydronims (nouns that are related to the flowing waters): baltë-a: Balte Kuçe. bunar-i (Turkish .pinar,pus): Bunari Axhës Mazllam, Bunarët e Cile, Bunarët (ke). gjol-i (Turkish .gol, liqe,kënetë) : Gjoli (ke), Gjole. hurdhë-a (pellg i vogël me ujë të ndenjur, gropë me ujë (FGJSSH):Hurdhat, Hordha Eminit. ligata (lag + prapashtesa –atë)1: Ligate Rahut. izvor (Slavic ,izvor, burim) : Izvori (ke). kajnak-i ( Turkish .kaynak, burim) : Kajnak - livadhe. llakë-a : grope e pellg me ujë; zakonisht në mal, ku pine bagëtitë : Llaku – ara . llom-i : llumë, gropë a pellg i madh me ujë të ndenjur e të ndotur : LLomi (ke). prroi : Prroi Keç. ujë : Ujti Pe(i)re. voda : Voda (ke). vitell (Slavic .Vitell,gropë me ujë) : Vitell (ke). 1

Idriz Ajeti, Studime gjuhësore në fushë të shqipes I, Prishtinë, 1982,f.292

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 63


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4. Toponyms that are related to the plants: bagrem-i : Bagremat e Hoxhës. dushk-u : Dushku Iminit, Dushku Shabanit. dardhë-a : “Pirus Communis”2 : Dardhe Egër (ke). ferrë-a : ”Prunus spinosa” : Ferra (ke), Ferrat e Gjata. jasika (Slavic .jasika, plep) : Jasika (ke) - ara. lajthi-a: ”Cargulus avellana” , letheja : Letheja (ke). mollë-a: “Pirus malis” : Mollat e Hoxhës, Molle Kuçe. shkozë-a : ”Carpinus betulus” : Shkoza (ke). vidh-i : “Ulmas campestris” : Vedhi Metës Elmazit - ara. 5. Toponyms that are related to the animals: dash-i : Livadhi Dashit. dhelpër-a : “Canis Vulpes” : Guri Dhelpnave . orel (Slavic .orell, shqiponjë) : Orllecet e Epra, Orllecet e Poshtme – ara. arushë-a, ari-u : Guri Aroshës, Shpelle Aroshës. 6. Toponyms that are related to the livestock area: livadh-i : Livadhet e Begut, Livadhet e Dashit, Livadhi Gjatë, Livadhi Hoxhës, Livadhet e Epra. 7. Nouns that are related to the livestock: argaç,argjaç3 (Slavic .argaç, vend para torishtës i rrethuar me thupra, ku mbyllen dhentë): Argaçet. koliba (Slavic .koliba, kasollë,kolibe) : Koliba (ke), Kolibat e Plloshit. stan-i (Slavic .stan, vendqëndrim I bagëtisë, stani i bagëtisë): Stani i Xhavitit, Stani Elezit, Stanet e Epra, Stanet e Poshtme. 8. Toponyms that are related to agrucultural areas : arë-a: Are Begut, Are Xhelkut, Arat e Gjata, Arat e Popit, Arat e Metës. ornica (Slavic .ornica,4 tokë e lëvruar): Orneca . vneshtë-a : Vneshtët. 9. Toponyms that are related to labor objects: mulli-ni : Mullini Ibipit. Mulleni Sallake. 10. Toponyms that are related with the roads and objects of communication: udhë-a : Udha e Shullanit, Udha e Lopve, Udhhe Stençes. urë-a :Ore Poshtme, Ore Epërme. xhade (<Turkish.cade, rrugë): Xhadje Re.

2

Xhemaludin Idrizi, Mikrotoponimia e Karshiakës së Shkupit, Shkup, 2003,f.91 Fadil Sulejmani, Toponimia e Malësisë së Tetovës, në : Onomastika e Kosovës, Prishtinë, 1979,f.256 4 Po ai, po aty, f.258 3

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 64


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

11. Toponyms that are related with the social objects, local divisions etc: kala (<Turkish.kale, fortifikatë): Kalaja. kullë - a(<Turkish .kulle, kullë): Kulla(ke). mëhallë-a (<Turkish .mahalle, lagje ): Mëhalle Mesme, Mëhalle Loke, Mëhalle Qoshit. stanica (<Slavic .stanica, stacion autobusash,treni etj.): Stanica (ke). 12.Toponyms that are related with cultural – administrative objects: shkollë-a: Shkollë Vjetër, Shkollë Re. opshtena (<Slavic .opshtina,komunë) : Opshtena. 13. Toponyms that are related with the objects of worship: kishë-a : Kesha, Kisha (ke). vorr-i : Vorri hoxhës, Vorret e shehetve, Vorret e shqeve. xhami-a:(<xhamaa, xhami): Xhamia e Re, Xhamia e Vjetër. 14. Toponyms that are related with borders: medis-i : Midis katundit, Muhalle Mjedisme. xhims-a : Xhimse Arës, Xhimse Fushës. sinor (<Greek sinur, kufi): Sinori Vrapçishtit. 1. In the oronomy of Cegrane with vicinity, according to an approximate statistic, based on the toponimic gathered material, comes out a considered number of lexemes. The largest number of them is with Albanian origin, then with Slavic and Turkish origin, whereas another number of toponyms with origin from other languages. The largest number of the lexemes of oronyms of the mentioned region, that are of the Albanian fount, are also used in the standard language for example: breg-u, gur-i(gjuri oukut)5,(Gjuri Gjat)6 shpat-i, kep-i, kodër-a etj. The number of oronyms that as a base have a lexeme with Slavic origin is also large, even more so when we know the Slavic impact throughout Albanian toponymy. Lexemes with Slavic origin in the oronyms of this region are also used in the Macedonian standard language. We will mention some of them just for illustration: gradishte (runination), zavoj (curvature), shuma (mountain), jama (abyss) etc. Those with Turkish base are less, leftover as a consequence of the strong many centuries influence of the Turkish during the reign of the Ottoman Empire. Just for illustration we mention: çanak (enë e rrumbullakët ushqimi), jaz (green river – green place), teferiç (opened place), Harman ( threshing) etc. 2. In Cegrane’s hydronymy belong also a considerable number of lexemes, from which we have with Albanian, Slavic, Turkish origin and some from other languages. Hydronyms of the Albanian lexical layer are: kroj, prroj, ujë, hurdhë, zall, gurra, lum, llomi etc. 5 6

Qemal Murati,Apelativat toponimikë në toponiminë e Kërçovës,në: Onomastika e Kosovës,Prishtinë,1979,f.347 Fadil Sulejmani,Toponimia e Malësisë së Tetovës, në : Onomastika e Kosovës,Prishtinë,1979,f.262

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 65


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Hydronyms with Slavic origin in the dialect and toponymy of this region are: voda (water), razdollka (divided stream), reka (river), izvor (source), doll (stream) etc. The largest number of these lexemes is also used in the Macedonian standard language. The lexical layer with origin from Turkish language is present in the herein language for example: bunar (pus), çeshma (çezmë), gjol (liqen - kënetë), kaynak (burim) etc. 3. In the sphere of mineralogy also were registered some lexemes, from which the majority with Albanian origin, some with Slavic origin and some with Turkish origin. Albanian lexemes are: Bardhovca, Tokë Bardhë, Gurte Zi, Pylli Zi, Trulli Kuç, Balte Kuçe, Kuçuline Kuçe, Guri Kuç, Grell (grill) etc; of Slavic language: cërvenek (red soil) , pesok (sand), and of Turkish language kumsall, from kum (sand, sandy soil). 4. In the toponymy of the region in question have also entered a large number of phytonyms (plant names). As for the number of phytonyms that are used in the region of Cegrane, should be concluded that their major number comes out with Albanian origin then with Slavic origin and a little number from other languages. Phytonyms with origin from the Albanian language are: ah , arrë, dardhë, dushk, dullejnë, ferrë, fejr, lis, mollë, murriz, shelg, shkozë, shtog, thekën, vidh, llapushë, dru etc. Phytonyms with origin from the Slavic language are: cer (black oak), breza (hornbeam) etc. Phytonyms of the lexical layer of the Turkish language are: shamak (small forest with oak) etc. Phytonyms with origin from other languages, as for example of Greek language: duhan, oriz etc. 5. In the toponymy of the mentioned region we encounter a considerable number of wild and tame animals, that means zoonyms; then we also encounter poultry names. Mostly of the zoonyms are with Albanian language, and some with Slavic origin. Zoonyms of the Albanian language in the toponymy of this region are: dhelpën , lop, shipe, dalldesh(swallows), kalë, ujk, hut, qe etc; of the Slavic language we distinguish: çafka, orel etc. 6. In the toponymy of Cegrane with vicinity also belong appellatives that are related to agricultural surfaces, agricultural objects, livestock objects, livestock surfaces and other objects of economical activity of the man. The major number of lexemes that participate in the formation of the herein toponymy is with Albanian origin, among them we distinguish: arrë, fushë, vneshtë, mulli, vathë, shtrungë, ligatë, livadh. With Slavic origin we distinguish: ornica, stan, niva , ograde , padishta, etc. whereas with Turkish origin are the toponyms:bafçe, teferiç, hise etc. 7. Toponyms that denominate roads and other communicational means, of the Albanian origin are: kriç , rrugë , udhë; of Slavic language: : stanica , gara etc, whereas of Turkish language: xhade e kalldërma. 8. Albanian appellatives that participate in the formation of toponyms and which are related to social objects and different objects of our language are: muri , ura; of Slavic language: selishte7, sello whereas of Turkish language: kala, kullë dhe mëhallë. 9. Toponyms that denominate objects of worship with Albanian origin are: kishë, kullë dhe vorr ; with Slavic origin: crkva dhe kërst; Turkish origin: teqe dhe xhami; whereas of Greek origin: manastir.

7

Shih edhe : Fadil Sulejmani,Toponimia e Malësisë së Tetovës, në : Onomastika e Kosovës,Prishtinë,1979, p.258.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 66


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

10. Number of toponyms that are related to borders, of the Albanian origin are: medis-i ; of Slavic language: megje; and of Greek language: sinur. 11. Toponyms that are related to names of different limbs, of the Albanian origin are: shkami , shkallë , koshi etc; of Slavic language: korita , topall etc; whereas Turkish lexemes are: sofratash and hajmalia etc. 12. In the toponymy of this region also belong appellatives that denominate various professions, social functions, military ranks etc. Should be emphasized that the major number of such appellatives is with Turkish origin: sheh , spahi , hoxhë , pashë , beg , ballaban etc; of Slavic origin: govedar , kovaç , shumar , pop. The lexeme kallugjer is with Greek origin. 13. Even people’s names participate in the building of the onomastic of this region. The major number is with Arabian origin, entered through the Turkish language, usually of masculine gender, as for example: Abas , Abdil , Ali , Afmet , Asan , Asllan , Aziz , Bajram , Baki , Brahim, Dalip, Daut , Demir , Dil ,Ferat , Fazli , Hajdar , Jusuf etc. In these denominations are encountered also some anthroponomy with Albanian origin, that testify the inhabitancy of these areas for a longer period, a fact that convincingly opposes the Slavic thesis that the Albanians in these areas are denizen and that they have come in the XVIII8 century. Anthroponomy of the Albanian origin that serve for the formation of toponyms of the region in question are: Pal ,Tanash , Gjon , Mark , Kolë etc. II. Toponyms formed from adjectives In the toponymy of Cegrane with vicinity besides the nouns we also distinguish topolexemes from adjectives that determine form, size, position, color, age, temperature and other features. Just for illustration we will mention adjective appellatives of the Albanian, Turkish, Slavic linguistic layer and very few of other languages. 1. Adjectives that indicate position, state are: (i,e) shpum , (i,e) shpuar , (i,e) zdruet(rëzuar) , (i,e) shpesht , (i,e) ftofët, (i,e) ngrofët etc; of the Slavic linguistic layer are: golla, kriv etc. 2. Adjectives that indicate size are: (i,e) trashë , (i,e) xhondë , (i,e) madh-e , (i,e) gjatë , (i,e) ngushtë , (i,e) thellë , (i,e) vogël etc; the adjectives golem, debell, are of the Slavic linguistic layer. 3. Adjectives of the Albanian lexical layer that indicate position are: (i,e) epër , (i,e) poshtëm, (i,e) mjedisme , (i,e) nalt etc; whereas of the Slavic language are: dollno, gorno. 4. Adjectives of the Albanian lexical layer that indicate color are: (i,e) bardhë , (i,e) zi , zezë , (i,e) kuç-e , i xhollë; of the Slavic lexical layer are: bell , crn; whereas of the Turkish lexical layer are: kara. 5. The adjective i ri of the Albanian language which indicates age despite the adjective star of the Slavic lexical layer is also frequent. 6. The adjectives (i,e) ftofët , (i,e) ngrofët of the Albanian language that indicate temperature are also encountered in the toponymy of this region.

8

Јован Трифуноски,Слив Маркове Реке,антропогеографска посматраnjа,кн.7,Скопје, 1958 p.40-41.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 67


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

7. The adjectives of the Albanian lexical layer i keç(keq) – e keçe(keqe) , (i,e) mirë , (i,e) re , (i,e) vjetër and of the Slavic language suva etc. show different attributes of the things which they denominate, for example: Guri Keç , Suva Gora etc. III. Toponyms with numerals In the formation of toponymic system in Cegrane’s region, in a small quantity take part also the numerals. As usually they are basic numerals, for example: Dy Qile, Katër Maje, Ndërmjet Dy Kepave, Ndërmjet dy Lisave, etc. IV. The toponymy with verbs In the formation of the toponymy of the region in question take part also the verbs, even though in a small number. We will mention some of them just for illustration: mbaj (gropa si mban uej), dal (Dalishte), mbledh (Ku mblidhen lopët ), ha (Ku hanë bukë kozarët), shti (kris) (Ku shtiet pushkë), kam (Kojria ka mal), rri (Ku rren Demeri), vras (Vranjerëzit) etc. V. The toponymy with adverbs In the structure of Cegrane’s toponymy also take part adverbs. They are mainly of the Albanian lexical layer, rarely in the Slavic and Turkish lexical layer. The adverbs in the herein toponomastic are primary and composed adverbs. Primary adverbs of the Albanian lexical layer are: ndër, mas ; composed: përti (përtej), ndërmjet etc. We will mention some examples: Ndër Xhade, Ndër Lisa, Ndërmjet Dy Kepave, Përti Ujtit etc. VI. The toponomy with prepositions As constituent elements of the toponymy of the region in question are also the prepositions. From the prepositions of the Albanian lexical layer that participate in the toponomic system of this region are: në, ke (te) dhe me, si p.sh. Krroi në Xhade, Ke Are Hoxhës, Ke Livadhi Ametit, Ke Dardhe Egër, Te bunarët e Cile , Krroi me Dy Curila etc.

Conclusion From the various relatively opened and manifold observations and reviews that we have made to the onomastic material of this region, in conlusion we can conclude that: 1. Cegrane with vicinity has a very rich toponymy, with a scientific value, but which antil now hasn’t been researched enough. 2. During the research of the toponymy of this region are noticed these elements: the Illyrian – Albanian, Slavic, Turkish element, where as a dominant one comes the Albanian element; as an

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 68


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

evidence of the antiquity of the nation who have preserved this treasure through historical centuries. 3. Generally observing, the onomastic of Cegrane with vicinity convincingly testifies for the Albanian autochthony in these regions and for an uninterrupted Illyrian – Albanian continuity. 4. The toponyms of this region according to the semantic and etymologic content are clear, but there are also some of them for which we don’t know the etymologic meaning because of the seniority and phonetic transformations that have followed during in the course of the time. 5. The toponyms of this region are important for the study of phonetic, phonologic, morphologic, syntactic and lexical phenomena of the language of this area especially the whole Albanian language in general. References 1. 2. 3. 4.

Idriz Ajeti, Studime gjuhësore në fushë të shqipes I, Prishtinë, 1982 Gjovalin Shkurtaj, Onomastikë dhe etnolinguistikë, Tiranë, 2001 Fadil Sulejmani, Toponimia e Malësisë së Tetovës, Onomastika e Kosovës, Prishtinë, 1979 Qemal Murati, Apelativat toponimikë në toponiminë e Kërçovës, Onomastika e Kosovës, Prishtinë, 1979 5. Јован Трифуноски,Слив Маркове Реке,антропогеографска посматраnjа,кн.7,Скопје,1958 6. Xhemaludin Idrizi, Mikrotoponimia e Karshiakës së Shkupit, Shkup, 2003.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 69


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics Why and How to Present Proverbs in English Classes at Albanian Schools Meri Guli

Keywords: class activities, foreign language acquisition, English proverbs, paremiology.

University of Shkodra, Albania

Abstract This paper focuses on reasons, possibilities and ways to present English proverbs to Albanian children in a secondary level class. On the basis of their correspondence, the English and Albanian proverbs that can be dealt with in a secondary level class are classified into three groups. Proverbs that share a. the same or nearly the same lexicon and structure (be them metaphorical or not); b. their messages, but either the English, or the Albanian proverb is apothemic while its counterpart is metaphors; c. their messages, which built on different metaphors. Once classified, they are presented class activities. Pupils are invited to find proverbs that suit certain situations and stories, make drawings that illustrate proverbs, write dialogues and dramatize. The activities evidence the effectiveness of the comparative use of proverbs in the English classes. The pupils show fewer comprehensive problems with the apothemic variants as compared to the metaphoric ones, especially to those that convey the same message though different metaphors.

1. Introduction The development of the conception of culture has highlighted the importance of incorporating cultural elements, such as proverbs, in foreign language classes. Presently, foreign language teachers are well-aware that they have to be cultural intermediators, but Albanian teachers of English may be confronted with discouraging statements, such as that of Miles Kington in The Independent of the first of September, 2004: “Today I am bringing you some more Albanian proverbs. If you have not met these before, you will soon realize that they are very different from other kinds of proverb” (Kington, 2004). This assertion is particularly dispiriting in view of the fact that Albanian students prefer to consider their cultural heritage as a stronghold of their European belonging, and English as a means that contributes to their European integration. Their expectations can be supported by the teachers of English are in the favored position not only to motivate their students to study English, but also to encourage them to consider their paremiological values, as treasures that unite them with the other European nations. 1.1 The Problem of Research Proverbs are a means of transmitting linguistic and cultural values, which when compared, not only facilitate the pupils’ understanding of the foreign language, but also stimulate them to accomplish topic related tasks. Consequently, while the pupils are involved in activities, they get motivated to know more about the English language and culture.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 70


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

1.2 The Research focus The research offers advice on how teachers may make a comparative analysis of English and Albanian proverbs intending to plan their effective integration into the foreign language classes. Activities to identify proverbs that suit situations and stories, to make illustrations and dialogues enjoy the students’ appreciation and contribute to noticeable learning achievements.

2. Methodology of Research 2.1 General background of the research The English and Albanian proverbs can be classified into three groups on the basis of their wordchoice and structure. The corresponding proverbs that share: 1. the same or nearly the same lexicon and structure (be them metaphorical or not); 2. their messages, but either the English, or the Albanian proverb is apothemic while its counterpart is metaphoric; 3. their messages, but built on different metaphors. 1.2 Group I. The key-word correspondence can be the first clue to bringing the proverbs together. E.g. “Time flies”, is in Albanian: “Koha fluturon”. However, the teacher cannot decide immediately to include as correspondent, proverbs that share their wording, because of the “denotative infinitiveness of proverbs” (Kirkman, 1974). The theme and the message they convey is also to be considered. For example, the English proverb: “An empty sack won’t stand alone” is parallel to the Albanian proverb: “Thesi i zbrazët s’qëndron në këmbë” (An empty sack will not stand) and to its variants “Thes’ i ngjeshët rrin në këmbë” (A stuffy sack stands alone), “Thesi plot rrin si top” (A filled sack stands like a ball), but the citations and the explanations of the meaning of the English “An empty sack cannot stand” in the Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs (Smith, 1970) as well as Trench’s interpretative assertion that: “poor men can scantly be honest” (Trench 1959, 2003) deviate from the meaning that the proverb has in Albanian, that is “Hungry people are not energetic”. Meanwhile, Krikmann’s paraphrasing of the meanings of this proverb: “A sick man cannot work”, “A hungry man will die”, “A fool forfeits his reputation” (Kirkmann, 1974) and Ridout and Witting’s (1977) explanation of its meaning: “The sack here is a sack of flour, from which bread is made. Just as the sack is kept upright by the flour, so is man supported and kept alive by bread” highlights the comparability of this proverb to the Albanian counterpart. 1.3 Group II. A second step is to try to find cases of equivalence when the Anglo- American and Albanian proverbs share their messages and one of the variants is apothemic while its counterpart is metaphoric. To make sure the proverbs share their messages, which are not easy to define since the proverbs in the proverb collections are generally quoted out of context, excluding the English proverbs that Ridout and Witting present in their dictionary of English Proverbs Explained (1977),

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 71


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

the teacher can follow Grigas’s (2002) advice “to try and decipher their (the proverbs’) meaning by analyzing their surface structure- the lexicon and syntactical forms”. His advice is especially helpful in comparing apothemical English proverbs to Albanian fully metaphorical parallels. For example, the message of the English proverb “A friend to all is a friend to none” (English) corresponds to that of the Albanian: “Preshtë sa më shumë rrallohen, aq më shumë trashen” (The fewer the leeks, the thicker they get) and “Sa vetë i rruen berberi, kush kumarë nuk thotë se e bëri” (The barber shaves many people, but none says that he made him be his “Godfather”). The lexical analysis can be intertwined with the syntactic analysis in the case of the corresponding quadripartite proverbs. One can follow Milner’s (1987) suggestion that in order to analyze them, one has to divide their structure into two halves, each consisting of two quarters. He added that “It is possible to allocate plus or minus values to each quarter in such a way that the combined values of the quarters and their segments match the values of each half” and called the first half, which consists of the first two quarters, “the head” of the proverb, and the second half, of the last two quarters, “the tail”. According to his explanations, the minus value of one of the two quarters results in a negative value of the whole first half, and of the whole proverb if the tail is positive. His definitions of the values suit their algebraic reckoning. The English proverb “A friend to all is a friend to none” and the translated Albanian counterpart: “The fewer the leeks, the thicker they get” are analyzed on the basis of Milner’s formula. They are segmented in two halves and four quarters each, as presented in the table below.

The fewer

+ the leeks

The Albanian Proverb translated into English and transformed to suit the quarters the English proverb + + A friend to all is

+ the thicker

+ they get

+ a friend

The English Proverb

_ to none

Table I shows the analysis of two corresponding proverbs that convey the same message in spite of their lexical and stylistic differences. The two proverbs have a negative element in one of the quarters that renders the whole meaning of each proverb negative. 2.4. Group III. A more difficult task is to analyze fully different metaphorical correspondents that convey similar messages. The corresponding proverbs have to be analyzed semantically, syntactically and pragmatically. Information related to the pragmatic function of the proverbs is of special importance, because as Abrahams (1987: 181) asserts: “proverbs are difficult to define by external

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 72


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

characteristics, but they are immediately recognizable when used in proverb context”. With regard to the Anglo- American proverbs, Albanian teachers may rely on the few explanations and of the many citations that the common dictionaries of proverbs provide. With regard to the Albanian proverbs, teachers may count on their personal experiences with proverbs as well as on the experience of the different Albanian communities: mainly the aged (the retired) and the young (the students), because the Albanian proverb collections offer very few clues to the interpretation of their meaning or meanings. The English proverb: “Appearances are deceitful” is a near equivalent of the Latin proverb: “Decipit frons prima multos” (Tosi, 2000) (Appearances lead many to deception), while the Albanian “Edhe malet me shkëmbinj nga larg të duken të bukura” (Even the rocky mountains look beautiful from the distance) expresses a similar message, but by employing the concrete noun “mountain” instead of the general abstract noun “appearances”. The other Albanian variants of this proverb: “Jashtë djalë Shkodre, mrena rajp lodre” (Judging him by his appearance, he is a Shkodra fellow; judging him by his qualities, he is a drum’s leather) and “Për hije e për t’a pa, lum kush e ka, për të tjera “mjer dera!” When one looks at him/her, he says: “Lucky should be the one who has him/ her”; yet concerning other matters: “Poor him!”), which appear to be descriptions of the seemingly individual experiences, impart an implicit generalizing morale. 2.5. Sample of research The research was organized into two stages. During each stage, 50 pupils of “Martin Camaj School” and 50 others from different schools participating at summer games of Don Bosco Oratorio were asked to accomplish three kinds of tasks: to find proverbs that suit the situations provided by the teacher, make illustrations, and form dialogues. It was only during the second stage that they were introduced to Albanian counterparts to English proverbs that belong to the aforementioned groups. Task I. Initially, the teacher provided a list of five proverbs: “Time flies”, “Better late, than never’, “Laughs best who laughs last”, “United we stand, divided we fall” “Appearances are deceitful” and then delineated an experience the pupils lived through and asked them to provide the proverb that suited the situation: Teacher: I have brought a picture of Lake of Shkodra with its surrounding mountains and rivers that flow into it. Look how beautiful the Drini River looks with its fresh and clean. Look at the Taraboshi mountain too. As Fishta said: “It has put on its white cap”. When the snow melts we will see its rocks clearly. However, do not forget. Last month Drini flooded Ornela’s village and the lake waters flooded the pedestrian walk. Help me express what I mean in my last two sentences by using one of the Proverbs: The pupils picked “Appearances are deceitful” out of the list that they were shown.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 73


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

They were introduced to three more situations and stories, for which they had to select a proverb out of five other ones. The same subjects during the second stage were introduced to the Albanian corresponding proverbs. Task II. The second and third tasks were creative. After being introduced to another list of 20 English proverbs, which were chosen on the basis of their comprehensibility, didactic value and rich rhetoric, the pupils were required to pick one proverb to compile dialogues. The following dialogues are sample of what the students wrote and acted. The first dialogue: Mother: Come and have breakfast. Son: I have no time. I must run to school. Mother: An empty sack cannot stand. The second dialogue: Brian: You promised to help me with my homework, Ajli. Ajli: Yes, but I promised to help Andrea and Krisa, too. I have to write mine, too. Brian: A friend to all is a friend to none. Task III. The pupils were required to make illustrations. After making their own pictures, the pupils were offered the chance to compare their drawings to those made by American pupils of the 4th form of Milton School, Vermont, Usa. Below, there is the illustration that an American student offered to the proverb “The pen is mightier than the sword” (Mieder, 2000), as well as that of the Albanian one, who was also introduced to the Albanian counterpart: “Me divid e me kalem zaptoi Elbasanë; me armë e jataganë do puthish kalldramë (Elbasani was conquered by pen and pencil, while the ones who tried to conquer it with their weapons had to kiss its cobble-stones).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 74


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

3. Data analysis Each pupil submitted three papers, one for every task, divided into two sections that corresponded to the two stages of the research. The first paper consisted of proverbs that suited situations and stories; the second contained dialogues; the third, illustrations. Every single paper was classified either as successful or not, depending on the pupils’ performance of their understanding of the proverbs as well as of their knowledge of English. Spelling mistakes that lead to no comprehension problems did not affect the results. They became part of later discussions with the pupils. 4. Results of Research All the students were impressed by the idea of considering proverbs in their English classes. During the first stage, when presented to explained English proverbs their achievements depended on the comprehensibility of the proverbs as well as on the tasks assigned, to identify proverbs that suit stories and situations, draw pictures, or illustrate the meaning of proverbs by making dialogues, named task I, task II and task III, respectively, as shown below:

Table 2. The first-stage results based on 3 tasks with the three proverb groups

Task

Task II

Task III

Average

Group I

81%

54%

65%

66.6

Group II

76%

43%

56%

58.3

Group III

67%

34%

51%

52

Average

74.6

45

57.3

58.96

During the second stage, the students were introduced to the Albanian counterparts, too. The results, depended on the tasks again, but obviously improved with regard to all tasks. Table 3. The second-stage results based on 3 tasks with the three proverb groups

Task I

Task II

Task III

Average

Group I

96%

65%

87%

82.6%

Group II

94%

57%

83%

78%

Group III

81%

53%

76%

70%

Average

90.3%

58.3%

82%

76.86 %

The results depend on the groups of proverbs, as well as on the tasks. In both of the stages, the students had the highest percentage of attainment in identifying the proverbs that suit situations and

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 75


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

stories (74.6 and 90.3) and the lowest percentage in forming dialogues (45 and 58.3). The percentage of the latter task in the first stage is below 50%. Concerning the groups of the proverbs, the highest outcomes are related to the proverbs that correspond in the two languages (66.6 and 68.6), while the lowest ones are related to the proverbs that are metaphorically different. 5. Discussion The Albanian students enjoyed having English and Albanian proverbs presented in class. They were involved in the activities willingly and had good results. However, their achievements are conditioned by the metaphorical complexity of proverbs, especially in case of proverbs that convey the same message via different metaphors in the two languages. The results are more promising with proverbs of group I and II, because the wording is either corresponding or one of the equivalents is transparent. All the results of the second stage are higher. The average improvement of 17.9% is effected by the introduction of the Albanian equivalent proverb. With regard to the accomplishment of task I, the rise ranks from 15% with proverbs of group I, to 18% and 24 % with the proverbs of group II and III, respectively. Conserning task II, the percentage span starts with 11%, continues with 14%, to concludes with 19%. The percentage of improvement mounts higher with task III. The rise of 22% with proverbs of group I, reaches the climax of 27% with those of group II, and slopes down no lower than to 25% with proverbs of group III. The escalation of the percentage from group to group during the second stage evidences that the presentation of the native language equivalents improves the pupils’ performance. The highest percentage of growth by 27% pertains to group II, task III, because group II consists of proverbs that are apothemic, and task III, drawing, requires no foreign language skills. However, this task is worth including because it facilitates pupils’ correct understanding and nourishes their wish to express themselves through pictures. 6. Conclusions Teachers of English can present English and Albanian proverbs in their classes after having established the degree of the proverb correspondence on the basis of their wording, structure and message conveyed. The students will make greater efforts to understand English proverbs, if the introduction of the explained English variants precedes the presentation of the Albanian counterparts. The comparative presentation of the proverbs in the two languages is a good incentive to Albanian pupils to motivate them to learn not only about the English language and culture, but also to get engaged in creative activities. The presentation of the Albanian corresponding proverbs affects the pupils’ learning outcomes in English depending on the tasks assigned.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 76


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The successful accomplishment of task I, which requires students to suit situations to proverbs, contributes to the improvement of their comprehension skills. The better accomplishment of task II, which requires students to make dialogues and act them, reinforces their writing, reading, and speaking skills. The highest degree of improvement, evidenced in the completion of task III, which consisted in making drawings, affect their expressive skills very positively. The pupils’ enthusiasm at realizing the Albanian paremiologial lore is rich enough to enable them to draw comparisons adds on the sustainability of their knowledge and performance.

References 1. Akademia e Shkencave e RPSSH. (1983). Fjalё tё Urta tё Popullit Shqiptar. eds. Panariti, J. and Xhangolli, A. Tiranё: Kombinati Poligrafik- Shtypshkronja e Re. 2. Dundes, Alan (1975, 1987). “On the Structure of the Proverb”. Proverbium: Sprichwörterforschung. 25: 961-973. Bern; Frankfurt am Main; New York; Paris: Peter Lang. 3. Grigas, Kazys (2002). “Some Semantic Enigmas of Proverbs”. Proverbium. Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship. 19: 149-170. Vermont: Queen City Printers of Burlington. p.151 4. Kington, Miles (2004) . Two dozen of the finest Albanian Proverbs. The Independent. Retrieved 02/01/2012, from http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/columnists/mileskington/two-dozen-of-the-finest-albanian-proverbs-756280.html. 5. Krikmann, Avro (1974, 1987). “Some Difficulties Arising at the Semantic Classifying of Proverbs” Proverbium. 23: 865-879. Bern; Frankfurt am Main; New York; Paris: Peter Lang. p.9 6. Krikmann, Avro (1974). On Denotative Indefiniteness of Proverbs. Remarks on Proverb Semantics 1. Tallinn: Academy of Sciences of the Estonian SSR. 7. Mieder, Wolfgang (1992). A Dictionary of American Proverbs. Oxford University Press. 8. Mieder, Wolfgang & Deborah Holmes (2000). “Children and Fools Speak the Truth”: Teaching Proverbial Wisdom to Fourth Graders. Burlington, Vermont: The University of Vermont. p.173 9. Milner G. B. (1969, 1987). “Quadripartite Structures”. Proverbium: Sprichwörterforschung. 14: 379-383. Bern; Frankfurt am Main; New York; Paris: Peter Lang. p.381 10. Ridout, Ronald and Clifford Witting (1977). English Proverbs Explained. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd. P.51 11. Smith, W. G. (1970). The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs. Great Britain: Oxford at the Clarendon Press.p.220 12. Trench, Richard Chenevix (1959, 2003). Proverbs and Their Lessons. Ed. Mieder, Wolfgang. Burlington, Vermont: The University of Vermont.p.101

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 77


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics The Perspective of Foreign Language Teaching in Albania Rajmonda Këçira

Keywords: diploma recognition, foreign language teaching, language policy, language standard.

University of Shkodër “Luigj Gurakuqi” Faculty of Foreign Languages, Shkodër, Albania.

Abstract This article looks at the changing mode of modern language teaching in Albania from the perspective of policy makers with a focus on English. It provides a historical background of foreign language teaching in Albania. It also states the current state of modern language teaching in view of the European Frame of languages. Besides, it gives the prospective of foreign language teaching to meet the ever increasing expectation of the Albanian society, highlighting the case of modern language teaching in the Foreign Language Faculty at the University Luigj Gurakuqi in Shkodra, Albania. The adoption of English language teaching at all educational levels, the inclusion of the internationally recognized English tests in the curriculum of the higher education as prerequisite for MA and doctoral studies point to significance of teaching and learning English in Albania.

Introduction Recently, English language education in Albania has been a topic of special concern addressed with a focal attention by the government. It has been considered as an issue that would give solution to many problems that arise due to language barrier, would avoid misunderstandings and prejudices that divide nations and would promote peace and cooperation in the world. (Baugh & Cable 1981, pp. 6-7).This paper focuses on language policy in Albania. It demonstrates that in the course of history, though foreign language education in Albania was differently approached, nowadays, this issue has assumed particular importance. This paper intends to 1. give a historical background of foreign language teaching in Albania, 2. show that foreign language teaching used to be an issue addressed by foreign language policy in Albania in compliance with the political expediency, 3. state the promotion of English language teaching in Albania. In this paper, foreign language education in Albania is historically and conventionally viewed from two perspectives. First, it gives a historical background with a focus on: a) The pre WW II period, b) The after WW II period, c) The after 1990 period. Second, it states the policy of the democratic state to improve English language teaching in order that it could contribute to a) the national progress, b) the integration of the Albanian people into the world community b) provision of Albanian people with foreign language competence that could be recognized at home and abroad. Ideas that highlight significant moments when foreign languages were first taught in the Albanian schools, when foreign language teaching was politically manipulated, and when standards of foreign language teaching to the benefit of world integration were set, have been selectively cited. Besides, information about the level and the degrees of the Albanian students, the Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 78


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

current state of foreign language education in the pre-university and higher institutions in Albania has been provided. A case study about the admission of students at the foreign language faculty highlighting the numbers of the students that have taken up English has also been stated. 1. Historical background 1.1.The pre WW II period Foreign language teaching in Albania has been an issue conditioned by the development of the Albanian language. The Albanian language was documented late in history. The first written document is a Gheg dialect baptismal formula, dated 1462. It was followed by a Tosk dialect Gospel fragment probably of the last years of the fifteenth century. The earliest printed text belongs to the sixteenth century; it is Buzuku's Missal (‘Meshari’, 1555), written in the North Gheg dialect (Pipa 1989, p. 1). Albanian is an Indo-European language. The first scholar who discovered its IndoEuropean character was Franz Bopp in his work On Albanian and its Proximity to Other Languages (Çabej, 1960, p. 5). The French writer Malte Brun wrote that the Albanian language is the old Illyrian, an independent language and one of the most ancient of the European tongues. This idea was favoured by Thunemann in Peoples of Eastern Europe, by Xylander of Bavaria in Die Sprache der Albanensen oder Skipetaren, and by Leake, an English writer, in his Researches in Greek (Laboremus, May 1925). Its late documentation and its mixed character can be addressed to the contacts Albanian language had with many languages (Demiraj, 1988, pp. 116-118). The destiny of Albania with its the numerous, long-term invasions by the neighboring or distant states, ever eager to exploit the place and de-nationalize the people made the Albanians view the Albanian language thru centuries, probably more than any other people of the Balkans, as a vital and self-protecting part of the nation, as an expression and identification of both its culture and existence (Shkurtaj, 2009, p. 165). Because of these invasions, the vocabulary is so mixed with Latin and Greek, Turkish and Slavonic words owing to conquests and other causes, that it is difficult to isolate the original Albanian” (Baugh and Cable, 1981, p. 25). Worth of mentioning is the Turkish invasion which left deep traces in the Albanian language. The presence many of Turkish, Persian and Arab words in the vocabulary of the Albanian language can be attributed to the contact the Albanians established with the Turkish people. This contact lasted for more than five centuries and reduced the Albania into one of the most backward countries in Europe, and the Albanian language into an unelaborated one (Thomai, 1999, p. 222). The Albanian Renaissance patriots demanded Albanian schools and the development of the Albanian language as a first step to the evolution of the Albanian people. The first Albanian school was opened on March 7, 1887. It was at this time and in these schools when Turkish and later on

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 79


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

French or Greek began to be used as foreign languages in the newly opened schools where the language of instruction was the native Albanian language.1 Other foreign languages that were taught in Albania were English, Italian and German. The article “Language Course” in the newspaper Laboremus published by the students of the Vocational School of Harry Fultz, funded by the American Cross reads: Since this school has been opened by the children of the American Red Cross and is partially funded by them, and because their language is English, which is known to be rich and elaborated, it was adopted as the first language in this school, with Italian and German as second languages. Albanian is their mother tongue (Haçi, Beqir. June 1925, p. 26). After the First World War until the liberation of the country in 1944, the efforts of the teachers and the patriots consisted in opening schools against illiteracy and educating people in their mother tongue which signified contribution to the liberation of the country from foreign invaders and Albanian language preservation and elaboration. Schools run by foreigner invaders used their own languages as languages of instruction. Albanian language was paid no attention as it was considered as a threat against their hegemony. Hence, under these conditions, foreign language education was paid insignificant attention as the education in the mother tongue as a first step to the evolution of the Albanian people was of par importance. 1.2. The after WW II period After the Second World, or as it is commonly referred to after the liberation of the country from foreign invaders, language policy in Albania was charged with political issues. Political dominance, the protection of power structures, the preservation of privilege and the distribution of resources were close to the hearts of the leaders of the communist power. In addition to its primary role as a means of communication, under specific conditions, language was used as a powerful social instrument (Mesthrie 1995, p. 2), and language resources became subject to governmental manipulation (Blount and Sanches,1977, p. 8). The interests and needs of the Albanian language users were subordinated to the political and economic purposes and ideology of the communist group in power. During that period, the foreign language that was mainly promoted and used in schools was Russian, due to the relationship the communist regime had with the Soviet Union whose language and social and political policy complied with the interests of the communist regime. As Crystal (1997, p. 4) puts it “There is great variation in the reasons for choosing a particular language as a favored foreign language: they include historical tradition, political expediency and the desire for commercial cultural or technological contact”. The socialist state in Albania chose political expediency. The state and the party was in charge of language development issues because they had the right to direct every aspect of life, including language (Beci,1999, p. 95).

1

(www.shqiperia.com/lajme/lajm/nr/324/).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 80


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

When the communist regime broke up with the Soviet Union, the state resolved that schools would give up teaching Russian. Instead, English was chosen, since it was a language Marx and Engels used to write their work Capital, and thus presented no danger to the regime. "With the collapse of the Soviet Union, there's a collapse of Russian and in the ex-satellite countries, the vacuum left by Russian appears to be filling rapidly with English" (Graddol & Meinhof, 1999, p. 8). 1.3. The after 1990 period Quite another linguistic situation unfolds in Albania after 1990. As soon as language ceased to be a tool of manipulation in the hands of a group of people, it assumed its genuine features and was subject to natural development (Thomai, 1999, p. 222).The vacuum left by the abolishment of the totalitarian regime, the eagerness of the Albanians to admit progress, and the globalization of English, which in itself constituted a significant factor that urged people to overthrow the regime, were some reasons which motivated Albanian speakers to learn foreign languages, English mainly. The Albanian language would either dynamically keep pace with the development of the electronic media or would be reduced to a language suitable for the past time, without computers, internet, digital data, electronic mail and so on (Lloshi, 2011, p. 14). A good number of English loan words for sound or ungrounded reasons began to be used, demonstrating as such the eagerness of the Albanian people to be part of and contribute to the world progress. Hence teaching English as a foreign language became a necessity. It began to be taught in secondary schools, whereas other foreign languages being taught till then began to lose ground. 2. Case Study An example of the superiority of English teaching is the offering of the English study program as the only foreign language study program at the University of Shkoder. Two years later, as displayed in Table 1, the German study program began to be offered at this university and then successively, two other study programs, Italian and French, were offered in 1998 and 2004 respectively. German was the second study program offered at this university thanks to the policy of cooperation, the Austrian government and the Austrian universities, and consequently their assistance was greatly felt concerning staff qualification and infrastructure reconstructions which the university of Shkoder was much in need of. Then Italian study program began to be offered as the language of a neighboring country which Albanians were not totally ignorant of, thanks to the economic and cultural relationships the two countries have long had.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 81


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The fourth study program that began to be offered in this faculty was French study program, as French is the language of the Council of Europe and which once flourished but began to lose ground due to the globalization of English. Academic year

Study program

1994-1995

English

1996-1997

German

1998-1999

Italian

2006-2007

French

Table 1. The Study Programs in the Faculty of Foreign Languages, Shkoder, Albania and the respective academic year

Another worth of mentioning indication of English superiority is the number of the students enrolled at each study program with each passing academic year. Initially, as displayed in Table 2, there was only a limited number of students admitted at the English study program. The criteria of admittance at this study program were very strict. Students were to sit an exam for selection and it was one of the most preferable study programs. With each passing academic year, the number of the students variably increased, reaching its highest figure 252 in the academic year 2007-2008. This figure fell again reaching a somewhat balanced figure through the coming academic years. Compared to the number of students enrolled in the three other study programs mentioned above, the number of the students matriculated in the English study program is the biggest each academic year. There is a tendency of increased enrollment in the other foreign language study programs in the last academic years, however, English has the most. The criteria of admittance have changed. Students themselves decide their area of study based on the principle of merit and preference. There is no exam of admittance, however, a decrease in the quality of the students who choose language study programs has been noticed. The reason is that they do not consider English as a safe tool for the job market. Academic Year

Undergraduate Study Program

English

German

Italian

French

1994-1995 1995-1996

27 34

-

-

-

1996-1997

37

30

-

-

1997-1998

42

20

-

-

1998-1999

30

29

31

-

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 82


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

1999-2000

31

Research paper

25

30

-

2000-2001

34

28

30

-

2001-2002

64

19

30

-

2002-2003

75

15

30

-

2003-2004

95

27

46

-

2004-2005

99 92 72 252 106 87 85 92

18 15 22 23 13 39 57 52

21 41 34 97 46 77 65 55

14 19 9 46 55 56

1354

432

633

199

2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 Total

Table 2. Number of the students enrolled in the Faculty of Foreign Languages

Source: Real data, taken from the Student Enrollment Office in the Faculty of Foreign Languages, Shkoder The table above displays the number of the students enrolled in the Faculty of Foreign Languages at the University of Shkoder “Luigj Gurakuqi” through the eighteen academic years of its life. It shows that compared to the Italian German and French language study program, the English Study program has the most students, the number of the students enrolled progressively increased almost each academic year, reaching a somewhat stable figure in the last academic years. 3. Current Language policy Challenges and new teaching and learning possibilities could not be faced by the centralized policy and old curricula. As such, a new flexible policy related to foreign language selection at schools and their corresponding percentage had to be adapted. Foreign languages would be considered not only as curricular subjects but also as means of communication. To promote multilingualism and multiculturalism, to motivate students in order that they could improve their language competences, two important documents the Common European Frame of References for Languages and the European Portfolio of Languages have been adapted in the Albanian educational system. On the foundation of the curricular system, the Ministry of Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 83


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Education in Albania has placed the Common European Frame of References for Languages Teaching, Learning and Assessment as a document that provides European Standards all countries of the European Council aim to attain. Accreditation of the European Portfolio of Languages as an instrument of the Council of Europe which presents personal linguistic experiences has been modeled to support and increase efforts of its users to reflect on learning languages and make it more effective. Nowadays, teaching and learning foreign languages have become a necessity for special social groups. Albanian scholars need foreign languages to read their papers at various conferences abroad, to listen to other scholarsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; papers and to share experiences with them. An increasing number of professionals now assume that to do their job they need to be bilingual. To preserve national heritage, to facilitate communication between peoples, to favor understanding and mobility in Europe, to restrict prejudices and discrimination, teaching and learning foreign languages have been promoted (The Common European Frame of Languages, 2006, p. 4). The priority of the Democratic State is to be integrated in the European Community. It considers learning foreign languages as a prerequisite to its integration. As such, it adopted The Common European Frame of Languages. To ensure an ever greater unity among people by keeping a common attitude in the cultural field, the government and the competent educational authorities are keeping in view the objective and the recommendation of the Council of Europe as stated in The Common European Frame of Languages (2006, p. 4). For this reason, pursuant articles 78 and 83 of the Constitution, item1, with the proposal of the Council of Ministers, the Assembly of the Republic of Albania has prepared the draft for the new law of education. Article 13 of the draft of the law of pre-university education reads that the mission of the educational system is to develop students basic long- term skills and equip them with competences as to be able to communicate in the native and/or official language and foreign languages. An important innovation in the new law of pre-university education is teaching two foreign languages in the secondary schools. The draft specifies that the curriculum of the secondary education will include two languages, one as a first language and the other as a second language. The group of languages that can be selected as a first or second language is determined by the bylaws whereas the first foreign language to be taught will be determined by the school and the second by the student. Article 52 states that pre-university education concludes with the state graduation exams. Students have to be tested on a number of common obligatory subjects and electives, foreign languages along with the Albanian language and literature have been decided as obligatory. Electives have to be determined by the instructions of the ministry. Higher education has also undergone complete restructuring. To remove obstacles to student and academic mobility, to improve the quality and to ensure standards of higher education, the Bologna process has been adopted in Albania. As higher education in Albania is state controlled, the Bologna Process has been implemented through legislative reform. Higher

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 84


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

education conforms to the three cycle model (Bachelor degree, Master Degree and doctorate) of the Bologna Process. In view of the importance and perspective of educational exchange, based on the Common European Frame of Languages, in order that partners could be assisted to describe the levels of skills, and to facilitate the description of different levels of qualifications, the Ministry of Education has determined the standards of teaching English as a first foreign language (2006, p. 24). Higher education institutions establish qualification specific standards and criteria for the recognition of the English language, on the basis of internationally recognized tests, as well as methods for assessing the overall theoretical level of the candidates. Article 26 of the Higher Education Law, number 9741, 21.05. 2007, amended, number 9832, dated 12.11.207 and number 10307, dated 22.7.2010 in Albania resorts to the MA and doctoral studies as follows: “Students of this study program must sit the test of English on the basis of the internationally recognized tests”. Under these conditions learning a foreign language becomes a must for those who want to complete their studies. 4. Conclusion Though the issue of foreign language teaching in Albania was approached differently, nowadays, it is line with foreign language teaching in the world, aiming at meeting the challenges of increased global competition. The development of new courses and curricula with significant international content, promotion of partnership activities with institutions abroad and the establishment of joint degrees have increased the dimension of higher education in Albania and the commitment of the Albanian higher institutions to world integration. This study shows that before the WWII, education of the people in their mother tongue as a reaction to their education in the languages of the invaders and neighboring countries was uppermost in the consciousness of the Albanian people. Teaching foreign languages would come next, as a necessity to supplement education in the mother tongue and not to run counter the interests of the neighboring countries and the invaders. After the WWII, language was used as a powerful social instrument by the communist state. The party in power was in charge of language development issues. The state resolved Russian as a favored foreign language because the communist state was in good terms with the Soviet Union. After the 1990s, language development took its natural course. Since then, teaching foreign languages has been given due importance as a prerequisite for integration and foreign language competence recognition. Language barrier that could cause misunderstanding and divide nations has been greatly removed. Through foreign languages, Albanian higher institutions are constantly demonstrating commitment to European integration.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 85


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

5. References 1. Akademia e Shkencave të Shqipërisë (2001) . Historia e Shqipërisë. Përhapja e mësimit shqip dhe e shkollave kombëtare. Retrieved 25/05/2012, from http://www.shqiperia.com/lajme/lajm/nr/324/ . 2. Baugh, Albert C. & Thomas Cable (1981). A History of the English Language. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 3. Beci, Bahri (1999). Probleme të Politikës Gjuhësore dhe të Planifikimit Gjuhësor në Shqipëri. Pejë: Shtëpia Botuese Pejë. 4. Blount, Ben G. & Mary Sanches, eds. (1977). Sociocultural Dimensions of Language Change. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. 5. Këshilli i Bashkëpunimit Kulturor (2006). Kuadri i Përbashkët Evropian i Referencave për Gjuhët: Të Nxënët, Të Mësuarit, Vlerësimi. Seksioni i Gjuhëve Moderne, Strasburg. 6. Crystal, David (1997). English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. Çabej, Eqrem (1960). Hyrje në Historinë e Gjuhës Shqipe. Fonetika Historike e Shqipes. Tiranë: Shtypur nga Dega e Botimeve të Universitetit. 8. Demiraj, Shaban (1988). Gjuha Shqipe dhe Historia e saj. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Universitar 9. Graddol, David and Ulrike H. Meinhof eds. (1999). English in a Changing World. Oxford: AILA Review 13. 10. Haçi, Beqir (June, 1925) Laboremus, published and printed monthly by the students of the Albanian 11. Vocational School “Harry Fultz”, Tiranë: p.26 12. Ligji Nr.9741, datë 21.5.2007 Për Arsimin eLartë në Republikën E Shqipërisë i Ndryshuar Nr.9832 me datë 13. 12.11.2007, Nr.10 307 datë 22.7.2010. 14. Lloshi, Xhevat (2011). Shqipja e hapur dhe dinamike. Tiranë 15. McCrum Robert, William Cram & Robert MacNeil (1986). The History of English. New York: Viking Penguin Inc. 16. Mesthrie, Rajend, ed. (1995). Language and Social History. Studies in South African Sociolinguistics. Cape Town & Johannesburg: David Philip. 17. Pipa, Arshi. (1989). The politics of language in Socialist Albania. East European monographs. New York: Boulder: Columbia University Press. 18. Shkurtaj, Gjovalin. (2009). Pesha e fjalës shqipe. Shqyrtime rreth prurjeve leksikore në veprën e Ismail Kadaresë. Tiranë. 19. Thomai, Jani (1999). Leksikologjia e Gjuhës Shqipe. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese e Librit Universitar.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 86


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics Conjunction as an Element of Cohesion in English and Albanian Language Lutfije Çota Arburim Iseni

Keywords: Text, cohesive elements, conjugation, connectors, intonation, additive, adversative,causal, temporal conjugation.

University “A Xhuvani” Faculty of Human Sciences Department of English and German Languages. Faculty of Philology, Department of English Language and Literature, State University of Tetova, Macedonia

Abstract The article deals with the phenomenon of conjunction (textual connectors) as an important element of cohesion of the text in English and Albanian. It aims at giving the concepts and classifications of conjunctive by linguists, as well as our modest thought on this phenomenon.Cohesion has been considered a rich resourse of study by different grammarians.A comparative study of textual connectors in both languages has resulted in finding the similarities and differences in English and Albanian.

1. What is conjunction in view of linguistics The term conjunction is closely linked with the concept of cohesion. Cohesion is a necessary condition for the formation of a text.1 Its absence makes no text form cohesive. It is a semantic relation. The semantic relation is the relationship between a text element called presupposing and the other element called presupposed. Cohesion is realized by reference links (reference) substitution, ellipsis and conjunction( text connectors). In this article we will focus on the fourth element of grammatical cohesion : conjunction (text connectors) . Let us have a look at the text below: (1) I did once go along to see what it was all about.But, first of all, they have all these stupid rules about what you can wear which I didn’t know ;and some old guy nearly had a heart attack because I was in jeans. So they had to find me a skirt ,and a spare pair of those clumpy shoes with spikes.And then when we got on to the course I couldn’t hit the ball; so in the end, they all exchanged glances and said I `d better wait in the clubhouse. (Kinsella,S. Can you keep a secret?:49) (Shkova nje here per te pare se cbehej.Po mbi te gjitha ata kane ca rregulla idiote se cfar duhet te veshesh qe une si dija; dhe nje plaku sa nuk i ra pika qe une isha me xhinse.Ndaj me gjeten nje fund dhe nje pale kepuce te tmerrshme me thumba.Po kur shkuam ne fushe, une nuk e

1

Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman: 27

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 87


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

godisja dot topin;keshtu qe aty nga fundi ata pane ne sy njeri tjetrin dhe me thane qe me mire te prisja ne dhomat e klubit.) In first analysis of words and expressions in bald we will accept that they are connectors. The interpretation of conjunction in the context of the sentence is: `conjunction is that invariable part of speech that connects two different parts of the sentence and puts them in syntactic relation2. (2) Ate vit dimri qe i ashper e i gjate dhe ra shume bore. (Grup autoresh,(2002)Gramatika e Gjuhes Shqipe2,.Tirane:397) (3) I get off the bus and head for the front door. ( Kinsella,S. Can you keep a secret?:187) (Zbres nga autobuzi dhe shkoj në drejtim të derës kryesore) As seen from the above examples, connectors and(e, dhe) express the relation of the units of the same syntactic level.In complex sentences they link clauses together in coordination and subordination. (4) Ishte vrasja e pare per gjakmarrje e kesaj pranvere dhe ishte e natyrshme qe te flitej imtesisht per gjithcka qe i perkiste asaj. (I.Kadare,Prilli i thyer:19) (5) I watch, unable to breathe ,as he shuts the gate behind him and walks slowly along the street. ( Kinsella,S. Can you keep a secret?:196) ( E veshtroj dhe nuk marr dot fryme , ndersa ai mbyll portend he ecen ngadale neper rruge) From the perspective of text linguistics, connectors acquire new qualities. Like the other elements of cohesion (reference,substitution and ellipsis) they organize and contribute to the coherence and cohesion of the text. They are concerned with the thematic and pragmatic organization of the discourse. (5) Petritit u humben perseri celesat.Dhe ishin celesat e kopjes se fundit. (6) –A nuk po shkon te blesh buke?(DibraK,Varfi N. (2005) Gjuhesi teksti, sh.b.l.u Tirane :91) -B Por eshte duke rene ende shi! There is clearcut difference between conjunctions and text connectors: First,while conjunctions link constituents, clauses of the same syntactic level, or a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses, the text connectors link sementically segments of the text which usually contains normally more than two sentences.”Text connectors retake meanings expressed in

2

Grup autoresh, (2002) Gramatika e Gjuhes Shqipe2,.Tirane:397.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 88


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

the preceding text but not often in the following text. The relations that they create apply to the whole text’’3. Second, conjunstions are structural and lexical,while connectors are semantic and pragmatic. Semantic connectors realize the logic continuity of the text and pragmatic connectors link parts of the text as a process. Conjunctions are used in sentences to connect clauses and phrases whereas connectors are used to connect paragraphs or larger concepts. Third, when parts(sentences) of the text are analysed from the prespective of cohesion they are considered in a given order, for cohesion is the relation between the sentences of the text that follow one another;whereas coordinators may re-order the clauses. Fourth, syntactically conjunctions fall into coordinators and subordinators,whereas text connectors are syntactically independent of the elements of the sentence. Also, unlike conjunctions (for example the relative pronoun functions as element of the sentence) the text connectors are not grammatically related to the other elements of the sentence. Fifth, unlike the conjunctions, connectors include interjections, parantheses, performative expressions, (I say, I repeat) and complex expressions(to start with, contrary to what is expected, as we noticed) As a cohesive element conjunctions relates the parts of the text semantically, not structurally, hence ,they should express logic relationships between sentences.For example , if after the first segment of the text below: (7) Gjergj Kastrioti ka qene krijuesi i unitetit te shtetit arber.Ne fakt,projekti fillestar i statistit te madh… (Topalli,T.(2011),Gjuhesi Teksti, Shkoder: 89) we insert the connector in fact the text is no longer a text because in fact is a concluding expression which presupposes a conclusion as it does in the following text : (8) Loja mund te shkonte drejt shteses.Skuadra gjermane dukej e lodhur.Ne fakt, futja e Bjerhorfit ne fushe u quajt shpetimtare… (Topalli,T.(2011),Gjuhesi Teksti, Shkoder: 90) Text connectors have been much studied in the last twenty years; different proposals and approaches have been developed on this subject because of their problematic and controversial nature ,their function and the meanings that they convey. Researchers are unable to agree on the grammatical category of them or how to delimit their class or even what types of meaning these connectors express.The first two studies have been done by Van Dijk and Halliday/Hasan. The Van Dijk group adopt a coherence-based account. In other words, the interpretation of a 3

DibraK,Varfi N. (2005) Gjuhesi teksti, sh.b.l.u Tirane: 9.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 89


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

text,according to the coherence group, depends on the identification of coherence relations between the units of that text.The second group, followers of Halladay/Hasan base their study and analysis of text connectors on relevance theory. They consider them as pragmatic devices that constrain the relevance of discourse units There is also disagreement between researchers in the same group. For instance, some researchers in the first group argue for a unified grammatical category for text connectors some others do not. Some researchers claim that text connectors have semantic (core) meaning , some others claim that they do not . And, among researches of the second group, there is disagreement whether their meaning is conceptual or procedural and whether they contribute to the implicit or explicit interpretation of utterances. Blakemore (1987) argues that text connectors are lexical expressions which do not contribute to the truth conditional content of utterances in which they occur. The main function of these markers is to constrain the implicit side of utterance interpretation4. In the generativist study of connectors, Halliday and Hasan in their book ‘’Cohesion in English”(1976) give a complete description of them as machanisms that realize the cohesion of the text.”Conjunctive elements are cohesive not in themselves but indirectly, by virtue of their specific meanings.They are not primarily devices for reaching out into preceding(or followinf) text , but they express certain meanings which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse”5 In Albanian language there is little information on the treatment of conjunctions beyond simple or complex sentence. In the traditional syntactic analysis by the Grammar Book of the Academy of Science the conjunctions fall into two groups : coordinators and subordinators. Dibra and Varfi in their book” Text Linguistics”(2005) point out that linking elements should be studied in two planes : interphrasal( covered by conjunctions) and transphrasal ( including the first). A more detailed treatment of connectors has been done by Shezai Rrokaj in his presentation to the Albanology Conference of Tirana University ,September 2011 ,” For a typology of the text connectors in Albanian Language”.In it the author points out that connectors are linguistic devices that link phrases together thus guaranteeing a unified text.6 The author also gives a classification of the connectors in Albanian language, trying to scheme their typology but leaving place for furthur research on the nature, function and the class of text connectors in Albanian language. We mentioned that when the sentences of the text are analysed from the cohesion point of view, we mean that we are inevitably concerned with their actual sequence as expressed, because cohesion is the relation between sentences in a text , and the sentences of the text can only follow 4

Blakemore, D. (2002). Relevance and Linguistic Meaning: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse Markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 220 5 Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English, Longman: 226 6 6 Rrokaj,Sh.(2011)Per nje tipologji te lidhezoreve te tekstit ne gjuhen shqipe,U.SH.T:6

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 90


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

one after the other.Hence in describing conjunction as a cohesive device , we are foccusing attention on the function they have of relating to each other linguistic elements that occur in succession but are not related by other ,structural means.Therefore we distinguish connectors that have different functions such as : and(dhe) , so (keshtu),but(por) ,maybe (ndoshta) that explain logic relationships between meanings the texts communicate, at last ( me ne fund), for the time being( tani per tani), then( atehere) that clarify the argument giving priorities and fixing the order of the parts of the discourse: (9) I feel all confused.Something`s tugging at my brain, trying to send me a message And into my head slide some of the things I said on the plane. ( Kinsella,S. Can you keep a secret?:37) (Jam e turbulluar krejt. Seç më leviz një gjë në mendje, po mundohem të dërgoj një mesazh…(Dhe) Nëpër mendje më shkojnë ca gjëra që thashë në aeroplan.) (10) Natyrisht që princi, me anë të njerëzve të vet në Tiranë, kishte mundur ta ndalonte menjëherë revistën, megjithatë emri i autorit të artikullit, megjithë përpjekjet e princit, s`u mor që s`u mor vesh. Por ndalimi i revistës nuk e qetësonte Mark Ukacjerrën. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 132) (11)And there was this nice man in the line next to me- and he struck up a conversation with me. Then we shared a table and chatted some more… ( Kinsella,S. Can you keep a secret?:98) (Atje, në rresht pranë meje ishte ky simpatikuq e filloi muhabetin me mua. Pastaj zumë një tavolinë bashkë dhe folëm më gjatë…) (12) Që jashtë nisi të dëgjohej një rrapëllimë e çrregullt, e ndërprerë nga goditje të shkurtra, që sa vente afrohej dhe më në fund, te dera e kthinës ata panë të futeshin në fillim dy këmbë tryeze, pastaj një shpatull njeriu…(I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 90) In the following examples the logical relations express temporal meaning: (13) - After the battle, there was a snow storm. (Pas betejës, erdhi një stuhi e fortë dëbore.) (Halliday, M. A. K., Hasan, R., (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 228) (14) - After communism gained control of the mainland, British-controlled banks such as HSBC (formely the Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank) and Chinese ones such as the bank of east Asia regrouped or hunkered down in Hong Kong. (Pasi komunizmi mori në kontroll kontinentin, bankat e kontrolluara nga Britania, të tilla si HSBC dhe ato kineze, si banka e Azisë lindore, u rigrupuan ose zunë vend në Hong Kong.) (Forbes: 35) In the above examples the time sequence has become a cohesive agent.The semantic relation of succession in time actually has the cohesive power no matter whether it is realized with Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 91


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

structural means or not.For example in (13 )and (14) we have two separate sentences with no structural relationship at all; but the two parts are still linked by the same logical relation of succession in time. In the following example we have the semantic relationship of adversity expressed with different grammatical forms: (15) He fell asleep, in spite of his great discomfort. (Atë e zuri gjumi pavarsisht nga parehatia e madhe.) (16) Although he was very uncomfortable he fell asleep. (Edhe pse nuk ishte aspak i qetë, atë e zuri gjumi.) (17) He was very uncomfortable. Despite this, he fell asleep. (Ai nuk ishte aspak i qetë. Pavarsisht nga kjo, atë e zuri gjumi.) (Halliday, M. A. K., Hasan, R., (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 229) (18) Gjuha e tij e kërkoi pështymën thellë, shumë thellë, në shpellën e gojës. Megjithatë arriti t`i ngjizte fjalët: - Futeni Brenda të vdekurin dhe shpërndajeni mortin nëpër fshat e vëllazëri. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 14) In (17) the causal relation between the two sentences is expressed by the structural relation of the conjunction despite(panvarsisht) with its referential element this(kjo) in the second sentence. In English the simplest form of conjunction is and (dhe). It is used as a structural conjunction in coordination and as a semantic conjunction of the text. The coordinate relation is structural, whereas the additive relation is cohesive. In Albanian language the conjunction dhe is more common and expresses in general the additive relation in a compound sentence: (19) Nata ishte e errët dhe ajri ishte i dendur nga lagështira. (lidhëz bashkërenditëse) (Çeliku, M., (2007), Tekst ushtrimesh për sintaksën e shqipes standarde, ILAR, Tiranë: 177) (20) Dora përsëri preku supin e të vrarit, sikur t’i thoshte të kthehej prapë në jetë. Përse e bëj këtë, tha me vete. Dhe në çast e kuptoi se nuk ishte përkulur mbi të vrarin për ta përmendur nga gjumi i vdekjes, por për ta kthyer mbarë. (konektor tekstual) (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 12) (21) Kishte vetëm gjysmë ore që i ishte dhënë besa tridhjetëditëshe, dhe ai gati po mësohej me mendimin se jeta e tij ishte ndarë përfundimisht në dy copa. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 21) As a cohesive element and is a semantic linker based on the idea of addition.A coordinate item such as men and women functions as a single conctituent; it constitutes a single element in the structure of a larger unit ,for example Subject in a clause.We can also say women and man;it also shouldn`t be limited to two items, we may have three ,as in men, women and children ,or even more. In this case and is a coordinate conjunction.With and as a cohesive element , on the other

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 92


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

hand,the situation is different. Here the relation is between sentences , and sentences follow one another one at a time as the text unfolds, they can not be rearranged , as a coordinate structure can. Each new sentence either is or is not linked to its predecessor , as an independant fact ; and if it is and ( additive relation) is one way in which it may be so linked.7 (22) In fact, I can see some people looking curiously out of the house opposite. And all at once I`m really scared. What am I doing? (Në fakt, po shikoj se ca njerëz nga shtëpia përballë po e shohin me kureshtje. Dhe më futet menjëherë frika. Cdo të bëj? (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 170) (23) Kishte vetë gjysmë ore që i ishte dhënë besa tridhjetëditëshe, dhe ai gati po mësohej me mendimin se jeta e tij ishte ndarë përfundimisht në dy copë. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 21) (24) Nuk themi lavdi zotit që nuk na shqeu leckash…Dhe këtu vininm dy tre proverba… (Rrokaj, SH., Për një tipologji lidhëzore të tekstit në gjuhën shqipe, Konferencë Albanologjike e USHT, Tiranë, 2011, f. 7) In the following example the second sentence is rather a case of coordination in which and is in the end. Although punctuated as sentences,it is really more like a set of coordinate clauses.The and should have been in the second sentence to express cohesive relation: (25) I shall repeat them- for fear of you’re forgetting them. At four, I shall say goodbye, and at five I shall go! (Do t’i përsëris se mos i harron, Në orën katër do të them mirupafshim, dhe në orën pesë do të shkoj.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 235) In Albanian language the coordinate conjunctions , from semantic and structural point of view, are placed between the sentences.In most cases we dont begin a sentence with end.But there are cases when and is used initionally, which links the preceding clause or sentence with the last previous one. According to Mehmet Celiku , author of “ Sintaksa e Gjuhes Shqipe( Perberesit sintaksor)” (2012), this detachment of the clause to remain on its own, retaining the coordinator is directly linked with the linguistic unit above the sentence which is the text.This is a common occurance in both standard and folk language.8 The most common conjunctions are : megjithatë, prandaj, ndërsa, kurse, ose, etj.: (26) Të gjithë janë shëndoshë e mirë dhe të presin ty, që të qetësohesh. Prandaj mos u vono kot, por nisu. (Çeliku, M., (2011) Sintaksë e gjuhës shqipe, Përbërësit sintaksorë, ILAR, Tiranë: 44) (27) Ai tha se ndihej i lumtur që njihej me mua. Ndërsa unë nuk arrita të formuloja asgjë.(po aty)

7 8

Halliday, M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman: 235 Grup autoresh, (2002) Gramatika e Gjuhes Shqipe2,.Tirane: 426

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 93


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The above texts are examples of cohesion realized by conjunction .In them there is a semantic relation between fragments A and B and fragment B adds meaning or clarifies something about the meaning of fragment A . The typical context for a conjunctive and is one in which there is a total or almost total shift in the participants from one sentence to the next,and yet the two sentences are very definitely part of a text9: (28) He heaved the rock aside with all his strength. And there in the recesses of a deep hollow lay a glittering heep of treasure. (Ai e lëvizi shkëmbin me tërë forcën e tij, dhe në luginën e thellë fshihej një thesar xixëllues.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R., Cohesion in English, Longman, 1976, f. 235) 2. Types of conjunction (text connectors) Variuos sugestions could be taken up for classifying textual connectors because there is no single, uniquely correct inventory of the types of conjunctive relations. Dibra and Varfi classify the textual connectors into three categories according to the relation that they express in the text10: -Logical connectors: express logical relations between parts of the text which may be temporal, spatial, adversity, extantion of informatoion, explanation, eloboration, conclusion. -Connectors that specify textual organization: they serve to lead the reader and orientate him/her to the structure of the text. - Connectors that express the attitude of the speaker or the writer. At the same time, connectors are realized by different grammatical forms from conjunctions , adverbs, adverbial expressions, to interjections, parantheses, performative and complex expressions. From the point of view of word formation we distinguish: 1- Simple and compound connectors: then, next, so accordingly, actually, therefore, thereupon. 2- Other compound connectors: furthermore, nevertheless, anyway, besides, on the contrary. 3- Prepositional expressions:as a result of that, instead of that, in addition to that, because of that. Shezai Rrokaj defines text connectors as interphrasal devices with cohesive function. He classifies them into two groups: grammatical and lexical. In textual connectors he includes: 9

Çeliku,M(2011) Perberesit sintaksor,Tirane:34 DibraK,Varfi N. (2005) Gjuhesi teksti, sh.b.l.u Tirane: 92

10

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 94


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

conjunctions, deictics, anaphor, intertextors, catalisators of the message, lexis, prepositions. For example: dhe, edhe, mirepo, une, ti, traktet, falna o zot, c`kemi, si rrjedhoje, sipas. Textual connectors normally stand at the beginning of the sentence and apply to the whole sentence: (29) I have to sit there and pretend to be a good employee. And he knows I`m not. (Më duhet të qëndroj atje dhe të shtirem se jam një punonjëse e mirë, kurse ai e di që nuk jam e tillë.) (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 106) According to Halliday and Hasan different classifications of conjunctive relations are possible , each of which would highlight different aspects of the fact.But they adopt a scheme of just four categories : additive, adversitive, casual, temporal11: (30) a. - For the whole day he climbed the steps mountainside almost without stopping! And in all this time he met no one. (additive) (a. - Gjatë gjithë ditës ai ju ngjit malit në këmbë pa ndaluar. Dhe gjatë kësaj kohe nuk takoi njeri.) (shtues) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R., (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 238) (31) b. - Yet, he was hardly aware of being tired. (adversative) b. - Megjithatë, nuk e kuptoi se ishte lodhur. (kundërshtues) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 239) (32) c. - So by night time the valley was far below him. (causal) (c. - Kështu afër natës lugina ishte shumë larg, poshtë tij. (shkakor) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 238) (33) d. - Then, as dusk fell, he sat down to rest. (temporal) (d. - Pastaj, me rënien e muzgut u ul për të pushuar. (kohor) The words And, Yet, So, Then can be taken as typifying these four very general conjunctive relations, although there are also other connectors, not of very rigid kind, which realize text cohesion. Also in one or two instances the same word occurs in more than one conjunctive type; eg. then is both temporal and causal : (34) Alice began taking the little golden key and unlocking the door that led into the garden. Then she set to work…… (Alisa filloi të merrte çelësin e vogël të artë dhe të hapte derën që të çonte në kopësht. Pastaj ajo u ul të punonte….)(temporal conjunction) (lidhëzim kohor)

11

Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman:238

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 95


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 261) (35) ‘Have some wine, ’the March Hare said in an encouraging tone. Alice looked all around the table, but there was nothing on it but tea. ’I don’t see any wine, ’ she remarked. ‘There isn’t any, ’ said the March hare. ‘Then it wasn’t very civil of you to offer it, ’ said Alice angrily. (Merr pak verë tha lepuri march me një ton inkurajues. Alisa vështoi në të gjithë tavolinën por nuk kishte asgjë mbi të përveç çajit `Nuk shoh verë, ` vërejti ajo. `Nuk ka verë, ` tha Lepuri March `Atëherë nuk është e sjellshme për ty ta ofrosh atë.` tha Alisa e inatosur.)(causal conjunction) (lidhëzim shkakor ) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 258) (36) – Për në kullën e oroshit? - pyeti ai. - Nga vjen? -Nga Brezftohti -Atëherë duhet të kesh uri. Do gjësendi? (lidhëzim shkakor) (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 36) (37) Fytyra e plakut, e thatë, me ca si njolla të hirta nëpër të, ishte e palëvizur. Atëherë midis heshtjes, një zë i tingullt, me një kumbim bronzi që s`u kuptua nga ç’anë erdhi, thirri:.....) (lidhëzim kohor) (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 99) Conjunction as a cohesive relation is internal and external although the distinction is not clearcut.This division of conjunctive relation into internal and external is based on the fact whether we study them on logical-semantic plane (external) or on pragmatic plane that is within the communication process(internal)12: (38) She was never happy here. So she`s leaving. (Ajo nuk ishte e lumtur këtu. Kështu po largohet.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 241) (39) She will be better off in a new place. - So she is leaving? 12

Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman:241

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 96


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(Ajo do të jetë më mirë në një vend tjetër. - Prandaj po largohet?) (po aty) In (38) there is a causal relation between two events-or two phenomena, where the first is a state rather than an event. The meaning is ` because she is not happy , she`s leaving`.( Ngaqë nuk ishte e lumtur ajo do të largohet.) In (39) there is also a causal relation , but it is within the communication process ; the meaning is ` because you refer to her being about to be in a new place, I conclude she is leaving`. (Meqë ti thua që ajo do të jetë më mirë në një vend tjetër, unë konkludoj se ajo do të largohet) 2.1 Additive conjunction(text connectors) The cohesive relation expressed by and(dhe) at the beginning of a new sentence – the Additive relation- is somewhat different from coordination proper , although it is derivable from it13. Unlike as coordinator, and as cohesive connector applies to the whole text.But not every time, a writer puts a full stop before and(dhe), he uses it cohesively.The distinction between structural and cohesive connectors is not clearcut especially when we refer to spoken language.There is a distinction in principle between structural relations(which hold within a sentence ) and cohesive relations between sentences of the text. The two most important additive connectors are and (dhe) and or(ose).The conjunction nor (as) has a negative meaning.The relation they express does not depend either on referential meaning, or on identity, or of association of wording.This relation represents semantic links between the elements that are constituitive of text: (40) They gave him fish to eat. And I don’t like fish. (Ata i dhanë për të ngrënë peshk. Dhe unë nuk e pëlqej peshkun.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 321) (41) `You could be saying “I don`t forgive you. ”Or you could be saying “I can`t be bothered to return your stupid flowers, that`s how little you mean to me”` (- Ti mund të thuash “Nuk të fal”. Ose mund të thuash se “Nuk çaj kokë të kthej lulet e tua idiote, që do të thotë se sa pak vlen për mua.) (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 286) In Albanian language additive relation is expressed in a general way and interchangebly by the conjunctions dhe, e, edhe. From the three dhe is more common , e is the second and edhe is much less used. Conjunction edhe is very rarely used as a conjunction but it is more often used as a

13

Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman:240

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 97


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

particle and in this sense it can not be replaced by e. In this sense edhe gives more focus and information14: (42) Në mbrëmje, – tha Memoja, - mendoj të mbledhim komandantët e kompanive. Mund t’i mblidhnim edhe tani, por më mirë të presim sa të kthehet Xhodoja. (Çeliku, M., (2007), Tekst ushtrimesh për sintaksën e shqipes standardë, ILAR, Tiranë: 178) (43) Ato ujëra të qeta filluan të përmblidhen në valë të vogla, e mbi këto valë u shtri ngjyra e purpurt e perëndimit të diellit.(Grup autorësh, (2002) Gramatika e Gjuhës Shqipe 2, Tiranë: 468) (44) Në bisedën e tyre të fundit për çështjen e gjakut, zëri i të atit ishte më i zymtë. Edhe dita ishte ndryshe, një ditë e qullët, në një mënyrë të mjerë, pa shi, madje pa mjegull, për të mos kujtuar vetëtimat, që do të ishin luks i madh për atë qiell varfanjak. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 44) The above connectors can express addition in the form of explanation, remark or evaluation.Sometimes there is a word in the following sentence semantically close to a word in the preceding text: (45) Tani atij i dukej se gjithë jeta e breznisë së tyre njerëzore nuk ishte veç një drakë morti e pambarim, ku njëra palë shkonte të tjetra e herë vinte pala tjetër tek ajo. Dhe secila palë, përpara se të nisej për në gosti, vinte në fytyrë maskën e përgjakur. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 19) 2.2 Adversative connectors(text connectors) The basic meaning of adversative relation is `contrary to expectation`.15 The expectation may be derived from the content of what is being said, or from the communication process, the speaker- hearer situation.Adversative relations are internal and external.An external adversative relation is expressed in its simple form by the word yet occurring initially in the sentence: (46) All the figures were correct. They had been checked. Yet the total came out wrong. (Të gjitha shifrat ishin të sakta. Ato ishin kontrolluar. Por totali në fund doli i pasaktë.) (external - i jashtëm) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R., (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 250) (47) That must be Henry. - Yet it can`t be; Henry`s in Manchester. (Ky mund të jetë Henri. - Por s’mund të jetë. Henri është në Mançester.) (internal - i brendshëm) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 321) 14 15

Celiku.M.(2007),Tekst ushtrimesh per sintaksen e shqipes standard,ILAR Tirane :178 Halliday, M.A.K, Hasan, R.(1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 250

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 98


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(48) Njëherë iu dukën pak, tepër pak, një vrundull kohe, gjatë së cilës nuk do të arrinte të bënte asgjë. Por, pas disa çastesh ato tridhjetë ditë iu dukën tmerrësisht shumë. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 22) Apart from adversative relations proper, textual connectors may express contrastive relations, corrective relations as well as dismissive relations: (49) In theory Jemima has a job, working in a sculpture gallery. But all she ever seems to do is have bits of her waxed and plucked and massaged, and go on dates with city bankers, whose salary she always checks out before she says yes. (Teorikisht, Jemima ka një punë, punon në një galeri skulpture. Por shqetësimi i saj i përhershëm është të lyhet, të ngjyhet, të masazhohet dhe të shkojë në takime me bankierët e qytetit, të cilëve para se t`u thotë po, u kontrollon gjithmonë pagën.) (contrastive relations) (Kinsella, S. Can you keep a secret?: 43) (50) He showed no pleasure at hearing the news. Instead he looked even gloomer. (Ai nuk u gëzua kur mori vesh lajmin. Përkundrazi u bë më i zymtë.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 254) (51) Ajo vetë s`ndihej më aspak e lodhur. Përkundrazi, nga njëfarë lehtësi e brendshme, vetja i dukej disi e tejdukshme, ndonëse e gjithë kjo ishte e ftohtë dhe pa gëzim. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 106)

2.3 Causal conjunction ( text connectors) In causal conjunction the presupposing sentence expresses the cause or reason of what is said in the preceding sentence.The simple form of causal relation is expressed by so,thus, hence,therefore consequentlu,accordingly and a number of expressions like as a result( of that),in consequence( of that),because of that. All these regularly combine with initial and. So occurs only initially , unless following and; thus like yet occurs initially or at least in the first part of the clause and the prepositional expressions are usually used initially16: (52) I hurry down the corridor as quickly as I can, but as I pass Admin I am accosted by Wendy Smith, who wants to know if I`d like to play in the netball team. So I don`t actually get to the basement for a few minutes. (Nxitoj nëpër korridor me shpejtësi, por pasi kaloj Administratën më ndalon Uendi Smithi që do të dijë nëse më pëlqen të luaj me skuadrën e volejbollit. Kështu që nuk shkoj dot në bodrum menjëherë…) (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 136)

16

Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman: 256

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 99


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(53) …she wouldn’t have heard it at all, if I hadn’t come quite close to her ear. The consequence of this was that it tickled her ear very much, and quite took off her thoughts from the unhappiness of the poor little creature. (…ajo nuk do ta kishte dëgjuar aspak atë, nëse nuk do ta kishte aq afër veshit. Si pasojë ju gudulis shumë veshi dhe gati ia largoi mendimet nga krijesa e vogël e gjorë.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 256) (54) Malet s`kishin filluar ende, por hija e tyre ndihej qyshkur dhe dukej se ishte pikërisht ajo hije, që duke mos e pranuar në botën e maleve, e pengonte megjithatë këtë truall të quhej ultësirë. Kështu që, i midistë, ai truall ishte djerr dhe pothuajse i pabanuar. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 59-60) The distinction between the external and internal types of cohesion tends to be a little less clearcut in the context of causal relations than it is in the other contexts,probably because the notion of cause already involves some degree of interpretation by the speaker. Under the general heading of causal relation are considered those that express reason, result, purpose, condition, respective relations (with respect to) and reversed causal relations. For example: (55) As you are aware, Pete Laidler, who founded the Panther Corporation with me, was British. For that reason, among many others, this country has always been immensely important to me. (Siç e dini, Pete Leidleri, që themeloi Korporatën Pantera, së bashku me mua ishte britanik. Për këtë arsye, ashtu si edhe për shumë të tjera, ky vend ka qenë gjithmonë jashtëzakonisht i rëndësishëm për mua.)(Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 76) (56) Këtu rrallë e tek hynin njerëz të huaj. Prandaj dhe ai mbylli këtu komitin.. (Grup autorësh, (2002) Gramatika e Gjuhës Shqipe 2, Tiranë: 568) (57) The next morning she was glad and proud that she had not yielded to a scare. For he was most strangely and obviously better. (Mëngjesin tjetër ajo ishte e gëzuar dhe krenare që nuk i ishte dorëzuar frikës. Pasi ai ishte pa dyshim çuditërisht më mirë.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 258) (58) And what does it live on? - Weak tea with cream unit. A new difficulty came into Alice’s head “supposing it couldn’t find any?” she suggested. “Then it would die of course”

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 100


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(Dhe me çfarë jeton? - Çaj të lehtë me krem. Një vështirësi e re i erdhi Alisës në mendje `sikur të mos mund të gjej?” - sugjeroi ajo. Atëherë sigurisht do të ngordhte.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 258) 2.4 Temporal connectors Temporal connectors express the relation between the meanings of two successive sentences. The temporal relation is expressed in its simplest form by then. The second sentence may be related to the first through an indication that it is simultaneous in time, previous or sequential. In the sense of simultaneous we have: then at the same time simultaneously; in the sense of previous we have: earlier before that, previously, sequential relations are expressed by (and) then, next, afterwards, after that, subsequently. (59) I sit down and stare at my blank screen for a minute. Then with trembling fingers I take out a blank file. (Ulem dhe vështroj ekranin e bardhë për një minutë. Pastaj me duart që më dridhen nxjerr një dosje të bardhë.) (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 160) (60) Pjesën e vdekjes së vëllait të mesëm Diana e përfytyroi krejtësisht me lëvizje të ngadalësuara si në filma. Vëllai i mesëm kishte kërkuar nga gjyqtarët tridhjetë ditët e besës. Pastaj, ditën e tridhjetenjëtë i fyeri i kishte zënë pritë dhe e kishte vrarë qetësisht. (I. Kadare, Prilli i thyer: 108) The presupposing sentence may be temporally cohesive not only because it stands in some particular time relation to the presupposed sentence but also because it marks the end of some process or series of processes, thus having a conclusive sense which is expressed by finally, at last, in the end eventually (61) All this time the Guard was looking at her, first through a telescope, then through a microscope and then through an opera-glass. At last he said. “You are travelling the long way. (Gjatë gjithë kohës Roja po e shikonte atë në fillim me teleskop pastaj me mikroskop dhe pastaj me syze-opera. Më në fund tha: “Ju po udhëtoni gjatë.’’) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 263) Other temporal meanings include summary relations which are culminative expressed with to sum up, in short, briefly and resumptive expressed by to resume, to get back to the point, anyway. (62) He can`t fire me. He just can`t. It`s not fair. I didn’t know who he was. I mean, obviously, if he `d told me he was my employer, I would never have mentioned my CV. Or any of it. Anyway it`s not as if I faked my degree, is it? Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 101


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(Ai nuk mund të më pushojë. Nuk mundet. Kjo s`është e drejtë. Unë nuk e dija se cili ishte. E them hapur, po të më kishte treguar se ishte punëdhënësi im, unë s`kisha për ta përmendur kurrë Cv-në time. Ose asgjë tjetër. Po gjithsesi, nuk është puna se unë falsifikova notën time, apo jo?) (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 77) We also bring together a number of individual items, which, although they do not express any particular one of the four conjunctive relations already mentioned, are nevertheless used with cohesive force in the text.If necessary they can be referred to as continuatives. Some of them are: now, of course, well, anyway, surely, after all: (63) Ema, a word of advice. If you want to get ahead, you have to create your own chances. You have to carve out your own opportunities. Now, seriously. Could you please get out of my office and get Nick for me? (- Ema, dëgjo një këshillë. Nëse dëshiron të ecësh përpara, duhet t’i krijosh vetë shanset. Duhet t’i zbulosh mirë gjithë mundësitë. Tani, seriozisht, a nuk ikën nga zyra ime dhe thuaj Nikut të vi këtu?) (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 88) (64) Jack, is everything OK? He frowns. `Why do you say that? (Kinsella, S., Can you keep a secret: 180) `Well, you keep disappearing off. I just wondered if there was anything. You wanted to talk about. (- Xhek, mos ke ndonjë hall? Ai rrudh vetullat. - E përse pyet?- Po ja, ti mbete duke ikur. Po pyes veten se mos ke …se mos ke ndonjë gjë për të thënë.)

2.5 The cohesive function of intonation Intonation is considered as one of expressing forms of conjunctive relation.If the cohesive relation itself is to be brought into focus of attention this is realized by intonation.Very frequently in spoken language the tone alone shows that the item in question is cohesive ; the cohesion consists just in the contrast with some preceding item17.In the example: (65) The little stable boy went to bed feeling very excited. In the morning (3// in the MORNING//) he packed his bag and left home. (Stallieri i vogël shkoi në shtrat shumë i emocionuar. Në mëngjes paketoi çantën dhe la shtëpinë.) 17

Halliday, M.A.K, Hasan, R.(1976), Cohesion in English,Longman: 271

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 102


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

(Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R. (1976) Cohesion in English, Longman: 273) the tone shows that in the morning is cohesively related to the preceding sentence and means next morning.This tone would be inappropriate ,for example in a sentence such as: (66) In the morning I am usually very tired (every morning). (Mëngjseve unë zakonisht jam shumë i lodhur.) (Halliday, M. A. K, Hasan, R., (1976), Cohesion in English, Longman: 273) because in the morning means `every morning` and cannot be cohesive. The example shows that the oral text just written one is organized into units of information by means of cohesive elements part of which are intonation patterns.

Conclusion Based on the analysis of the conjunction as an important element of grammatical cohesion in English and Albanian we have reached to the conclusion that textual connectors are one way to connect parts of the text in meaning.In general. there are four types of conjunctive relations which contribute to the semantic and pragmatic organization of the text.The more specific connectors are and,yet, so and then ,and each of these may occur in either an `external` or `internal` context.Both languages make use of a large number of connectors. Additive relations of meaning are more frequently used in both languages.But unlike English and, the Albanian dhe, e are used less often .The English and has more shades of meaning than the Albanian dhe, e. In Albanian po, kurse, ndersa are used as equivalents of English and . On the other hand, the conjunction dhe (and) is used in coordinative constractions instead of English non-finite constructions like in: I hurry down the stairs , nearly breaking my ankle (Zbres me nxitim poshtë shkallëve dhe gati sa nuk thyej kyçin e këmbës). In both languages other forms of linkages between the components of the text are independent elements (paranthesis) in Albanian language being greater in number. Intonation has also a place as a conjunctive device in a cohesive text. In addition to the fact that each language has general preferences for certain cohesive devices, it also has specific preferences for certain cohesive devices that are sensitive to text type. Different genres and registers are characterized by particular kinds of cohesive devices and may make different uses of them. Conjunctions (textual connectors) are used more or less equally in all registers because they do not hinder the interpretation of the message and can be considered neutral in comparison to other cohesive devices. The use of text connectors in speech and writing demonstrate a unified tendency to connect larger parts either contrasting, linking parts within a sequence, or presenting some result.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 103


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

References 1. Blakemore, D. (2002). Relevance and Linguistic Meaning: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse Markers. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. 2. DibraK,Varfi N. (2005) Gjuhesi teksti, sh.b.l.u Tirane 3. Grup autoresh, (2002) Gramatika e Gjuhes Shqipe2,.Tirane 4. Halliday,M.A.K,Hasan,R.(1976),Cohesion in English,Longman 5. Celiku, M. (1975) Fjalet dhe togjet e fjaleve te ndermjetme, `GJSHLSH`,Nr 3 6. Çeliku, M. (2007). Tekst ushtrimesh për sintaksën e shqipes standarde. Tiranë: ILAR. 7. Çeliku, M. (2012). Sintaksë e gjuhës shqipe, përbërësit sintaksorë. Tiranë: ILAR. 8. Rrokaj, Sh.(2011)Per nje tipologji te lidhezoreve te tekstit ne gjuhen shqipe,U.SH.T 9. Topalli,T.(2011),Gjuhesi Teksti, Shkoder. 10. Kinsella, Sophy ‘’ Can you keep a secret? “Black Swan, 2003 (roman) 11. Kadare Imail “Prilli i thyer’’ Tirane, 2006. (roman)

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 104


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics Foreign Language Learning and TranslationRelated Approach

Keywords:code-switching, foreignization, foreign language learning (FLL), inter-lingual transfer, translationrelated approach, translation-free approach

Rudina Xhillari

University of Tirana, Albania

Shpresa Qatipi - Rira

University of Tirana, Albania

Daniela Tamo

University of Tirana, Albania

Abstract From the 17-th to the 19-th century grammar-translation approach was the main method of teaching a foreign language. As a result of this method pupils could study English for many years, they knew and were able to apply grammar rules correctly but found it difficult to speak the language fluently. Then in the 70-ies and 80-ies of the 20-th century, there was a shift to communicative approach (translation-free approach). Recently there has been a renewal of the concept that translation is an important skill in learning a foreign language and the translation-related approach has come into use. The goal of this research is focusing on the new trends in teaching English as a second language, where translation is considered as a significant language skill. It provides reasons why and to what extent it should be used in a classroom setting and how it can improve language learning, enhance student comprehension and communication by non-native teachers. In order to achieve this, a questionnaire is conducted with the pupils of a 9-grade school in Albania, who learn English and French as foreign languages. The objective of this questionnaire was to see what the perceptions of the pupils are as regards the use of the skill of translation and language A (mother tongue) in the classroom. The findings of the questionnaire highlight the idea that translation is an important skill that should be used appropriately and proportionately in language learning process and whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more important when the teachers are non-native speakers, it should be used proportionately as a means to develop clarity, accuracy and explain language and culture differences.

Introduction The issue of using translation as a means of teaching a foreign language remains a controversy. Different researchers and practitioners including teachers, translation practitioners, linguists, psycholinguists, sociolinguists, etc. have been involved in this debate during the recent years. This research and its findings intend to provide contribution to this debate and future researches as regards this topic, without jumping into rigid conclusions. The grammar-translation approach was used extensively for more than two centuries from the 17-th to the 19-th century and still continues to be used in some countries. It was the new term coined for the classical method used to teach Latin and Greek. Until the 1960-ies of the XX-th century, the grammar-translation approach was dominant in foreign language teaching. According to this approach, learners were asked to translate literally entire texts and memorize the grammar rules, exceptions of those rules and also the new words. The objective of this approach was making the students skilful in reading and translating the literary masterpieces. Little attention was devoted to the speaking ability and communication. Learners were given lists of isolated words and were asked to translate them and learn by heart.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 105


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The grammar-translation approach was dominant in foreign language teaching in Albania for many decades. It was not successful and this led to the emergence of completely different approaches, from the “direct approaches” to the “audio-communicative” and “audiovisual” approaches of the 60-ies that were completely against any kind of intervention of mother tongue and translation exercises in the foreign language classes. Later in the 70-ies and 80-ies of the XXthe century, there was a tendency to shift towards a new different approach: the communicative approach. The recent years witnessed a revival of the concept that translation is an important skill in foreign language teaching and has a great impact on enhancing the foreign language learning quality. This concept is closely related to the use of the mother tongue in foreign language classes. In fact, there are controversial opinions as regards the way of including translation in foreign language learning. This debate is very important in Albania and in all those countries where English and other foreign languages are not the mother-tongues and most of the teachers are nonnative speakers of the foreign language. Closely related to the issue of translation-based approach in foreign language learning is the use of some strategies that language learners at the beginning of their learning process like: code-switching, transliteration, “foreignization”, interlingual transfer which are closely related to translation. That is why we have included this issue in our research. This research and its findings shed light on the positive and negative sides of these approaches and support the idea that translation activity in foreign language teaching lead to the enhancement of the interactive and communicative skills and as such it should be promoted and teachers should be aware of the importance of these activities. Most of the teachers include such activities in foreign language classes, but they are not sure that this is the most appropriate thing to do and sometimes they don’t feel at ease while using these activities. The outlining theory The grammar-translation approach was based on learning the grammar rules. The translation of grammar was considered as a good method and was based on the traditional learning of Latin and Greek. Students were asked to translate whole texts literally and learn the grammar rules and exceptions to these rules as well as the new words by heart. According to this method, a long list of the words of the vocabulary in language A and language B. The grammar issues came out directly from the texts in the textual context and were explained from the teacher. Grammar served to offer rules and organize words into sentences. In order to reinforce the knowledge acquired, there were many grammar and translation exercises involved in the type of exercises and no attention was devoted to the content of the text. The texts were translated from the foreign language into the mother tongue, and little attention was devoted to the pronunciation and the language communication aspect. The best preferred aspect was reading seen only in the context of translation. The shortcoming of this approach is its communicative aspect, because the students can study the language for many years, know the grammar rules very well, but they have difficulties in speaking the foreign language fluently. This approach achieves a limited number of

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 106


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

objectives. It lacks communication, the active role of the students in the classroom, the speaking skill is limited and the students can’t manage to speak freely and even write a letter in the foreign language. It poses some limits on thinking in a foreign language and hampers the acquisition of automatic expressions and can lead to unnecessary interventions of the mother tongue. It is not considered as a natural approach of learning a foreign language because it turns upside down the order of foreign language teaching because it starts with reading and then continues with writing different form the normal order of language teaching that follows this order: listening, speaking, reading and writing. The speaking aspect is disregarded and that is why, this approach causes problems with communication. Students can’t communicate freely in the foreign language, because they listen to the mother tongue in the foreign language classes. This approach does not allow enough space for practice, attention is devoted more to learning the grammar rules rather than using them. Many scholars highlight the idea that it is almost impossible to speak a foreign language being entirely based on rules, because foreign language learning acquires many other skills that are learnt through practice instead of learning rules by heart. What students normally do is translate the ideas form mother tongue into foreign language and this does not encourage creative thinking and the accurate expression of ideas at all. Then in the 70-ies and 80-ies, there was a shift to communicative method (translation free method) by using only English and teaching “English through English.” (Willis 1981). This approach was completely against the intervention of mother tongue and focused on the communicative aspect. It came as a necessity of that time, of the increased demand to study foreign languages in Europe and USA. This increased demand imposed a new way of thinking based on the assumption that “active learning is better than passive learning.” (Whong 2011). According to Nunan (1991), the communicative language teaching approach is based on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language; using authentic texts; an enhancement of the learners own personal experiences as important elements to classroom learning. As a result there was more pair and group work, interviews, role-plays introduced in FL classes. This approach has communication and learners at its focus and motivates the learners. It is successful when the teachers are native speakers of the language and this disadvantage has led to some new thinking about the successful implementation of this approach. Recently there has been a renewal of the concept that translation is an important skill in learning a foreign language that encourages and upgrades language learning. Translation is now more and more referred to as the fifth language skill alongside with the other four basic skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing): “Translation holds a special importance at an intermediate and advanced level: in the advanced or final stage of language teaching, translation from A to B and B to A is recognized as the fifth skill and the most important social skill since it promotes communication and understanding between strangers.”(Ross 2000) Being exposed to two completely different approaches, teachers don’t know which one to choose and so there is debate about this choice. In order to be part of this debate, let’s make a list of the advantages and disadvantages regarding the use of translation-based language teaching approach. Disadvantages are related to these reasons: it may restrain thinking in foreign language, can cause language interference and can prevent pupils from acquiring automatic habits.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 107


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

As regards advantages, translation-based approach is considered as extremely important for foreign language teaching simply because it allows conscious learning and control of the foreign language, and consequently. Using translation can make learning meaningful because the learner is an active participant in the process. Every person acquires a foreign language after having acquired mother-tongue, which means alongside the language skills you have acquired knowledge about different issues. This knowledge makes the process of foreign language learning more mature and full of variety, comparisons and contributions as compared to mother tongue acquisition. The existence of this prior knowledge and skills make the learner go through a translation process while learning the foreign language. This approach contributes to immediate understanding and helps examine students’ perceptions of mother tongue application. Students experience less tension as a result of the use of mother-tongue in the foreign language classes. Robinson (1997) puts forward that translation is actually a language learning process and the translator is always a learner. He suggests that "translation is an intelligent activity, requiring creative problem-solving in novel, textual, social and cultural conditions." He further suggests that translation involves "complex processes of conscious and unconscious learning." Translation method develops three qualities essential to any language learning: accuracy, clarity, and flexibility.” (Duff 1996) This is also true and even more helpful with the advanced learners. For beginners, of course, it is useful simply because it expounds grammar and teaches vocabulary. “Translation is useful in the EFL classroom in order to compare grammar, vocabulary, word order and other language points in English and the students´ mother tongue.”(Ross 2000) This depends very much on the teachers and his/her attitude towards use of translation as a means of teaching foreign language. It goes without saying that learners unconsciously use the translation method for learning a language, shifting from one language to the other and making comparisons between two languages, grammar structures, trying to adapt language A words, phrases and structures into foreign language. The strategies they employ are also tackled within the scope of this research. The use of translation-based approach and bilingualism or multilingualism is closely related with the use of translation strategies by the FL learners. Code switching is a process when learners use a word or phrase from language A and insert it into language B or vice versa. Most of the pupils state that they use this translation strategy when they start learning a foreign language. In many situations of languages in contact, constituents of one language can be found with the constituents of another language in a number of linguistic phenomena, namely lexical borrowing, transferring, interference, calquing, diffusion, reflixication, codeswitching and codemixing, etc. (Annamali 1989). Traditionally, code-switching has been considered as a strategy to make up for weak language command. The learners switch language codes because of their level of the language. At the beginning of language learning, Albanian learners of English rely mostly on Albanian when they communicate in English. When they reach a good command of language B, than the learners have the tendency to code-switch to Albanian. “Code-switching may be indicative of difficulties in retrieval (access) affected by a combination of closely-related factors such as language use (i.e.,

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 108


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

how often the first language is used) and word frequeny (i.e., how much a particular word is used in the language).” (Heredia 1997) There is another strategy that learners unconsciously use “foreignizing”, namely the invention or creation of words, phrases or structures that do not exist in the learner's A language but that are imported by language B. This strategy is not used at the early stages of language learning, but later when the learner has a good command of Language B and he uses its structures in language A. Transliteration as a strategy implies literal rendering of the native language word or phrase into language B. It is used at the early stages of language learning. The learners having a limited knowledge of foreign language, translate expressions or word groups literally in order to express their ideas in speaking or writing. In many cases there can be correct equivalences by using this strategy, but in most of the cases word combinations are meaningless in the foreign language. As regards interlingual transfer, it is a strategy that aims at rewording the text and interpreting verbal signs by means of some other languages. Learners transfer from the mother tongue or other previously learned languages into Language B, because they lack the linguistic means to create complete ideas. Problems of Research The problems of this research are related to the foreign language teaching approaches, their advantages and disadvantages, thus offering certain alternatives to the contemporary students and teachers nowadays. Another problem of the research is to what extent the translation strategies are used in foreign language classes by the students and by bringing this issue to the attention of the foreign language teachers, these strategies can be identified as part of the FLL process. The focus of the research is to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the use of communicative approach and translation-based approach in foreign language learning and some translation strategies that pupils use either consciously or unconsciously in foreign language classes. The research has at its focus 40 pupils of a 9-th grade school in Tirana, Albania, who study two foreign languages: English and French. There are two different approaches used in foreign language teaching classes with these pupils. English is taught by an Albanian speaking teacher and French is taught by a French speaking teacher and this gives a two-faceted view of the foreign language learning approaches. The teacher of French, having no knowledge of Albanian, is more likely to use the communicative approach because she doesn’t speak Albanian at all and grammar and all the new concepts and words will be explained via French. Regarding English, the situation is different because since the teacher is Albanian, it is more likely that she is going to use translation-based approach and mother-tongue as well. Based on this fact, the questionnaire with these pupils is designed in such a way as to draw the differences of the approaches used. Another element that is worth discussing is the foreign language level of the pupils. Their level of English is intermediate whereas that of French is pre-intermediate. Another issue that is related with the questions of the questionnaire is the translation strategies pupils use in the FLL process. Since the 40 pupils study two foreign languages at the same time but at different levels, it goes without saying that they can be influenced by the

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 109


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

structures and grammar of Albanian and vice versa. There are questions devoted to these strategies: code-switching, foreignization, interlingual transfer and transliteration. The aim of the research is not to go into details about the use of translation strategies, but just to find a linking bridge between translation, use of mother tongue and translation strategies in FLL. The questions are put in a simple way. The questions are related with: 1. using a word or phrase from language A and inserting it into language B or vice versa (code switching); 2. creating words, phrases or structures that do not exist in A language but that are imported by language B (foreignizing); 3. using word for word language A words or phrases into language B (transliteration); 4. rewording the text and interpreting verbal signs by means of some other languages (interlingual transfer). Methodology of Research For the purposes of this research, the procedure of questioning the 40 pupils of the 9-th grade of a school in Tirana is used. In the conducted questionnaire there are two sets of similar yes/no questions including a number of questions asked about the two foreign languages (English and French) that these pupils study in this school with two responding options: yes/no. The questions were devised as to see the students perceptions about the use of language A in foreign language classes, if this helped them understand issues related to vocabulary, grammar and culture as well as their perceptions related to using only B language in the classroom. The quantitative data from the questionnaire (Table 1) provide the opportunity to explain the advantages and disadvantages of the two different approaches seen from the learnersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; perspectives as well as to identify the translation strategies they use in foreign language classes. Regarding the second issue of the research, translation strategies used in foreign language learning, the same questioning procedure has been used. There were four yes/no questions asked to the same number of students (40). Questions were asked in a simple way so as to be understandable for this age group. The positive answers were provided in percentages in Table 2. Data Analysis From the data analysis of the 40 questionnaires, students provided their opinions about the use of language A and B in the foreign language classes, most of the students think that using Albanian and translation in their English classes, helps them compare grammar rules in Language A and B (90%), better understand difficult grammar rules (80%); use correctly language and grammar, explain difficult concepts, learn new words (70%). Regarding the rest of the questions (correct choice of words, thinking in foreign language, accurate pronunciation) less than half of the students answered positively about the use of mother-tongue and translation in their English language classes. As regards the use of language B in French classes, most of the students answered positively about the use of correct pronunciation (90%); thinking in foreign language (80%) and the correct choice of words (70%). Whereas for the rest of the questions, less than 40% of the students answered positively. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 110


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Table 1. Findings related to FLL approaches

Issues of the questionnaire

Use of translation-based approach in English classes (positive answers % of students)

Use of translation-free approach in French classes (positive answers % of students)

70 34 40 70

40 70 80 25

80 70

30 40 10

Correct use of language, grammar Correct choice of words Thinking in foreign language Explaining difficult concepts Explaining difficult grammar rules Introducing new words Comparing grammar of L A and B Explaining cultural differences Accurate pronunciation and intonation patterns

90 60

20

40

90

Regarding the analysis of the data for the second issue of the research (Table 2), it can be said that most of the students answered positively to the questions related to code switching and transliteration (90%), whereas only a few of them answered positively to questions related to foreignizing (30%) and interlingual transfer (20%). Table 2: Use of translation strategies in language learning

Translation Strategies Code-switching Transliteration Foreignizing Interlingual transfer

Positive answers (in % of students) 90 90 30 20

Results of research After the analysis of the data, it resulted that having a language teacher who is a native speaker does have more advantages than disadvantages. The advantages are as follows: pupils have the opportunity of using the skill of translation and the teacher can explain many grammar, vocabulary and cultural issues in language A. Based on the answers of the pupils, the advantages are as follows: explaining difficult concepts and difficult grammar rules, introducing new words and explaining cultural differences and comparing grammar of language A and B. And one of the Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 111


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

disadvantages is considered accurate pronunciation, thinking in a foreign language and mothertongue intervention in grammar, syntactic structures, intonation patterns etc. Likewise having a foreign language teacher that is a non-native speaker has more disadvantages than advantages. The two advantages are: accurate pronunciation and intonation patterns and thinking in a foreign language, whereas the rest can be considered as disadvantages because if the pre-intermediate level of the pupils in French is considered, it goes without saying that they do not understand everything when the teacher explains the new concepts, grammar categories or cultural differences in French without using Albanian at all. From the examination of the quantitative data of the first questionnaire the result is that the translation-based approach has many advantages vis-à-vis translation-free approach. Despite the controversy that exists between these two approaches, many scholars share the opinion that translation-based approach has many advantages and should be used in foreign language learning within some constraints. “As a language learning activity, translation has many merits. It invites speculation and discussion, develops clarity, flexibility and accuracy. The teacher can select material to illustrate particular aspects of language and structure with which the students have difficulty.”(Duff 1989) There is an opinion that according to Mattioli (2004) “rigidly eliminating or limiting the native language does not appear to guarantee better acquisition, nor does it foster the humanistic approach that recognizes learners’ identities.” Considering all the benefits of translation-based language learning approach versus freetranslation approach, it can be said that it really helps the process of language learning if it used proportionately and with the aim of producing an effective result. As Bouton (1974) has stated: “Translation can be like medicine, which, when administered in the right dose and way, has a curative effect, and otherwise, when used injudiciously, it can also prove harmful.” From the quantitative data of the second questionnaire, the results are that: code-switching, is the most widespread phenomenon especially when it comes to word order, grammar categories, sentence structures, choice of words etc. Regarding the strategy of “foreignizing”, it is not used very much by the learners because language A is taught prior to language B and the tendency is that the first language interferes more with the second language. The strategy of transliteration is used by most of the pupils especially at the beginning of foreign language learning. They translate word combinations, idioms, phrasal verbs word for word as they appear in mother tongue or from English into French. As regards interlingual transfer, it is not widely used since from the pupils and the reason is that they are at the learning process of English and French. They reword the text and transfer words, groups of words from English into French because they took up learning French after having acquired an intermediate level of English. All these strategies may not produce accurate outputs in language learning, but are important efforts to improve language skills.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 112


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Conclusions Translation-related approach should be used more and more but always taking into account the level of learners and the percentage of its use in a classroom setting. Translation is now more and more referred to as the fifth language skill alongside with the other four basic skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing). Foreign language teachers should feel free to use translation in their classes since it poses many advantages and help improve learner’s performance in the long run. Students’ culture is part of their language and by neglecting their language the teacher, in a monolingual classroom neglects their culture and identity and de-motivates them. Translation as a teaching tool needs to take into account a number of different aspects, such as grammar, syntax, collocation and connotation. Uncritical use of translation may give learners insufficient, confusing, or even inaccurate information about target language. Translation is useful, because it is interactive, learner-centred, it promotes learners’ autonomy, and uses authentic materials. Translation is an important skill that should be used appropriately and proportionately in language learning process and what’s more important when the teachers are non-native speakers, it should be used as a means to develop clarity, accuracy and explain language and culture differences. Translation strategies are important efforts to improve language skills especially at the beginning of learning a foreign language. Teachers should be aware of the use of these strategies and identify the potential use on the part of foreign language learners bearing in mind that although they do not produce accurate outputs in language learning, they are part of the FLL process. References 1. Annamali, E., (1989) The language Factor in Code-mixing. International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Vol. 74 2. Bouton, C.P, (1974). L'acquisition d'une langue etrangere. Paris: Didier 3. Bowen, T., (11 fev. 2008). Using the mother tongue in the classroom 4. Deller, Sh.; Rivonlucri, M., (2002). Using the mother tongue – making the most of the learner’s language. London: Delta Publishing 5. Duff, A., (1996). Translation. Oxford, Oxford University Press 6. Fish, S., (2003). Is there a text in this class? - The authority of interpretative communities. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press 7. Heredia, R., (1997). Bilingual Memory and Hierarchical Models: A case for Language Dominance. Current Directions in Psychological Science 8. Mattioli, G., (2004). On Native Language Intrusions and making Do with the Words: Linguistically Homogeneous Classrooms and Native Language Use (English Teaching Forum) 9. Nunan, N., (1991). Language Teaching Methodology: Textbook for Teachers. Prentice Hall 10. Robinson, D., (1997). Becoming a Translator, Great Britain: Routledge 11. Ross, N. J., (2000). Interference and Intervention: Using Translation in the EFL Classroom. Modern English Teacher, No9 (3) 12. Whong, M., (2011). Language Teaching: Linguistic Theory in Practice. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press 13. Willis, J., (1981). Teaching English Through English. London: Longman.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 113


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics The Impact of Subjective Factors on the Success of the Primary School Pupils Lirije Raimi

Keywords:primary school, didactic triangle, educational system, etc.

Primary School “Naim Frashëri” Kumanova, Macedonia.

Abstract The institution of the primary school, in the realization of the educational objectives, the student should not be treated only as a common object on whom should, formally, be realized the educational activity, but actually, the personality of the student should be understood as a creature of the complex nature, that is continually in formation and completion of qualitative attributes, that in an interactive way, acts and cooperates with the other factors of the environment, especially of the subjective character. From this aspect the student, as an object and subject of the learning, possesses, develops and benefits various qualitative performances and affinities which, in a permanent way, completes and manifests them through relevant abilities and skills in different situations in the educational process. Therefore, this work has included the aspect of the impact of subjective factors on the success of primary school students, by putting in the center of observation the so-called “didactic triangle” – the student, the teacher and the subject matter. In this concept the school was in a position divided from the social streams, and it wasn’t able to articulate the dynamic requirements of the labor market. Lately, as a result of the socio-economic changes, comes to expression the complex and multidimensional composition of the learning system, which includes both subjective and objective factors, which affect in the educational system. We have elaborated the factors of particular importance of the subjective nature: the student, the teacher, student’s parents and the closer and broader family, also and other subjective factors (permanent training and perfecting of the educational crew, the role of the pedagogues in the transformation of the education and schooling, and the possibilities of the practical implementation of pedagogical knowledge etc). Also we have explained the role and the mission of the Institution of primary schools, that, for their special importance in the educational system, have a distinguished position in the aspect of the education and schooling of new generations, yet more, when considering the fact that it is about a level of education in which is profiled and built student’s personality. We have also analyzed and the other factor of the subjective character that has to do with the student himself and his individual and professional personality, emphasizing that even though exist various differences form the aspect of their level of intelligence, individual proficiency, the family conditions under which they are raised and educated etc., successful completion of the primary school is presented as a precondition, that impact in the further stages education of student’s education as well as in the formation of their professional skills and abilities. The successful realization of these objectives is not made only by the joint involvement of the students and teachers, but in a complementary way, and with the parents of students. The students should be oriented with an involvement of all participants in the education process – as the family members, as well as the holders of the education process in school – the teachers and various professional services. Lately, with the permanent changes in the area of formal education, are implemented various educational concepts that have shown extraordinary results in terms of raising the level of students’ success in primary schools, that correspond to some more appropriate organizational forms, comprehensible and acceptable for the students from the educational aspect, and which are in function also with the contemporary requirements of globalized labor market. Today, is noticed a slowed dynamic of these qualitative changes, that doesn’t correspond to the contemporary requirements of the globalized world. Within the frames of the factors with subjective characters, that have impact on the successful realization of the educational process are considered: student’s personality through his skills and abilities, existing conditions in the closer and wider family district where the student is living and is formed, teacher’s role in the realization of the educational process and of the teaching personnel, domination of the frontal form of work with all students, non-cooperation of the teacher with the parents, uploading of the students with excessive school obligations, more of the general and formal character etc.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 114


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Introduction In this work we have included the aspect of the impact of subjective factors over the success of the students of primary schools through various comparisons of the previous periods, where existed a concept with a more closer and specific approach and treatment towards the school institution and the teaching process by putting in the center of observation the so-called “didactic triangle” that included three elements of this notion – the student, the teacher and the teaching subject. In this position the school was divided from the social flows, actually it was not able to articulate the dynamic requirements of the labor market. Lately, as a result of qualitative socio-economic changes, constantly comes to expression the complex and multidimensional composition of the teaching system, which includes both objective factors and subjective factors, that from different ways can impact in the realization of the educational process. From this aspect we have made a definition of the issues that have to do with the treatment of the pupils at the same time – as subjects and objects in the realization of the educational process and the benefit of knowledge, by making a distinction between the sources of knowledge as objective components and the student himself, who in an active way, is a holder of the educational process and participates in the realization of the educational process. In this direction, in a descriptive way, we have elaborated the factors of subjective nature that have a specific importance, among which are considered: the student, the teacher, students’ parents and the closer and broader family, as well as the other subjective factors (training and permanent perfecting of the educational crew, the role of pedagogues in the process of transformation of education and schooling, and the possibilities of practical implementation of pedagogic knowledge etc.) Also we have explained the role and mission of the institution of primary schools, that because of their specific importance in the educational process, have the distinguished role and position in the aspect of education and schooling of the new generations, yet more, when is considered the fact that it is about the a level of education in which is profiled and built the personality of the student by treating and analyzing the contemporary possibilities of this educational institution as an institution with a formal and obligatory character for the students. In this direction we have also analyzed and the other factor of the subjective character that has to do with the student himself and with his individual and professional personality. In an elaborative form we have reasoned that the realization of immanent objectives by the students, in a successful way, cannot be done only by a joint involvement of the students and teachers, but, in a complementary way and interaction, also with the parents of the students. Based on this, when it is about the complex dimension for the success of primary school students, especially the level of the achieved success based on the act of subjective factors (the student, student’s parents and family, the teacher, various professional services in school, permanent training of the expert of various areas from the didactical – methodical aspect and the engagement of the students in the practical life etc.), in an obligatory way, as a main factor of subjective nature, is presented the student with his formed personality, that includes his intellectual potentials and capacities. The child, as a creature and a personality in

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 115


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

formation, includes a myriad of characteristics, affinities and inclinations that, in a permanent way, develops and displays through relevant abilities and skills in different situations. In this direction, to confirm the fact that even today, in every school and also in every class, exist students that have a lower success and students with a higher success, even though the act of teaching is realized through the same and equal access of the teacher towards the students. Within the frame of the factors with subjective character, that have impact on the successful realization of the educational process are considered: student’s personality through his abilities and skills, the existing conditions in the closed and broader family district in which the student is living and is being formed, the role of the teacher in the realization of this educational process as well as of the teaching personnel, the domination of the frontal form of work with the all students, non – cooperation between the teacher and the parents, uploading of the students with excessive school obligations, more of the general and formal character etc. All these emphasized moments, along with other factors, less or more, have an adequate impact on the appearance of the phenomenon of different success of the students not only in primary school but also in other levels of education. The Impact of Various Determinants on the Educational Process Since the educational segment represents one of the most important forms of the social consciousness, has been, is and will be object of the permanent and numerous analysis not only of the science of pedagogy, but also of serious and comprehensive researches in other sciences asanthropology, andragogy, sociology, philosophy, psychology, etc. Therefore, based on these ascertainments, are profiled and posed various theories that are in function of definition and comprehension of the nature of this important social segment that has the complex dimension. Based on this problematic exists a correlation between the technical – technological and scientific development, on the one hand and, acquiring and drafting of the respective educational plans that are in the function of the man in today’s industrial society. The issue of the technical – technological and scientific development except of the purpose of incentive of development and of rounding of the student’s creative personality, also defines and recommends respective development projections for the future contemporary educational system. From this comes out that all technical – technological and scientific achievements have their own impacts on transformations of the gnoseological – axiological essential components, as of the learning process as well as on the possibilities of scientific applications. Among other determiners that have great importance on the educational process also is included“Educational technology”, that lately, in the time when world global society has benefited (according to some of the world most famous encyclopedists) the treatment of the informatics society, which means the connection and the function of the whole modern world system as a village. Thus from this we can conclude that the combination of different pedagogical disciplines as the didactic, methodic, docimology, methodology of scientific researches in a considerable percentage are in dependence, exactly, from the level of the development of educational technology, which preoccupies with the creation of pre – conditions that will be in function of an

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 116


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

interdisciplinary synthesis in direction of pedagogical activity. Therefore and the permanent intentions that are in function of the advancement and perfection in the mentioned educational process, from the aspect of the successful transformation of pedagogy as a science, in a complementary way, except the above mentioned factors a special importance also has “the role and position of the educational crew”, respectively, the possibilities from their permanent professional perfection through various sophisticated forms of emancipation and their perfection, the possibilities of absorption and the application of different technical-scientific achievements by the teachers, etc. Based on this is draw the conclusion, by some famous authors in the science of pedagogy, that the issue of professional perfection appears as a more valuable issue of the future educative society.1 This means that the issue of the permanent professional perfection of the educational crew is a very specific issue that lies as in the field of pedagogical theory as well as in the field of pedagogical practice. Regarding the too exploited problematic linked with the notion of the “permanent transformation of the pedagogical sphere”, the same phenomenon includes the contemporary streams in the sphere of pedagogy by including all actual challenges and problems, as in theory as well as in practice, with which confront the pedagogues and educational workers, different subjective resistances, contradictions, different handicaps of subjective and objective nature etc. In this direction rises the immanent question – which is the purpose of transformation of the sphere of pedagogy and the teachers? It is understood that, because of the complex character of the question itself, and the answer itself has the most complex character that includes the components of the increase of scientific quality, the formation of a modern pedagogical structure, re-definition of educational activity that should be in function of the contemporary changes etc. Based on this we can conclude that the contemporary pedagogy should realize its most comprehensive mission in the educational process with a purpose of the formation of a more entrepreneur personality, in direction of submission of this system the specific conditions of the labor market, in the operationalizing and concretization of the objectives of education and obtaining of knowledge and skills, in the integrating processes of this science in the general social structures, in the healthy development and the right moral formation of the individual, in the organization and respective submission of educational organizations in the general concept of the social – economical development etc. Within the frame of the realization of educational objectives, special attention also deserves and the issue of “pedagogical creativity”, that as a human activity appears as an important component in the overall development of pedagogical thought, because the pedagogical creativity comes to expression as a very important moment with a verifier character of the all challenges and pedagogical problems, which are imposed with its actuality and importance towards the development of the educational theory and practice. In continuity, based on these changes that are realized in different spheres of the socio – economical life and of the human activity as a result of scientific – technological developments, is imposed the issue of application of the concept of “permanent education” (“life – long learning”) 1

Suhodolski Bogdan,”Tri pedagogije”, Beograd, 1974, s. 69;

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 117


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 ��� p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

of each individual as a relevant factor for the achievement of the efficiency in the educational work. One of the most important reasons that has imposed the necessity for permanent education of the individuals is and the global phenomenon of “the invention and dissemination of innovations” for very short units of time, which and enables that the knowledge, skills, technologies to be spread and applied in every piece of the Earth. The fact itself that when we talk about the professional personality of the individual as well as for the different possibilities from the aspect of education, schooling and the formation of his professional personality should be taken into account the moment that exists a great inequality from the aspect of possibilities and potentials for their development.2 Elementary Factors that have Impact on the Success of the Pupils In the process with a complex dimension of the education and schooling of the individual are submitted obligations, special and specific tasks and responsibilities, because the issue itself of the development and formation of personality represents a process with an uninterrupted character, which includes forms, methods and various tools in order to incentive as much the developmental potentials of the student. From this aspect, various researchers have given their considerable contribution for that is lighten the phenomenon of development opportunities of the individual, among which, as more famous are considered: I. Pavlov; E. Thorndike; L. Rubinstein; S. Freud; Ch. Darwin; E. Haeckel; J. Locke; J. Russo etc. Based on the existing rich literature, which treats the multidimensional problematic of the individual development issue, we can conclude that exist various differences and worldviews between various authors as to the issue of notion and nature of the individual, the factors that determine the development and formation of the individual, especially the issue of the normal development and formation of personality, the measures and forms in the educational process etc. Even though there exist a large number of various psychologists that have been preoccupied with this issue of a more comprehensive explanation and definition of this phenomenon (H. Perjon, H. Eysenck, N. Rot, G. Allport etc.) we will take the definition of the American well – known psychologist G. Allport, who “implies the personality of the human as a dynamic organization of the existing psychological systems within the frames of the individual, that determine his specific and characteristic behaviors as well as his typical way of thinking and acting”. Based on this that is mentioned above we can say that “the issue of the development of the individual has the correlative nature between various individual predispositions (abilities, skills, attitudes, various values, ambitions, motifs etc.) and the specific conditions where the individual is living and developing. In general, based on the existing literature in the sphere of pedagogy, gerontology, psychology, sociology, medicine, etc, as more important factors from this aspect have been profiled these factors: 1. The genetic factor (inheritor); 2. The ambient (environment) in which lives and develops the individual; 3. Education and schooling as factors of the development of the individual; 2

Prof. Dr. Januz H. Dërvodeli; “ Dallimet në suksesin e nxënësve të shkollës fillore të regjistruar para kohe, me kohë dhe pas kohe”, Prishtinë, 2010, fq.14; Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 118


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4. Individual activities as factors of the development of the individual; 5. The possibilities from the integral impact of these factors in function of the – development and formation of the human personality etc. The Role of the Genetic Factor (Inheritor) in the Process of Formation and Development of the Individual The inheritor factor is one of the most important factors in the process of formation and development of the individual that is in an organic – genetic connection with the qualitative features of the ancestors, which in a higher or lower percentage, are transferred to the next generations. In this direction, for example, is very important the position and doctrine that Mosley places, who his worldview over the importance that the inheritor factor has in the process of the development of personality of the individual sublimates it in an absolute way: “The fate of each of us have determined our ancestors beforehand, and no matter how much we try we cannot get away from our organization”. There exist various theories that have similar starting positions for “the role of the inheritor factor on the formation and development of the personality of the individual”, which actually, have very extreme positions, as for the role of this factor, and stimulates the relativity and under-estimates the role of other factors that have extraordinary role in the process of the development and formation of the individual as are: permanent and various activities that are developed by the individual, the role of the environment and society, the dimension of education etc3. This for the reason that the inheritor factor, as a biological factor with internal character has the complex nature because each individual represents a genetic and biological structure itself, which individual, then, in under the influence of various factors (environment, environs, stimulation, motivation, encouragement, activities, permanent learning etc.) which less or more affect on the direction of the development of the students. The Impact of Social Environmental (District) on the Development of Individual The specific dimension itself of notion of the district implies the district in which the individual lives, works and develops, and that with its complex character includes more components starting from the physical and biological district (the place, home) economical and social component, as well as the psychological and traditional components of the district (viewpoints, worldviews, attitudes, influences, traditions etc.). The society, with all its accompanying structures, should not be meant only as a notion with a more homogeneous character, in which exist only factors of positive character but, should be seen more as a notion of the objective and heterogeneous character consisted of a complicated institutional structure submitted in a functional way and with adequate reports, and which actually, may be or may not be efficient in the educational process of the individual. In function of this, should be emphasized the reality that in social conditions and districts, in which the new individual grows up, is formed and educated, exist an uninterrupted variability, a permanent movement, continually changes of the existing factors, among which as 3

Osmani, Dr. Shefik, “ Trashëgimi social-pedagogjike”, Motrat Qiriazi, Grafoprint, Prishtinë, 1997, fq. 127;

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 119


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

more important that have impact on the processes of the development of the man are considered: 1) family bay (in the narrowed and broader aspect or the microstructure), 2) the school with its specific environment, 3) social district in the broader aspect (macro-social), 4) the intimate district of the child etc. Educational Components as Main Factors in the Process of the Formation and Development of the Student In the process with a complex dimension of education and schooling of the student are submitted obligations, tasks, and particular and specific responsibilities, because the issue itself of the development and formation of the personality represents a process with a continually process which includes various forms, methods and tools to stimulate as much the developmental potentials of the individual. Edcuational Component in the Process of Formation and Development of the Student In the sphere of the existing pedagogical literature, always, the issue of the definition of notion of the education has been one of the preoccupying issues of the pedagogical scientists, and should be accepted that, from this aspect, exist various definitions by various authors , but we will give a definition that according to us has more comprehensive elements of the education nature: “Education represents a process of acquisition of knowledge, skills and habits and during which are profiled and formed the forces and intellectual and physical skills of the individual and, at the same time, by forming the personality and the character which means that are formed the worldviews, attitudes and the emotional world”.4 Education as a planned, organized, led and controlled process and social activity represents a process of essential necessary requirements with the purpose of providing a perspective future of the society in entirety. In this direction we would have cited another thought of a well – known pedagogue who says: “The process of education of the man implies the education of those perspective roads in which is his joy and happiness for the tomorrow”.5 Schooling Component in the Process of the Formation and Development of the Student Since the start in a necessary way appears the issue of what does the notion of the schooling represents and what are its relations with the education, under the umbrella of which, usually is included. What is more interesting, even though exists a correlation between these two notions, and at first sight, it seems like there are no differences between these two notions with identical character (between schooling and education), however exist essential differences between these two forms of the social consciousness. This means, while the educational component treats and is preoccupied with the comprehensive issue of the formation and development of the student, and in 4 5

Vukasoviq Ante; “Temeljne odrednice pedagogijske znanosti”, Revija.”Pedagogija”, nr.1, 1985, Beograd, fq. 27. Makarenko A. S.; “Poema pedagogjike”; Prishtinë,1967, fq. 93.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 120


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

which process, in an obligatory way, is imposed the issue of his schooling, since the schooling component, treats the factor of the formation, emancipation and intellectual awareness, from which we can conclude for the complex, interconnected and correlative nature between them. Based on this we can say that even though we have presented the similar functions between the schooling and education, in a obligatory way is imposed the issue of the presentation of specific differences between the mentioned elementary pedagogical notions, among which as more important are considered: the issue of executive character that implies the real possibilities from their materialization and, the issue that has to do with the possibilities of evaluation and assessment of the effects of these two pedagogical components. Individual Activities as Factors in the Process of the Development of the Individual There exist dilemmas about the position and role that the individual activities have within the frames of the structure of factors that have determining impact in the process of formation and development of the individual. From this viewpoint, as for the issue of engagement of the individual in forms of the various practical activities that are manifested through the various engagements of the forces and various physical and intellectual possibilities, in general, exist two groups of experts that diametrically have their attitudes related to this phenomenon. The first group of scientists expresses the thought that “the issue of existence, engagement and realization of various practical activities” appears as a factor with an extraordinary importance in the process of the formation and development of the individual, and in this way, is profiled as an element that, in a direct way affects in this process. In this context, we can prove the fact that the road of formation of the professional perfection of many innovators, scientists, distinguished people etc, is based exactly on the realization of their various professional activities, which engagements in different practical forms and of challenges, in an inevitable way have resulted with extraordinary results and experience in their professional life, values which, then, have summarized and materialized in a written form (H. Ford, T. Edison, C. Darwin, Schleiden and Schwann, Gregor Mendel etc.). In general, based on the thought of this group of thinkers, can be concluded their position that “formation, development and profiling of the individual as well as the professional creativity are depending from over 90% of the individual activities and engagements”, which, in a direct or indirect way, contribute to this process. Whereas the other group of scientists think of the positions that “the issue of engagement and realization of the individual activities in practice” cannot appear as a determining factor and connot have the treatment of the independent factor from the other existing determinants. This means that this group of scientists in a complementary way treats the existence and the coming to expression of this moment as a determinant of this issue.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 121


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The Possibilities from the Integral Impact of the Analyzed Factors in the Process of the Development of the Human In order to understand and organize the complicated and complex educational process in an imperative way is imposed the issue of a very pragmatic approach towards the education and schooling of the individual. It is understood that in the educational process of the individual, except the possibilities that, as pedagogues we tent to define and use, at the same time exist and appear also other factors of the limited character that means they have the treatment of the limited determinants in the educational process. Based on this we can say that the general development of the individual cannot be realized in an incidental way but in an interaction in impact on the social district and various qualitative forms of the education and schooling. Conclusion Based on what is presented above, we can conclude that the realization of the schooling objectives that are immanent for the relevant educational institutions, in a successful way can be realized only with a complementary engagement of the all participants in the realization of this important social process – of the students, the parents, the teachers and of the professional pedagogical service. In general, we can say that parallel with the act of motivation and engagement of the student for learning, that has the decisive role and represent the main factor, should be taken into account also the role of the parents, the teachers, the professional pedagogical service and other participants that, in a synergistic and complementary way (in an interaction), enable you favorable pre – conditions for the motivation of the students for learning. The institution of primary school, in the realization of these educational objectives, should not treat the student only as an ordinary object over whom, should in a formal way, be realized the educational activity, but actually, the personality of the student should be understood as a creature of the complex nature, that continually is in formation and completion of qualitative features, that in an interactive way, acts and cooperates with other factors of the environment, especially of the subjective character, and which student, based on the professional knowledge and skills takes critical and adequate decisions in the process of permanent learning. From this aspect, the student as an object and subject of learning, possesses, develops and benefits various qualitative performances and affinities, which in a permanent way, completes and manifests through the relevant abilities and skills in different situations in the educational process. The mentioned individual predispositions of the student, in a large extent, also depend from the existing qualitative conditions of the environment in which the student is living and forming (objective and subjective factors) but especially, based on the impact of subjective factors on the formation of the relevant and favorable conditions for harmonization of the action of these factors in direction of the rounding of formation of a healthy and capable personality of the student, who will have competitive abilities in the competitive labor market, based on the level of his education and schooling. Therefore, within the frames of factors with subjective character, which have a considerable impact on the successful realization of the objectives of educational process, which come to expression through

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 122


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

the formulation of the relevant level of the success achieved by the students, are considered: the existing conditions in the narrowed and broader family district in which the student is living and educating, the role of the teacher, of the teaching personnel as well as of the professional pedagogical service in the realization of this process, further application and the domination of the ordinary frontal form of the work with all students, the coordination and cooperation of the teacher with the parents, the level of education of the parents, the role of the Parent Council, the issue of excessive load of the students with excessive school obligations, the cooperation with other experts of this social sphere etc. Starting from this moments of the subjective character, that have extraordinary importance for the successful realization of the educational process at the level of primary education, with purpose to avoid or to be minimized the unwanted educational consequences, the same to be taken into account, with the only purpose of improvement of the primary education in this period of transition: Continually to be supported the various initiatives (and to be helped in various motivational forms) that aim the implementation of various forms (by the teachers, professional pedagogical service, directorate of the school, parent council, various experts of this sphere etc.) of the permanent communication and cooperation between the subjects highlighted above that are participants in the educational process, as well the creators of the educational politic, should in a professional and consequent way, to define the forms of support and the motivation of various educational initiatives by the teachers, guardians of the class, students etc, with the only purpose that through different forms of remuneration (difference in salary and other privileges for the initiatives, the engagements and different works of the teachers etc) but also and the application of different motivations for the students, that in general, contribute to the issue of raising the quality and the level of learning in school (in various forms of remuneration). References 1. Vili Kurt etj. “Didaktika”, Berlin, 1985. 2. P. M. Sadker, M.David, Mësuesi, Shkolla dhe Shoqëria, Koha, Prishtinë, 1997. 3. Xheladin Murati”Didaktika-metodologjia e mësimdhënies”, Tetovë, 2002. 4. Januz H. Dërvodeli,”Dallimet në suksesin e nxënësve të shkollës fillore të regjistruar para kohe, me kohë dhe pas kohe”, Prishtinë, 2010. 5. Nijazi Zulfiu, ”Didaktika-teoria e mësimit dhe e mësimdhënies”, Prishtinë, 2004. 6. Bektesh Bekteshi”Statistika Elementare”, Prishtinë, 2005. 7. Nikola Filipovic, “Didaktika 2”Sarajevë, 1980, 8. Furlan, Dr. Ivan,”Problemi skolskog uspjeha”Pedagoski rad, nr.3-4, Zagreb,1966. 9. Xheladin Murati,”Pedagogjia e Përgjithshme”, Shkup, 1998 ; 10. Nijazi Zulfiju”Struktura Didaktike e organizimit të mësimit ekipor”. Pedagogu. Nr.1-2/1998. 11. “Fjalori i pedagogjisë”; Shefik Osmani,Tiranë, 1983. 12. Januz H. Dërvodeli; “ Dallimet në suksesin e nxënësve të shkollës fillore të regjistruar para kohe, me kohë dhe pas kohe”, Prishtinë, 2010. 13. Osmani, Shefik, “ Trashëgimi social-pedagogjike”, Motrat Qiriazi, Grafoprint, Prishtinë, 1997.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 123


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Technical and Scientific Terminology in Albanian Language in the Era of Globalization Vilma Proko–Jazexhiu

Research paper

Linguistics Keywords: foreign terms, technical and scientific terminology, Albanian language terminology, Globalization, international terms.

Center of Albanological Studies The Albanian Ecyclopeadia Center, Albania.

Abstract Globalization as a phenonomenon in linguistics should neither be overestimated nor underestimated. One should take from it those pozitive traits which are also linked to the nacional specificities, especially regarding small countries’ languages, as is the case with the Albanian language. One of the major fields being affected by globalization in linguistics is terminology. In order to cope with the negative effect, it would be necessary to establish a data bank which would help identify the terms introduced so far, which in turn would lead to the compilation of a big scientific and technical terminology dictionary (Albanian into foreign languages) with encyclopeadic elements that would accelerate the standardization of technical and scientific terminology at a national and international level. It would resolve the problem of improper use and translation of technical terms in Albania and would avoid to a considerable degree the unnecessary borrowings into Albanian, especially those tersm originating from the English language.

Introduction As it has been rightfully admitted, terminology is the main entrance door for foreing lexicon1. Referring to the saying of Socrates “Wisdom begins with the definition of terms”, in this paper we will try to emphasize the undisputable value that terminology has in the development of a language, namely the Albanian terminology in the consolidation of the standard language by completing the terminological systems, this being witnessed in the Albanian school, in the scientific and generic literature, in economy, in industry, in public communication and everywhere else. Christian Galinski points out that “Countries with developing terminologies need rather a priory terminology standardization in the form of terminology planning”2 (Galinski 1986). The development and cultivation of today’s Albanian in the past 20 years, as a small country with a developing terminology, has been confronted with powerful languages and cultures resulting in a big challenge for it and especially for its lexicon. Terms as denominating units being part of the specialised lexicon of the standard language are tied with multiple links to the lexicon of the general language. Terminology in general, including the terminological systems of various fields of knowledge, may be considered as an overlaying of lexical units of the generic language and that is why the basis for it are the words which it is build on. Extralinguistic and intralinguistic factors 1

A. Duro Fjalët e huaja dhe gjuha shqipe (Foreign languages and the Albanian language), Studime gjuhësore (terminologji, gjuhësi kompjuterike, kritikë-bibliografi)( Lingusitic Studies (terminology, computer linguistics, criticism-bibliography)), QSA, IGJL, Tiranë, 2012, f. 295. 2 G. Galinski, “Special languages, Terminology Planning and Standardization”, Infoterm 2 – 86 en, 1996, pg.10. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 124


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

have gradually led to bringing the Albanian lexicon to the level of a genuine linguistic-conceptual system. Therefore, the standard Albanian, being or aiming at becoming a language of a high level and open culture should exploit all possibilities offered by terminology which is capable of transmitting a high level of culture, embodied in the language of science and technics.

The beginnings of the Albanian terminology Since the ancient times and the Middle Ages, the terminology, especially the one related to the fundamental sciences such as mathematics, geometry, geography, astronomy, etc., has been international, represented by Latin. From the 10th century until the 18th century, Latin remained the languagy of study in all major European universities. Latin was the language used for scientific, philosophical and theological treatises as well as other pieces of writing. Following the creation of literary languages for each nation-state, each terminology acquired a national character which is true for Albanian as well3. At the end of this period, it was replaced mainly by the domestic lexicon which comprised the basis for each Albanian terminology. We encounter the first efforts of defining the international words into Albanian, in the writings of A. Xhuvani4 (the majority of the terms in: chemistry, physics, mathematics, geography, botanics, electricity, philosophy etc., of Greek and Latin origin. Further on, according to P. Geci the words laborator(laboratory), musculature (musculature), import (import), eksport (export) are found in other nations as well5. The restricted entrance of foreign lexicon into the general lexicon since the end of 19th century and its intensified penetration in the terminological lexicon from that period to the present has caused the specific weight of borrowing to shift from the center to the periphery of the language. This problematic situation with respect to terminology was strongly noticed by the renaissance writers who while working on drafting school text books, althouth of a low scientific-technical level, were faced with foreign terms marking concepts in the basic fields of knowledge such as mathematics, geometry, anatomy, etc. In order to overcome this situation, other than introducing foreign words (terms) in the school text books, they tried to coin or find as many equivalent words (terms) in Albanian as possible in order to facilitate the understanding of scientific knowledge considering the conditions of the country at that time and the lack of knowledge. Later on, other scolars were faced with foreing terms at the level of middle school in psychology, pedagogy (A. Xhuvani), literature (L. Gurakuqi), techincs (M. Logoreci) etc. The merit of the renaissance writers and their followers is that in working on elaborating the fundamental terminologies, they were so much focused on albanizing the foreign terms that they even created unique Albanian sistems of terms on specificl fields. It is worth mentioning in particular the arbëresh scholar Dh. Kamarda in 3

E. Lafe, Për leksikun dituror te “Meshari” i Gjon Buzukut. në: BUZUKU DHE GJUHA E TIJ, (On the eruditional lexicon in "Meshar" of Gjon Buzuku in: BUZUKU AND HIS LANGUAGE) ASHSH, IGJL, Tiranë, 2005, p. 406-411. 4 Cited according to J. Kole, see A. Xhuvani, Vepra I, Tiranë, 1980, p. 7. 5 Cited accordign to J. Kole, P. Geci, Pasuria e leksikut të shqipes dhe fjalori i gjuhës shqipe në “Buletin i USHT, Seria Shkencat shoqërore” (The richness of the Albanian lexicon and the dictionary of the Albanian language) at USHT Bulletin), 1959 or in STUDIME MBI LEKSIKUN DHE MBI FORMIMIN E FJALËVE NË GJUHËN SHQIPE, II, (STUDIES ON THE LEXICON AND THE WORD FORMATION IN THE ALBANIAN LANGUAGE, II) Tiranë, 1972, p. 159. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 125


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

geography. A part of the Albanian terms that they coined, did not resist the test of time and were again replaced with foreing terms (such as dheshkronjë with gjeografi (geography), shkronjëtore with gramatikë (grammar). Around the ‘50s in the 20th century the terminology was enriched with international terms as well as terms created on the basis of the generic lexicon, completing the terminology with Albanian substance built with wordforming samples, borrowings and replacement of some Albanian terms with borrowings. The subsequent work on replacing foreing terms, where it was possible, it was possible for the terminology in the fundamental fields of knowledge (mathematics, geometry, physics, chemistry, geography) to be placed on autochthonous foundations.

Linguistic globalization and terminological lexicon Linguistic globalization affects the lexicon, first and foremost the terminological lexicon of the narrowest fileds of knowledge, the most vulnerable part when it comes to foreing influence, being the most open and exposed to foreign words as compared to the lexicon in the fundamental fields. The globalization pnenomena are noticed at a considerable extent in the lexical and semantic systems due to them being open systems, impacted by the entrance of foreing elements. This influence is especially related to the contacs that the Albanian language has with other languages, mainly with a universal language or an internationally spread language. The basis of globalization are the countries with an advanced technology in all fields. The terminological system of each field of knowledge is the most dynamic and the openest system to foreing influences and as such it is more possible for the globalistic phenomena to penetrate. Certainly, the internationality of content inlfuences the internationality of form, which stimulates the appearance of the international terms. This means that the property of internationality in terminology6 is linked with a series of its aspects as a special lexicon, which in turn serves as the main gate for foreing terms, especially the terms of internationally spread languages, as is the case with English nowadays. In the terminological lexicon of the narrowest fields of knowledge in the Albanian terminology, internationalisms occupy the first place, which comprise a more or less consolidated layer noticed since before the ’90s and have been dealt with in detail by J. Kole.7 Globalization as a phenomenon in liguistics finds the way to pentrate right in the terminology, because this is where the borrowings are found in larger quantities such as kompjuter (compiuter), monitor (monitor) etc., which happens not only in small countries' languages as Albanian, but also in the languages of larger countries and thereafter they penetrate into the general language to the point of common speech. Consequently, the observation of globalization in the standard language should be based on terminology. Nowadays we are noticing a reduction of foreing words from large countries' languages such as French, Italian, Russian, etc. Even those words which we think 6

A. Duro, Prirja për specializim e mjeteve të shprehjes në terminologji, “GJUHA JONË”, (The tendency of specilizing means of expression in terminology, "OUR LANGUAGE"), Tiranë, 1986, nr. 2. 7 J. Kole, Mbi fjalët ndërkombëtare në gjuhën shqipe, ASHRPSSH, IGJL, “Studime filologjike”, (On international words in the Albanian language 'Philological studies'), Tiranë, 1984 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 126


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

we are borrowing from them, have actually been borrowed by English, being the language which performed the linguistic globalization. For instance the word ordinatore (It.), ordinateur (Fr.), used as such from the Italian, it has now been replaced by computer (En.). The same has happened with a series of other terms such as: format(format), monitoro (monitor) etc., which have penetrated into the common language and are even used with figurative meanings. Anglicisms and linguistic globalization (Anglicisms before 1990) Following the overall wide and deep development of sciences and technology at an international and national level, the fileds of knowledge became so mulptiple and varied that the task of finding terms for them could only be done through foreing terms, which flooded in in large quantities, especially in university text books as well as in scientific and technical documents, in all types of manuals and even in commmon speech. Foreing terms have been and still are dominant in university text books. International terms nowadays are in general represented by anglicisms, although they comprised a certain level of restricted lexicon before the’90s, especially in the fileds of science and technics, where they were predominant in sports, mechanics, electronics and in some other fields. in sports: gol (goal), faull (foul), aut (out), korner (corner), start (start), trajner (trainer), kros (cross), pas (pass), set (set), tenis (tennis) etc. in mechanics: antifrizë (antifreeze), bajpas (bypass), buldozer (bulldozer), bunker (bunker), konvejér (conveyor), parking (parking), silenciator, standard (stadard), tramvaj (tram), vagon (vagon), ventilator (ventilator), vinç (elevator) etc. in electronics: teletajp (teletype), transistor (transistor), laser (laser), shunt (shunt) etc. The conclusion for this period would be that anglicisms have served almost exclusively as terms in some specific fields of knowledge and as such they were not able to become fully independent as a separate layer within the Albanian lexicon, with a status of its own. One of the main factos has been the isolation of our country from the world, which was an obstacle to the penetration of globalization in linguistics and in particular in the lexicon. (Anglicisms after 1990) After the ‘90s, in the scientific publications in the country, a strong and from at times even a predominat trend was noticed, the pressure of linguistic globalization represented by anglicisms, primarily their introduction in the terminology of various fields of knowledge. Following the opening of our country to the world, the influence of globalization in the field of linguistics begins to feel, especially in the lexicon. This happened not only in the publications, but in the university lectures as well: due to the lack of Albanian text books in some subjects, everything recommended for literature to the students by the teachers is mainly in the English language. Althoug the Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 127


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

terminological dictionaries published by the Institute of Linguistics and Literature include a considerable number of terms, they are not capable of keeping up with the overflow of new terms, especially for those disciplines which have developed recently worldwide. One could only have a look at the new editions of some reference books, which even a year apart from their latest edition contain new chapters related to new and more aspects of dealing with various issues, with new technologies etc. These require further, careful studies and organized efforts to make their results known in the Albanian literature as well. This is not a phenomenon pecular to Albanian language only. Because of geopolitical factors, the influence of English happened later. It seems like things started to change fundamentaly in the majority of European languages in the the 20th century when English became the base language for all scientific researches. Linguistic globalization happens though English and it focuses on the terminologies of the new fields. For over a century the terminology of modern English has started to pentrate deeply into the terminological dictionaries8, being borrowed by many other languages as well. Therefore the saying of Xh. Lloshi sounds very real: “The language of globalization is the English …….. we must redo all terminological dictionaries English- Albanian and Albanian - English”9 Some scholars, although e few in number, have worked either directly on studying the anglicisms: H. Shehu, N. Caka, or in the context of studying the problems of standard Albanian language: Xh. Lloshi, Gj. Shkurtaj etc., and they have affirmed that anglicisms have predominantly continued to be introduced in Albanian as terms in various fields of knowledge, of course at much larger quantities than before 1990. A fundamental trait of their functioning in the language is that they are encountered not only in the lexicon of limited use, but they have gone deeper into the language, especially some of them, although this is seldom the case, are used in the common speech with term-like conceptual content, but with simplified meanings, such as in the speech of normal internet users, pupils, children: klikoj (click), maus (mouse), printoj (print), printer (printer) etc. The introduction of anglicisms as the most prominent manifestation of globalization, has focused mainly in the field of informatics. The new foreign terms are overlaid on the previous foreing terms and today other than those we encounter new terms as well: monitor (monitor), klikoj (click), çatoj (chat) etc. Today we see the use of both tastierë (keyboard) and kibord (keybord from English)). Below we are mentioning only a few out of 240 anglicisms (terms) identified in the“Fjalor i informatikës” (2005) (“Dictionary of informatics”)10: akses (access), bajt (byte), çip (chip), databazë (database), bufer (buffer), desktop (desktop), displej (display), drajver (driver), editor (editor), hab (hub), inç (inch), internet(internet), karakter (character), kilobajt (kilobyte), kompjuter (computer), kompakt disk (compact disc), laser (laser), log {logaritëm} (logarithm), mikroprogram (microprogram), minidisk (minidisk), modem (modem), printoj (print), record (record), robot (robot), skaner (scanner), target (target), telefaks (telefax), telemetri (telemetering), uebsajt (website) etc. 8

See Xh. Lloshi, Shqipja standarde në rrethanat e dygjuhësisë, “Studime filologjike”, (Standard Albanian in circumstances of bilinguality "Philological studies") ASHSH, IGJL, nr. 3-4, Tiranë 2001, p. 51-52. 9 Xh. Lloshi, Shqipja – Gjuhë e hapur dhe dinamike, “Studime filologjike”, (Albanian - An open and dynamic language) ASHSH, IGJL, nr. 3-4, Tiranë, 2002, p. 22-32. 10 “FJALOR I INFORMATIKËS” (anglisht-shqip, shqip-anglisht) (“DICTIONARY OF INFORMATICS” - EnglishAlbanian, Albanian - English) (N. Caka, A. Dika, S. Rodiqi), Prishtinë, 2005. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 128


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Considering the huge amount of English words flowing into Albanian, it may be stated that the anglicisms (the terms) are ever extending the inflow gates of foreing terms into the standard language at all levels of speech. Since the majority of foreign elements coming in through this gate are more or less similar in terms of form and constitute common models in terms of content for other languages as well kompjuter (computer), monitor (monitor), displej (display) then these elements serve also as entrance gates for terms from other languages. Thus the English terms, being international for the most part, pass by as a common current in these gates, transforming them into communicating vessels with the common circulating mass (foreign terms). The Albanian terminology, entering into this common current, should orient its sense of movement according to this current, which is common for the other languages as well. This new orientation of the linguistic policy on the foreing terminology in Albanian, is also related to achieving the oncoming objective of integrating Albania into the EU, in which process the Albanian language will play its role in taking itself to the level of the languages of this international body. Among the important promoters in taking the Albanian standard language at the level of the other EU languages, will be its terminology which with the common (international) units of content (scientific-technical concepts) and its own units of expression, of terms, will bring Albanian closer to the other languages of Europe. It will be precisely the foreign terms, especially the international ones as a common linguistic and cultural fund, which will embody the idea of cultural globalization in the field of language. In view of the above, it may be admitted that terminology unites the nations into its special fund, both foreing and common for each one of the countries. References 1. Felber, H. (1984). Terminology Manual. Unesco and Infoterm, Paris. 2. Ray, A. (1979). La terminologie: noms et notions. Presses Universtaires de France, Paris. 3. Asimov, I. (1991). Fjalë të shkencës dhe historia pas tyre. Shtëpia botuese “8 Nëntori”. (Words of science and the history behind them. Translated and edited by 8 “Nëntori”, Tirana). 4. Gouthier, D. & Ioli, E. (2007). Fjalët e Ajnshtajnit, Shtëpia botuese “Dituria”. (Words of Einstein. Edited by “Dituria”, Tirana). 5. Duro, A. (2001). Terminologjia si system. (The Terminology as a System. Panteon. Tirana). 6. Duro, A. (2009). Termi dhe fjala në gjuhën shqipe, QSA, IGJL. (Term and Word in Albanian. Institute of Linguistics and Literature, Center for Albanian Studies, Tirana). 7. Proko-Jazexhiu, V. (2012). Leksisku terminologjik i agronimisënë gjuhën shqipe. QSA, IGJL, Botimet albanologjike. (Terminological lexicon of agronomy in Albanian language, Center for Albanologic Studies, Institute of Linguistics and Literature, Albanologic Edition, Tirana). 8. Thomai, J. & Lafe, E. & Pasho, H. & Duro, A. & Proko, V. (2009). Gjendja dhe zhvillimi i terminologjisë shqipe – probleme dhe detyra. (Konferencë shkencore). ASHSH&ASHAK. (Situation and developement of Albanian terminology – problems and duties (Scientific Conferences). Academy of Sciences of Albania & Kosova Academy of Sciences and Arts, Tirana).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 129


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Linguistics Linguistic Standard of Albanian Language at the News Programs of Radio Television (Kosovo and Macedonia) Agron Zeqiri

Keywords: correct linguistic standards, phonetic features, etc.

pronunciation, mistranslation,

Faculty of Philology Study Program of English Language and Literature State University of Tetova, Macedonia.

Abstract In Albanian territories national literary language is not equal to the learning of the language at school as a learning subject, but should be seen as a fundamental part of the civic culture. In this point the news programs of radio televisions have contributed for the mainstreaming of Albanian language, whereas the problems of linguistic standards in it have to do with some issues of translating from foreign languages to Albanian, as well as in some cases with the features of Albanian phonetics.

The correct pronunciation The correct pronunciation is one of the main issues of the language in the radio. From the speakers is required to speak clearly, with a clean and acceptable radio phonic pronunciation, relying in the full style of literary pronunciation. Over the implementation of phonetic principle of the correct pronunciation The basic principle of the Albanian is the phonetic one – it is pronounced as it is written. Besides the phonetic principle also operates the morphologic principle, when the “detached implementation of the phonetic principle would lead to the eclipse or to dissolution of the morphologic structure or word formation of the words”1. The contradiction between these two principles in the most cases appears in the non-pronunciation of the vowel –ë. Albanian spokesmen have always implemented this occurrence to dissolution –ë at the female nouns, at the adjectives formed by the suffix –të, at the row numerals, in the form of the third person singular of subjunctive mode of all the verbs; at the participles of the verbs with theme of vowels or sonant –l, -ll, -r, -rr and definite adjectives formed from them etc. Bridging of phonetic principle of pronunciation sometimes is noticed in derived words, formed by a theme with –ë by suffixes that start with consonants: botëror, drejtësi, frikësoj, frymëzoj, hollësi, hollësisht, gjuhësi, gjërësi, gjatësi, këmbësori, lehtësim, mirësi, përmirësoj, rreptësisht, thellësi, and in compound and derivational words, that have as a primary part such a theme with –ë, followed by a theme that starts with consonants: armëpushim, çfarëdo, frymëmarrje, gjashtëdhjetë, gjysmëhënë, kokëfortë, shumëfishoj, vetëdashje, etc. 1

“Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe”, Tiranë, 1974, faqe 15.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 130


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

During the discussion of the phonetic norm, should be mentioned also a typical historical occurrence for the Albanian language – deafness of vocal consonants at the end of the words or in the body of the word before the deaf consonants, for example vend, gaz, i madh, oriz, ndez, mblidhte. This occurrence is inconsistent with the phonetic principle of the Albanian language and according to the researchers it is “in tow and corrugation on the new generation”2. The implementation of the norm related to specific occurrences The spokesmen of radio televisions have always been careful in the evaluation of phonetic occurrences according to the principle: should be used – should not be used. Some specific examples are: a) The embedding of the form with e before nasal consonants in such words as: qendër, shpend, emër, femër, vend, mend, zemër, brenda, dhemb, tremb, shtrenjtë, etc. b) Words with source from Greek and Latin, or from Romanic languages that in their composition have c+i or c+e are preserved as such in pronunciation citat, proces, deficit, recension. c) The correct pronunciation with –l not with –ll of the words as spekuloj, lotari, ambulancë, diplomë, deklaratë, luks, komplot, bulon, Holandë. This occurence has been followed with much more consequence and deserves attention if only for the fact that –l and –ll are specific phenomena. d) Correct pronunciation of the consonants sh-, ç-, zh-, in front of the word in question as shfaqje, zhvendosje, zhdoganim etc. Careless pronunciation Careless individual pronunciation of the Albanian spokesmen is characterized with the conversational style features, as well as with any dialectical elusion from the literary norm, as it happens with the spokesmen of Radio Tirana and of other Albanian media, by leading on deepening of the regional accent, even and the foreign, which for Albanians has less or more the common features below: a) Non-articulation of the sounds “q” and “gj” and their replacement with “k” and “g” or with “ç” and “xh”, for example, përqind, përçind, përkind; gjithë, xhithë, githë, etc. Here even raises the question that which deviation is more acceptable in the cases when it is inevitable – the one that is typical even for the barriers of the language themselves, or the one that is made only be the foreign. b) Usage of the vowel “u” or “ju” instead of “y” after and in the middle of the palatal consonants and palatal-alveolar: gjyq, gjuq; gjyqtar, gjuqtar; shyqyr, shuqur, shuçyr, shyqur, ky, ku, kju, ki; zhytem, zhutem, zhjutem etc. This occurrence almost is not noticed in the beginning of the word yt, yshtje, and in positions after labial consonants, for example, bymej, Myzeqe. Also relatively rare is encountered after dental consonants, for example syprinë, lypës, dysheme, trysni, etc. c) Closed pronunciation or the replacement of the unstressed vowels, for example pozitë, puzitë, kapak, këpak, demonstratë, demunstratë, koleg, kuleg, karakter, kërakter, prezantim, prezëntim etc.

2

Dodi, A. “Gjuha letrare shqipe e folur dhe norma e saj fonetike në etapën e sotme” (Bashkëreferat). Gjuha letrare kombëtare shqipe dhe epoka jonë, Tiranë, 1988, faqe 143. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 131


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Issues of grammatical stylistic (morphological – syntactic) Journalists of radio television have worked for the embedding of some features of the literary norm, that are strictly implemented as for example: 1. Plural of the nouns in accordance with the norm. 2. Repetition of prepositions and of coordinating conjunctions and articles in genitive with coordinating nouns, repetition of the derivational elements in the coordinating forms of the verbs as duke, për të. Here should be emphasized that the impact of linguistic economy is very powerful. 3. Regular usage of the forms of possessive pronouns (sonë-tonë, sate-tënde) and of the articles (së-të). In broadcasts of news of radio television not rarely are encountered the fluctuations of the morphological and syntactic norm, typical for Albanian’s media, which have been pointed out during the discussion about the topic “Culture of the language and media”3. Thus: 1. The usage of the possessive pronoun i/e vet, even instead of the possessive pronoun of first and second person, for example “...kam mundur të ruaj të gjallë në kujtesën e vet...”. 2. Adjectives, when they have a belonging meaning, are not given in Albanian with a noun in genitive, for example marrëveshja paqësore-marrëveshja e paqes, oborri shkollor-oborri i shkollës, guri themelor-guri i themelit. This difference is hard to be explained just theoretically, because there are cases when they can be said also like that, and like this, for example qeveria e Shqipërisë ose qeveria shqiptare, without having any other possibility of the interpetation of meaning. 3. Formation of some adjectives with the suffix –ist in the Albanian language, for example, kooperativ-kooperativist, optimistik-optimist, farmaceut-farmacist, etc.4. Terminological borrowings or toponyms, that have entered in the Albanian language and with various genders and require continuous verification in dictionary, for example, alarmi-alarma, Lisboni-Lisbonë etc. 5. Usage of the perfect instead of the aorist for actions that are not related to the moment of speaking or conversely, for example, siç është theksuar në komunikatën e datës...; për këtë Maqedonia ia shprehu shumë herë vullnetin politik për të bashkëpunuar... 6. Literally translation of the auxiliary verb and the participle of the English perfect, for example, në mbledhje ishte vendosur që... instead of në mbledhje u vendos që... 7. Usage of the perfect of the indicative mood instead of subjunctive to express modality in unproved statements, for example, Mendohet se ai është zhdukur gjatë operacionit...në vend të Mendohet se ai të jetë zhdukur.... 8. Semantic countering of foreign names that in Albanian have formed the nouns with cion and -im, for example, deviacion-devijim, komunikacion-komunikim, informacion-informim, kombinacion-kombinim, operacion-operim, dokumentacion-dokumentim, motivacion-motivim, provokacion-provokim etc. 9. Elusion in the usage of consequential indefiniteness: Conjugation of the usage of the form with –sh, for example, pas debateve të ashpra instead of pas debatesh të ashpra etc. 10. Usage or nonuse of the short pronominal form of accusative, for example, Me çfarë do ta mbani mend këtë vit? and Me çfarë do të mbani mend këtë vit?, etc. 11. Interference of syntactic structures, for example, ai gjithashtu mori pjesë në takim (adverb before verb); lajmet e lidhura me Kosovën for lajmet nga Kosova dhe lidhur me Kosova; 3

Lafe, E. Gjuha e medies sot – probleme dhe detyra në “Gjuha jonë”, 2000, 1-2, faqe 16-17.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 132


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

një delegacion në krye me... for një delegacion me...në krye; t’u jepen mundësi palëve që... for t’u jepet mundësi palëve që... etc. Problems of lexicon and semantics While the spelling norm, the norm of correct pronunciation, and grammatical norm are categorical, namely, obligated, in the area of lexicon the norm is not completely categorical. This is a result of the rapid development of extra-linguistic reality, which makes that the unknown or foreign words and expressions today, to become well-known and acceptable tomorrow. Conclusions Foreign words, used amiss, violate the linguistic integrity and cultural identity to the Albanian language. That such an occurrence disfigures our language and damages the communication between the Albanians, this hardly can be put in doubt. However, the advised solutions, which in essence aim the mechanical replacement of foreign words with aboriginal words of the Albanian language, have not given results and also won’t give, that makes you think that the taint of public discourse with such words, more or less parasitic, is only a symptom of a deeper discomfort of communication, that has the source in the conceptual interference from other languages and cultures, even when it doesn’t have it in the snobbery of the lecturers. References 1. “Diskutim për gjuhën e medies në komisionin për mjetet e informimit publik në Kuvendin e Republikës së Shqipërisë”, Gjuha Jonë, 1-2/2000. 2. Kostallari, “Pse duhet zëvendësuar fjala zotni” i botuar te “Norma letrare kombëtare dhe kultura e gjuhës” (I), Tiranë, 1973, faqe 96. A. Qeriqi, Prania e emrave hyjnor ndër shqiptarë, “Bujku, 16 janar 1995, faqe 10. 3. D. Gile, Basic Concepts and Models for Interpretation / Translation Training, 1994. 4. Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe, Tiranë, 1974. 5. Drita e jetës,Gjilan 1995, faqe 23. 6. E. Çabej, Studime gjuhësore IV, Prishtinë, 1977 faqe 44-45. 7. E. Çabej, Studime gjuhësore IX , Prishtinë, 1989 faqe 242. 8. E. Çabej, Studime gjuhësore VII, Prishtinë, 1985, faqe 271. 9. E. Çabej, Studime gjuhësore VII, Prishtinë, 1986, faqe 213. 10. E. Çabej, Studime gjuhësore VII, Prishtinë, 1986, faqe 213-214. 11. F. Bardhi, Fjalor latinisht-shqip, 1635, ribotim, Rilindja, Prishtinë, 1983. 12. Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe , Tiranë, 1980, faqe 2248. 13. Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe, Tiranë, 1980, faqe 2246. 14. Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe, Tiranë, 1954, ribotim, Prishtinë, 1976, faqe 637. 15. Fjalor i shqipes së sotme, Tiranë, 1984, faqe 1169. 16. Fjalor i shqipes së sotme, Tiranë, 2002, faqe 1519. 17. Fjalor i shqipes së sotme, Tiranë, 2002, faqe 1519. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 133


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

18. Fjalor serbokroatisht-shqip, Instituti Albanologjik, Prishtinë, 1981. 19. Fjalori i “Bashkimit”, 1908, ribotim, Rilindja, Prishtinë, 1978, faqe 332 Fjalori i shqipes së sotme, Tiranë, 2002, faqe 1268. 20. Fjalori shqip-serbokroatisht, Prishtinë, 1981, faqe 1040 21. Fjalori shqip-serbokroatisht, Prishtinë, 1981, faqe 1041. 22. Fjaluer serbokroatisht-shqip, Mustafa Bakia, Prishtinë, 1953. 23. Gazeta Bujku, 24 nëntor1995, faqe 13. 24. Gjuha letrare kombëtare shqipe dhe epoka jonë,Tiranë, 1988. 25. Gramatika e gjuhës shqipe (I-II), Tiranë, 1995-1997. 26. J. Algeo, “The mirror and the Template: Cloning Public Opinion”, The English Language Today, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1999, faqe 57-64. 27. K. Kristoforidhi, Fjalor shqip-greqisht, 1904, ribotuar, Prishtinë, 1977, faqe 256. 28. L. Bloomfield, “Second and Tertiary Responses to Language”, Language, Baltimore, 1999, faqe 20, 45-55. 29. L. Matrënga, “E mbësuame e Krështëne”, 1592, ribotuar, Prishtinë, 1979, faqe 263. 30. M. Elezi, Fjalor i gjuhës shqipe, Tiranë, 2006, faqe 1633. 31. M. W. Bloomfield, “The Question of Correctness”, The English Language Today, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1998, faqe 267-270. 32. Për pastërtinë e gjuhës shqipe (Fjalor), Tiranë, 1998.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 134


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Observations on Antonyms of Adjectives, of Adverbs and with Prefixes in Theoretical Mechanics in the Albanian Language Gani Pllana

Research paper

Linguistics Keywords: theoretical mechanics terminology, antonyms, antonyms of adjectives, antonyms of adverbs.

University of Prishtina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Abstract Antonyms are different words with opposite meaning, which belong to the same part of speech. By studying the antonym it appears that we are dealing with an issue of a methodological character which should be kept in mind for the right definition of the antonym as a linguistic phenomenon. There are appearances of antonyms in the terminology of different fields of knowledge, depending on the terminology of the field being studied. In the field of theoretical mechanics there are also found a number of antonym terms. This paper will present the most common antonyms, antonyms of adjectives and adverbs, which are used in theoretical mechanics.

The tasks of the Antonym Researcher The Antonym is one of the phenomena that challenges the systemic character of the vocabulary; antonyms create in the minds of speakers relational concepts by contrast. So the word i forte strong (in strong mechanism, enters into an antonymic relationship with the word i dobet - weak (weak mechanism). The study of the antonym is closely connected with the study of the polysemie, synonymy and homonymy. The first task that should be taken into account for determining antonyms in Albanian language, is not the denial, but the opposite character of the meanings of words and sustainable compound words, ie the ability of words to oppose each other in terms of their affirmative; this affirmative element is observed in antonym words with the negative prefix (eg washed-unwashed in washed disc - unwashed disc, alb. i larë-i palarë te disk i larë - disk i palarë). The second task is the semantic connection that link and unite words or both members of a couple antonym with each other. Eg the words white – black (alb. e bardhë - e zezë), warm-cold (alb. i ngrohtë – i ftohtë), thin-thick (alb. i hollë - i trashë), long-short (alb. i gjatë - i shkurtër), left-right (alb. i majtë –i djathtë), black-white (alb. i zi - i bardhë). The words negative – pozitive (alb. negativ – pozitiv), east-west (alb. lindje – perëndim), south-north (alb. jug – veri) are related antonymically by context, since both mark opposite geographic or electric poles. The third task for the definition of the antonyms is the possibility of the comparison between them by comprehension; the possibility of comparing puts the antonyms in an oppositional relationship. In this case we have greater clarity for antonyms of adjectives and of adverbs. • for antonyms of adjectives: asymmetrical-symmetrical (alb. asimetrik – simetrik), hard-soft (alb. i ashpër – i butë), wide forehead-narrow forehead (alb. ballëgjerë – ballëngushtë), white-

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 135


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

black (alb. i bardhë – i zi), long tailed – short tailed (alb. bishtgjatë – bishtshkurtër), empty-full (alb. bosh – i plotë), straightrib – un straightrib (alb. bridrejtë – brishtrembër), soft – rough (alb. i butë – i ashpër), stretchable – shrinkable (alb. i bymyeshëm – i tkurrshëm), defined undefined, (alb. i caktuar – i pacaktuar), qualitative-quantitative (alb. cilësor – sasior), unbalanced – balance (alb. i çekuilibruar – i ekuilibruar), opened – closed (alb. i çelur – i mbyllur), order – chaos (alb. i çrregullt – i rregull), harmful – useful (alb. i dëmshëm – i dobishëm), damaged –undamaged (alb. i dëmtuar – zhdëmtuar), right – left (alb. i djathtë – majtë), weak – strong (alb. i dobët – i fortë), curved – incurved (alb. i dredhur – i zhdredhur), straight – crooked (alb. i drejtë i shtrembër), balanced – unbalanced (alb. i ekuilibruar – i çekuilibruar), wide leaved – narrow leaved (alb. fletëgjerë – fletëngushtë), thin paper – thick paper (alb. fletëhollë – fletëtrashë), strong – weak (alb. i fortë – i dobët), cold – warm (alb. i ftohtë – i ngrohtë), wrong – right, (alb. i gabuar – drejtë), engraved – crass (alb. i gdhendur – i pagdhendur), wide – narrow (alb. i gjerë – i ngushtë), open – closed (alb. i hapur – i mbyllur), thin –thick (alb. i hollë – i trashë), homogeneous – heterogeneous (alb. homogjen – johomogjen), quending – unquending (alb. i kalitur – i pakalitur), straight legged – crooked legged (alb. këmbëdrejtë – këmbështrembër), thin legged – portly legged (alb. këmbëhollë – këmbëtrashë), limited – unlimited (alb. i kufizuar – i pakufizuar), wet – dry (alb. i lagët – i thatë), distant – close (alb. i largët – i afërt), far away – near (alb. i larguar – i afruar), unstable – stable (alb. i lëkundur – i palëkundur), smooth – rough (alb. i lëmuar – i ashpër), likuid – solid (alb. lëngët – i ngurtë), tied – untied (alb. i lidhur – i palidhur), large – small (alb. i madh – i vogël), bound – unbound (alb. i mbërthyer – i zbërthyer), closed – open (alb. i mbyllur – i hapur, fixed – unfixed, sluggish – rapid (alb. i ngadalësuar – i shpejtuar), solid – likuid (alb. i ngurtë – i lëngët), narrow – wide (alb. i ngushtë - i gjerë), undamaged – damaged (alb. i padëmtuar – i dëmtuar), unlimited – limited (alb. i pakufizuar –i kufizuar), unprotected – protected (alb. i pambrojtur – i mbrojtur), broken – mended (alb. i pandrequr – i ndrequr), unclean – clean (alb. i papastër – i pastër), used – unused (alb. i përdorur – i papërdorur), heavy – light (alb. i rëndë – i lehtë), new – old (alb. i ri – i vjetër), upper – lower (alb. i sipërm – i poshtëm), thick – thin (alb. i trashë – i hollë), small – large (alb. i vogël – i madh), coarse – soft (alb. i vrazhdë – i butë), unscrewed – screwed (alb. i zhvidhosur – i vidhosur ) etc.. • for antonyms of adverbs: never – anytime (alb. asnjëherë – kurdoherë), here - there (alb. aty – këtu), internal – external (alb. brendazi – jashtazi), directly – indirectly (alb. drejtpërdrejt – tërthorazi), hard-soft (alb. fort – butë), cold-warm (alb. ftohtë – ngrohtë), open – closed (alb. hapët – mbyllur), rare – often (alb. joshpesh – shpesh), always – never (alb. kurdoherë – asnjëherë), wet-dry (alb. lagët – thatë), loose-tight (alb. lirshëm – shtrënguar), collected – expanded (alb. mbledhur – shtrirë), good-bad (alb. mirë – keq), inside-outside (alb. përbrenda – përjashta), in part – completely (alb. pjesërisht – krejtësisht), randomly – accidentally (alb. rastësisht – jorastësisht), rarely – often (alb. rrallëherë – shpeshherë), quickly – slowly (alb. shpejt – ngadalë), crooked – straight (alb. shtrembër – drejt), vertically-horizontally (alb. vertikalisht – horizontalisht), crooked – straight (alb. zhdrejtas – drejtas) etc.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 136


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

During the study of the antonym with prefixes a few problems appear: if the oppositional of some of the lexical meanings which show the antonym words with prefixes are justified by the semantic and structural, to what levels is this opposition presented, complete or incomplete. The prefix as a wordforming element attaches to the topic in question; by forming a new word that has a contrary meaning with the word without the prefix. Antonyms formed with prefixes with opposite meanings (anti-ç-/sh-/zh-, s-/z-, anti- , un- , without, non-). These words have a common source from a word forming background: particle-antiparticle (alb. thërrmijë-antithërrmijë), tune – untune (alb. akordoj – çakordoj), order – disorder (alb. rregullim – çrregullim), balance – unbalance (alb. ekuilibroj – çekuilibroj), magnetize – demagnetizo (alb. magnetizoj – çmagnetizoj), assemble- disassemble (alb. montoj – çmontoj), twist –untwist (dredhur – zhdredhur), screw – unscrew (alb. vidhos – zhvidhos), allow – disallow (alb. fuqizoj – shfuqizoj), attack-counterattack (alb. sulm – kundërsulm), wealth – poverty (alb. kamje – skamje), regard – disregard (alb. përfillje – mospërfillje), resistance – nonresistance (alb. qëndresë – mosqëndresë), equality-inequality (alb. barazi – pabarazi), regard – disregard (alb. përfillje – papërfillje), clear – unclear (alb. qartësi – paqartësi), accuracy – inaccuracy (alb. saktësi- pasaktësi), transitional – stable (alb. kalimtare – jokalimtare), concrete – abstrakt (alb. konkret – jokonkret), binding unbinding (alb. detyrues – jodetyrues), real-unreal (alb. real – joreal), natural-unnatural (alb. natyror – jonatyror), productive – unproductive (alb. prodhues – joprodhues), etc.

Conclusion It is noted that antonyms are general vocabulary words, but which are falling within the structure of the vocabulary of theoretical mechanics and which form terms, as: irregular –regular in irregular triangle - regular triangle ( alb. i çrregullt – i rregullt te trekëndësh i çrregullt – trekëndësh i rregullt), damaged - undamaged damaged gear – undamaged gear (alb. i dëmtuar – i zhdëmtuar te dhëmbëzor i dëmtuar – dhëmbëzor i zhdëmtuar), right - left to right thread – left thread ( alb. e djathtë – e majtë te filetë e djathtë – filetë e majtë), twisted – untwisted/coileduncoiled twisted/coiled rope – untwisted/uncoiled rope ( alb. i dredhur – i zhdredhur te litar i dredhur – litar i zhdredhur), straight – curved straight axle – curved axle ( alb. i drejtë - i shtrembër te aks i drejtë - aks i shtrembër) , balanced - unbalanced to balanced system unbalanced sistem (alb. te sistem i ekuilibruar – sistem i çekuilibruar), carved – uncarved in carved shaft - uncarved shaft (alb. , i gdhendur –i pagdhendur te bosht i gdhendur – bosht i pagdhendur), thick-thin in thick belt – thin belt (alb. i trashë – i hollë te rrip i trashë – rrip i hollë), small – large (low-high) low pressure – hihg pressure ( alb. i vogël – i madh te presion i vogël – presion i madh), unscrewed- screwed in unscrewed bolt - screwed bolt (alb. i zhvidhosur –i vidhosur te bulon i zhvidhosur – bulon i vidhosur) etc. In view of the expansion, the phenomenon of the antonym occurs more in words that express notions of features, notions of time, space and quantity, therefore, antonyms in theoretical mechanics are mostly found in adjectives and adverbs.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 137


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

From the analysis of theoretical mechanics terminology in this regard, in the emergence of semantic phenomena, it comes to the conclusion that these lexicon-semantic processes, affect also the terminology lexicon. References 1. Beer, F. ; etj. (2004):“Vector Mechanics for Engineers Statics”, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004. 2. Buckch, H. (1976): “Getriebewörterbuch- Dictionary of mechanisms”,Bauverlag GmbHWiesbaden und Berlin, 1976. 3. Duro, A. (2009): “Termi dhe fjala në gjuhën shqipe”, Tiranë, 2009. 4. Duro, A.( 2002):“Terminologjia si sistem”, Tiranë, 2002. 5. “Fjalor i termave themelorë të mekanikës”, Tiranë, 2002. 6. Haxhiymeri, T. (përshtatës) (1988): “Katalog i ilustruar për mekanikën” (shqip-rusishtanglisht), Tiranë, 1988. 7. Memushaj, R.( 2002): ”Hyrje në gjuhësi”, Shtëia Botuese DITURIA, Tiranë, 2002. 8. Pllana, G.; Pllana, S.(2011): “Einblick in die Terminologiebildung der Theoretischen Mechanik” “Vështrim rreth formimit të terminologjisë së mekanikës teorike” (punim i mbrojtur dhe i pranuar për botim) Konferenca e 7. Internacionale, Diversiteti gjuhësor dhe interkulturaliteti në gjuhët moderne, Elbasan, 29-30 prill 2011. 9. Pllana, G.; Pllana, S. (2011):“Vështrim rreth formimit të terminologjisë në fushën e Detaleve të makinave gjatë shekullit XX” Konferenca Ndërkombëtare BUILDING CULTURAL BRIDGES THROUGH LANGUAGE LITERATURE AND TRANSLATION, maj 2011, FGJH Universiteti i Tiranës, ISBN: 978-9995-637-55-2, Tiranë, 2011. 10. Pllana, G.; Pllana, S.(2012): “A conceptual connections on a word and term level in the terminology of Theoretical Mechanics (in Albanian and English)” trans&MOTOAUTO’12 20th International scientific and technical Conference on transport, road-building, agricultural, hoisting & hauling and military technics and technologies 27.-29.06.2012, p. 15-17, ISSN 1313-0226, Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, 2012. 11. Pllana, G.: Pllana, S. (2012):“Gjendja dhe probleme të zhvillimit të terminologjisë se mekanikës teorike” Seminar i VI-të i Albanologjisë (punimi është pranuar për botim), 20-23 shtator 2012, Tetovë-Shkup 2012. 12. Pllana, G.; Pllana, S.(2013): “Group word terms in the terminology of the theory of mechanics in Albanian and English” 2nd Symposium of Social Sciences and Humanities PhD Students "Education Culture and Society – Nowadays Challenges",(punimi i pranuar për botim) in Wroclaw on 14th-17th of October 2013 at the University of Wroclaw, Poland. 13. Pllana, S. (2009): “Vëzhgime mbi terminologjinë e fushës së “Mekanikës së zbatuar në makina” si sistem leksikor- konceptor” , Konferenca shkencore “Gjendja dhe zhvillimi i terminologjisë shqipe, probleme e detyra”, ASHK dhe ASHAK, f. 212-222, Tiranë, më 19 qershor 2009. 14. Samara, M. (1972): “Vëzhgime mbi antonimet me parashtesa në gjuhën shqipe” në Studime mbi leksikun dhe mbi formimin e fjalëve në gjuhën shqipe I, f. 237-246, USHT IGJH, Tiranë, 1972. 15. Thomai, J.(2006): ”Leksikologjia e gjuhës shqipe”, Botimet Toena, Tiranë, 2006. 16. Wüster, E.(1931): “Internationale Sprachnormung in der Technik", UDI, Berlin, 1931. 17. Wüster, E.(1968):“Machine tool”, 1968.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 138


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

The Albanian National Political Party” in the USA (1917-1920) – The First Albanian Political Party Created in Diaspora After the Proclamation of Independence and the Creation of the Independent Albanian State

Research paper

History Keywords: Diaspora, Albanian case, political organization, support, international factor.

Rudina Mita

University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan, Albania

Lenida Lekli

University “Aleksandër Xhuvani”, Elbasan, Albania

Abstract This study aims to analyze analytically an important aspect of the Albanian political life; the political and organizational pluralism, outside the Albanian borders. Historic resources indicate the existence of political parties in the Albanian territories, outside today’s boundaries and in Diaspora, in the early 20th century. In order to shed light on the truth related to what was mentioned above, the object of this paper is treating the creation of a party in the Albanian Diaspora in the USA, The Albanian National Political party. It was founded on 27th of August 1917 at Worcester Mass and directed by Sevasti and Kristo Dako. It was the first Albanian political party created in Diaspora after the Albania’s Declaration of Independence and the creation of an independent Albanian state. This party aimed to defend the Albanian territorial integrity and the Albanian State from the risk that was threatening Albania, in the Conference of Ambassadors in London. Its activity consisted in protesting over the injustices made to Albania in this conference, and also sending a delegate in Washington D.C. This Party aimed to reach a better recognition of Albania’s matters among the diplomatic circles, and win the support of the USA in protecting Albania.

I. The foundation of the Albanian National Party in the USA (1917) It was founded on the 27th of August 1917 in Worcester (USA) by some Albanian economic immigrants living and working in the USA. It continued to operate until the first half of 1920. The chair leaders of the “National Political Party” have been: at the beginning Sevasti Qiriazi1 (Dako) and then Kristo Dako. In the political concept of Albanian’s Diaspora, apart from that situated in America, it was created the belief on the necessity of a pluralistic life in the organizational and notional level, as a condition and an essential factor for the development of a country and of a society. “Every government, society in order to develop, need a party” it was written by Kristo Dako in Library magazine “Voice of Albania” dating 15.06.1916, that was published in Southbridge, Massachusetts of the USA, - the parties need organization, they need a leader, who can take the initiative and move it forward. (Magazine Library “Voice of Albania” Southbridge, Massachusetts, 1916, June 15th) It was the first Albanian political party created in Diaspora after the Albania’s Declaration of Independence and the creation of the independent Albanian state. The “National Political Party” was created at a time when the world was under the flames of the First World War; Albania was occupied and turned into a battlefield between the forces of 1

The creation of “The first political party” in emigration from two females, Qirjazi Sisters, with center in Worcester in USA, dates in the year 1917. The chair leader of this party was chosen Sevasti Qiriazi by marking so the first Albanian woman in leading a political party with a dense national and political activity. (Taken from the Encyclopedia’s Dictionary of the Albanian Woman, (Dibra, 2009: 484) The Canon law of the “National Political Party”

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 139


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

the two military blocs. In these difficult circumstances and serious political moments, when new dangers were directly threatening Albania and the Albanian people, the Albanians who had gone to the USA as economic immigrants, who lived and worked there, felt and understood the historical and political need that was dictated to Albania and the Albanians by the circumstances during the First World War. So, in order to better serve with devotion the interests of their Motherland, they were organized and created the Albanian “National Political Party” in the US and their activity leitmotiv was “Rescuing and ensuring the integrity of Albania". Immediately after it was created, it focused with a great devotion all its activities in finding ways, possibilities and means of supporting and assisting the liberation of the motherland from the invasion, saving the Albania of 1913 – from further cleavages, recreating an independent Albanian state and at the same time boldly demanding the correction of the historical injustices that had been made on the Ethnic lands and the ethnic Albanian population by the Conference of Ambassadors in London in 1912-1913. Its regulation program (“Albania” newspaper, 1918, February 28) embodied these national demands that the time had propounded as historical tasks in front of every citizen. By proclaiming their own political objectives with a clear national character and purpose that responded to the historical and political needs of Albania, of the Albanians, and of the “Albanian Case” at that time, it preceded, embodied and expressed also the requests of the Albanian National Movement that was developing inside the country (as far as the circumstances could allow it), in the occupied Albania, divided into military zones of the occupying forces. “The National Political Party” was almost the only political force, organized with a political platform that announced national political objectives and goals which were not only published but which were accompanied with wide, systematic and dense activities for the awareness of the international factor and for the acceleration of the Albanian National Movement. It must be admitted, because it is a fact, that the history of the creation and the intensive activity of “National Political Party” is not very well known. In fact, it has the greatest historical and political merit, because the period when it was created and functioned, was one of the most difficult ones in the history of the Albanian nation; and it was created precisely to contribute with its activity to the interests of the Albanian nation and its national issue in those difficult circumstances. II. An overview of the political, patriotic and national activity of the National “Political Party” We will not describe in details its political, national activity, that it elaborated since the moment of its creation in 1920, when the National Congress of Lushnja was held and the independent Albanian state was recovering, because it is very wide and multi lateral, and will fall out of the object of our paper, which regards the political parties that were created during the period 1914 – 1924 as a proof of the continuation of the development of political pluralism in Albania and Diaspora.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 140


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The life and activity history of the "Albanian National Political Party" in the USA is very wide and we like, hope and believe that one day it will be the object of a monographic paper, as it deserves. However, due to the weight, role, work and special contributions that it gave in the interest of Albania and the Albanian nation, we will here point out some important moments of its activity. It was a party with national character that with its overall political activity gave an outstanding contribution to the Albanian national matter, raising the awareness of the political and diplomatic circles in the USA, Europe and in the international progressive opinion.

III. The creation of branches of the “National Political Party” in the US cities, where there were Albanian immigrants and their political activity Unlike all political parties that were established and operated in Albania after the Congress of Lushnja and the recovery of the Independent State 1920 until December 1924, which failed to create organizational structures (own branches) in any other cities (besides “Radical - Democrat Party”), the “Albanian National Political Party” in the USA since its creation in 1917 and throughout its existence was very well organized. It created effective organizational structure and active branches, acting and functioning in many US cities, where there were Albanian immigrants. They operated regularly on the basis of principles clearly defined in the Regulations of the Party and on the occasional instructions given by the Leading commission of the Party, which was regularly informed about every their own initiative and activity. By exploiting patriotism, willpower, persistence and the commitment to readiness that existed among the Albanian immigrants to help by any means their own motherland from suffering the atrocities of the First World War, the Party quickly enlarged the number of members and its branches. This gave it the opportunity to extend and expand its activity continuously in many cities. The process of membership increase, the extension and expansion of its activities was significantly influenced also by the US politics towards the small countries, and particularly the 14-point program of President W. Wilson for the new world order, about the application of the principle of self-determination of nations. “According to this principle, wherever it might possible,” especially in Central and Eastern Europe, “people belonging to the same nation, united by their language, culture and common history, should govern themselves.” (Sala, Filo, Gashi, 2009) These principles gave a powerful support and incitement to the activity of the “Political Party” and its own branches to respond to the duties that were propounded by the historical needs of Albania and the Albanians. All party functioned with a full discipline rule which was based on norms and principles defined in two of its basic documents: In the Canon (“Albania” newspaper, 1918, August 15) law of the “Political Party2 In the Regulation of the “Political Party” 2

The Canon law of the “National Political Party” 1 – The national Albanians living in the United States: a) thinking of the risk in which Albania is found and especially the areas that were unjustly detached from its body and given to Montenegro, Serbia and Greece in the Conference of London b) being based on the high principles of the American people that nourished the rights of the small nationalities which were generously and kindly declared by President Wilson in the Senate on January 22nd stating among others that: The “ruling of the people needs to be built on their will and permission, so none of the governments has the right to deliver to another government a nation without its Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 141


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

IV. “Albania” newspaper, official organ of the “National Political Party” In contrast to all political parties established during the period of 1914 – 1924 in Albania or abroad, the “National Political Party” was the only Albanian political party, which during the years of its existence, created and published its official edition regularly, “Albania” newspaper, which was first published on the 28th of February 1918. “Albania” was an illustrated, political, social, and academic newspaper, official organ of the “National Political Party.” The newspaper was published every two weeks the first year, every week the second year, and every month and a half the third year. It was written in Albanian, partly in English and French. All in all it managed to publish a total of 106 publications. (Albanian Academy of Science, Encyclopedic Albanian Dictionary, 2008) "The newspaper strictly included the dissemination of the basic purposes and the political objectives of the “National Political Party”. It “propagated the idea of a political consolidation of all the Albanians, it held an opened attitude against the disintegration of the Albanian territories, it denounced the secret Treaty of London in 1915 and it popularized the outstanding figures of the Renaissance and the Independence of Albania”. (Ibid) The Members and the branches of the Party held a number of conferences in various US cities and published different articles of national content at their newspaper’s pages. The “National Political Party” wrote several memorandums and protest notes to the Great Powers. It helped in the expansion of the movement of the Albanian people against the partition policies of these powers towards Albania after World War I and propagated systematically the Albanian issue in the international arena, so it utilized every event for such a purpose.

will and permission, because the nations are not goods of a government.” Organized a party named: “The National Political party of the Albanians for the salvation and the insurance of Albania’s integrity”. 2 -The center of the party was in Worcester Massachusetts. 3- This party will attempt with any lawful manner to save from the greediness of the neighbors, not only the territories inside the borders divided by the Conference of London, but also the territories that were unjust fully detached by the Albania’s body and were given to Montenegro, Serbia and Greece. 4 -The Party in order to reach its purpose of salvation: a) Will attempts to join the entire national Albanians around this party. b) Will send delegates in Europe: the notorious diplomat Ismail Bey Vlora and many other ones. c) Will send a delegate in Washington DC. It will attempt to make to make the Albanian case known among diplomatic circles the, it will attempt to increase Albania’s friends, attempt to win the sympathy and support of the American government in order to protect Albania’s integrity in the Peace Conference. d) Will publish an organ which can spread the holy intention of the party by protecting the integrity of Albania. d) Ii will make every lawful movement that time will show as necessary and useful for its holy purpose. 5 – Every Albanian can be made a member of this party. 6-Each member will pay $ 2.00 for registration and 0.50 C in every month. 7 - The party will be governed and chaired by a committee of 7 persons which will meet once a month, and if it is needed even more often. The Commission will be elected by the Assembly for a year; the Assembly will meet on the 12th of May each year. 8 – The income of the Party consists of: a-member’s fee, b-gifts, c-profits that may remain in the branches that will be organized by the Party. 9 - In every state of the United States where there are 10 or more Albanians that wish to become members of this party could be started a new branch. 10 – The governance of those branches will be made according to the Canon law and regulations of the Center, with be done by means of an elder group which will consist of 5 people. 11 – The expenses of the branches will be covered by their own incomes and the remaining amount will be will remain transferred in the center’s cashbox every three months. 12 – If any of the branches will be disintegrated, its entire wealth will be transferred in the Party’s center.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 142


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The “Albania” newspaper since its first number at the right side of the title declared publicly that: “Albania”, the official organ of the “National Political Party”, stands for the sacred purpose of the Salvation of Albania, while on the left side of the title (below it) wrote: Leading until the end for Albania. The newspaper became a powerful tool for the popularization of the activity of special branches and of the whole Party. Through the newspaper the party developed a wide political and propagandistic activity not only between its own members, but also nourishing and activating the National Movement in the occupied Albanian territories. It also reflected the developments at the Peace Conference in Paris (“Albania” Newspaper. New York. 1918. December 5) in which, the “National Political Party”, in order to protect the Albanian national issue it sent its own representatives. Judging from those facts and other types of facts of this kind, the “National Political Party” was the only political party that sent its representatives, not only at the Peace Conference in Paris, but also at the highest political and diplomatic circles of the United States in Washington. On the other hand the Party had very good relations with special European and American personalities as: “Charles Richard (Charles Richard Crane) a diplomat, researcher and an American humanitarian who was a close supporter of the Albanian patriots and the Albanian National Movement”, (Ibid) “Herbert Obrej, a British political personality, a very popular person and defender of the Albanian issue in the international arena, who tried to support the Albanians in their difficult moments of national matter…” (Ibid) The Political Party at that time managed to use them in favor of the Albanian national problem, trusting them its representation in international forums which were held in those historical and political circumstances during the period of 1917 – 1920. V. The participation of the representatives of the "National Political Party" at the International Assembly of the Enslaved Nationalities (23 – 26 October 1918) In October 1918, the “National Political Party" sent Kristo Dako and Nuredin bey Vlora as their representatives at the International Assembly of the Enslaved Nationalities, held at the Independence Hall, Philadelphia from 23rd till 26th of October 1918. The Assembly was invoked with the initiative of “The Democratic Mid European Union” organization, which at that time was leading the movement for freedom of all the Enslaved Nations. The assembly was held in the sanctuary, at the Independence Hall where the document for the independence and freedom of the United States of America was signed by George Washington. The Albanian delegates in their deliberations propounded some of the Albanian’s demands in front of the Assembly and rejected the claims of the Albanian nation’s enemies. On the 26th of October 1918, at the holy place, the Independence Hall, with a great ceremony, it was signed by the twelve representatives of the enslaved nationalities The Statement of the Common Goals of the Free Mid Europe States, a copy of which was sent to the President of US Wudrov Wilson, a copy was left at the Independence Hall and a copy was handed to the representatives who had the honor to sign it.(Christo Dako.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 143


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

1918) On behalf of the Kosovo Albanians and the Çam population3, this declaration was signed by Kristo Dako. This is one of the most important activities of the “Political Party” for raising the awareness of the American and world wide political and diplomatic circles about the historical injustices that were done at the expense of Ethnic territories and the Albanian Nation, which left part of those ethnic territories and lots of Albanian people under the captivity of the Greek and Serb chauvinist circles. VI. The first Assembly of the “NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTY” 12 -15 May 1918 The first Assembly of the “Political Party” was held from the 12th until the 15th of May 1918 in Worcester Mass, where the 10 branches established until then were represented. Branch number 1 Worcester Mass was represented in the assembly by Mehmet Hado and Haxhi Gjebrea; Branch number 2 Southbridge Mass was represented by Kopi V. Tushmeshit; Branch number 3 of Waterbury Conn was represented by Hasan Dule and Musa Isa; Branch number 4 New York was represented by Athanas Baltadori; Branch number 5 of Butte Mont was represented by Zisi Kalo; Branch number 6 Johstown Pa was represented by Qazim Çorushi; Branch number 7 New Bedford Mass was represented by Izet M. Gjirokastra; Branch number 8 Fitchburg Masse was represented by Musa Bilali; Branch number 9 New Florence Pa was represented by Qazim Çorushi and Branch number 10 of the Philadelphia Pa was represented by Mid `hat Margëlliçit. The first Assembly reviewed all the Party activities since its establishment; it defined the main directions of any further activity and it elected the governing bodies. As the chair leader of the “Political Party” it was reelected Sevasti Dako4 and as a secretary Dhimitër Balla. The leading Commission of the Party which was elected by the first Assembly consisted of Sevasti Dako (President), Dhimitër Balla (Secretary), Mesud Çami, Haxhi Murati, Mehmet Demi, Bajram Konispoli, Malo Çeço dhe Malko Meçe. The Assembly appointed Nuredin Bey Vlora as a delegate of the “Political Party” in Washington. The “Political Party" directed a plea to the US President Wudrov Wilson and to the ambassadors of Great Britain, France and Italy in Washington, who were asked to take appropriate measures to stop the Greek terror on the Albanian population in Çamëria. After the First Party Assembly the process of the members increase and the creation of new branches in other cities and throughout them the expansion of its activities got a very rapid development. 3

Çamëria was an Albanian territory before 1912, which was left outside Albania and was given to Greece after the London Conference of Ambassadors in 1913. Çamët were the community of this region who were expelled from their territories, due to the politics of the Greek state. 4 Sevasti Dako keeps the opening speech and welcomes the delegates, representatives and members as well as all the Albanians that honored the party with their participation. In her speech among others she stressed that: “First of all I call it as a duty to give a welcome thank you to the noble American people as well as their noted president Mr. Wilson for the freedom he gives us in order to gather and take consults about the needs of our Motherland, work freely in order to defend our national rights. We mostly need to thank the noble American people as well as their noted President Wilson, for the sympathy that they nourished for the small nations and for the decision and the unshakable attitude it has taken in order to defend the rights of the small nations as the president has so gently declared in front of the Congress. (A chronicle about the development of a great meeting organized in the city of Worcester Mass on May 12th 1918) Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 144


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Branches were established in Canton Ohio - 30 members, ( “Albania Newspaper” 1918. September 12) in Massillon Ohio - 51 members( “Albania Newspaper” 1918. September 19), in Braddock Pa etc. The “Albania” newspaper, an organ of the Party, which was first published in New York, starting from 15th August 1918 (No. 18) was published in Worcester Mass where was the Party center. In September 1918 by the "Political Party" it was launched the idea of creating a volunteer regiment of Albanian immigrants in the US, who would go to Albania to fight alongside their brothers, for the liberation of the country and defending its territorial integrity. The “National Political Party” did a lot in this regard. It was among the first organizations and political parties which together with its own branches dealt with a lot of responsibility and arguments the issue for the need and the necessity of solving the Albanian national problem. Its branches and all its members wherever they acted in the US organized meetings, conferences, gathering contributions, publishing articles, formulating memorandums and protests which they sent to the Great Powers, in which they expressed not only their support for the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Albanian State, but also the liberation of the Albanian territories unjustly left outside the Albanian borders in 1913, and their union with the motherland as well as the creation of the Albanian National Independent State in its natural ethnic borders of our Nation. VII. The “National Political Party” sent its representatives at the Peace Conference in Paris 1919 – 1920 After the end of First World War, as soon as the Peace Conference in Paris started on 18th January 1919, the “National Political Party” appointed its delegate (representatives – RM., L.L.) at that international forum, which was expected to examine the Albanian case. At the beginning it appointed Ismail Qemal Vlora (Qemali I. 1918) as its representative. After the death of Ismail Qemal Vlora (January 1919), it sent Parashqevi Qiriazi, Mihal Grameno and Nuredin Vlora at the Peace Conference. On behalf of “National Political Party” Nikolla Ivanaj also went to Paris. They were united together with the representatives of other Albanian colonies such as: Turkey, Romania and the Federation "Vatra" in the US, and they created a common front, opposing the yielding attitude of the Provisional Government delegation of Durres towards Italy. While the Second Assembly of the “Political Party” (“Albania” Newspaper. 1919. March, 20) which was held from 7th to 12th of March 1919, among others, it also assigned Hasan Prishtina, Aqif pasha Elbasani, Nikolla Ivanajn, Pandeli Calen, Halil Pashë Gjirokastra, Fuat bey Diber, Ahmet bej Matin, Mihal Shahinin, Louis Bonatin, Midatin, Kasnecin, Pecin, Faikun, Ali bej Këlcyrën, Ismail Bey Vrionin, Eqerem bey Vlorën, Hetem Qemalin, Pandeli Evangjelin, Nexhip Dragën and Parashqevi Qiriazin and the well the known Albanian supporters Charles Crane and Aubrey Herbert5, who were elected honorary delegates. 5

Herbert Obrej (1980-1923). An English political personality, really popular and defender of the Albanian case in the international Arena. From 1904 till 1917 he traveled into the Albanian territories from the North to south, and became acquainted with the people. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 145


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

In this newspaper there was written: “Albanian brothers! The Assembly of the Political Party held in Worchester,Mass in 1919, March 7, taking into consideration the critical period of time and the crisis which our Homeland is encountering, elected delegates to be sent in Paris in order to act in the Conference of Peace according to the program of the Party. It also decided that the Party fights against all neighbors who have shown their intentions for our dear Albania... The war that the Party is going to do during all these periods of time will be a decisive one, it will either draw us winners or losers. The Party besides the rescue of Kosovo and Çamëria, also requires the independence of entire Albania.” Therefore this was the purpose of the Assembly that selected the delegates for the Conference of Peace in Paris. (“Albani” Newspaper. 1919. March 20) References 1. Dako K. (1918). Polical Party had rapidly acting ander the Programme. “Albania” Newspaper. New York, 29:1. 2. Dako K. (1916). Mbi domosdoshmërinë e Pluralizmit. Magazine Library “Zëri i Shqipërisë” Southbridge, Massachusetts. 8: 22. 3. Dibra Z. (2009). Encyclopedia’s dictionary of the Albanian woman, 484. 4. M. (1918). American delegates to the Peace Conference. “Albania” Newspaper. New York. 34:2. 5. Newspaper Editorial board. (1918).The Canon law and the Regulation of the “National Political Party”. “Albania Newspaper”. New York. 18:1-2. 6. Newspaper Editorial board. (1918). The beginning of Political Party branch in Canton Ohio. “Albania Newspaper”. 22:1. 7. Newspaper Editorial board. (1918). A new branch of the Party, with 51 members, was started in Masillon Ohio. “Albania” Newspaper.23:1. 8. Newspaper Editorial board. (1918). Canon of "Political Party Completeness insurance Salvation Albania”. 1918. “Albania” Newspaper, New York, 1:1-2-3. 9. Newspaper Editorial board. (1919). The Second Assembly held in 1919, March 7-12. “Albania” Newspaper.48:1-3-4. 10. Popa, Y. Bërxholi, A. Bulo, J. Lafe, E. Omari, L. Prifti, K. Sulstarova, E.(2008). Albanian Academy of Science, Encyclopedic Albanian Dictionary, Volume I, 46, 46, 1343, 909. 11. Qemali I. (1918). Mr. Gjebre. “Albania” Newspaper, New York, 1:2-3. 12. Sala, G. Filo, Ll. Gashi, I.(2009). Contemporary History (Europe, United States of America during the 20th Century), 46.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 146


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Anthropology Population Islamizing in Elbasan City at the End of XIXth Century and the Beginning of the XXth Century: An Anthroponomical Analysis Zhuljeta Kadilli

Keywords: belief, Islam, Ottoman Empire, anthroponomy.

Department of History and Geography, Faculty of Human Sciences, “A. Xhuvani” University, Elbasan, Albania.

Abstract This paper analyses the characteristics of religion belief in the Elbasan city during the Ottoman occupation at the end of XIXth Century and the beginning of the XXth Century. The analysis is based on a large historical literature and Ottoman original documents (Daimi and Jokllama registers). Besides the explanations of the historical materials, the paper also provides a comparative analysis of the Muslim population dynamics during the study period. The religion belief is considered from the anthroponomy point of view, which suggests that its majority is Turk. This fact is totally reliable because of the long occupation impact. About 72% of the population during that period practiced the Muslims religion and only 28% practiced the Orthodox one. All Muslims neighborhoods had mosques, which served not only for the religion rituals but also as centers for the Islam Religion propagation. This structure has remained almost the same even nowadays. The documents analysis suggests that the population with Muslim belief was increasing not only because of the natural growth but also because of the recently embracing the Islam religion. The Ottoman Empire respected all other religions and this was legally executed. Finally, it seems that Islam religion was already not only an interest concern but also an aware belief.

1. Introduction The city of Elbasan lies on a hill on the right of the Shkumbin river and 135 meter above the sea level. The city is surrounded by mountains on three sides, and on the south east side lies the Shkumbin river valley. The valley enables the winds coming from the sea to pass freely therefore affecting the climate of this area. The Elbasan city was created in the 3d century of our era. However, the archeological findings in its environs indicate of an Ilirian civilization much earlier than that. Since the city was created simultaneously with a castle as a fortified residence on Via Egnatia, it developed a lot during the 5th century. It served as the episcopacy residence with its own basilica whose ruins were found in the today’s entrance of Elbasan. In the 9th century, the city was destroyed by the Bulgarian congestions and for a long time there was no proof of any development of the city. However, the city did not disappear, because in 1466, the Sultan Mehme,t the Second, chose a site in the city to rebuild the surrounding walls on the foundations of the ancient castle for only “25 days”1 From this time on and especially during 16th-19th century, Elbasan developed tremendously and was one of the first developed centers in the Albanian territory. This development was noted by 1

Babinger. F, Die Grudung von Elbasan, Sonderabdruck aus den Mitteilungen des Seminars fur Orientalische Sprachen XXXIV.Bd(1931),II.Abteilung , Gedruckt in der Reichsdruckerei, The Founding of Elbasan, Reprinted from the Communications of the Seminar for Oriental Languages XXXIV,Abteilung,Printed in Reichsdruckerei, Berlin (1931) p 5.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 147


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

chroniclers, missioners or historians who were impressed by the enthusiasm of the citizens. They noticed the happiness, hard work and the desire for development in the city. During this period, alongside the economical and social development the islamization of population began. 2. Islamizing process The islamization process of the Elbasan city population is very interesting, but it is not well researched. It is interesting from the stand point of how this process developed, when did it start and what paths it followed. The majority of the city population is of Islamic faith. Today, there are no documents that can tell the beginning of this process. The spread of the Islamic faith in Elbasan is thought to be related to the Ottoman occupation. Various researchers such as: Shyqyri Demiri, Aleksander Meksi, Sule Dedej, Ferit Duka have treated this process in the Albanian context. Therefore, based on original ottoman documents, we have studied the islamization process and its progress during the of the 19th – 20th century. From the registers of the Kadi (cadi) of Elbasan, Daimi, of the daily activities, and the Jokllama verifications, we identify an important element of the social life, that of the religious realm. These registers belong to 1892-1908. In addition, we researched a vast historic literature. On the religious realm in the city, we referred to the names and sometimes last names of the registered citizens. Anthroponomy is an important element in this study. 3. Islamic Anthroponomy Names of people and places are created at the same time when the language is born. They multiply, develop, evolve or disappear, and they are no longer used according to the historic, cultural and social circumstances experienced by the population of a country. Names of people and places are as old as the language.2 These names however, have evolved from one period to the other and reflect the social, cultural and historical development. Each period, with its own developments, is present in the history of the Albanian people. These developments are also reflected in anthroponomy. The ottoman occupation, being a very long one in Albania, had its own impact in this field. I looked into a number of registers of the daily activities of the Kadi of Elbasan (Daimi and Jokllama) which belong to 1892-1908. This was the last period of the ottoman occupation in Albania. These registers indicate that there was a variety of the people’s names which belonged to the Islamic and orthodox faith.3 From a long list of names, we found out that the biggest number of names belonged to the Islamic faith. This is an indication of how deep the Islamic faith penetrated Elbasan. The Turkish and Arabic names were evident in the passports and the Albanian registers. This was related to the strategy of the ottoman occupiers, who, when occupying a country they demanded the population to at least accept one out of three conditions:

2

Shkurtaj. Gj,Onomastika dhe Etnolinguistika, Onomastics and ethnolinguistics, Sh.B.L.U 2001, p 13. Arkivi Qendror Shqiptar, Fondi No 113/1,1892-1908,Albanian Central Archive,,Fond No113/1, Register Daimi and Jokllama, 1892-1908. 3

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 148


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

First: peacefully, the population should accept the Islamic faith principles which should be integrated in the ottoman system.4 The anthroponomy of the Islamic faith is very rich. During 1892-1908 there is a variety of people names which are: Abdullah, Alush, Ahmet, Aishe, Adem, Arif, Abdyl, Alemshah, Aqif, Abdylrab, Alije, Abdurrahman, Ali, Abdylrasim, Ataullahh Adile, Abdylrahim, Abdi, Azis, Ahmaz, Abdylqerim, Abdurrahman, Arap, Abdylhamit, Abdylrahman, Abaz, Azem, Abdylbevap, Abdylvehap, Abedin, Arsllan, Asim, Abdylhalim, Adil, Ajaz, Asllan, Asije, Avdullah, Alushe, Beqir, Bahtjar, Banush, Bahush, Bajram, Behlul, Belul, Ballkeza, Ballkize, Behush, Bano, Bejtulla, Behije, Behxhet, Beledije, Bilal, Bahije, Brahush, Behrije, Besim, Bule, Bahrije, Bakush, Beshir, Bahman, Bako, Bekije, Balikse, Brahum, Bumka, Cenka, Cerije, Canoke, Cuma, Çaush, Çelmusi, Çanoku, Dervish, Dude, Dalip, Daut, Dule, Deli, Deisi, Dunica, Elmaz, Emine, Eshref, Emin,Ejup, Et’hem, Ebdullah, Es’hat, Ebedin, Fatime, Fejzullah, Faik, Ferko, Fetah, Fahrije, Ferhat, Fazlli, Fatoshe, Fuat, Fotije, Fiqiri, Fiqirije, Fije, Feta, Fatma, Fatime, Fatosh,Grip, Gani, Gjyle, Gjylshah, Gjyslyme, Gjyhsel, Gjyslyme, Gjyslide, Hasan, Hysein, Haki, Halit, Hamide, Hysen, Haxhire, Haxhi, Halil, Hava, Halim, Hafez, Hafiz, Hamza, Hatixhe, Hamdi, Hedime, Hamid, Hamit, Hema, Hatime, Hajdar, Hidush, Hajrie, Hys, Hajrullah, Haxhisalih, Haxhisulejman, Haxhihasan, Hejdush, Hysni, Hedije, Hedush, Hanka, Hurshit, Hushe, Hanko,Hamdushe, Herije, Hurije, Hadije, Hanife, Hemiar, Hazbije, Hasim, Harjan, Hejrie, Hafize, Hasko, Hasib, Hafeza, Hajrama, Ibrahim, Ismail, Iljaz, Islam, Isa, Idriz, Is’hak, Izet, Ibrahush, Isak, Izetli, Ismete, Ikbale, Isman, Ismon, Jusuf, Jonuz, Jahja, Jakup, Jush, Jatesh, Jashar, Jançe, Kadena, Kadene, Kasem, Kamber, Kalem, Kahreman, Kile, Kordheli, Kadrije, Kapllan, Kelije, Kadishe, Kadri, Keze, Kush, Lushi, Latif, Liman, Lytfi, Lale, Lava, Lushi, Latife, Mahmut, Mustafa, Mehmet, Mahmude, Maksude, Musa, Mehdi, Merzije, Misir, Meço, Myrteza, Merjeme, Murat, Muhtar, Mejreme, Maliq, Mustaf, Merdije, Mersije, Maksut, Mirjam, Muharrem, Myslim, Meçan, Mersin, Metn, Merushe, Mexhit, Maxhum, Minushe, Mihran, Meleq, Mihrian, Mihrjan, Mihrije, Mejrie, Metushe, Muhedin, Mirjan, Mylazim, Meti, Myfid, Mehrije, Muhedin, Numan, Nazir, Nexhip, Nezir, Nuredin, Nexhipe, Naze, Nazif, Nurihan, Nasibe, Nadije, Nuranije, Nurije, Nexhibe, Naxhi, Osman, Oshlie, Pertef, Pani, Qazim, Qamile, Qamil, Qerim, Qatip, Qybra, Rrapush, Rabije, Rashit, Rabihan, Ramazan, Rabihan, Rukije, Reshir, Rahman, Riza, Rakip, Rexhep, Ram, Rustem, Repush, Refat, Refik, Repushe, Rushe, Ruku, Razije, Ramiz, Ruzhdi, Rashit, Selamn, Sabire, Sulejman, Salih, Selim, Sefer, Serjan, Siku, Seit, Sejfedin, Sejdin, Sali, Sejdi, Selvi, Sefije, Sejfullah, Sana, Sofije, Sane, Saliha, Sinan, Sanije, Sarafije, Sulo, Saldush, Sikush, Siri, Selime, Sami, Sallaban, Sadik, Sadedin, Serafije, Said, Skender, Sabrije, Sabriha, Syrja, Sitki, Sadullah, Sulçe, Sadi, Sagush, Sadije, Siko, Sabri, Sabina, Salije, Selam, Stoje, Sude, Sejrie, Selha, Suvari, Saide, Serjan, Sadetli, Shaqir, Shaban, Shemsedin, Shaha, Shahsivar, Shefqet, Shefkije, Shasi, Shefike, Shefki, Shevki, Shahin, Shefikat, Sherif, Shyqyri, Shahe, Shuaip, Shahu, Sherina, Shefik, Shaho, Shahzivar, Shiko, Shefqete, Tomorr, Tahir, Tushe, Tasin, Terfik, Tefta, Tole, Taman, Tana, Tuti, Umetullah, Zabit, Zija, Zylfije, Zila, Ziber, Zefir, Zyko, 4

Rexha, I. Nga Perandoria Osmane ne Shqiperi historine e shkruam me tolerance, From the Ottoman empire in Albania- we wrote the history with tolerance, Tirana, 2005 p. 51. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 149


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Zibe, Zhuta.5 This variety of names tells us of a massive Islamisation of the Elbasan population as well as their opening towards the ottoman culture. This phenomenon was encouraged by the ottoman administration. Based on the registers of the period, which we are analyzing, there were 4106 names of the Islamic faith. This shows that anthroponomy was vast, diverse and expanded with new elements. In 1892 there were 87 new names; in 1893 there were 43 new names; in 1894 there were 34; in 1895 24; in 1896 one new name; in 1897 28 names; in 1898 23 new names; in 1899 25 new names; in 1900 7 new names; in 1901 28 new names; in 1902 there we 13 new names; in 1903 24 names; in 1904 -1905 27 new names; in 1905-1907 20 new names, in 19071908 23 new names. (The three last registers were together). From year to year, not only new names were added, but there was an increase of the number of persons who took these names. In 1892 at the Kadi there appeared 314 citizens who had names from the Islamic faith; in 1893, 456; in 1894, 424; in 1895, 532; in 1896, 88; in 1897, 822; in 1898, 764; in 1899, 661; in 1900, 668; in 1902, 518; in 1903, 621; in 1904-1905, 783; in 1905-1907, 691; in 1907-1908, 1153 persons.7 The analysis of these data shows the increase of the Islamic faith population. This population not only increased in numbers, but at the same time, it expanded its contacts with the ottoman culture, where these names originate from. Generally, the meaning of these names was religious, or was an honor to the persons who served the religion. For example, Abdullah means the God’s person, Muhamet, someone sent from God, Ali means noble, generous, Halil means handsome, Ibrahim, son of Muhamet, Fatime, daughter of Muhamet, Aishe, life, emir of Muhamet’s wife, Asllan, Luan, etc. Translation from Turkish to Albania would make this research more interesting in order to learn more about the social and spiritual life of the population that had these names (This process will be part of the continuation of the research). The population of the Islamic faith extended all over Elbasan. There were neighborhoods whose population belonged to the Islamic faith only. Those neighborhoods were: “Arsllan Bej”, “Çaushlli”, “Daut Bej”, “Dylgjer Hysein”,”Ebubeqir Çelebi”, “Haxhihasan”, “Haznedare”, “Kalandrije”, “Sapuni”, “Karavelie”, “Mahzar Hysein”.

5

Arkivi Qendror Shqiptar, Fondi No 113/1 ,1892-1908,Albanian Central Archive,,Fond No113/1, Register Daimi and Jokllama, 1892-1908. 6 Ibid 7 Ibid Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 150


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1900-01

1901-02

1903

1904

1904-05

1906-07

1907-08

1

Neighborhoods Asllanbej Bej

1892

Table.1 Number of households in the Muslim neighborhoods

7

4

4

-

-

6

-

2

1

9

2

11

11

21

14

27

2

Alaedin

7

9

8

9

-

5

2

2

-

5

4

10

-

5

16

29

3

Daut Bej

3

5

7

9

-

-

12

19

-

9

20

23

-

21

14

26

4

Dylgjer hysen

7

3

3

1

2

7

4

3

2

9

3

12

-

10

14

34

5

Ebubeqir

8

6

7

5

-

13

13

12

10

6

16

1

19

29

26

19

6

Eski çerribash

5

12

2

4

1

7

8

5

26

8

5

-

-

-

-

-

7

Haxhi Hasan

1

16

1

8

-

5

4

8

17

4

8

-

-

-

-

-

8

Haznedare

2

2

8

-

-

3

7

5

-

-

4

6

-

10

14

22

9

Kalandrie

3

3

3

1

-

5

3

-

-

4

12

3

-

-

-

-

10

Karaveli

1

8

6

7

-

5

-

1

7

-

1

-

-

14

22

11

The data in the table show the neighborhoods whose majority of population was Muslim, and it presents the dynamics of the process. The characteristic of this process was that from 1904 and on there was an increase in the number of households of the Islamic faith as well as an increase in their activities.This is especially interesting for that time because it was the eve of the independence of Albania from the Ottoman Empire. This indicated that the Islamic faith was now part of the city mentality. Based on the registers of that time, the households of the Islamic faith even dominated those of the orthodox faith. In 1982, out of 118 houses that were in the process of buying, selling, (these transactions were conducted in the Kadi’s office) 98 or 83 % of them belonged to the Islamic faith. In 1893, out of 200 houses that were in the process of buying, selling, 163 or 81 % of them belonged to the Islamic faith. In 1894 out of 148 houses, 108 or 73 % belonged to Islamic faith In 1895 out of 125 – 109 or 87% belonged to Islamic faith In 1896 out of 26 – 25 or 96% belonged to Islamic faith In 1897 out of 203 – 175 or 75% belonged to Islamic faith In 1898 out of 167 – 134 or 85% belonged to Islamic faith In 1899 out of 121 – 109 or 89% belonged to Islamic faith In 1900 out of 126 – 114 or 90% belonged to Islamic faith In 1900 -1901 out of 141 – 119 or 84% belonged to Islamic faith In 1901-1902 out of 224 -165 or 74 % belonged to Islamic faith In 1903 out of 170- 113 or 96% belonged to Islamic faith In 1904 out of 115 - 70 or 61% belonged to Islamic faith In 1904-1905 out of 199 – 174 or 87 % belonged to Islamic faith In 1906-1907 out of 190- 147 or 77% belonged to Islamic faith In 1907-1908 out of 341- 268 or 80% belonged to Islamic faith

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 151


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The above data indicate that in each period the majority of population belonged to Islamic faith. During 1892- 1908, the average of the Muslim population was 82.3 %. The above data also indicate that in the main neighborhoods in the city, especially after 1900-1901, Islamism tended to increase. For example in the neighborhood called “Dylgjer Hysein”, during 1901-1902 there were 20 households of the Islamic faith that were registered for various activities. During 1903-1904 there were 23 households. During 1907-1908 there were 26 households. In the neighborhood called “Ebubeqir Celebi” during 1907-1908 there were 34 households. In the “Spahikorre” neighborhood during 1907-1908 there were 45 households. These numbers are evidence of the increased number of the households of the Islamic faith. Therefore, there was not only a demographic increase in the number of households, but also an increase of the Islamic faith households. The increase in the households was due to the demography, such as the division of families, or the new comers of the Islamic faith from the village. There could also have been families which converted to the Islamic faith. Although there were not campaigns to convert people to Islam during the period in question, Abdyl Hamiti quit the idea of the laicism and instead en1couraged the Islamic faith in the state policy.8 He undertook concrete steps in this direction according to the Islamic model. For example in the public education he considered teaching Islam and the moral of the Islamic identity as the most important part in the curriculum.9 In the above mentioned neighborhoods, the activities continuity showed that these neighborhoods were stabilized from the urban stand point and they were more and more configured as neighborhoods of the Islamic faith. As we mentioned above, the attribution of the Islamic faith was based in the names of the people as recorded in the registers. There was a wide variety of the Islamic names. There were 410 names. However, they did not have the same frequency of use. The following table presents some these names, most of them used in Elbasan during 1892-1908.

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1900-01

1901-02

1903

1904

1904-05

1905-07-07

1907-08

1

Names Abdullah

1892

Table 2. Names of people of the Islamic faith

4

10

11

15

1

20

22

9

10

1

13

7

18

22

14

19

2

Alush

6

16

7

16

1

22

18

6

5

2

16

12

11

20

9

20

3

Ali

12

16

25

21

6

22

51

11

14

3

44

29

44

40

29

50

4

Fatime

8

16

8

10

2

10

9

12

1

2

13

5

6

10

4

20

5

Hasan

15

16

14

19

7

22

30

16

15

3

38

19

21

36

22

53

6

Hysein

11

17

19

13

3

34

21

23

19

2

28

22

22

32

27

58

7

Ibrahim

18

26

20

22

3

48

36

20

16

3

35

28

30

31

32

55

8

Ismail

6

11

8

22

1

24

20

10

10

3

18

14

27

28

16

37

9

Mahmut

10

11

8

14

1

20

18

7

6

1

10

10

16

8

20

10

10

Mustafa

15

22

28

29

4

34

35

20

17

4

29

20

20

38

23

52

11

Mehmet

12

22

21

32

4

63

2619

19

25

10

26

30

41

52

35

57

8 9

Gawyrych G, Gjysemhena dhe Shqiponja,The Star and crescent and the Eagle, Albanian World, Tirana 2007, p 118. Ibid.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 152


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

By analyzing these statistics, we assume that in 1892, there were 314 citizens of the Islamic faith, who presented themselves at the Kadi office to carry out transactions in connection with their properties. In 1893, there were 456 citizens; in 1894 there were 424 citizens; in 1895 there were 532 citizens; in 1896 there were 89; in 1897 there were 822; in 1898 there were 319; in 1899 there were 342 (recording of 1899 was done in two registers). During 1900-1901 there were 668 citizens; during 1901-1902 there were 518 citizens; during 1902-1904 there were 621 citizens; during 1904-1905 there were 783 citizens; during 1905-1907 – 691 citizens; during 1907-1908 there were 1153 citizens.10 The data show that the population of the Islamic faith increased from 1892 (the beginning of the registers) until 1908 (when registers end). In addition, we note that these names of Islamic contents were more frequently used. For example the name “Ismail” was used six times in the register of 1892. However this name was used thirty-seven times in the registers of 1907-1908. Same goes for the name “Hysein”, which was used 11 times in the 1892 register and 58 times in 1907-1908; name “Ibrahim” from 18 times, increased to 55 times; “Hasan” from 15 times to 53 times, etc., etc. This is another argument in the Islamisation of the Elbasan city population and its pace during that time. What was the progress of this process from its beginning until the end of the 19th century? In the 15th century, in 1491, in Elbasan “sanxhak” there was no household that belonged to the Islamic faith.11 In the beginning of the 16th century, in Elbasan, out of 283 households, 108 of them or 38.1 % belonged to the Islamic faith12 (Thëngjilli,2002, p 34). In the end of the 16th century, out of 806 households, 638 or 79% belonged to the Islamic faith.13 In the 17th century almost all the population belonged to the Islamic faith. By comparing the two periods, we notice that during the 16-17th century, the Islamisation process happened at rapid rates. The process continued at the same rate in the following periods. 4. Factors that impacted the Islamizing of the population What were the causes of the progress of Islamic faith in Elbasan? Some of the main factors that had an impact in this process were economic, political and social ones. According to Della Roka, a researcher, “…The system of dimmas (xhisjes) could have been determinant [in this process]. According to this, the non Muslim citizens had to pay in exchange for their protection”14. This tax kept increasing until the non-Muslim citizens decided to convert to faith of the ruler and earning therefore the status of the Empire citizen.15 This argument was also made in the studies of Professor P. Thengjilli. He claims that in the 17th century the tax for person was an important economic factor in embracing of the Islamic faith. Alongside this idea, Arnold, the well known English historian said: “It is not true that Muslims imposed on people to choose between the 10

Arkivi Qendror Shqiptar, Fondi No 113/1 ,1892-1908,Albanian Central Archive,,Fond No113/1, Register Daimi and Jokllama, 1892-1908. 11 Thengjilli,P. Shqiptaret midis Lindjes dhe Perendimit, Thengjilli, Albanians between East and West, 1506-1839, Religion 1, Tirana 2002.p18. 12 Ibid 34. 13 Ibid 36. 14 M. Dela Roka, Kombesia dhe Feja ne Shqiperi,1920-1944, Nationality and religion in Albania,Tirana 1994. p 22.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 153


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

principle of the Islam and the sword. But they (the citizens) were free to choose between the principle of Islam and “Xhisje”.16 A. Popovic shared the same opinion. He said: “Islamisation of the Albanian population happened during the 16th -17th century. This process happened mostly for economic and social reasons. In addition, he also mentioned the importance in the Islamisation process of the Albanians, of some mystic Muslim orders coming from some figures such as Sari Salltëku or Haxhi Bektashi.17 This argument is also well illustrated by Fra Kerubini in a piece of information in 1638. This information is related to the Islamisation of population in the north of Albania which he visited. He wrote: “In order not to pay the “harac” –tax, a number of people became Muslims. Some became Muslims in order to get rich and others just to live free”.18 Until the full occupation of Albania, the Turkish kept a prudent attitude towards religion. Full occupation of Albania created an enabling environment for the occupier to apply an Islamisation policy. The conversion to Islam was a long process, which was the result of all the above mentioned factors. The professional soldiers, who came from the castles, were good conveyors of the Islamic faith. The system of devshiremesë created a native Muslim layer alongside with the feuds who at that time represented the new faith.19 Geography was another factor that impacted the Islamisation process in the Elbasan city population. In the Middle Albania, where the Shkumbin river created the linguistic border (gege– toske) and the religion border (orthodox-catholic), islamisation developed rapidly and entirely.The fact that the middle Albania was a border line where orthodoxy and Catholicism met, could have contributed to the Islamisation.20 Martin Urban tried to prove that the Islamic faith, in its infiltration, strictly followed the natural roads. Therefore, in the main road along the Shkumbin river valley, where the Elbasan city lies, the population is Muslim.21 The building of a number of mosques in Elbasan also helped in the islamisation process. One of the oldest mosques in Elbasan is the Fatihu mosque, which was built over the tower in the city Castle in 1466. The castle itself was built in 1466.22 This might also be the oldest mosque in Albania, built after the one in Kruja, where the church within the tower was improvised to be used half for “mesxhide” and half for dwelling.23 First mosques were built to serve the ottoman infantries and administration. These were built quickly, using bad quality products, very small and nothing fancy. Very often a number of churches were converted into mosques. Among the religious sites preserved until to date, the sanctuaries are the ones we find to date, simply because of the construction quality. These sanctuaries are found all 16

Basha.M.Ali,, Islami ne Shqiperi gjate shekujve, Islam in Albania during the centuries, Tirana 2000, p. 69. Popoviç, Aleksander, Islamizmi Ballkanik, Balkan Islam, Dituria 2006, p 23. 18 Zamputi.I, Information on the Northern and Middle Albania during the 17th century, prepared from, volume 16341654, document 28,1960 p. 24. 19 Meksi,A. Arkitektura e Xhamive ne Shqiperi gjate shekujve 15-19, Architecture of the mosques in Albania, during the 15th-19th century, UEGEN, Tirana, 2007, p. 94. 20 Bartl, P. Myslimanet Shqiptare ne Levizjen Kombetare per Pavaresi, Albanian Muslims in the movement for national independence, 1878-1912, Dituria, Tirana, 2006, p. 25. 21 Ibid 22 Basha, M Ali, Islami ne Shqiperi gjate shekujve, Islam in Albania during the centuries, Tirana 2000, p. 469. 23 Meksi,Ar. Arkitektura e Xhamive ne Shqiperi gjate shekujve 15-19, Architecture of the mosques in Albania, during the 15th-19th century, UEGEN, Tirana, 2007, p. 14. 17

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 154


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

over the country and their construction was done in compliance with the islamisation process in time and space. These sites are divided into two groups: mosques and mesxhide. The difference between them is that the mosks were the ones where the Friday service was held, and they have a pulpit. As far as the Masjids are concerned they are smaller and are built with simpler building materials and have an wooden structure roof covered with tiles. Another feature of the mosks is the prayers’ hall, the portico and the minaret where the most important role is played by the prayers’ hall which is connected with the other two. The psychological factor also played an important role in the emotional and affection aspect in the conversion process to Islam. It had also to do with the human values and attitudes. The process of conversion to Islam included an entirety of ideas which could either be refused or embraced in this process. These ideas rarely were philosophical or theological. These were simply general beliefs which justified the new mentality and deny the old one.24 5. The Orthodox faith In order to have a clearer picture of the process of conversion to Islam in Elbasan, we need also to treat the issue of the orthodox faith in this city. From the registers of that time, there is evidence that alongside the population of Islamic faith, the population of orthodox faith existed too. This is shown by the anthroponomy of the orthodox faith. There was a variety of names of people who belonged to the orthodox faith. Such names are listed below: Apostol Anastas, Alqi, Angjeliqi, Andrea, Andon, Angjelie, Andona, Ana, Andre, Athina, Anastasi, Ajka, Asima, Agathi, Aspasi, Avrama, Avram, Aleksander, Andoni, Ani, Anthi, Athanas, Andre, Boro, Cull, Cako, Dunc, Delijan, Danko, Dole, Dhimitrulla, Dhora, Dhespira, Dhamo, Dhimo, Eftali, Eftim, Eftimije, Elefteri, Elefter, Eski, Elis, Elektra, Eli, Evis, Eftimi, Fanije,Filip, Fotini, File, Fanime, Frosina, Foni, Fotina, Damian, Grigor, Gole, Gligor, Gusti, Gavril, Galije, Gjelije, Gjoka, Harallamb, Hari, Hoc, Ilia, Irakli, Ili, Jovan, Jakov, Josif, Jorgji, Janaq, Janko, Jani, Jon, Jan, Jaxhi, Jano, Jorgaq, Kozma, Kostandin, Katerina, Koci, Kol, Kristo, Kostaq, Kosta, Kleopatra, Kristo, Kalije, Koçi, Kola, Kostandina, Kov, Lefter, Lila, Loni, Leonidha, Lina, Lami, Ladimir, Ligor, Llam, Llazar, Llushka, Llamri, Lluka, Llako, Llambro, Llambri, Marije, Mosko, Mihal, Miço, Miltiadh, Mati, Mim, Moisi, Mitrush, Marika, Mol, Mitre, Minar, Margalia, Mark, Mina, Mitro, Miti, Mars, Marko, Mikel, Marku, Nos, Nikolle, Naftali, Nush, Naftasi, Naun, Nish, Nasti, Nelku, Nasto, Naren, Naum, Naqi, Nuh, Nasi, Nina, Papajorgji, Parashqevi, Pavli, Papadhimitri, Papajani, Petro, Petri, Poliksen, Paparisto, Pali, Pal, Panajot, Pandeli, Pasko, Perikli, Pol, Petër, Petraq, Prendi, Poli, Peti, Pine, Pandi, Risto, Stase, Stasi, Stas, Spiro, Sotir, Sofi, Simon, Stefan, Santo, Stan, Stasije, Savana, Steo, Serafim, Serafin, Todora, Tater, Todori, Tole, Tina, Taqi, Tanko, Todosi, Todi, Tase, Teodora, Tashko, Thoma, Theohar, Thanas, Theofan, Theodhor, Thana, Urani, Vasil, Veniamin, Vasilie, Vasiliqi, Vasili, Vili, Vasilika, Vangjeli, Vero, Vangjel, Vartho, Vanthi, Vaskë, Vase, Vangje, Vardha, Vroth, Vista, Zhaneta, Zina, Zafire, Zagrija, Zak.25 24

M.B.Mc.Guire…p. 139. Arkivi Qendror Shqiptar, Fondi No 113/1 ,1892-1908,Albanian Central Archive,,Fond No113/1, Register Daimi and Jokllama, 1892-1908. 25

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 155


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

By analyzing the whole list of the names of the orthodox faith, we notice a few occurrences: the variety of these names was much smaller than that of the Islamic faith names; there were only 234 names. Their frequency of use was more stable than that of the Muslim names. The following table presents some of the most commonly used names of orthodox faith in different years.

8

4

7

-

41

9

7

5

-

4

Kostandin

1

8

8

4

4

5

Marie

6

2

2

7

3

2

5

5

8

4

9

2 3

1907

3

Jovan

1906

Dhimiter

3

1905

2

1904

-

1903

1

1902

2

1901

1896

9

1900

1895

2

1899

1894

Anastas

1898

1893

1

1897

Names to orthodox religion

1892

Table 3. Names belonging to orthodox religion

3

-

3

7

-

11

5

9

14

-

2

2

4

4

8

8

8

2

2

-

7

5

5

7

7

16

11

8

2

10

6

17

6

6

8

18

5

2

2

-

2

3

3

3

-

7

8

6

Mihal

3

2

2

3

1

4

4

1

3

-

3

3

4

3

2

11

7

Nikoll

6

5

5

3

1

10

11

2

7

-

4

12

4

2

8

11

8

Spiro

1

2

6

4

--

5

2

-

8

-

2

5

4

1

4

6

9

Vasil

7

1

6

4

4

6

2

2

-

3

6

4

3

6

5

In some cases they were less frequently used than the Muslim names. The Orthodox population, about 80 % of them, lived mostly in such neighborhoods as Kala, Shen Koll, Haxhijas and Sapuni, the rest of population was Muslim. There were 300 Orthodox households in Kala neighborhood, 17 households in Haxhijas, 1 in Kule neighborhood, 3 households in Qevan Bej, 7 in Perven Aga, 2 in Sulejmanie, 83 in Sapuni, 116 in Shen Koll, 5 in Xhami i Qebir, 1 in Karaveli, 5 in Spahikorre, 4 in Baba Ogllu and 2 in Hamam i Atik.26

1893

1894

1895

1896

1897

1898

1899

1900

1900-01

1901-02

1903

1903-04

1904-05

1905-06

1907-08

Total

1

Neighborhoods Kala

1892

Table 4. Neighborhoods with households of orthodox faith

17

29

32

5

1

32

19

5

4

-

30

29

17

18

21

41

300

2

Shen Koll

1

1

4

5

-

10

9

3

4

9

12

14

14

3

11

16

116

3

Sapuni

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

9

12

14

14

3

11

16

80

4

Haxhijas

-

2

1

1

-

3

2

3

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

14

The above data show that the orthodox households mostly lived in three or four neighborhoods. In order to have a clearer picture of the number of these families in time, we referred to the data given by the registers, where these people recorded their transactions.

26

Ibid.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 156


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

In the above table there are only some neighborhoods where the orthodox population dominated. In fact in Elbasan the orthodox population lived all over the city. Therefore, the following table presents the activities of the population of both beliefs in time and space. In 1892 out of 118—20 or 17% were households of orthodox belief In 1893 out of 200—37 or 19% were orthodox In 1894 out of 148—40 or 27% were orthodox In 1895 out of 125—16 or 13% were orthodox In 1896 out of 26—1 or 14% were orthodox In 1897 out of 203—48 or 25% were orthodox In 1898 out of 167—33 or 15% were orthodox In 1899 out of 121—12 or 11% were orthodox In 1900 out of 126—12 or 10% were orthodox In 1900-01 out of 141—22 or 16% were orthodox In 1901-02 out of 224—59 or 26% were orthodox In 1903 out of 170—57 or 4% were orthodox In 1904 out of 115—45 or 39% were orthodox In 1904-05 out of 199—25 or 13% were orthodox In 1905-07 out of 190—43 or 33% were orthodox In 1907-08 out of 341—73 or 20% were orthodox Based on the above data, although not complete, we can conclude that during the end of the 19th20th century, the orthodox families comprised only 18 percent of the population. This ratio of beliefs in the city population was created during centuries. Although orthodoxy existed much more early than Islam belief, it is even believed to be of the apostolic times,27 it could not resist its shrinkage due to the spread of Islamic faith. 6. Conclusions By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the Elbasan population was almost entirely converted to Islam. This process, in a more organized way, began during the Ottoman occupation. This process was due to various economic, social and psychological factors. The Ottoman registers of 1892-1908 suggest that the 80% of population was converted to Islam. This illustrates through the names of people. The population of Islamic faith was located in some specific neighborhoods. Inside each family, the life style was dominated by the Islamic traditions. One of the consequences of Islamizing process is the use of Islamic anthroponomy.

27

Qiriazi, Dh Krishterimi ne Shqiperi, Christiany in Albania,Tirana 200, p.5.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 157


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Victimization of Albanian Female Deprived of Liberty by the State Apparatus and Social Mentality During the Monist and Pluralist System in the Republic of Albania Florim Salihu

Research paper

Victimology Keywords: Albanian Females/Women, Communist Dictatorship, monstrous treatment, suffer, imprison, internment, murder, state, society etc.

European University of Tirana, Faculty of Law, Tirana, Albania

Abstract The following paper treats the situation in which the Albanian women have experienced during the period of Communism Dictatorship, their monstrous treatment by the investigation, their sufferance in the internment and detention centers. Also, this paper tackles as well as the manner of collective sentences in the Monist Albania, so the manner how the woman experienced when her husband or someone kin were sentenced to jail. Special attention is paid to the treatment and abuse of the Albanian woman after being imprisoned and the obstacles for their reintegration in the society. In the same line are treated the worst situation of women and females that are facing problems with law, their victimization by the society and by the state and at the end of this paper it is treated the phenomena of females murdering in Albania during the period of transition.

Introduction Albania, which in 2012 turns a century of being a state, is a society which has experienced several shifts of social systems and governments, but the Communist system turned into a dictatorship one ruled for nearly five decades in the Republic of Albania. It violated the human rights through loss of personality comparable to medieval inquisition! Persons deprived of liberty in the Republic of Albania were those who suffered the most the burden of the communism dictatorship. Among them were wives of the detainees and prisoners who suffered the most inhuman persecute possible forms. During the communism period, women experienced all forms of victimization such as exile, detain, imprisonment and loss of life in prisons. The role of women in Albanian society has been crucial for the survival of the Albanian nation, facing unprecedented sacrifices in the history of this nation. With introduction of communism system in Albania, Albanian women, interned and deprived of their liberty, were the most affected through applying inhuman methods by the communist serpents. The burden of dictatorship which weighed on women over a half of century in Albania is one of many crimes and insolences of the communist dictatorship. This reality of Albania Communism does not coincide with the true spirit of Albania, after Albanian people are recognized as a human nation particularly with approach against women, but such crimes were the product of an unbridled imagination of a criminal group that unfortunately had a great impact for a long time.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 158


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

In this peace of work the victimization forms of women deprived of liberty in the Republic of Albania by the communist regime and democratic Albania will be discussed. The society approach against to these victims and difficulties they face to reintegrate into the society will also be subject of this paper. Thus, this paper addresses fundamental issues where the females deprived of liberty have experienced through the Communism period and the continuation of a state and social mentality in Democratic Albania though in other structure and dimension. Drawing comparison parallels of women deprived of liberty have been treated during the communist and democratic system how, therefore the main purpose of this paper is to discuss how the bitter past that women deprived of their liberty experienced in Albania communist may have influence in improving the women’s’ treatment in actual system. Being aware that this paper is quite modest in comparison with Albanian women anguish in Communism prison cells in Albania and the challenges that follow females in Albania's transition, however this topic could play a key role in sparking a light in motivation for suture research in this field and it is certainly could be considered very much important for the society indeed. Victimization forms of women deprived of their liberty in Communist Albania With introduction of communism in Albania, the violation of freedoms and human rights was the basic principle of state power of the Communist Party. Many Albanian intellectuals who had studied at Turkish universities and across the Western countries, with their return to homeland had achieved to embed a humanistic spirit in the penitentiary system of the Republic of Albania. Nevertheless, everything was upside down when into the power came Communist Dragon which for nearly a half century denied even its Creator. For the sake of the truth it should be pointed out that at the beginning of the installation of communism in Albania in which there was the spirit of liberation of the country and in the penal legislation, there were also included the most important international clause acts regarding respect of freedoms and human rights. Under the Penal Code of 1952 of the Republic of Albania, section 2 it is stated that “None can not be sentenced regarding one’s actions that are not predicted as crimes accordning to the given laws”, well known principle of classic school of the penal right (lat. nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege). Also, such very important principle for the law is sanctioned in Universal Declaration of human rights. Despite the fact that such acts and principles of justice are not respected by the communist dictatorship, in one form or another they were accepted at first, but after the 1960's, a devastating hurricane of the justice system was launched suppressing even the most basic of human rights. In 1966, under the decision of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, the Ministry of Justice and the Ombudsman (defendant) Institution was suppressed arguing that the party in power is more worthy than any other institution in applying the justice. Beginning this year all judgment procedures were conducted without counsel. This was a strong hit against justice and protection of human rights.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 159


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

The best argument regarding this issue is that during the communist regime over 6,000 people were executed by the dictatorship in Albanian in prison cells and the main goal of this tragedy was holding power of the communist elite, sowing fear and terror to their people. First step towards victimization of women in Communist Albania began with the imprisonment of any member of their families, mostly mans. Woman is considered a passive victim of the system and starting from this time, persecution and mistreatment of a family was associated with arresting of only single family member. However, state discrimination continued where in most cases except of imprisoning the head of family, the whole family was subject of persecution as they were interned in different regions across Albania and living in difficult conditions. They were also labelled in worst manners by the local people and the main burden weighed on woman since she takes care for the family. The data given below show that the number of women interned in Albania during the communist dictatorship was very large. According to the statistical data this number reaches at 9190 women who were interned by the communist power1. The most terrific fact is that almost all were political victims, so there were not ordinary crimes carried out, but for "crimes" of a communist schizophrenic imagination. Most of the accusations in Communist Albania are similar in terms of their content. The accused person is usually considered an enemy, while the accusation was based on an unbridled imagination of an investigator or prosecutor who typically accuse the defendant of the propaganda and agitation, where in an easily manner they were used to confirm plea by the judge. Arrested and prisoner women went through inhuman torture by the communist "investigators", where in this context non human treatment came towards them. Only for political reasons during the dictatorship period nearly ten thousand women suffered by the communist government. The way of suffering of these innocent creatures was associated with very serious consequences. The following table reflects the number of women executed, exiled, imprisoned, deported, mentally sick and died in prison. All of them were politically accused by the communist regime. Categories

Executed

Prisoners

Interned

Sick minded

Died in prison

Banished

Total

Total

90

430

9190

35

6

27

9776

Discriminated women suffering from power continued even after the effects of sentence, being constantly victimized in various forms and methods. In addition to prison suffering, the other sophisticated and cruel form was applied against women after their release. They were deprived from the right of education, employment, to choose their occupation and so forth. Nevertheless, the other heavy form of discrimination was the distancing the rest of society from these victims of the regime. Even going so far, the relatives of victimsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; family distanced themselves from them as there was a fear of punishment which occurred quite often by the

1

Albanian Centre of Rehabilitation of Trauma and Torture, Politically persecuted women over the dicatatorship comunism period, Tirana., 2006, pg.12 Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 160


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

communist regime. This regime went so far as to separate mother from son, sister from brother, husband from wife, grandmother from grandchild, and so on. The final form of victimization of these victims was their great hope with the introduction of democracy in Albania. Disappointment was as great as their expectations. The new democratic government unjustly put their suffer of these victims in the drawer of oblivion. Detention by the Communist regime, violation to educate and freely chose their occupation, difficult living conditions, with the advent of democracy in Albania, these innocent beings once again were put in an unequal position in the society. New state and democratic society does not make special attempts for these victims, but a formal pension which in most cases was not even enough to purchase medical drugs. Society and state are obliged to ensure welfare for its population and it can not be met with a verbal recognition and electoral rhetoric but with concrete actions of state and of all the society. Forms of victimization of women deprived of their liberty in Democratic Albania Forms of victimization of women deprived of their liberty in Albanian transition period are extremely opposite from the communist regime as well as the methods and the purpose. In communism the conviction was with political purpose only, while in democracy one can not encounter such forms, but mostly in problems of an administrative nature. Regarding methods of victimization, they are incomparable because the communist regime can be compared only with the medieval period. Women deprived of their liberty in the Republic of Albania faced with many problems, ranging from the moment of arrest and continued after serving the sentence. It is very worrying fact that none of the police stations in Albania were use to have separate rooms for women detainees. Also, there was a shortage of female staff in the police force for treatment of detained and arrested women. For a long time in Albania, double standards against the detention system were applied; some detention centres had been dependent on the Ministry of Interior Affairs, while the rest of them under the Ministry of Justice. Reports from organizations which have closely monitored the prison system in Albania show that in the detention centres under the Ministry of Interior Affairs, the personnel were male; there were no female security personnel for treatment of arrested women2. Such situation is completely against the law; it is also morally unacceptable for victims, their families as well as for the society. Living allowance in detention centres and prisons were too much unpleasant. It is very worrying fact that throughout the territory of Albania there is only one detention centre for women and it is located in Tirana. Given the difficult economic situation of these women and their families, this negatively circumstance affects their mobilization for a decent safeguards. Referring to some reports which have been obtained through a survey of imprisoned women in Albania show that 64.4% of respondents were not able to meet with an attorney due to 2

Albanian Committee of Helsinki, Taking into Consideration of Human Rights in Detain Centres, Tirana, 2007., pg.44

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 161


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

financial issues, while 8.2% of women who have had the chance to meet with a lawyer stated that such meetings were performed in the presence of a companion (Policeman) and their conversation was recorded. Such action is illegal because meetings with counsel may be observed, but never recorded. Also, 16.6% state that they were subject of a penalty by the authority under their inhuman tortures primarily for the purpose of obtaining the information. What it makes more reliable in this report is that from the survey of 40 prison staff women, 27.3% reported that they were aware of the use of torture in their institution3. Considering the fact that Albania has accepted and ratified all the International Treaty Acts referring to freedoms and human rights, therefore such actions are illegal and in contravention with all of such International Acts. In this research, in the detention centre in Tirana called "Jordan Misja" has been encountered a very specific characteristic. Most of the women said to be judged were accused of commit a murder, particularly they were accused for murder of their spouse. From thirty-seven detained women in Albania (in 2007), nine of those were accused of murder, mostly as murders of their spouse4. Women accused by the state apparatus declare that psychological and physical violence by the law enforcement and justice has been systematically performed against them. Such state instruments did not manage their duty in protection of citizen rights. Police force and investigation mechanism following complaints of these women abused by their spouses recommend closing down these cases As a result of state neglecting some of these victims receive "justice" in their hands ending up hopelessly. Due to such phenomenon, Prime Minister of Albania, on 29 December 2010, requires that through the law to deny the forgiveness of those who impose violence in their families, particularly to women, with intention not to benefit from the given pardon in the end of the year or during the various celebrations5. To a certain extent this is a reasonable step, but not enough to protect victims from violence in families in which due the lack of support from the state and society "justice" it is offered through weapons. Lack of state and social justice in relation to women who are serving a sentence in Albania is a continuing process. Given the fact that some of these women are accused of murder, they unjustly are deprived of their right to meet with their children and this barrier mainly comes from the husband's relatives, who revenge against these women in denying the crucial human rights. In such cases we have a flagrant violation of freedoms and human rights because such actions are not based on law and there is no court decision which deprives them from this right, but these actions are performed by using the lack of law enforcement in the country and situation in which these victims are standing to. After serving the sentence and gave freedom, this category again struggled with different problems, and the state is almost indifferent in relation to their concerns. Social conservative mentality in the field of financial issues, lack of family support and state welfare against these

3

Albanian Centre for Rehabilitaiton of Trauma and Torture, Abanian Prisons, a special analyze, QRSHT edition., Tirana 2007., pg.47 4 These data have been taken from the “Jordan Misja” Detain Centre, Tirana. 5 “Top News” report from one of the national Television channels of Albania, 29 December 2010 (11:00 pm) Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 162


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

victims after serving their sentence are key factors that have extremely influence and make resocialisation difficult for this group of the society. Responsible bodies of state power and society have a moral and legal obligation to treat in the most dignified way these women who are politically victimized by the communist regime; ultimately these were victims belong to a democratic society. Albania, on the other side, now is a pluralistic system that is obliged by national laws and with the most important international acts to protect and provide legal safety to all citizens regardless of gender. Victimization of woman by the social Albanian mentality and the negligence of the state apparatuses. Albania, which in 2012 celebrated the 100th anniversary of statehood, is a state and society, which leaves much to be desired in protecting the lives of citizens and respect for his rights. But fewer categories protected by state and more vulnerable to social mentality is Albanian women. Albanian woman standing democratized Albania is very serious. This is proved by the fact that in 2012 in Albania were killed in the most inhumane 27 females and women6. This statistic is quite negative indicator for the state and the Albanian society. For more than 40 years of dictatorship in Albania have been executed more than 90 women by the state apparatus, while in 2012 so barbaric have been executed 27 women and females from society, from their relatives, an absolute majority of their family. Reference data on women deprived of their liberty, which have fallen against the law can be seen clearly that the majority of women suffer punishment and charged for the murder of husbands. So here can be seen the state and society's inability to offer them adequate protection in this category, forcing either to become criminals or becoming victims The list with the names of the females and women that have been killed in Albania during 20127. Name and surname

Date the year of the crime conducted

Mother with children

Relationship of the victim with perpatrators

Eleni Basho Megi Jokiçi Naime Abazi Arze Biba Lule Cara Lahe Sina Shqiponja Miza Rajmaonda Sota Thëllënza Lelaj Marie Çuku Alma Gjata Dane Prendi Pranvera Muslika Manjola Koxhaj Marjanë Bregu

on 2 February 2012 on 2 February 2012 on 3 March 2012 on 11 March 2012 on 22 March 2012 on 11 April 2012 on 27 April 2012 on 11 May 2012 on 31 May 2012 on 14 June 2012 on 4 July 2012 on 14 July 2012 on 28 July 2012 on 2 August 2012 on 1 August 2012

2 children

Suspect- Husband NN Husband Husband By accident, brother and father Husband Brother Husband Husband Revenge, neighbour of the victim Husband Brother Husband Husband Father

6 7

4 children 4 children

2 children 1 child 3 children 2 children

http//www.poltitizen.com http//www.panorama.com

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 163


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179 Fatbardha Tafaj Fatjona Sula Miranda Shtjefani Eliverta Çoçka Rolanda Doku Ajshe Vata Lime Dedaj Azbie Myftari Vergjinushe Hasani Manushaqe Qeliku Ahsinije Krytha One is missing

on 7 August 2012 on 12 September 2012 on 24 Septemebr 2012 on 30 Septemebr 2012 on 6 October 2012 on 11 October 2012 on 19 October 2012 on 26 October 2012 on 12 September 2012 on 10 December 2012 on 12 December 2012

Research paper 2 children 2 children 1 children 1 child Pregnant

1 child 2 children-pregant 2 children

Robber Boyfriend Neighbour Boyfriend Husband By a pedofile, her abuser Husband Co villager Husband Husband NN

The data presented in this table show clearly the gravity of the situation in which Albanian women and for the failure of the state and society for their protection. So domestic violence is a challenge of modern societies, and this phenomenon is open to challenge society and country alike. Referring to the report the victims and perpetrators of crime, can be seen clearly that these crimes are mostly wives of the victims or their close family members. Here emerges the failure of the state and society who have not been able to offer you support victims. Factors which lead to the growth of this phenomenon are numerous, but the main ones are: - The patriarchal family, - Weak economy, - Unemployment, in particular women, - Poverty, - Economic dependence of women - Culture for non-punishment of those who kill women and minimum penalties. This is proved by the fact when a father kills his daughter and for this father sentenced to 17 months in prison, while the court refers to the Kanun of Lek Dukagjini8. So this is a stimulating case where the state is through crime stimulant factor punitive policies inadequate to perpetrators of these crimes. Therefore, reference to the above mentioned problems, is human and humane obligation of the society, the social environment and families to provide adequate assistance categories threatened by the possibility of being a victim of this category. Just as it is constitutional and legal obligation of state authorities to provide adequate legal protection you these victims. So is the last time that the state and society reflected and to provide these victims deserved protection, as it has an obligation to punish so merit the perpetrators of these crimes.

8

http//www.politizen.com

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 164


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

References 1. Albanian Centre of Rehabilitation of Trauma and Torture, Politically persecuted women over the dicatatorship comunism period, Tirana., 2006, pg.12 2. Albanian Committee of Helsinki, Taking into Consideration of Human Rights in Detain Centres, Tirana, 2007., pg.44 3. Albanian Centre for Rehabilitaiton of Trauma and Torture, Abanian Prisons, a special analyze, QRSHT edition., Tirana 2007., pg.47 4. These data have been taken from the “Jordan Misja” Detain Centre, Tirana. 5. “Top News” report from one of the national Television channels of Albania, 29 December 2010 (11:00 pm) Internet sites 1. http//www.poltitizen.com 2. http//www.panorama.com 3. http//www.politizen.com

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 165


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Violence Against Women and Ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence by the Republic of Albania

Law Keywords: convention, prevention, violence, woman, child, measures against violence, Criminal Law/Code, criminal sentences (convictions), ratification, etc.

Nejla Peka

Legal Officer with the Prime Minister’s Office Department of Legislation and Coordination and JCD in Public Law

Dritan Peka

Prosecutor with the Tirana District Prosecutor’s Office of Appeals

Abstract Nowadays, violence against women knows no boundaries. Every day, around the world, one out of three women, according to the statistics, is violated. Violence against women (and girls) is a human rights violation occurring globally. It includes rape, domestic violence, women being beaten and killed by their husband, women victims of human trafficking and more. The United Nations defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.” Violence against women has several forms of manifestation, out of which the ones that are mostly encountered by are violence exerted by the partner/husband/spouse and sexual violence. Historically, violence against women is a manifestation of unequal relations between women and men, which have led to domination over, and discrimination against, women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women. Women and girls are often exposed to serious forms of violence such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, forced marriage, crimes committed in the name of so‐called “Honour” and genital mutilation, which constitute a serious violation of the human rights, especially of women and girls. This is an obstacle to the achievement of equality between women and men.

Introduction Nowadays, violence against women knows no boundaries. Every day, around the world, one out of three women, according to the statistics, is violated. Violence against women (and girls) is a human rights violation occurring globally. It includes rape, domestic violence, women being beaten and killed by their husband, women victims of human trafficking and more. The United Nations defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life.” Violence against women has several forms of manifestation, out of which the ones that are mostly encountered by are violence exerted by the partner/husband/spouse and sexual violence1.

1

Violence exerted by the partner/husband/spouse, shall be referred to the behaviour of a partner or expartner/husband/spouse, causing physical injuries, sexual, psychological, including physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and possessive behaviour. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 166


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Historically, violence against women is a manifestation of unequal relations between women and men, which have led to domination over, and discrimination against, women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women. Women and girls are often exposed to serious forms of violence such as domestic violence, sexual harassment, rape, forced marriage, crimes committed in the name of so‐called “Honour” and genital mutilation, which constitute a serious violation of the human rights, especially of women and girls. This is an obstacle to the achievement of equality between women and men.

1. Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence is adopted in principle2 by the Albanian Government and is therefore signed in Strasburg3. It is also ratified by the Assembly of the Republic of Albania by Law No. 104/20124. Violence against women, including domestic violence, is one of the most serious forms of genderbased violation of human rights. Despite positive achievements in policy-making and current practice, violence, in its various forms of expression, remains spread in all levels of the society across all European Council Member States. The drafting of a special Convention on violence against women and domestic violence is considered by the Council of Europe a legal instrument in preventing and combating domestic violence and other types of violence against women, protection and support of victims of such violence as well as for the punishment of perpetrators, as a step forward to demonstrating a greater respect for fundamental rights of women. The Convention, in its preamble reaffirms all the principles and freedoms provided for in the key international acts on human rights, such as in the ones of the Council of Europe and the United Nations Organization. In this context, it is quite understandable that the existence of this Convention reconfirms the fact that the creation of a Europe without violence against women and without domestic violence, is one of the priorities in the policies pursued by the EU, focusing in particular on the women and girls with special needs, whom often are the most vulnerable category threatened by violence and all its forms, either in or outside the family.

Sexual violence shall mean any sexual act, in the attempt to conduct sexual intercourse against will, or any other sexual act against an individual, by use of coercion, violence, force or power on the part of any person, regardless of the relation with the victim, at any environment. 2 Adopted by Decision No.723, date 20.10.2011, of the Council of Ministers “On the adoption in principal of Convention “On preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.” 3 Signed on 18 December 2011, by the Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities. 4 Official Gazette No.151, date of adoption 8.11.2012, pg.8246. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 167


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

1.1. Purpose, objective and general obligations The main purpose of the Convention shall be to protect women against all forms of violence, and prevent, prosecute and eliminate violence against women and domestic violence. Whereas the objective of the Convention is to apply to all victims of domestic violence, in particular to the category of women which suffer the most from all forms of violence. The provisions of the Convention shall be applied without any type of prejudice/discrimination, while all the Parties shall be required to take all the necessary legislative measures to promote and protect the right of anyone, in particular women, so that they can live without violence, physical and psychological, both in public and private life. Also, taking special measures on the part of the state to protect women from violence shall not be considered a form of discrimination, thus complying with the conditions of the Convention. 1.2. Integrated policies and collection of data The structure of this convention is similar to almost all other Conventions: -

Prevention; Protection; Punishment/conviction.

The new thing about this Convention is the great importance it gives to policies of gender equity/equality5. The Parties shall also be required to implement effective policies, by means of an interinstitutional and all-inclusive cooperation among all the actors and factors, in particular the legislative, executive, non-profit organization (OJF), etc.6. Simultaneously, the collection of separate data and the establishment of a “data base”, as per gender and the research conducted in the area of violence against women, shall be considered a key element for the policy-makers. The process for the implementation of integrated policies and collection of data, also involves the importance to address the importance of the collection of such data, in an orderly and comparative manner, on all types of violence against women, as mentioned by this Convention.

5

The Parties, by means of this Convention, should encourage and effectively implement policies of equality among men and women, with the purpose of empowering the latter. 6 This means that the Parties must acquire sufficient funds and financial resources, necessary to realize policies and programmes that in return shall be of assistance to women. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 168


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Prevention Prevention of violence against women and domestic violence is one of the key measures that the Parties must take under this Convention, with the purpose of making the public aware, in overcoming gender stereotypes and raising such awareness as a result. By means of the provisions of the Convention, the Parties shall be called upon to take all the necessary legislative measures in preventing violence, to take measures in encouraging and promoting changes to the social and cultural models in the behaviour/conduct of both women and men, to conduct campaigns or awareness raising programmes in an orderly fashion and at all levels, in particular in cooperation with the civil society and international organizations. As a matter of fact, among the most important actors in implementing these measures stands the central and local governance that must prioritize the rights of all victims of violence, but in particular, as per their specifics and needs, the individuals without protection, due to their peculiar circumstances7. In this regard, the Convention gives a crucial importance to the promotion of gender equity, mutual respect in inter-personal relations and against violence, by paying great importance to the role of the system of education and education. On the other hand, in order to obtain the proper impact in implementing the measure of prevention of violence against women, the preparation of appropriate training programs for professionals is also important, as one of the key elements in implementing such measure. Also the preparation of training programmes and their monitoring in an orderly fashion is important in achieving fruitful results in promoting prevention of violence, under this Convention8. Protection and support Another measure of importance, which receives specific attention under the Convention, is protection and support. The Convention contains a range of obligations to establish more general and specialized services, in order to fulfil the needs of the individuals exposed to violence. Under the Convention, these services, in compliance with international principles, must ensure a better inter-institutional cooperation and coordination, among many state institutions, at central and local governance level as well as the bodies of the judiciary such as: the prosecutor’s office, the courts and the fruitful cooperation of such institutions with the non-profit organizations (NPO’s) that operate in the area of protection of women victims of violence, etc. the parties must provide service to all women/girls victims of violence, and their children, also victims of violence9.

7

Women, children, individuals with special needs and individuals under legal custody/guardian form part of the category of individuals without protection, due to the peculiar circumstances. 8 In training programs, the Parties shall focus on preparing these programs to also suit individuals that have exerted violence, in particular those who have committed sexual crimes, and therefore involve them in rehabilitation programs. 9 Among the specialized services the following can be mentioned: help/assistance phone lines, shelters, specialized services providing medical and psychological assistance, in particular to those that have suffered from sexual violence, etc. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 169


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Rights and obligations Along measures suggested under the Convention, the Parties under this Convention have the obligation to take the necessary legislative steps, in order to ensure protection of victims, either in civil or criminal proceeding10, compensations for the harm inflicted onto the victim, etc. Of special importance under this Convention are the measures that the Parties must take in relation to the crimes committed under the so-called “Honour”. Investigation, prosecution, procedural law and protective measures One of the obligations of the state Parties, as set forth under this Convention, is the necessity to take the necessary legislative or other measures with the scope that the investigations and judicial proceedings in relation to all forms of violence covered by the scope of this Convention, shall take into consideration the rights of the victim at all stages of criminal proceedings.11 In these cases, the trial is conducted behind closed doors, with the scope to ensure the privacy of the victim, in order to avoid any type of moral or psychological harm that may be inflicted. In one of the chapters of the Convention12, a special attention is paid to regulating the particular relations of the victims of violence and the identification of the person that inflicted violence, his/her status, place of residence, etc. 13. 2. International cooperation One of the general principles set forth under the Convention14 is the necessity for regional and international cooperation, at addressing the matters in question, either in the field of civil or criminal law. Such cooperation shall be intended at: a) preventing, combating and prosecuting all forms of violence covered by the scope of this Convention; b) protecting and providing assistance to victims; c) investigations or proceedings concerning the offences established in accordance with this Convention; 10

For example, in cases when the Court issues a protection order for a violated woman, the specialized state bodies, such as the bailiff office is mandated to monitor the implementation of such an order. 11 For example, a child who is a victim and a witness of violence against women and domestic violence shall be provided, when appropriate, special protection measures, looking after the best interest of the child, by ensuring both necessary legal and psychological assistance free of charge, in compliance with the national legislation in force/in place. 12 For more information, see chapter VII on “Migration and asylum”. 13 Here the resolution of the case and support provided to the victim has to do with the residence and status of the spouse or the partner in cases the marriage or the relationship is therefore dissolved. It also provides for a solution and addressing of demands for gender based asylum, for protection of refugees, etc. 14 Chapter VIII of the Convention mentioned a great deal of international cooperation. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 170


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

d) enforcing relevant civil and criminal judgments issued by the judicial authorities of Parties, including protection orders. 2.1. Monitoring mechanisms For the monitoring of this Convention, a group of experts referred to as “Group of Experts” shall be established on actions/measures against violence against women and domestic violence – hereinafter referred to as GREVIO. GREVIO shall be composed of a minimum of 10 members and a maximum of 15 members, taking into account a gender and geographical balance, as well as multidisciplinary expertise. Alongside such organization, it is also foreseen that for the implementation of Article 30 of the Convention, it is necessary to adopt respective legal acts and by-laws, under which “Adequate State compensation” should be established, in urgent cases as well as in cases when the perpetrator is reluctant to or is not able to respond. Therefore, it requires the provision of compensation orders to victims of violence, in accordance with Article 44 of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as well as the legislation in force15. Conclusions The establishment/drafting of a modern and contemporary legislation that responds to the current needs and developments is an initiative that deserves to be acknowledged by. As a matter of fact, with reference to the domestic law in our country, we can say that the current legislation is adequate, drafted in accordance with all the obligations and commitments to our international partners, in the framework of the major processes we as a country are part of, such as the EU integration process. But, the lack of implementation in practice of these laws deserved to be noted. Therefore, in relation to improving/amending the legislation in accordance with the requirements of the Convention, it is worth mentioning the initiative taken by the institutions applying the Convention, in order to include & classify domestic violence in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, as a criminal offence as well as increase criminal convictions for offences related to domestic violence16. Following the amendments to the Criminal Code, there have also been additions, which mostly relate to domestic violence, including violence against children, deprivation of parental

15

Law No.9669, date 18.12.2006 “On measures against domestic violence”. By-laws may be adopted by the Council of Ministers up to 6 months following the ratification of the Convention. 16 These amendments were adopted by the Assembly of the Republic of Albania in February 2012, namely Law No. 23/2012 “On several additions and amendments to Law No.7895, date 27.1.1995 “Criminal Code/Law of the Republic of Albania”, as amended”, whereby domestic violence is sanctioned as a criminal offence (Article 130/a). Actions such as beating, serious murder threat or serious injury, intentional injury against family related individuals, closed family relations or in-law relations, etc., shall be sentenced to an imprisonment term of 2-5 years. In cases of repetition of such offences, they shall be sentenced from 1 up to 5 years of imprisonment. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 171


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

custody/responsibility17, safety period/term18, persecution19, as well as the sentence against physical or psychological abuse against minors on the part of parents, siblings, grandparents, legal custodian or any other person that is obliged to be in custody of children20. The impact following the entry into force of these legal amendments to the law were immediate in prosecuting the perpetrators of such criminal offences. Despite the short period of time, there have been several prosecutions of this type, which have been prioritized due to the sanctions set forth under the provisions. It cannot me said that it has had a direct impact in the overall prevention of such criminal offence, but it can be clearly noticed that there is a change in the way this criminal offence is being handled. This can also be noticed in the security measures imposed against the perpetrators of such criminal offence, generally imposing the extreme measure of – “Detention”21. Whereas in the absence of this provision (Article 130/a), domestic violence was handled as per Articles 84, 89 and 9022, of the Criminal Code. Under these provisions, considering the sanctions were reduced ones, the measure of “detention” could therefore not have been imposed, and the perpetrators, under no circumstances would suffer detention as a result of having committed domestic violence.

17

Article 43/a, which sets forth that the measure of deprivation from parental custody/responsibility shall be issued by the Court against the persons exercising parental custody/responsibility, in cases he/she is sentenced as a perpetrator or accomplice in a criminal offence against the child or as accomplice with the child in committing a criminal offence. 18 Article 65/a, the Court, in issuing an order, may decide on setting a safety period…in cases of one of these circumstances: “….when the offence is committed against children, pregnant women or individuals that, due to various reasons, cannot be protected…” 19 Article 121/a, which sets forth that Persecution, threat or harassment of an individual by means of repetitive/repeated actions, with the scope of inflicting a constant and severe state of anxiety …..in cases this offence is committed by the former spouse, former partner or the person that was spiritually related to the injured, the sentence shall be enhanced by 1/3 of the sentence imposed... In cases when this offence is committed against the minor, pregnant woman or an individual that is unable to be protected against, as well as in cases when the offence is committed by a masked person or in either in the possession or use of weapons, the sentence shall be increased up to ½ of the sentence already imposed." 20 The amendment of paragraph one of Article 124/b, of the Criminal Code, provides for an imprisonment sentence from three months up to two years, against any person that inflicts physical or psychological abuse to minors. 21 Decision No. 82, date 1.02.2013, by act No. 471, case “B.B”, by the charge of “Domestic violence”, on the legal grounds of Article 130/a/1, in which case the Tirana District Court, by decision No.1068, act of date 23.09.2012, assessed as legal the detention and as a result imposed against the suspected B.B, the measure of “Detention”, as set forth under Articles 238 of the Criminal Procedure Code, the Court, under Articles 190, 379, 384, 390, 406, 485 of the Criminal Procedure Code, decided to find defendant B.B, guilty of having committed the criminal offence of “Domestic violence”, as provided for under Article 130/a/3 of the Criminal Code and therefore imposed the imprisonment sentence of 1 (one) year. 22 Decision No.213, date 18.02.2010, by act No. 534, in which case the Tirana District Court, as per Article 379 and 390 of the Criminal Procedure Code, decided to find defendant Z. S, guilty of having committed the criminal offence as set forth under Articles 84, 90 and 320, of the Criminal Code, and therefore impose the measure of fine. The defendant, despite being under a restraining order issued by the Court, he has breached it not only by contacting the injured party, but also by inflicting physical and psychological violence against. Under these circumstances, the defendant has therefore committed the criminal offence of obstructing the execution of the decision of the Court, as set forth under Article 320, of the Criminal Code. Although in this case, in the absence of the provision (Article 130/a), the defendant was sanctioned by a fine.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 172


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Therefore, ratification of this Convention on the part of the Republic of Albania is an important step toward the protection and respect of human rights, in particular toward the protection of women victims of violence, and therefore prevention of this phenomenon as well as toward combating domestic violence. References 1. Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence; 2. Law No. 104/2012, on the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence; 3. Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania; 4. Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Albania; 5. Law No. 23/2012 on some amendments to Law No. 7895, date 27.1.1995 Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania; 6. United Nations Declaration (UNO), No. 48/108, of 20 December 1993, On the elimination of violence against women; 7. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Links: www.icrw.org www.amnestyusa.org

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 173


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Characterisation of Some Cultivars of Winter Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) in Agro-Ecological Condition of Kosovo

Agriculture Keywords: Winter barley, 1000 seed weight, hectoliter weight, yield.

Nexhdet Shala

Beer factory Sh. A.”Birra Peja”

Bakir Kelmendi

Institute of Agriculture, Peja, Kosova

Ismajl Cacaj

Institute of Agriculture, Peja, Kosova

Abstract The object of study is the characterization of some winter barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare), originating from Croatia. The survey included a total of 6 cultivars of barley: Bingo, Zlatko, Vannes, Esterel, Barun and Rex as comparative. Obtained cultivars regarding research pertaining to winter barley two rowed. Investigations were carried out in two agro-climatic regions of Kosovo (in Arbnesh, in research farm of the agricultural institute of Kosovo, Peja Dukagjini Plain, and Pestova - Kosovo Plain, private property company "Pestova". Research tested yield ( kg / ha), the weight of 1000 seeds (gr.) hectoliter weight (kg), protein content (%), moisture (%), and Starch. The amount of protein in barley grain is one of the most important factors on which depend on the quality of beer production. In the amount of protein in barley grain with lots of variety characteristic, significantly influences the climate and agronomic factors of production, soil conditions during the vegetative season. Kosovo's agro-climatic and pedagogical data, compared with the yields obtained in the culture of winter barley show not using cultivated cultivars genetic potential to us. For this reason should be applied to a modern agro to exploit the genetic potential, and obtain higher yields. obtained results regarding showed that there were significant differences due to climatic conditions and different levels for all cultivars investigated traits involved in the plot compared to the standard (Rex) and between localities.

Introduction Barley (coarse hordeum) is one of the oldest agricultural crops, which is used primarily for human consumption, and is now used primarily for the production of malt in beer industry and animal nutrition. Barley in Kosovo, which crop planted every year to meet the necessary requirements for this crop producers to meet the requirements of high yielding quality producers and many other factor necessary for maltim as raw material for the production of beer, it is necessary the research of new cultivars in agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo [4], [10]. Kosovo has very good agroecological conditions for the cultivation of this crop. Changing the structure of the variety that has come as a result of planting varieties associated with different climatic conditions in Kosovo [15], [16]. In these circumstances it is important to conduct studies for the evaluation of different varieties of barley on the main characteristics that define the quantity and quality of production of beer [14], [1]. Survey of barley based on field and laboratory research. This research analyzed the Agricultural Institute of Kosovo and Sh. A. Birra Peja. The research included 6 Received cultivars from Croatia. The aim of the research is the cultivation of these varieties influence of external factors and environmental conditions, climate zones, soil, and factors that are affected depends on the person, for the application of agricultural techniques [13], [17]. From various studies it appears

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 174


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

that the main characteristics of manufacturing malt from barley seeds are protein content and their plant energy [10] [5]. The impact of these conditions will be studied in two climate zones in Pejaplane Dukagjini and Pestova Kosovo plane. Kosovo's agro-climatic and pedological data, compared with the yields obtained in the culture of barley indicate not to use genetic potential cultivars cultivated in [7]. For this reason should be applied to a modern agro to exploit the genetic potential, and obtain higher yields. Kosovo's agro-climatic and pedological data, compared with the yields obtained in the culture of barley show that the amount of reserves potentially barley that can be produced are large [9], [12]. Production potential of barley cultivars that are grown in our conditions is over 8 t / ha, while the use of this potential in the country's average level ranges (2.5 3.2 t / ha). Main factor for the reception of high yields of barley culture are improving varietal structure, new technologies, designed on the basis of the best achievements in scientific research studies and in the region. Materials and methods Research object are comparing 6 winter barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare) in agro-ecological conditions of the Republic of Kosovo. Investigations were made during the years 2011 and 2012. Cultivars: 1. Bingo 2. Vanesa 3. Zlatko 4. Rex 5. Esterel 6. Barun. The experiment was set according to the system block system with three replication in randomized [3], [8]. Each experimental plot area is 10 m2 (10 m length x 1 m width). Depth of planting 3 - 5 cm. between varieties will be left separating distance 30 cm and between iterations 50 cm. planting should be done with experimental car Hege 80. After planting will be held phonological records as the time of arrival of the main stages of development on the exit surface (agronomic sprung), brotherhood, Rise, charges, annealing milk, wax annealing, full annealing, biometric measurements, chemical analysis, analysis of state of sleep and energy plant power [6], [2]. All tests shall be made for each variety and for each of the ecological zones where you will be planting. Results and discussion After sowing of barley in plots immediately started tracking parameters such as density on 1 m length after 10 days in two areas of the plant shown in Table 1. Table1. Plant density in plots on day 10 (ten) after planting in two areas of 6 cultivars the year 2011 - 2012 Peja

Pestova

Density on 1 m length ( after 10 days)

Density on 1 m length( after 10days)

Bingo

79

78

Vanessa

83

82

Zllatko Rex

85 81

83 80

Esterel

81

79

Barun

82

81

Cultivars

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 175


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

On the day of 10 (ten) after planting in all varieties of barley is done to determine the density of plants in rows that counting three lines in length (3 X 1 meter) with random system [11]. Seen Zlatko variety has the largest number 85. ΄ 86

Pejë

Pestovë

84 82 80 78 76 74 Bingo

Vanessa

Zllatko

Rex

Esterel

Barun

Graph 1. Plant density in plots on day 10 (ten) after planting in two areas of 6 cultivars the year 2011 – 2012 The results achieved have presented in Table 2. Where we have put the number of seedlings of three replication. Regarding the number of seedlings (stalks) all cultivars were found positive differences. Barley cultivars the greatest number is found the cultivar Zlatko 8. Table 2. Number of seedlings (stalks) in two areas of 6 cultivars the year 2011-2012 Peja

Pestova

Number of seedlings (stalks) brotherhood

Number of seedlings (stalks) brotherhood

Bingo Vanessa

5 7

5 7

Zllatko

8

7

Rex Esterel Barun

6 6 7

5 5 6

Cultivars

8

Pejë

Pestovë

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Bingo

Vanessa

Zllatko

Rex

Esterel

Barun

Graph 2. Number of seedlings (stalks) in two areas of 6 cultivars the year 2011-2012

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 176


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Table 3. Plants density and height of the stalk in two areas of 6 cultivars Peja Cultivars

Pestova 2

Bingo

Density (m ) 480

Height stalk (cm) 79

Density (m2) 475

Height stalk (cm) 78

Vanessa

500

80

492

79

Zllatko

510

85

500

82

Rex

485

83

480

81

Esterel

480

78

475

77

Barun

490

73

485

72

Regarding the stem height of all cultivars of barley tested were found positive differences in relation to cultivars. Height of the stem is found to cultivar Zlatko 85 cm, while other varieties have been hanging somewhere in between. Density of plants per m2 is cultivar Zlatko 510. Table 4. Submission of development feno-phases day Feno-phases development day Cultivars

Localities

Planting

rise

increase

notification

flourishing

annealing

Bingo Vanessa

Peja Pestova Peja

03.11.2011 04.11.2011 03.11.2011

10 11 11

159 161 161

169 172 172

176 178 179

232 234 235

Pestova

04.11.2011

12

163

174

182

238

Zllatko

Peja

03.11.2011

10

160

170

178

233

Pestova

04.11.2011

11

163

173

180

235

Peja

03.11.2011

11

162

172

178

234

Pestova

04.11.2011

12

164

174

181

237

Peja

03.11.2011

12

165

175

182

236

Pestova

04.11.2011

13

167

177

184

241

Peja

03.11.2011

11

161

172

178

234

Pestova

04.11.2011

12

163

174

181

239

Rex

Esterel

Barun

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 177


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Table 5. Energy plant and plant-vegetation Pejë

Pestovë

Cultivars Bingo Vanessa Zllatko Rex Esterel Barun

Energy plant %

plant-vegetation %

Energy plant %

Plant-vegetation %

99 99 99 99 99 99

98 98 97 97 98 98

99 99 99 99 99 99

97 97 98 98 97 97

In Table 4 are presented results during the vegetation a day, while in Table 5 are shown the results of the vegetation energy and plant-vegetation. Table 6. Yield (kg) in two areas of the 6 cultivars Cultivars Bingo Vanessa

Peja Yield kg 5.798 6.117

Pestova Yield kg 5.220 5.450

Zllatko Rex Esterel

6.972 5.798 5.702

5.485 5.388 5.225

Barun

5.955

5.400

7000

Pejë

Pestovë

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Bingo

Vanessa

Zllatko

Rex

Esterel

Barun

Graph 3. Yield (kg) in two areas of the 6 cultivars

In Table 6 based on the results seen that the highest yield is cultivar Zlatko 6972. Autumn barley cultivars the highest weight of 1000 seeds is found to cultivar Barun (54.55 g) and lower weight of 1000 seeds is found to cultivar Zlatko (40.733 g). While weight hektolitare with high cultivar 59,683 bingo. Results are taken immediately after harvest. In Table 7 are given the results of

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 178


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

humidity % protein % grace % fat % fibers % and starch %, high protein presented cultivar Rex 13.73%. Table 6. Weight 1000 seeds, Weight hectoliter in two areas of the 6 cultivars and classification Cultivars

Localities

P. H. %

P. A. %

First cl. %

Second cl. %

Third cl. %

No purities

Bingo

Peja Pestova Peja Pestova Peja Pestova

59.683 55.1 58.017 58.45 59.633 57.075

42.9 49.9 48.167 43.9 40.733 50.95

83.99 90.4 88.01 91.3 85.9 90.14

11.16 6.6 6.7 6.73 9.53 7.5

4.39 1.1 4.86 1.55 3.82 0.83

0.46 1.9 0.43 0.42 1.75 1.53

Vanessa Zllatko Rex

Peja

59.767

43.467

82.56

13

4.1

0.34

Esterel

Pestova Peja

57.3 59.55

50.4 45.733

87.68 86.16

9.98 9.59

1.5 3.89

1.58 0.36

Pestova

58.25

44.7

86.64

10.8

1.8

0.76

Barun

Peja

57.817

48.067

88.31

6.64

3.82

1.23

Pestova

55.175

54.55

91.38

6.2

0.84

1.58

60

Pejë

Pestovë

50 40 30 20 10 0 Bingo

Vanessa

Zllatko

Rex

Esterel

Barun

Graph 4. Weight 1000 seeds in two areas of the 6 cultivars

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 179


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

60 59

Research paper

Pejë

Pestovë

58 57 56 55 54 53 52 Bingo

Vanessa

Zllatko

Rex

Esterel

Barun

Graph 5. Weight hectoliter in two areas of the 5 cultivars Table 7. Presentation of the results of humidity % protein % grace % fat % fibers % and starch % Cultivars

Localities

humidity

Protein

grace

fat

Fiber

starch

Bingo

Peja

10

13.73

1.4683

1.67

4.73

62.5

Pestova

10.4

13.35

1.5095

1.45

4.25

60.85

Vanessa

Pejë

11.1

12.9

1.381

1.8

4.33

63.6

Zllatko

Pestova Peja Pestova

10.5 10.2 10.3

12.85 13.35 13.3

1.4855 1.42933 1.513

1.7 1.83 1.6

4.15 4.5 4.15

62.15 62.6 60.85

Rex

Peja

10

13.73

1.4683

1.67

4.73

62.5

Pestovë

10.45

13.5

1.52

1.55

4.15

61.55

Esterel

Pejë

11.26

13.4

1.475

1.76

4.2

61.4

Barun

Pestova Peja

11.05 9.9

13.3 13.46

1.476 1.46967

1.55 1.76

4.15 4.1

61.2 62.9

Pestova

10.45

13.25

1.527

1.6

4.25

62.3

Conclusions On the basis of the results obtained in research plots of barley in the field of culture Dukagjini (Arëbnesh-Peja) and in the field of Kosovo (Pestova) can conclude the following: ● Higher yields this year we surveyed plots in Dukagjini (Arbnesh) Zlatko gave the highest yield 6972 kg / ha compared to the level of Kosovo (Pestova) 5485 kg / ha Other varieties are also shown positive results, so my high yields generally has Dukagjini plane. ●Agro-ecological conditions and manufacturing locations to explore are very suitable for the cultivation of barley, but always taking into account the application of an agro and high care. ●Agro-technical measures, in which special attention should be paid especially: ●Investigated cultivars with high potential production ●Planting performed in optimal time ●Soil analysis previously performed in terms of nutrient contents of major elements (N,P,K).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 180


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

●Use adequate and balanced nutrient fertilizers according to the content of nutrient elements in the soil and planned productivity. ●Herbal turnover to be respected in order to avoid the possibility of attacks by potential wintering Harmful Biological Agents (ADB). ●Integrated Protection application to the culture of barley, but also the first culture the use of contemporary mechanism. References 1. Alley MM, Pridgen TH, Brann DE, Hammons JL, Mulford RL, (1997) Nitrogen fertilization of winter barley Principles and Recommendations, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Crop & Soil Environmental. Sciences, 424-801. 2. Anderson OD, Haleford NG, Forde J, Yip RE, Shewry PR, (1988) Structure and analysis of the height gluten in genes from triticum aestivum L cv Cheyenne in Miller TE, Koebner, (Eds) Proceedings 7th International Wheat Genetics Symposium, Cambridge, pp. 735-740. 3.Anonym. (1995) Brabender, Betreib Anteilungen (1992-1995) Software Program loader, Duisburg, Germany, pp. 23-75. 4. Bertholdsson N. O. (1999). Characterization of malting barley cultivars with more or less stable grain protein content under varying environmental conditions. European of Agronomy, 10, 1-8. 5. Bhuta, W, M, 2007. The effect of cultivar on the variation of spring wheat grain quality under drought conditions, Cereal Research Communications, Vol. 35, No. 4 pp 1609-1619. 6. Conry M.J. (1997): Effect of fertilizer N on the grain yield and quality of spring malting barley grown on five contrasting soils in Ireland. Boil. Environ 97:185-196. 7. Costa j. M. - Boller, G.A.: 2001. Stability analysis of grain yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare) in US mid-Atlantic region. Annals of Applied Biology. 139(1):137-143. 8. Gaqesha S, Schuster, Weinfurtner, Narziss, (1990) Technology of production of malt, 43284996-6, Beograd, pp.21-83. 9. Kunze W, (2004) Technology brewing and malting, 3 rd international edition VLB Berlin, 3921690-49-8, page 32-49. 10. Macgregor AW, 1991. The effect of barley structure and composition on malt quality. Proceedings of the European brewery Convention, Lisbon, 37-50. 11. Mckenzie, R.H. Middleton, A.B. & Bremer, E. 2005. Fertilizing, seeding date, and seeding rate for malting barley yield and quality in southern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Plant SCIENCE 85, 603-614. 12. Munck L, (1991) Carlsberg research laboratory gample Carlsberg vej 10 DK-2500 valby, Copenhagen Denmark, Advances in Barley Quality Experiences & Perspectives, 20, 9-18. 13. Papastylianou I. (1995): The effects of seed rate and nitrogen fertilization on yield and yield components of two-row barley. Eur.J.Agron, 4: 237-243. 14. Schelling K, Born K, Weissteiner C, Kühbauch Ë, (2003) Relationships between Yield and Quality Parameters of Malting Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) And Phonological and Meteorological Data Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 189, 113–122,April. 15. Thomson JR, (1979) an introduction to Seed Technology London, pp. 1-252 ISBN 0-24944155-1 Record Number 19790380308. 16. Van Gastel AJG, Bishaw Z, Niane AA, (2005) Syria, Technical guidelines for quality seed production. 2005 pp 23. ISBN 92-9127-181-1. 17. Wallwork MAB., Jenner CF, Logue SJ, Sedgley M, (1998) South Australia 5064, Effect of high temperature during grain-filling on the structure of developing and malted barley grain, Article №.bo980721 Annals of Botany 82: 587-599, 1998. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 181


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Architecture and Design The Investigation of Technical Conditions in Several Public School Buildings in Tirana Merita Guri

Kewords: soil-structure interaction, ultimate limit state, serviceability, structural damages

Department of Applied and Human Sciences Faculty of Architecture and Design, Polis University, Albania

Abstract This paper deals with the investigation of technical conditions in several public school buildings in Tirana. 30 schools have been investigated and 12 of them have been found with considerable structural damages, affecting the functionality and serviceability of the building itself. In the paper are enhanced those damages connected with the geotechnical aspects of the structure. The most frequent identified concern was the lack of a comprehensive and complete study of the soil-structure interaction, leading to direct and indirect damages in the building structure. Causes and influential geotechnical issues affecting the building performance are elaborated and discussed, in order to demonstrate how these factors can cause the occurrence of serviceability and ultimate limit state. At the end some recommendations and discussions are made in order to improve existing situation and to prevent the occurrence of similar cases.

1. Introduction This study is regarding to the public school buildings in Tirana, due to the enhanced importance of the city in country level. The studied buildings belong to the category of special importance buildings, according to KTP [4] [5] [6] and during the last 22 years there have been much damages to school buildings. We considered 30 public school buildings and 12 of them resulted in considerable structural damages influencing its functionality. In order to analyze the causes of the occurred damages, we enhanced on soil structure interaction (SSI) issues. This issue deals with several problems connected to the damages occurred in the buildings. Mostly, some problems related to foundations are discussed and also the diagnoses of problems and their causes (during the design or construction phases) and at the end examples of partial and total damages are shown. The study combines the theoretical conclusions with the specific discussed examples and even more with the scientific argumentation of the causes and influencing geotechnical factors, related to the miss functionality of the building. We think that the above issues make this material important and valuable for the designers and other professionals dealing with similar buildings. At the end recommendations are shown in order to avoid similar problems in the future. Damages can be due to: possible mistakes in the design phase, ground properties of the terrain, ground water, river floods, landslides, heavy rains, fire, earthquakes, use of un standardized building materials, bad construction quality, etc. In our case, the causes of damages are some phenomena related to soil behavior and their parameters. 2. Analysis of technical conditions in public school buildings in Tirana In our study it is enhanced the importance of technical standards of design and construction KTP [5] of school buildings and even more to those related to foundation design. From the survey it can

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 182


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

be concluded that most of the buildings are based on shallow foundations. Since these foundations are the source of more than 32% of the damages, it was decided to analyze and then to give recommendations regarding this type of foundations. It was evidenced the lack of consulting with KTP in three phases: - In the design phase - In the construction phase - In the utilization phase - During the design phase it was identified the following: a. Wrong calculation of loading on structure, resulting in wrong dimensioning of structural elements and in wrong prediction of reinforcement. b. The neglect of possible deformations that can occur due to several reasons, such as: atmospheric agents, temperature change. This can bring to cracks to the ground during the summer and heave during the winter, resulting in damages to the foundations. c. The neglect of possible landslides nearby the building. d. The lack of a full and complete geologic survey report, resulting in future damages of the building. e. Water actions, which can cause: settlements in silts, long terming deformations in clays, decrease of unit weight of the soil (increase of active zone and also of settlements). f. Slide of all the school building due to the slide of the ground under the object. Fig. 1 Damage of the school due to a sliding plane not evidenced before

This can happen due to: - the presence of a sliding plane not evidenced before - the decrease of soil resisting parameters in the sliding plane because of rain waters - seismic shaking - the construction of a new building on the same slope of the existing school that makes the slope unstable

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 183


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

During the construction phase it was identified the following: a. the usage of an inappropriate concrete class b. the production of the concrete in construction site not according to the recommendations c. low quality of reinforcement arrangement and welding d. the used quantity of reinforcement not according to the required from the design phase e. the usage of an inappropriate steel class and quality f. damages in the structure during the construction phase due to changes in the last moment in order to create space for the implementation of electric and hydraulic pipelines During the utilization phase it was identified the following: a. technical mistakes during reconstruction of the building and changing the loading conditions b. changes on the loading type of the buildings 3. Analysis of the causes of foundation damages in public school buildings In order to analyze the foundation damage causes, despite the literature, the following issues are discussed: - Foundation settlement From the survey done in school buildings, those based on clay soils have undergone to unpredicted settlements, causing characteristic cracks in the building. This phenomenon has happened in shallow foundations which were not positioned on the appropriate depth. During drought time clay soil shrink and in this way cracks are created and during rain time the cracks are filled with water and the soil swell. These vertical movements of the ground cause damages and cracks in the foundations.

Fig 2 Foundation settlements during drought and rain time

- Little slides of the ground accompanied with horizontal and vertical displacements.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 184


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

-

Research paper

This has leaded to diagonal cracks in shallow continuous foundations and also similar cracks in buildings walls. The absence of drainage systems around the buildings has lead to the increase of water pressures. The placement of the foundation in a soil layer with weak properties or in an artificial layer and without drainage. Uneven settlements of the building due to different loading rates. Uneven settlements due to the presence of very compressible soil layers. Settlements above the permissible values due to the creation of plastic zones under the foundation.

4. Considering the soil structure interaction in the stability of school buildings Considering the soil structure interaction (SSI) insures a normal functionality of the building. The most delicate point on this regard is the foundation, which coordinate the work of the structure and basement, two media with very different parameters. In order to insure a good interaction between the structure and the basement we have to know very well the characteristics of the structure (especially the sensitivity towards differential settlements) and also the properties of the basement. According to the sensitivity against differential settlement [1] the public school buildings belong to the III category (sensitive to differential settlement). Regarding the basement characteristics, we have to know: -

its physical properties soil classification and type compressibility parameters infiltration parameters resisting parameters

According to these properties we can chose the calculating model of the basement. SSI can be considered for static and dynamic load conditions. In our case only static loading was considered. In order to ensure SSI the following should be calculated: -

consolidation settlements and time of settlements hydrodynamic pressure critical stresses (which can put the foundation out of stability) the stability of specific points of basement bearing capacity of the basement stability of natural and artificial slopes lateral soil pressures, etc.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 185


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

In the following, we are considering a case where the neglecting of SSI has caused damages to the structure. Firstly, the design of the foundations for the school in Farke was done without a detailed geological study. From the available geological study we have γ=18.50KN/m3; γ0=27 KN/m3; W=26.50 %; WS=28.80 %; WP=24.20 %; [σ]=150kPa. With this data was done the calculation of the foundations of the building. The load in the foundation for 1ml is N=9105daN. The area of the foundation (by taking its width 1m) for this load is:

Ath =

N 9105 = = 0.89m [σ ] − γ Hzh 15000 − 2000⋅ 2

(1)

The height of the foundation is:

h th =

b − bm 100 − 25 = = 62.5cm 2tgα kuf 2tg310

(2)

The height of the foundation was chosen 0.7m. During the functionality of the buildings there have been cracks in the foundation and also in the wall. Most probably, these damages are due to the lack of the study of basement. In order to prove this we have to check: - the foundation settlement according to the soil layers compressibility - the foundation deflection according to its settlements - the stability of special points of the basement and the formation of plastic zones (by checking tangential stresses)

Fig 3 and 4 The dimensions of existing foundation (left) and wall cracks after 18 years of function (right).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 186


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Firstly, it was required a new geologic study in order to determine more exactly the parameters of soil layers.

Fig 5. Geologic study of the area

According to this study [7], [8], the first soil layer has this properties: γ=19.40KN/m3; γ0=27KN/m3; Wn=27.8 %; WS=40.6 %; Wp=23.4 %; ε=0.72; G=0.9; α1-3=0.042cm2/kg; φ=21o; [σ]=220kPa; E=0.9 104 kPa; C=22 kPa and the second layer: γ=18.50KN/m3; γ0=26.80KN/m3; Wn=26.9 %; WS=28.5 %; Wp=24.2 %; Ip=4.3; ε=0.8; G=0.9; α1-3=0.042cm2/kg; φ=24o; [σ]=150kPa; E=0.5 104 kPa; C=5 kPa. The foundation settlement is calculated as below: - Settlement: Ha

S = Σ σ mes h i a 0 0

where a0 = - Stresses:

β E

(3)

; β =0.4 for clays and β =0.7 for sandy clays.

σ z = 2 ⋅ kc ⋅ P

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

(4)

Page | 187


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Table 1 Calculation of stresses for point 1 of the foundation σ z ; σ T ; σ mes z

β=z/b

Kc [2]

σz

σT

σmes

0

0

0,25

75

38,8

74,85

0,1

0,2

0,249

74,7

40,7

74,01

0,2

0,4

0,244

73,3

42,7

71,78

0,3

0,6

0,234

70,26

44,6

68,13

0,4

0,8

0,22

66,01

46,6

49,74

1,3

2,6

0,111

33,48

64

31,54

1,5

3

0,098

29,6

67,9

26,17

2

4

0,075

22,74

77,6

19,91

2,5

5

0,061

18,3

86,9

17,05

3

6

0,051

15,8

96,15

After the calculation the settlement results S1 = 67.21 ⋅10 −4 m Table 2 Calculation of stresses for point 0 of the foundation

σ z ; σ T ;σ mes

z

β=z/b

Ko [2]

σz

σT

σmes

0

0

1

150

38,8

147

0,25

0,25

0,96

144

43,65

133,5

0,5

0,5

0,82

123

48,75

112,85

0,75

0,75

0,68

102,7

53,35

92,6

1

1

0,55

82,5

58,2

71,02

1,5

1,5

0,39

59,55

67,45

52,87

2

2

0,31

46,2

76,7

42,52

2,5

2,5

0,26

38,85

85,95

35,17

3

3

0,21

31,5

95,2

30

3,5

3,5

0,19

28,5

104,5

27

4

4

0,17

25,5

113,7

24

4,5

4,5

0,15

22,5

123

After the calculation the settlement result S 0 = 251.7 ⋅10 −4 m

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 188


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Table 3 Calculation of stresses for point 2 of the foundation

σ z ; σ T ;σ mes .

z

β=z/b

Kc [2]

σz

σT

σmes

0

0

0,25

75

38,8

74,85

0,1

0,2

0,249

74,7

40,7

74,01

0,2

0,4

0,244

73,3

42,5

71,78

0,3

0,6

0,234

70,26

44,35

68,13

0,4

0,8

0,22

66,01

46,2

49,74

1,3

2,6

0,111

33,48

62,85

31,54

1,5

3

0,098

29,6

66,55

26,17

2

4

0,075

22,74

75,8

19,91

2,5

5

0,061

18,3

85,05

17,05

3

6

0,051

15,8

94,3

−4 After the calculation the settlement result S 2 = 156.11 ⋅10 m .The maximal foundation deflection is

calculated [1],: f max ≤ [ f ] f max =

S1 + 2S0 + S2 = 363.36 ⋅ 10 −4 m 2

(5)

And the allowable deflection is:

[f ] = 0.0013⋅ l = 0.0013⋅ 20 = 0.026m

(6)

So, the condition is not full filled and due to this we will have cracks in the foundation and also in the above walls. The stability of some points on the vertical line from the foundation edge was checked. For example, for the point A in the depth z=0,2m below the foundation basement we have [2]: - The angle of view is: tgα1 =

b 1 = =5 z 0.2

α1rad =

π ⋅ α1 = 1.37rad 1800

α1=78.690

- The principal stresses in point A are [3]:

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 189


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

150 Ρ (α rad + sin α ) = (1.37 + sin 78.690 ) = 110.04kPa π 3.14 150 Ρ σ − σ2 σ 2 = (α rad − sin α ) = = 44.58kPa (1.37 − sin 78.690 ) = 20.87kPa τn = τmax = 1 π 3.14 2 τrez = σ n tgϕ2 + c 2 = 65.45 ⋅ tg240 + 5 = 30.91kPa σ1 =

τrez p τn = τmax

The point A results as instable, so we continue with other points in different depths from the foundation basement. The results are presented in Table 4 and the stresses diagrams are in Figure 6. Table 4 Calculation of stresses Point

z

α⁰

α[ radian]

τmax

τrez FS

A

0,2

78,69

1,37

44,58

30,91

0,69336025

B

0,4

68,19

1,18

44,34

27,44

0,61885431

C

0,6

59,03

1,02

40,94

24,41

0,5962384

D

0,8

51,34

0,89

37,28

21,89

0,58717811

E

1

45

0,785

33,77

19,8

0,58631922

F

1,4

35,5

0,61

27,72

16,69

0,60209235

Fig. 6 and 7 Stresses diagrams (left) and instable zones (right).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 190


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

According to the above calculations and to the Fig. 7 we can see that we have lose of stability in the zone 1.8m below the foundation basement. This is another reason of the damages on the foundation and walls. 5. Conclusions and recommendations The following conclusions and recommendations can be achieved: - A detailed geological and geotechnical must be prepared for every design. - During the design process the SSI for static conditions has to be taken into account. - In the geotechnical problematic zones the SSI has to be considered also for dynamic conditions. - The cause of all structural damages has to be firstly checked in the foundations. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Bozo L. (2008) Gjeoteknika 2, Themelet Bozo L. (2007) Gjeoteknika 1 ,Mekanika e dherave Bozo L. (2011) Papers from International Conferences in Geotechnics. KTP-N30_91- Rezistencat e normuara e te llogaritjes se betonit KTP-N2-89, Kushte Teknike te Projektimit antizizmik KTP-N6-87-Kombinimi i Ngarkesave te jashtme qe veprojne ne strukture. A.L.T.E.A & GEOSTUDIO 2000 Kushtet Gjeologo-Inxhinierike Farke. EUROCODE 7 GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN-Part 1:General rules

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 191


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Healthcare Keywords: teratogenic problems, malformations, toxicology, growth delay, cell death, etc.

Teratogenesis

Shkëlqim Hidri Elona Gaxhja Florenc Piligriu Brunilda Mehilli Ylli Alicka

University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Nursing Faculty, Preclinical and Clinical Department, Elbasan, Albania University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Nursing Faculty, Preclinical and Clinical Department, Elbasan, Albania University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Nursing Faculty, Preclinical and Clinical Department, Elbasan, Albania University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Nursing Faculty, Preclinical and Clinical Department, Elbasan, Albania University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Nursing Faculty, Preclinical and Clinical Department, Elbasan, Albania

Abstract The world today is experiencing a period of rapid technological versatile. Unfortunately, this development has its negative consequences. Dumping in atmosphere of chemical waste, except to other effects, not pass without consequences on human health and in particular in the period in which it is being formed and developed a future individual, i.e. during pregnancy. It is known that the first quarter of this period is sensitive, because it is precisely this period in which take originated all the structures of the developing organism. Fall into contact with substances assigned in this period, resulting in serious consequences in the future of the individual to be born. In some cases turns out that the substances are considered as medications may have teratogenic effects. Some are known, and are removed from use, some are under study, but may have also some widely used and that can be such.

Purpose The purpose of this study is just be able to turn in the spotlight the importance of this issue, to promote the deepening of studies on teratogenic problems, to enable us if not to avoid, to reduce these effects. Method of study The study is with the descriptive character. Attempts to explain the structural and functional defects that can be seen to the birth, as a result of contact that may have mother, with different substances in different periods of pregnancy. The term comes from the Greek (Teratos = monster)

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 192


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Divided into two groups: 1-Morfogenetics defects (true teratogenesis) 2-Natural and compartmental defects in the absence of obvious anatomical alterations (Neurocomportamental teratogenesis). The appearance of one or another manifestation depends on the type of substance, the sensitivity of species and / or specific individual, by way of making (dose, route, etc.), the stage of fetal development at which exposure verified. Anatomical mechanisms of teratogenesis are still little known, they seem related or interference to the detriment of embryonic cell migration or blood circulation disorders in morphogenetic structures. A bull directly genomes is negotiable, chromosomal disorders not associated with any specific framework. A clear teratogenesis is noticed by alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome: growth defect, microcefalia, deformities of the face and limbs, signs of cerebral irritation learning deficit), cocaine (malformations genital and urinary tract and systemic signs of cerebral disorders)), amphetamines LSD. The incidence of malformations in term fetusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s results not increased more in subjects with clinical populations with methadone treatment. According to experimental studies, opioid regulation is responsible for the specific effects on cell growth (further in organs). However, from the clinical point of view, the primary pat genetic mechanism with opioid who exhibit fetal suffer and delay in growth is due to ischemia uterus-placental that appear on maternal abstinence phase (indirect mechanism). According to the latest epidemiological data, using of marijuana in pregnancy accompanied by increased incidences of infantile non-lymphoblastic acute leukemia, should not be excluded completely the role of co-risk factors, especially native exposure to pesticides. Patogenetic mechanism may be mutagenic type. Neuro-comportamental teratogenesis caused by persistence post-natal alteration to the detriment of neuro-psychological functions after stopping exposure to psychoactive substance. This type of teratogenesis can be seen as a special counter-adaptation (neuro adaptation) fixed in the "biological memory" of neural apparatus of the developing individual. More selective phenomenon would occur only after the introduction of specific structuressign (equipped with receptors for the substance in question) and before a complete neural system maturity verified functionally indicated. Presence of neuro-compartmental teratogenesis has been demonstrated in animal models for exposure to many substances, among which benzodiazepines, cocaine, opioids, and other psycho stimulating substances. For example, benzodiazepines are responsible to a disorder of the response to stress and cocaine from learning disorders observed in experiments in rodents (rats), and opioid are implicated in the way of parental bonding in primates. The phenomenon of neuro-compartmental teratogenesis so far is difficult to verify in human offspring due to methodological constraints.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 193


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

For more fine disorders can be seen only after a few years after birth, because it is necessary that any sign functions are expressed in social life to recognize the possible teratogenic effect. The development toxicology involves pharmacokinetics studies, mechanisms, pathogenesis and the effects of exposure to agents or conditions that lead to an abnormal development (teratogenesis). Includes: -Structural malformations - Delay in growth -Functional damage -Death of the body Studies show such a high percentage -Loss after implantation 35% -Major defects in the birth 4% at the moment of birth and 6-7% in the first year - Small defects at birth 14% -Low weight at birth 7% -Infant mortality rate (per year) 1.4% -Abnormal neurological functions 16-17% Less than half of all pregnancyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s born normal and healthy children. Causes a dramatic such evidence is not all known but the most popular are: -Genetic causes 15-25% -Native causes 4% -Maternal infections 3% -Deformities 1-2% -Chemical agents and environmental factors <1% -Unknown etiology 65% Were tested over 3000 chemicals of which only 35% of them or other conditions are clearly consistent with prenatal development disorders. Among them are: TALIDOMIDI In 1960 was evidenced in Germany increased neonate with rare malformations of the limbs. Was present Amelia (total absence of limbs) or Different grade focomelia (abbreviation of limb bone length)? In general more affected upper limb. Co-associated with: -Cardiac malformations -Ocular, intestinal and renal anomalies -Malformations of the external ear

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 194


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

In Obstetric Clinic of Hamburg percentage of Amelia and Focomelia present at birth was: -40-59 years no case -1959 1 case -1960 30 cases -1961 134 cases In 1961 it was discovered to thalidomide responsible agent. Drug was introduced into circulation in 1956 as a sedative / hypnotic, used to improve nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. In toxicological tests, in therapeutic doses, had not shown effects on people and adult animals. Thalidomide was removed from circulation by the end of 1961. Numerous studies made to understand the mechanism gave no result, although it is finally noticed that inhibits the formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis in rabbit). DIETILSTILBESTROLI Is an Estrogen non steroid? Usage matter in the first quarter of pregnancy causes in a greater incidence of female newborns adenocarcinoma with clear cells of the vagina at the age of 15-22 years, which normally is rare before age 30 years. Men entail increased incidences of installments of epididimis, hypertrophic testis, lowering the volume and quality of semen. ETHANOL Fetal alcohol syndrome (SFA) includes disorders cranial-facial, intrauterine growth delay and post-natal, delay in psychomotor and intellectual development. Q.I. medium is 68. The emergence of syndrome u vu re only we children born from mothers that abusing with alcohol and incidence in Alcoholics is around 2.5%. It is also confirmed that the level of making ethanol to cause SFA is about 100 g / day. Exposure in uterus is associated with a wide spectrum of effects, including malformations typical SFA and moderate forms of neurological and behavioral disorders, known as fetal alcohol effects (EFA). It is not well known what are the reasons, but it is frequent presence of an increase in cell death in sensitive cell population.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 195


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

COCAINE Blocks nerve transmission by blocking Na+ channels and absorption of catecholamine’s and 5hidroksitriptamines. Effects in the fetus: -Placental rupture -Premature birth -Microcefalia -Decreased birth weight -Neonatal neurological syndrome: -Sleep disorder -Tremor -Malnutrition -Irritability -Sudden death Has been seen congenital malformations of the uro-genital tract RETINOIDI it is known that for 40 years that increased vitamin A (retinol) induces malformations of the face, limbs, heart, CNS and skeleton. Based Drugs retinoid (13-cis-retinoic acid) are used against acne. VALPROIC ACID Drug against convulsions. Is the cause of neural tube malformations (spine bifida)? BENDECTINA Benedictine (dozilamina and pyridoxine), used to alleviate nausea is not toxic for human development. A case of a child born with a unilateral reduction in the length of the wing led to the prohibition of the production of this drug in 1983. Critical periods of risk Development is characterized by changes in size, biochemical and physiological, in form and function. It is directed by a number of factors that regulate genetic promoted transcription, first among which is the native cultural heritage present in the egg before fertilization. One by one these factors activate regulatory genes in the embryonic genome and sequential genetic activation continues during development. Due to the rapid changes that occur during development, changing the nature of the target embryo / fetus. Gametogenesis → formation process of haploid embryonic stem cells (egg and sperm). Such gametes to join in the process of fertilization to form the zygote diploid or monocelular embryo, the process of "imprinting" happens during Gametogenesis, giving some alleles a different exponents, dependent on the fact of being the mother or father.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 196


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Exposure to a toxic substance as: -Ethylene oxide -Etilmetan sulfur -Etilnitrosurea -Trietilenmelamina During a short period (about 6 h) after fertilization causes malformed fetuses: The cause is not known. After fertilization, the embryo down in the fallopian tube and placed in the uterine wall. Pre-implantation period is characterized by an increase in the number of cells derived from a series of rapid cell division with a modest increase in size. In this way are formed blastocoels. This stage, called blast cist, and is formed by about a thousand cells. Only three cells are designed to give embryo origin, others will to form extraembrional membranes and support structure (egg .trophoblasts and placenta). During pre-implantation exposure (to DDT, nicotine) causes deficits organic / cerebral, death of the embryo, but no malformations. In contrast, metilnitrosamina causes neural tube defects and palatoskisis. Of course are all toxic substances that interfere with DNA synthesis, with rapid mitosis. After implantation, the embryo moves towards grastrulation stage, process of formation of the three primary cell lines: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. During this period, the embryo is completely vulnerable to teratogenesis. Many substances cause ocular, cerebral and facial malformations. These malformations are indicators of damage to anterior neural plate, from which the ectoderm formation determines the appearance of organ formation. This is the period of increased risk to the abnormality and duration (in humans) from the 3rd until the 8th week of pregnancy. In this period are noted effects of retinoic acid. Conclusion of organogenesis gives start fetal period (56°-58° day of pregnancy), which is characterized by tissue differentiation, growth and functional maturation. The formation of organs is not yet complete, but all organs are present and easily distinguished. Damaging effects during fetal been to the detriment of growth and functional maturation; Abnormality of the CNS Abnormality of the reproductive system Behavioral deficit mental and motor Fertility reduction Major structural alterations during this period are called deformities (variations of normal structures). For example, the extremities may be blocked; umbilical cordon torsion or vascular disorders can be observed with loss of tissue structures. Dose-response concept and one threshold Major effects of prenatal exposure are: Embryonic mortality Malformations

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 197


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Delay in growth Problems associated with these events are visible even though it may not be related to each other. On the other side, is not distinct threshold, even if a point mutation can be induced by a single blow or from a molecule to be exploded a cascade adverse effects. MECHANISMS AND PATOGENESIS Cell death plays a critical role in normal morphogenesis. Apoptosis is necessary for the formation of the fingers and on the appropriate link to the CNS and distal structures. There is a delicate balance between cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis in embryo and any type of event (egg DNA damage) may upset the cell cycle. LINKS BETWEEN MATERNAL CONDITIONS AND DEVELOPMENT Maternal factors Genetic →genotype Disease → HTA, diabetes, infections Nutritional → deficit protein, vitamins, minerals Stress Placental toxicity Toxicity versus placenta can compromise its functionality, especially the ability to produce hormones for the maintenance of pregnancy and the ability to metabolized ksenobiotiks. Many substances are toxic to the placenta; Cd, As, Hg, smoke tobacco, ethanol, cocaine, salicilates. Cd interferes in Zn transfer through the placenta. Conclusions 1. An agent that causes adverse effects on the development of experimental animals shows a sufficient risk to humans following exposure during development. 2. 4 manifestations of toxicity for development (death, structural abnormalities, growth disorders, functional deficits) should be taken into consideration; 3. Type the developing effects observed in experimental animals is not necessarily the same as those shown in humans. 4. Species suitable to be used for human risk measurement, when the data are available (in the absence of appropriate species with sensitive. 5. In general has reached a threshold dose-response curve for agents that cause development toxicity.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 198


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

References 1. Rogers, J.M., Kavlock, R.J. Developmental toxicology. In C.D. Klaassen (ed.): Casarett & Doull's Toxicology, 5th ed. pp. 301-331. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996. ISBN0-07105476-6. 2. Jones K.L., Smith D.W, Ulleland C.N., Streissguth A.P. (1973). "Pattern of malformation in offspring of chronic alcoholic mothers". "Birth Defects & Genetics: Birth Defects". 3. Dicke JM (1989). "Teratology: principles and practice". 4. Ronan O'Rahilly, Fabiola Müller (2001). Human embryology & teratology. New York: 5. van Gelder MM, van Rooij IA, Miller RK, Zielhuis GA, de Jong-van den Berg LT, Roeleveld 6-N (January 2010). "Teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs". Hum Reprod 6. James G. Wilson, (1973). Environment and Birth Defects (Environmental Science Series). 8-8-8-Bracken MB, Holford TR (1981). "Exposure to prescribed drugs in pregnancy and association with congenital malformations". Obstetrics and gynecology 7. King CR (1986). "Genetic counseling for teratogen exposure". Obstetrics and gynecology 8. Linnainmaa K (1983). "Sister chromatid exchanges among workers occupationally exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides 2,4-D and MCPA". Teratog., Carcinog. Mutagen. 9. Vaglenova J, Birru S, Pandiella NM, Breese CR (2004). "An assessment of the long-term developmental and behavioral teratogenicity of prenatal nicotine exposure". Behav. Brain 10. Hunt JR (1996). "Teratogenicity of high vitamin A intake". N. Engl. J. Med. 11. Hartmann S, Brørs O, Bock J, et al. (2005). "Exposure to retinoic acids in non-pregnant women following high vitamin A intake with a liver meal". International journal for vitamin and nutrition research. Internationale Zeitschrift für Vitamin- und Ernährungsforschung. Journal international de vitaminologie et de nutrition.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 199


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Healthcare Pre-operation Day Stay and the Subcutaneous Drainage on the Infected and operated Wounds Ylber Vata

Keywords: wound infection operators, preparatory day stay, subcutan drainage of the wound, the third clinic in Tirana University Hospital Center, etc.

Physician Surgeon of the University Hospital “Shefqet Ndroqi” Tirana, Albania.

Abstract In a large variety of causes and factors that have a direct impact on wound infection operators, in my article I mostly dealt with the study of two important factors to this problem and these are: 1. Day stay preparation 2. Subcutaneous wound drainage. The period of study of these factors has been about 3 months and have been used as a very important basis of data records, 320 cases of patients operated in the Service of General third clinic in Tirana University Hospital Center. At the end of the study it is shown that the two above-mentioned factors have a role in non-small wound infection operators. Reduction of day stay preoperator subcutan balanced drainage result that are factors that have led to the reduction of wound infection.

Aim of the study Results of this study, whether the time factor (pre-operation day stay), or subcutaneous drainage, are important factors together with ABP, but not the only ones, which help us to provide a source of data, and to formulate recommendations on wound infection operators. Material and methods This study included 320 patients, operated on the general surgery service, Third Clinic, University Hospital Center "Mother Teresa", for the period 20.01.2013 - 20.04.2013. Data changes were observed that emerged from this study compared with previous studies conducted in this clinic. The attention of this event is focused on pre-operation subcutaneous day stay and wound drainage. Statistical evaluation was performed using x². Results Percentage of wound infection, concluded in the cases studied in this paper was 7.5%, statistically with changes from previous studies conducted on this issue. From these, 6.83% representing the surface of a wound infection and only 0.5% representing its deep inflection. Table 1 presents a summary of infection rates depending on the category of wound operators, based on the number of cases operated.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 200


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Tab. 1 Category

Patients

Infection

Incidence

Clean wound

105

2

1,90%

Uncontaminated wound

153

6

1,96%

Contaminated wound

52

10

19,23%

Dirty wound

10

6

60,00%

Total

320

24

7,50%

When analyzing the cases studied, depending on the time of the surgical intervention and incidence of infection, it results the following distribution as shown in table (Table 2) Tab. 2 Pre-operation day stay

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

< 24 hours

186 (58.12%)

9

4,83%

> 24 hours

75 (23.43%)

4

5,33%

48 – 72 hours

25 (7.81%)

3

12,00%

> 72 hours

34 (10.62%)

6

17,64%

This distribution includes cases with clean wounds, generally contaminated, contaminated and dirty. To analyze the role of pre-operation day stay to the clean wounds, generally contaminated and contaminated, statistical processing is performed using test x². Given that the number of infections was small, operated groups were compared on the day of their admission, operated for 24-72 hours, after intervention, and with those operated for more than 72 hours after admission. Result x²=12.4 days =3: p< 0.01 In the following tables will be presented results based on the category of operator injury. Tab. 3 Clean Wounds Pre-operation day stay

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

< 24 hours

107

0

0,00%

> 24 hours

26

0

0,00%

48 – 72 hours

5

0

0,00%

> 72 hours

5

1

20,00%

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 201


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Tab. 4 Approximately contaminated wounds Pre-operation day stay

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

< 24 hours

86

4

4.65%

> 24 hours

25

2

8,00%

48 – 72 hours

11

0

0,00%

> 72 hours

15

0

0,00%

Pre-operation day stay

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

< 24 hours

5

0

0,00%

> 24 hours

10

1

10,00%

48 – 72 hours

11

3

27.3%

> 72 hours

14

6

42,90%

Tab. 5 Contaminated Wounds

Due to the small number of cases, statistical processing is impossible, however, a tendency of increased incidence of wound infection operators is seen due to the increase pre-operation day stay. Using subcutaneous drainage was found in 84 patients, of whom 67 patients with clean wounds, 14 cases with approximately contaminated wounds and in 3 cases with contaminated and dirty wounds. The data presented in Tab.6 Tab. 6.1 Clean wound

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

With subcutaneous drainage

67

1

1.49%

Without subcutan eous drainage

68

2

2.94%

Approximately contaminated wound

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

With subcutaneous drainage

14

1

7.14%

Without subcutaneous drainage

179

8

4.16%

Tab. 6.2

It is also estimated the incidence of wound infection depending on the special surgical interventions. The data are presented in the table below.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 202


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Tab. 7 Type of intervention

Number of cases

Infection

Incidence

Strumectomy

34

0

0,00%

Inguinal hernia

30

0

0,00%

Incisional Hernia

10

1

10.00%

Other hernia

19

0

0,00%

Colecistectomia

112

7

6.25%

Colecistectomia with Kehr Dreno

17

4

23.52%

Bilo-digestive anastomosis

8

1

12,5%

Apendicectomia

44

3

6.74%

Colon surgery

11

4

36.36%

Gastric surgery

8

0

0,00%

Laparatomies

5

0

0,00%

Perforated suture ulcer

6

0

0,00%

Ileus (Aderencolise)

8

2

25,00%

Echinococcus

0

0

0,00%

Sind. Kushing

3

1

33.33%

Intestinum tenue

5

2

40,00%

Discussion From the study material results a significant reduction of wound infection, compared with previous works. Table 8 shows the percentage of surgical wound infection studied at different time intervals. Tab. 8 Wound Clean Probably contaminated Contaminated Dirty Total

Infection 1992 38.80% 41.60% 27.30% 66.70% 37.80%

Infection 1996 8.90% 16.80% 15.20% 47.00% 15.07%

Infection 2002 2.22% 4.66% 16.45% 43.75% 7.56%

Infection 2013 1.90% 1.96% 19.23% 60.00% 7.50%

This decrease can be attributed to a series of factors, such as: • Change of the range of surgical intervention. Thus, if in previous studies, overpowered interventions as gastric resection, acute cholecystitis, etc., introduction of new schemes of treatment and diagnosis (ECHO, CT, MRI) has caused a reduction in the percentage of infections, compared with previous works. • Standardization of methods of wound closure. • Significant reduction of pre-operation day stay. • The use of ABT and application of new generations.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 203


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

• Wider use of ABP. • Using subcutaneous wound drainage. Pre-operation day stay reduces the risk for infection, as observed in our study. This is achieved for the reason that doctors have realized that pre-operation day stay is unnecessary hospitalization, for a fraction of patients who undergo surgery. On the other hand, the transportation options for those patients who are ill are are raised and also the possibility of their accommodation outside hospital conditions. The use of subcutaneous drainage is still an open question. It is believed that its rational use and also its quick removal effects positively in reducing infection. This is evidenced in this study. Also in this paper results an increased incidence of infection in cases with Kehr's placement, compared with simple Colecistectomia. Moments that favor infection for the cases in question are few: • • • •

Opening of bile ducts Discharge of bile Extension of time intervention Obligation to keep Kehr Dreno longer than ordinary

Conclusions Day Stay reduction associated with the reduction of surgical wound infection. The use of subcutaneous drainage is rational to obese patients, which represent high risk when they leave the wound operators. References 1. Armstrong, D. G., and K. A. Athanasiou. 1998. The edge effect: how and why wounds grow in size and depth. Clin. Podiatr. Med. Surg. 15:105-108. 2. Armstrong, D. G., P. J. Liswood, and W. F. Todd. 1995. Prevalence of mixed infections in the diabetic pedal wound. A retrospective review of 112 infections. J. Am. Podiatr. Med. Asoc. 85:533-537. 3. Auerbach AD. Prevention of surgical site infections. In: University of California at San Francisco (USCF) Stanford University Evidence-based Practice Center. Making health care safer: a critical analysis of patient safety practices. Online ed. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); 2002. p. 221-230. (Evidence Report/Technology Assessment; no. 43). 4. Baker, P. G., and G. Haig. 1981. Metronidazole in the treatment of chronic pressure sores and ulcers. Practitioner 225:569-573. 5. Bakker, D. J. 1998. Severe trauma and infections. Anaesthesia 53:65-67. 6. Bakker, D. J., and A. J. van der Kreij. 1996. Soft tissue infections including clostridial myonecrosis: diagnosis and treatment, p. 343-361. In G. Oriani, A. Marroni, and F. Wattel (ed.), Handbook of hyperbaric medicine. Springer-Verlag KG, Berlin, Germany.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 204


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

7. Bariar, L. M., S. M. Vasenwala, A. Malik, G. H. Ansari, and T. E. Chowdhury. 1997. A clinicopathological study of infections in burn patients and importance of biopsy. J. Indian Med. Soc. 95:573-575. 8. Barr, J. E., A. L. Day, V. A. Weaver, and G. M. Taler. 1995. Assessing clinical efficacy of a hydrocolloid/alginate dressing on full-thickness pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 41:28-30, 32, 34-36. 9. Bartlett, J. G., and S. L. Gorbach. 1976. Anaerobic infections of the head and neck. Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am. 9:655-678. 10. Bartlett, J. G., N. Sullivan-Sigler, T. J. Louie, and S. L. Gorbach. 1976. Anaerobes survive in clinical specimens despite delayed processing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 3:133-136. 11. Bascom, J. U. 1996. Pilonidal care: anaerobes as invisible villains. Eur. J. Surg. 162:351. 12. Bendy, R. H., P. A. Nuccio, E. Wolfe, B. Collins, C. Tamburro, W. Glass, and C. M. Martin. 1964. Relationship of quantitative wound bacterial counts to healing of decubiti. Effect of topical gentamicin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 4:147-155. 13. Benger, J. R., A. J. Kelly, and I. G. Winson. 1998. Does early wound infection after elective orthopaedic surgery lead on to chronic sepsis? J. R. Coll. Surg. Edinb. 43:43-44. 14. Bezerra, D. A., M. B. Silva, J. S. Caramori, M. F. Sugizaki, T. Sadatsune, A. C. Montelli, and P. Barretti. 1997. The diagnostic value of gram stain for initial identification of the etiologic agent of peritonitis in CAPD patients. Perit. Dial. Int. 17:269-272. 15. Bikowski, J. 1999. Secondarily infected wounds and dermatoses: a diagnosis and treatment guide. J. Emerg. Surg. 17:197-206. 16. Bornside, G. H., and B. B. Bornside. 1979. Comparison between moist swab and tissue biopsy methods for quantitation of bacteria in experimental incisional wounds. J. Trauma 19:103-105. 17. Bowler, P. G. 1999. The prevalence and significance of anaerobic bacteria in wounds. M.Phil. thesis. University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardoff, United Kingdom. 18. Bowler, P. G., and B. J. Davies. 1999. The microbiology of acute and chronic wounds. Wounds 11:72-79. 19. Bowler, P. G., and B. J. Davies. 1999. The microbiology of infected and noninfected leg ulcers. Int. J. Dermatol. 38:101-106. 20. Bowler, P. G., B. J. Davies, and S. A. Jones. 1999. Microbial involvement in chronic wound malodour. J. Wound Care 8:216-218. 21. Bowler, P. G., H. Delargy, D. Prince, and L. Fondberg. 1993. The viral barrier properties of some wound dressings and their role in infection control. Wounds 5:1-8. 22. Breidenbach, W. C., and S. Trager. 1995. Quantitative culture technique and infection in complex wounds of the extremities closed with free flaps. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 95:860-865. 23. Brook, I. 1982. Collection and transportation of specimens in anaerobic infections. J. Fam. Pract. 15:775-779. 24. Brook, I. 1987. Microbiology of human and animal bite wounds in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 6:29-32. 25. Brook, I. 1989. A 12 year study of the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in intra-abdominal and postsurgical abdominal wound infections. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 169:387-392. 26. Brook, I. 1989. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of Bartholin’s abscess. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 169:32-34. 27. Brook, I. 1989. Microbiology of post-thoracotomy sternal wound infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27:806-807. 28. Brook, I. 1991. Microbiological studies of decubitus ulcers in children. J. Pediatr. Surg. 26:207-209.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 205


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

29. Brook, I. 1995. Microbiology of gastrostomy site wound infections in children. J. Med. Microbiol. 43:221-223. 30. Brook, I. 1996. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of necrotising fasciitis in children. Pediatr. Dermatol. 13:281-284. 31. Brook, I. 1998. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infections after trauma in children. J. Accid. Emerg. Med. 15:162-167. 32. Brook, I., and S. M. Finegold. 1981. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of cutaneous abscesses in children. Pediatrics 67:891-895. 33. Brook, I., and E. H. Frazier. 1990. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of wounds and cutaneous abscesses. Arch. Surg. 125:1445-1451. 34. Brook, I., and E. H. Frazier. 1997. The aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of perirectal abscesses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:2974-2976. 35. Brook, I., and E. H. Frazier. 1998. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of chronic venous ulcers. Int. J. Dermatol. 37:426-428. 36. Brook, I., and E. H. Frazier. 1998. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of infection after trauma. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 16:585-591. 37. Brook, I., and J. G. Randolph. 1981. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora of burns in children. J. Trauma 21:313-318. 38. Brown, D. L., and D. J. Smith. 1999. Bacterial colonisation/infection and the surgical management of pressure ulcers. Ostomy Wound Manage. 45:119S-120S.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 206


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Healthcare Risk factors of Colorectal Neoplasia in Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Mereme Tusha

Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, colorectal cancer, patients, surveillance, bowel disease, dysplasia, cytokines, etc.

Faculty of Nursing Preclinical and Clinical Department University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Elbasan, Albania.

Abstract Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer and patients with small intestinal Crohn’s disease are at increased risk of small bowel adenocarcinoma. Colorectal cancer appearing on the ground of inflammatory bowel disease is the result of a process which is believed to begin from no dysplasia progressing to indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and finally to invasive adenocarcinoma, although colorectal cancer can arise without proceeding through each of these steps. Ulcerative colitis patients with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch analanastomosis have a rather low risk of dysplasia in the ileal pouch, although the anal transition zone should be monitored periodically, especially if chronic pouchitis is present with associated severe villous atrophy. Concerning the risk factors predisposing to colorectal cancer in the setting of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease, it seems that the risk increases with longer duration and greater anatomic extent of colitis, the degree of inflammation, and the presence of primary sclerosing cholangitis and family history of colorectal cancer. Concerning the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, it is now well established that the molecular alterations responsible for sporadic colorectal cancer,namely chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability and hypermethylation, also play a role in colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis. Chemoprevention strategies include the administration of agents such as aminosalicylates, ursodeoxycholic acid, and possibly folic acid and statins, the exact role of which remains to be further elucitated.Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC).

Introduction Many molecular anomalies responsible for sporadic CRC are also seen in colitis-associated CRC, but differences in timing and frequency of these events indicate an alternate pathophysiology within these chronic inflammatory states. The risk of CRC increases with duration of colitis, extent of disease involvement, degree of histologic inflammation, family history of CRC, and concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The decreasing incidence of this feared complication has been attributed to heightened surveillance and advances in medical therapy. Chemoprophylactic agents, including aminosalycilates (ASA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), and possibly folic acid, dampen the inflammatory milieu which predisposes to dysplasia. Colonoscopy with biopsies is the standard mode of dysplasia detection, and consensus guidelines afford structure to the surveillance schedule. In this article, we review the pathogenesis, risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis as well as current consensus guidelines for screening and surveillance of CRC in IBD. Colorectal cancer, the most lethal long-term complication of chronic inflammatory bowel disease(IBD), is the culmination of a complex sequence of molecular and histologic derangements of the intestinal epithelium that are initiated and at least partially sustained by chronic inflammation. The increased risk of CRC in IBD has been established for decades. Varying data has compounded the challenge of quantifying this risk. Differences in study design, length of follow-up, case definitions, environmental diversity, treatment strategies and referral center bias contribute to the wide

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 207


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

range of risk seen in the literature. IBD-related CRC is estimated to be responsible for less than 2% of all CRC appearing annually. In general, the risk of CRC begins to increase 8 or 10 years after the establishment of diagnosis. Depending on the study and country, the risk of developing CRC in patients with UC fluctuates between 0.9 to 8.8-fold and between 0.8 and 23-fold in patients with pancolitis. Eaden et al. pooled the results of 116 studies involving almost 55,000 patients with UC. In this cohort of patients, 1,700 CRC were diagnosed. The probability of developing CRC 10 years after diagnosis was 2% , reaching the level of 8% after 20 years and 18% after 30 years. It has been reported that in some countries, patients with UC have not been found to be at increased risk of CRC development. Winther et al followed 1160 patients with UC over 39 750 person-years (1989-2012) and found 42 cases of IBD-CRC, giving an annual crude incidence of 0.06% and cumulative risk of 2.1% at 30 years. They found no statistically significant increase in the SMR for CRC between IBD and non-IBD populations. This study is from Denmark where the colectomy rate is one of the highest in the world: a fact that may affect the results and underestimate the risk of IBD-CRC.According to a recent analysis the risk of CRC has decreased in patients with UC, despite the low frequency of colectomies. The annual incidence rate of CRC in UC ranges from approximately 0.06% to 0.16% with a relative risk of 1.0-2.75. The reduction in the incidence of CRC in UC patients may partly be explained by the more widespread use of maintenance therapy with 5-ASA compounds and surveillance colonoscopy. Although there was a trend towards decreasing incidence over time of CRC this did not reach statistical significance . In another population-based study, it was found that the risk for CRC among patients with both UC and Crohn’s colitis was approximately 2- to 3-fold greater than the general population and that the risk of rectal cancer was increased 2-fold in UC but not in Crohn’s colitis . In the subgroup analysis of data patients with CD had an increased risk of colon cancer (relative risk 2.59) but not of rectal cancer (relative risk, 1.46). A significant association between the anatomic location of the diseased bowel and the risk of cancer in that segment was noticed. Patients who have only had small intestinal CD without colonic involvement are not considered to be at high risk for CRC. The risk of developing adenocarcinoma in the small intestine of patients with small bowel CD is increased, being approximately 10-12-fold greater than for the general population.. However, when patients with longstanding Crohn’s colitis are considered, the risk of CRC is similar between Crohn’s colitis and UC. The cumulative risk of developing CRC in CD at any site was calculated to be 2.9% at 10 years of disease duration, 5.6% at 20 years and 8.3% at 30 years. Molecular Events The pathogenesis of IBD involves immune system dysregulation in response to gut flora in a genetically predisposed individual, leading to a state of chronic intestinal inflammation. Normal immune activation triggers a tumor suppressive response, but it is believed that this security system fails in the face of chronic inflammation. The altered immune response allows for proliferation of dysplastic cells, which are stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors. UC and CD are driven by different T helper cell mediated immune responses, which result in these two distinct phenotypes. Duration and degree of intestinal inflammation is a risk factor for CRC in IBD, and the immune system and cytokines that mediate inflammation have been investigated regarding disease pathogenesis. While UC consists of a Th2 response with high IL-5 and IL-13, CD is primarily a Th1 response with elevated TNFα and IFNγ. In models of sporadic CRC, a Th2 response is associated with further disease progression, while a Th1 response is considered protective. Recent research has implicated a coexisting Th17 response in CD as the reason for the higher CRC risk seen in observed in CD patients. The mechanisms underlying these distinct conditions and implications on the development of colorectal neoplasia have yet to be fully elucidated.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 208


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Risk Factors for Developing Colorectal Neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease Environmental, genetic and individual factors synergistically increase the risk of colorectal dysplasia and neoplasia in these patients. Cumulative cancer risk increases with age in the general population; in IBD patients, this hazard is further compounded by specific disease characteristics including disease duration, area of colonic involvement, and degree of inflammation. Risk factors for Developing Colorectal Neoplasia in IBD Patients: • Extensive colonic involvement • Longer duration of IBD (>10 years) • Severity of inflammation • Primary sclerosing cholangitis • Family history of colorectal cancer • Younger age of IBD onset (possibly) • Multiple pseudopolyps and/or colonic strictures. There are several lines of evidence suggesting inflammatory processes themselves are responsible for the augmented cancer risk in IBD. First, the most important risk factor for colorectal cancer in UC patients is the duration of colitis. A large meta-analysis estimates that the risk of colorectal cancer in UC patients increases by 0.5%–1.0% per year, beginning 8–10 years after diagnosis. Second, the anatomical extent of colitis is another independent risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer; colon cancer risk is greater in individuals with a larger affected colonic surface area Inflammation. Inflammation is an important risk factor for the development of CRC, and severity of inflammation has been directly linked to CRC risk. The epidemiological data clearly support this assumption. It is generally accepted that there is a strong link between endoscopic or histologic score of inflammation and CRC or dysplasia. The hypothesis that inflammation predisposes cancer development is further supported by the fact that CRC risk increases with longer duration of colitis, greater extent of colitis, the concomitant presence of other inflammatory manifestations such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, and the fact that certain drugs used to treat inflammation may prevent the development of CRC, as well as in sporadic and familial colorectal cancers. Concerning the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, it has been hypothesized that inflammation results in neoplastic transformation by enhancing epithelial cell turnover in the colonic mucosa. Carcinogenesis can be divided into 3 phases: initiation (the acquisition of stable genomic alterations), promotion (the proliferation of genetically altered cells), and progression (the process by which the tumor grows, spreads, and acquires additional genetic alterations). However, chronic inflammation and repeated events of inflammatory relapse in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) expose these patients to a number of signals known to have tumorigenic effects including persistent activation of the nuclear factor-ĸB and cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin pathways, release of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-a and interleukin-6, and enhanced local levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.It is thought that inflammatory mediators can contribute to carcinogenesis in the following ways: 1) enhancing levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that have mutagenic affects on DNA, thus contributing to tumor initiation; 2) activating prosurvival and antiapoptotic pathways in epithelial cells, thereby contributing to tumor promotion; and 3) creating an environment that supports sustained growth, angiogenesis, migration, and invasion of tumor cells, thus supporting tumor progression and metastasis.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 209


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Mucosal biopsies from patients with UC demonstrate higher rates of mitosis and apoptosis, especially in areas of active inflammation. On the other hand mutagenic assault and sustained DNA damage appear to drive the whole process. Several inflammation-associated genes such as cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase-2 are increased in inflamed mucosa and remain elevated in colonic neoplasms. Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) signalling is critical for colon carcinogenesis in chronic colitis. A recent study revealed that TLR4 is overexpressed in human and murine inflammation-associated colorectal neoplasia and that TLR4deficient mice were protected from colon carcinogenesis. TLR4 activation appears to promote the development of colitis-associated CRC by enhancement of Cox-2 expression and increased EGFR signalling. Cytokines It is now becoming clear that cytokines and growth factors released during inflammation may influence the carcinogenesis process. Interleukin-6 and -23, which play key roles in the induction and maintenance of gut inflammation in IBD, have been recently shown to influence the development and growth of colitisassociated CRC. Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) regulates the expression of various cytokines and modulates the inflammatory processes in IBD. NF-ĸB is held inactive in the cytoplasm by the inhibitory protein IĸB (inhibitor of NF-ĸB). Inflammatory cytokines or microbial products stimulate a signaling cascade that results in the activation of IKK (inhibitor of NF-ĸB kinase), which then phosphorylates IĸB. Phosphorylated IjB is ubiquitinated and degraded, thereby liberating NF-ĸB. Free NF-ĸB translocates to the nucleus where it then induces the transcription of target genes. NF-ĸB has been proposed to be a main molecular link between inflammation and carcinogenesis. NF-ĸB activation upregulates the expression of many proinflammatory mediators including adhesion molecules and cytokines (e.g., TNF-a and IL-6) that play a critical role in IBD and have been implicated in tumor development and progression in both humans and animal models. Moreover, NF-ĸB activation by proinflammatory stimuli can, in turn, directly promote cell survival by inducing the production of proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL that inhibit apoptosis. Finally, NF-ĸB can induce the production of factors that have been shown to drive tumor invasion and metastasis including chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and serine proteases. Finally, TNF-a is known to upregulate the production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the use of a TNF-a antagonist inhibited COX-2 production in azoxymethane/DSS-treated mice. COX-2 has multiple effects on tumor cell growth and angiogenesis.Moreover, in vivo inhibition of TNF-a reduced enterocyte levels of nuclear b-catenin, a signaling molecule that regulates transcription of many genes (including cell-cycle regulators and COX-2) that have been implicated in tumorigenesis. Aberrant b-catenin signaling has a well-established, critical role in the development of familial adenomatous polyposis intestinal cancer.Oxidative stress. Oxidative stress and oxidative cellular damage are important features of UC. The activities of phagocytic leukocytes are increased in UC patients, resulting in enhanced generation of pro-oxidant molecules. Oxidative stress in inflamed tissue can pave the way for malignant tumors and nitric oxide may contribute to the pathogenesis of CRC. Cancer is the result of stable somatic genetic mutations followed by clonal expansion of genetically altered cells. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in preventing clonal expansion of mutated cells by initiating apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in cells with DNA damage. Alterations to the p53 tumor suppressor gene are thought to be an important early event in colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Indeed, alterations to the p53 gene occur in 47%– 85% of colitis-associated cancers. It is thought that inflammation may contribute to tumor initiation through the production of excessive oxidative stress. Activated neutrophils and macrophages in the inflammatory environment produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species that can interact with the DNA of adjacent epithelial cells, leading to mutations. Moreover, the presence of p53 mutations was associated with increased inducible nitric oxide Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 210


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

synthase (iNOS) activity in these tissues. iNOS expression is induced during inflammation and catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO). NO, and reactive species derived from NO uch as peroxynitrite, can induce DNA damage and posttranslational modification of DNA repair enzymes, apoptotic effectors, and the p53 protein.Other factors. Other factors that have shown to contribute to CRC development include family history of CRC, smoking, and the presence of pseudopolyps, primary sclerosing cholangitis. A family history of CRC increases the risk of CRC by at least two-fold as compared to patients with UC without positive family history for CRC. The positive family history of CRC remained independently associated with CRC risk even after controlling for variables such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, surveillance colonoscopy, presence of pseudopolyps, mesalazine therapy and use of NSAIDs. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) appearing on the ground of UC increases the risk of CRC by 4.8-fold compared with patients with UC without PSC. Patients with PSC-IBD are at especially high risk for CRC and dysplasia. Therefore, patients with PSC-IBD should be enrolled in colonoscopic surveillance program regardless of UC duration. Other risk factors such as young age at diagnosis, a meta-analysis suggested that the overall annual incidence rate of 0.6% in studies restricted to pediatric patients was only numerically higher than that calculated for adults (0.3% ). Some authors suggest that younger age at UC onset is an independent risk factor.Smoking reduces the risk of CRC in UC by 50% but increases the risk of CRC in CD 4-fold, perhaps reflecting the opposite effect smoking has on inflammation in each disease.Pseudopolyps increase the risk of CRC in UC by 2.5-fold perhaps either as a marker of more severe inflammation in the past, or because they may obscure the sensitivity of surveillance colonoscopy.Clinical characteristics of CRC arising on the ground of UC and CD (colitis associated CRC). Colitis-associated CRC arising in patients with IBD has several distinguishing clinical features compared with sporadic CRC. It usually affects individuals at a younger age than the general population and demonstrates a more proximal distribution in the colon. There is also a higher rate of two or more synchronous primary CRCs. Colitis-associated CRC progresses to invasive adenocarcinoma from flat and nonpolypoid dysplasia more frequently than sporadic CRC. While sporadic CRC typically sprouts from mucosal polyps, morphologic changes in colitis-associated CRC are heterogeneous and may present as flat or raised lesions. Despite the challenge of identifying these changes in a chronically inflamed colon, detection of these changes is imperative as IBD patients carry a higher risk of developing CRC. Sporadic CRC arises because of genomic instability and the two major types, chromosomal instability (CSI) and microsatellite instability (MSI), account for approximately 85% and 15% of sporadic CRC respectively. While these mechanisms are also observed in colitis-associated CRC, the timing and frequency is different in IBD. Chromosomal instability, a function of abnormal chromosomal segregation and DNA aneuploidy, is the reason for most p53 and APC dysfunction. APC dysfunction is typically an early event in the adenoma-carcinoma pathway of sporadic CRC, while p53 mutations take place at later stages of disease. In colitis-associated CRC, this is reversed- APC defects are less frequent and seen later in disease course, whereas p53 chromosomal abnormalities observed in earlier stages. This finding may account for the flat morphology of dysplasia observed in IBD-associated CRC, as APC mutations are considered the reason for polyp formation. Dysplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) the development of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) occurs through an inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway. Dysplasia, the earliest histologic manifestation of this process, plays an important role in cancer prevention by providing the first clinical alert that this sequence is underway and serving as an endpoint in colonoscopic surveillance of patients at high risk for colorectal cancer.Dysplasia is defined as unequivocal neoplasia of the epithelium confined to the basement Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 211


April 2013 â&#x20AC;˘ e-ISSN: 1857-1878 â&#x20AC;˘ p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

membrane, without invasion into the lamina propria. Dysplasia can be classified as raised or flat based on its endoscopic appearance. Flat dysplasia is classically thought to be endoscopically invisible and is detected only on random biopsy specimens. At least 2 authors, however, have demonstrated that many of these lesions are in fact visible through standard white light endoscopy using newer generation colonoscopes with higher optical resolution. Elevated lesions that are endoscopically visible, but not amenable to endoscopic resection are often referred to as DALMs (dysplasia associated lesion or mass) a term with ominous connotation attributable to the high rate of synchronous malignancy associated with these lesions. A newer term ALM (adenoma-like lesion or mass) has been introduced to describe the finding of a polypoid lesion resembling a sporadic adenoma that is found in an area of the colon not involved by chronic colitis. Irrespective of the endoscopic appearance of a lesion as raised or flat, pathologists use the same set of criteria to describe the histologic appearance of dysplasia in IBD. A standardized classification system introduced by Riddell and colleagues in 1983 divides dysplasia into categories, including indefinite dysplasia, low grade dysplasia (LGD), high grade dysplasia (HGD) and cancer. Although this system remains widely employed, it has several acknowledged limitations, including poor inter-observer agreement and intra-observer reliability, even among expert gastrointestinal pathologists. This lack of concordance of biopsy interpretations has led to the routine practice of requiring confirmation of a dysplasia diagnosis by a second expert pathologist prior to making critical treatment decisions. Neoplastic progression in inflammatory bowel disease. Adenocarcinoma is usually preceded by progressively higher grades of dysplasia; however, low-grade tubuloglandular adenocarcinomas usually arise directly from low-grade or even indefinite dysplasia. They may progress in turn to more aggressive types of cancer, thus bypassing high-grade dysplasia. The Mount Sinai Hospital compared the outcomes of patients with biopsy specimens reported as negative for dysplasia, IND, and flat LGD and reported 5-year progression rates to HGD or CRC of 1.1%, 9% and 45%, respectively. Management of Dysplasia The current approach to surveillance is grounded in the concept of an inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, with dysplasia representing a premalignant phase during which intervention can prevent or minimize the complications associated with invasive cancer. Management of dysplasia, once diagnosed, relies on an understanding of the natural history. Indefinite for Dysplasia Epithelial regeneration and repair, especially in the setting of active inflammation, may result in atypia that can be difficult to distinguish from true dysplasia. These cases are termed â&#x20AC;&#x153;indefinite for dysplasia. More recently, Ullman and colleagues noted a 9.0% 5-year progression rate to HGD or CRC among 33 patients with biopsies considered indefinite for dysplasia. This rate of progression was intermediate between patients with no dysplasia and those with flat LGD. The CCFA consensus guideline recommends that patients with biopsies indefinite for dysplasia be followed with annual surveillance examinations. Patients with no evidence of dysplasia are consider low-risk for CRC, and should have repeat surveillance endoscopy within 1 to 3 years. The management of low-grade dysplasia is more controversial. In a study published in 1994, almost one third of patients with low-grade dysplasia progressed to high-grade dysplasia or colorectal cancer during follow-up. A chart review by Ullman et al revealed neoplastic progression from low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia as high as 53% at 5 years. There is evidence that an unrecognized synchronous colorectal cancer may already be present in up to 20% of individuals who

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 212


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

undergo colectomy for low-grade dysplasia.These findings highlight the fact that low-grade dysplasia is an independent risk factor for colorectal cancer, and transformation into high-grade dysplasia is not a necessary step before the development of colorectal cancer. More recent studies have shown that patients with low-grade dysplasia have a lower rate of colorectal cancer than previously thought (2–10% during a 10-year follow-up), prompting certain IBD experts to recommend close colonoscopic surveillance of patients with low-grade dysplasia rather than total colectomy. Five and 10-year progression rates of LGD to HGD and colorectal cancer. At this juncture, most experts agree that the presence of multifocal low-grade dysplasia should be managed with a total colectomy. When a single focus of low-grade dysplasia is found, both approaches (total colectomy vs. close colonoscopic surveillance) should be discussed with the patient. If the patient decides against total colectomy, then a repeat colonoscopy should be performed within 3 months and no later than 6 months from the discovery of the low-grade dysplasia. A subsequent surveillance exam revealing no dysplasia is not sufficient to return to routine surveillance. Continued exams should be performed every 6 months. Multiple biopsies, as previously described, need to be taken to decrease the sampling error during repeat surveillance. DALM (dysplasia associated lesion or mass) Early studies showed that DALMs are associated with increased incidence of CRC, and colectomy is generally recommended following diagnosis. However not all raised dysplastic lesions have the same high association with malignancy. For example, some raised dysplastic lesions resemble sporadic adenomas (termed adenoma-like DALMs) and are easily resectable . In contrast, non adenoma-like DALMs are unresectable endoscopically, sessile, irregular with indistinct borders and may be ulcerated. Several studies have observed a low risk of developing CRC after complete endoscopic resection of an adenoma-like DALM (mean follow-up period of forty-nine to eighty-two months), assuming that biopsies from around the lesion and elsewhere in the colon show no flat dysplasia. An incomplete resection is associated with a significant risk of developing CRC. If a raised dysplastic lesion cannot be completely removed, then colectomy is recommended. Following the complete removal of a polypoid dysplastic lesion, a repeat colonoscopy should be performed within 3–6 months. The vast majority of dysplastic mucosa (up to 89.3% in one study) appears as elevated lesions on endoscopy.These studies indicate the high association of synchronous CRC in patients with flat high-grade dysplasia. In practice, once the diagnosis of high grade dysplasia is confirmed by a second expert GI pathologist, colectomy is indicated. If high-grade dysplasia is confirmed, total proctocolectomy should be performed, given the high rate of synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma in that context. Raised lesions on the background of colitis may resemble sporadic adenomas. Polypectomy is done, along with four biopsies taken from the adjacent colon. If complete polypectomy is confirmed and biopsies of the surrounding mucosa are negative for dysplasia, and in addition there is no dysplasia elsewhere in the colon, a follow-up examination should be performed within 6 months, with regular surveillance resumed if no dysplasia is found. If dysplasia is present in the surrounding mucosa, or if the dysplastic polypoid lesion is nonresectable or does not resemble a typical adenoma, this lesion is considered to be a DALM. The presence of a DALM with its high association with a synchronous colorectal cancer and the presence of overt adenocarcinoma should prompt a proctocolectomy. Surveillance The major goal of endoscopic surveillance is to reduce mortality and morbidity related to CRC. Athough recommendations are not uniform, the American Gastroenterological Association, American College of Gastroenterology American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, British Society of Gastroenterology as

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 213


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

well as the CCFA Consensus Conference recommend that all UC patients undergo a screening colonoscopy between 8 to 10 years after the onset of symptoms with biopsies to assess the extent of disease involvement. The most proximal involvement detected histologically should define the patient’s extent of diseas. Patients with extensive UC should then undergo surveillance colonoscopy every 1–3 years. Patients with both PSC and IBD are a notable exception as they confer the highest risk of CRC, and should undergo annual surveillance colonoscopy after the initial diagnosis. There is no consensus regarding the time to initiate surveillance in patients with left-sided colitis. Some suggest that it be deferred to 12 to15 years after the onset of symptoms, but the recently published ACG guideline and AGA technical review suggest that surveillance in these patients should be initiated in a similar fashion to patients with pancolitis (i.e. within 1 to 2 years after the initial screening colonoscopy that is performed 8 to 10 years after onset of symptoms). Crohn’s patients with disease involvement in more than one-third of their colon should also undergo an initial screening colonoscopy 8 to 10 years after initial diagnosis, due to the fact that the risk of CRC in Crohn’s colitis is comparable to UC, guidelines are similar for both processes. Currently colonoscopy remains the most widely used method for detecting dysplasia or CRC, with the goal of surveillance to reduce morbidity and mortality from CRC. Performing high quality colonoscopy during endoscopic surveillance examinations is extremely important in IBD patients. Ideally, colonoscopy should be performed when the patient is in remission because active inflammation may hinder the histological diagnosis of dysplasia. Currently an international consensus panel suggests that at least 33 biopsies are needed to detect dysplasia, if present. The current standard for biopsy technique is to perform mucosal sampling via four-quadrant biopsies every 10 cm of the colon (i.e. non-targeted mucosal biopsies), with each set of four samples placed in separate jars. Conclusion IBD clearly predisposes to CRC development although the risk differs in different parts of the world. Cancer follows the sequence of no dysplasia, indefinite dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma. Low-grade dysplasia can progress to CRC without the intermediate stage of highgrade dysplasia. Similar to sporadic CRC, colitis-associated CRC is a consequence of sequential episodes of somatic genetic mutation and clonal expansion. In IBD, neoplastic lesions arise within areas of the mucosa that have been involved with colonic inflammation. A balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis may partly explain this epidemiological feature. Knowledge of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis could identify patients at high risk for development of CRC. In the near future, some chemopreventive agents could play a role in reducing the incidence of CRC in IBD patients. The future looks promising with respect to new developments in the management of cancer risk in IBD.

References 1.Munkholm P. Review article: the incidence and prevalence of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003;18 Suppl 2:1-5 2.Eaden JA, Abrams KR, Mayberry JF. The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Gut 2001; 48:526-535 3.Winther KV, Jess T, Langholz E, Munkholm P and Binder V:Long-term risk of cancer in ulcerative colitis: a population-basedcohort study from Copenhagen County. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2: 10881095, 2004

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 214


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4.Jess T, Loftus EV, Velayos FS, Harmsen WS, Zinsmeister AR, et al. (2006) Risk of intestinal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study from olmsted county, Minnesota. Gastroenterology 130: 1039-1046. 5.von Roon AC, Reese G, Teare J, Constantinides V, Darzi AW and Tekkis PP: The risk of cancer in patients with Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 50: 839-55, 2007. 6.Kiran RP., Khoury W., Church JM., Lavery IC., Fazio VW & Remzi FH. (2010). Colorectal cancer complicating inflammatory bowel disease: similarities and differences between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis based on three decades of experience. Ann Surg, 252, Aug 2010, 330-5. 7.Shih DQ, Targan SR (2009) Insights into IBD Pathogenesis. Curr Gastroenterol Rep 11: 473-480. 8.Canavan C, Abrams KR, Mayberry J (2006) Meta-analysis: colorectal and small bowel cancer risk in patients with Crohn’s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23: 1097-1104. 9.Steven H. Itzkowitz and Xianyang Yio Inflammation and Cancer IV. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammation Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 287: G7–G17, 2004; 10.Giovanni Monteleone, Francesco Pallone and Carmine Stolfi The Dual Role of Inflammation in Colon Carcinogenesis Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 11071-11084; 11.Rutter M, Saunders B, Wilkinson K, Rumbles S, Schofield G, Kamm M, Williams C, Price A, Talbot I and Forbes A: Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 126: 451-459, 2004. 12.Velayos FS, Terdiman JP, Walsh JM. Effect of 5-aminosalicylate use on colorectal cancer and dysplasia risk: a systematic review and metaanalysis of observational studies. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100: 1345– 1353. 13.Karin M, Greten FR. NF-kappaB: linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005; 5:749–759 14.Fukata M, Chen A, Vamadevan AS, et al. Toll-like receptor-4 promotes the development of colitisassociated colorectal tumors. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1869–1881. 15.Popivanova BK, Kitamura K, Wu Y, et al. Blocking TNF-alpha in mice reduces colorectal carcinogenesis associated with chronic colitis. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:560–570 16.Rustgi AK. The genetics of hereditary colon cancer. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2525–2538 17.Roessner A, Kuester D, Malfertheiner P and Schneider-Stock R: Oxidative stress in ulcerative colitisassociated carcinogenesis. Pathol Res Pract 204: 511-524, 2008. 18.Sawa T and Ohshima H: Nitrative DNA damage in inflammation and its possible role in carcinogenesis. Nitric Oxide 14: 91-100, 2006. 19.Hussain SP, Amstad P, Raja K, et al. Increased p53 mutation load in noncancerous colon tissue from ulcerative colitis: a cancer-prone chronic inflammatory disease. Cancer Res. 2000;60:3333–3337 20.Askling J, Dickman PW, Karlen P, Brostrom O, Lapidus A, et al. (2001) Family history as a risk factor for colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 120: 1356-1362.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 215


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Healthcare Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention by Mesalazine and its Derivatives

Kace Bahushi

Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Mesalamine (5-ASA), Colerectal cancer (CRC), mesalazine, Lynch syndrome, etc.

Faculty of Nursing Preclinical and Clinical Department University “Aleksander Xhuvani” Elbasan, Albania.

Abstract Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC), and this is believed to be a result of chronic inflammation. Although conclusive evidence is still missing, both epidemiological and experimental observations suggest that certain drugs used to treat inflammation, such as mesalazine, can reduce the incidence of colitis-associated CRC. Mesalamine (5-ASA) is widely used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis, a remitting condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon. Knowledge about the molecular and cellular targets of 5-ASA is limited and a clear understanding of its activity in intestinal homeostasis and interference with neoplastic progression is lacking.Therefore, in recent years, several studies have been conducted to dissect the mechanisms by which mesalazine interferes with CRC cell growth and survival. This review summarizes the current information on the molecular mechanisms that underlie the antineoplastic action of mesalazine.

Introduction

Colorectal cancer (CRC) rates among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of the colon are significantly higher than in the general population. One study placed patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) at 18% increased risk for CRC after 30 years with the disease. Although the majority of studies have focused their research primarily on ulcerative colitis, the extent of risk involved in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) of the colon appears to be the same according to the most recent studies . Seeing as patients with IBD are at an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from CRC due to the chronic inflammatory nature of their disease, some with the disease are more prone to acquire CRC than others. Factors that have been shown to increase the likelihood of acquiring CRC include: first degree relatives with CRC, primary sclerosing cholangitis, age of IBD diagnosis, and extent of disease. On the other hand, certain treatment factors such as compliance with surveillance colonoscopy, use of 5-aminosalicylic acid medications (5-ASA), folic acid supplementation, regular physician follow up, and regular low-dose aspirin consumption have been shown to decrease risk for neoplasms of the colon in patients with IBD. Since many of the factors that put patients at increased risk of colon cancer are non-modifiable, research has focused on remission maintenance and chemoprevention in an attempt to improve long-term outcomes for these patients. 5-ASAs are first-line anti-inflammatory medications used to induce and maintain remission in mild to moderate cases of active IBD. The chemical structure of 5-ASA contains the same bioactive compounds found in NSAIDs, including aspirin that are shown to inhibit the COX-2 pathway of prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, which in laboratory studies have been demonstrated to induce apoptosis and growth suppression of tumor cells. Though 5-ASAs have been shown to have varying degrees of chemopreventative potential, not all studies agree with one another, and, in some cases, have been inconclusive in the past. This comes despite a systematic review and meta-analysis of this topic by Velayos et al in 2005, which concluded that 5-ASAs reduced CRC risk by 49% with statistical significance. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 216


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Other recent studies have confirmed the effect of 5-ASA in chemoprevention of CRC in IBD. Chemopreventive agents can inhibit, delay or reverse carcinogenesis, leading to a reduced incidence of cancer. 5-ASA drugs have been used as chemopreventive agents since the 1990s, when a reduction of the incidence of CRC in patients with UC exposed to 5-ASA was reported in cohort and case control studies. An important step in the field was the publication in 2005 of a meta-analysis suggesting that a 50% reduction in the risk of CRC occurred in patients with UC exposed to 5-ASA, opening the door in clinical practice to the extensive use of 5-ASA as the sole agent of chemoprevention. Studies with negative results have been published since then, reopening the debate. An exhaustive appraisal of the pros and cons cannot be made here, and my purpose is merely to emphasise some methodological and conceptual elements. Carrying out a randomised controlled trial specifically designed to confirm this effect is not feasible as a prohibitive number of patients at risk would need to be enrolled, and so evidence can only be obtained through observational studies. Some methodological keys are necessary for proper interpretation of each study. The ideal study should be able to adjust the impact of a drug for all factors that influence the risk of CRC in IBD but such a study will never exist. For example, one cannot imagine a sequential assessment of microscopic inflammation in huge cohorts, and it has not yet been shown that sequential assessment of clinical IBD activity is a good surrogate marker for the intensity of mucosal inflammation. By contrast, it is essential to be able to match patients for the duration and the extent of colitis (two of the four major determinants of risk with age and gender, in addition to the particular context of associated primary sclerosing cholangitis). It is also increasingly important to control for confounding by indication with a propensity score or with other more sophisticated methods. In observational studies, drugs are prescribed in light of prognostic information. As 5-ASA is intended to prevent CRC, patients with the higher risk of developing CRC probably have been treated more often in the past few years (ie, they have a higher propensity to treatment exposure) than patients with a low risk. Consequently, if no adjustment for propensity is made, an analysis comparing treated and untreated patients may lead to an apparently positive association between 5ASA use and CRC. To illustrate the importance of adjustments, in the case of HIV infection, treatment with combined antiretroviral agents seems to be associated with increased mortality if no adjustment is made. No proof of concept of efficient chemoprevention of CRC with 5-ASA in Crohn’s colitis has been found and it will be difficult to obtain as extensive colitis is not common, and 5-ASA is predominantly prescribed as chemoprevention, which maximises the confounding by indication bias. 5-ASA Chemoprevention: Insight into Mechanisms Although multiple clinical studies have suggested a role for 5-ASA in prevention of CRC in patients with IBD, less is known about how 5-ASA exerts a chemopreventive effect. In this regard, the mechanisms by which 5-ASA is thought to exert a chemopreventive effect were reviewed by Dr. Christoph Gasche of the Medical University of Vienna (Vienna, Austria). The clinical efficacy of 5-ASA in IBD is presumably mediated via an anti-inflammatory action in the colon. However, the mechanisms by which 5-ASA exerts this anti-inflammatory effect have not been fully elucidated. Proposed mechanisms include modulation of inflammatory cytokine production inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX; a regulator of inflammation and cell proliferation

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 217


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

via formation of prostaglandins), inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (an important final effector of mucosal injury in IBD), inhibition of nuclear factor қB (a transcription factor responsible for the expression of multiple genes involved in inflammatory responses and promotion of carcinogenesis via blockade of apoptosis), activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-y (PPAR-y; a nuclear receptor, highly expressed in the colon, which plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation), and an antimicrobial action. Although these mechanisms underlie the anti-inflammatory effect of 5-ASA, some may also contribute to a chemopreventive effect. For example, PPAR-y activation, which was first demonstrated by Rousseaux et al, may be relevant to CRC prevention, as PPAR-y is involved in many important cellular processes, including cell-cycle control and apoptosis. Furthermore, the PPAR-y ligand rosiglitazone has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of active mild to moderate UC, supporting the role of PPAR-y as an important therapeutic target in UC. New studies have shown that 5-ASA (mesalamine) may also have direct chemopreventive effects in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. In addition to acting as an oxygen free-radical scavenger, mesalamine has been shown to reduce the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in CRC cell lines via inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A. Constitutive activation of this pathway, mainly because of mutation of a specific gene (Apc), is observed in most CRCs, and it is accepted that dysregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway isessential for early colorectal tumorigenesis. Thus, any reduction in Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity is likely to be protective against the development of CRC. In addition to interfering with the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, 5-ASA has also been shown to disrupt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (a pathway that activates mitogenic signaling in CRC cells) by enhancing the activity of SH-PTP2, a phosphatase that targets phosphorylated EGFR and thereby inactivates the receptor. As shown in cultured colorectal cells, mesalamine may also exert chemopreventive effects by improving the fidelity of cellular replication.53 Inefficiency in any of the processes that govern replication fidelity (DNA polymerase accuracy, its proofreading activity, and the proficiency of the postreplication mismatch repair pathway) can lead to cancer. By improving replication fidelity (via prevention of frameshift mutations independent of mismatch repair proficiency), mesalamine would be expected to reduce the speed andfrequency of cancer development. Additional in vitro studies have shown that mesalamine may also exert an effect on cell-cycle progression by slowing replication speed (without affecting microtubule polymerizationor spindle orientation) and activating intra-S-phase cell-cycle checkpoints, which block chromosome replication, In addition, preliminary data from CRC cell lines suggest that mesalamine may counteract inflammation driven carcinogenesis through demethylation of transcriptionally silenced tumor-suppressor genes. CpG island methylation (which acts to silence tumor-suppressor genes) has been identified as a mechanism of colon carcinogenesis and is present not only in UC but also in sporadic CRC. Clearly, further research is needed to establish the extent to which these different effects play a role in any chemopreventive action associated with 5-ASA. Such research will undoubtedly affect the future role of 5-ASA for chemoprevention in patients with IBD and possibly also in patients with other conditions associated with an increased risk of CRC, such as Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) or multiple colonic polyps.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 218


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Conclusion In summary, pooled results of existing observational studies in UC suggest that 5-ASA use is associated with a lower risk of CRC and a combined endpoint of cancer/dysplasia. Despite these promising results, they are not conclusive that 5-ASA use reduces colorectal neoplasia risk in a clinical setting. More studies are needed to answer clinically important questions such as what is the chemopreventive effect of 5- ASA in different risk subgroups; when to initiate therapy; what is the dose, duration, and frequency of therapy required for an antitumor effect; and how long this effect lasts after discontinuing therapy. In addition, the effect of 5-ASA use on dysplasia risk merits additional study, as it is an important outcome for suggesting causal inference. Such questions are often answered by experimental trials; however, these are unlikelydue to feasibility concerns and costs. In the absence of such trials, using more quantitative data to assess long-term 5-ASA exposure in conjunction with complete risk factor and endoscopic data is important. This will allow future observational studies to answer the above questions, refine the conclusions of the current analysis, and provide the best and most clinically useful evidence for determining how to use 5-ASA for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. References 1. Eaden JA, Abrams KR, Mayberry JF. The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a metaanalysis. Gut. 2001; 48: 526-35. 2. Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Kliewer E, et al. Cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based study. Cancer. 2001; 91: 854- 862. 3. Jess T, Gamborg M, Matzen P, et al. Increased risk of intestinal cancer in Crohn’s disease: a meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005; 100: 2724-2729. 4. Askling J, Dickman PW, Karlen P, Brostrom O, Lapidus A, Lofberg R, Ekbom A. Family history as a risk factor for colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology. 2001; 120: 1356-1362. 5. Ekbom A, Helmick C, Zack M, et al. Increased risk of large-bowel cancer inCrohn’s disease with colonic involvement. Lancet. 1990; 336: 357-359. 6. Ekbom A, Helmick C, Zack M, Adami HO. Ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. A population-based study. New England Journal of Medicine. 1990; 323: 1228-1233. 7. Rutter M, Saunders B, Wilkinson K, et al. Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126: 451-455. 8. Eaden J, Abrams K, Ekbom A, Jackson E, Mayberry J. Colorectal cancer prevention in ulcerative colitis: a case-control study. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2000; 14: 145153. 9. Chan AT, Arber N, Burn J, Chia WK, Elwood P, Hull MA, Logan RF, Rothwell PM, Schrör K, Baron JA Aspirin in the chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia: an overview. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Feb;5(2):164-78. doi: 10.1158/1940-6207. 10. Bernstein CN, Blanchard JF, Metge C, Yogendran M. Does the use of 5- aminosalicylates in inflammatory bowel disease prevent the development of colorectal cancer? American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2003; 98: 2784-2788. Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 219


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

11. Velayos FS, Terdiman JP, Walsh JM. Effect of 5-aminosalicylate use and colorectal cancer and dysplasia risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2005; 100: 1345- 1353. 12. Carmine Stolfi, Roberto Pellegrini, Eleonora Franzè, Francesco Pallone, Giovanni Monteleone Molecular basis of the potential of mesalazine to prevent colorectal cancer World J Gastroenterol 2008 July 28; 14(28): 4434-4439.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 220


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Technological Advancements and their Application for the Development of the Republic of Macedonia Naser Raimi

Research paper

Economy Keywords: market economy, business factors, global technical-technological developments, contemporary economies, competitive markets, etc.

State University of Tetova, Faculty of Business Administration, Kumanova.

Abstract Among the most important reasons for the accelerated development of the contemporary economies are considered the permanent achievements in the sphere of the technical – technological development that have enabled the transformation of these states in societies based on skills and knowledge (knowledge based societies). These changes, within the very short time, benefit global dimensions by being positioned as determining factors in the designing and conception of developmental changes in the future of all states. Macedonia also, as one of the states in transition, in a continuation of nearly two decades is creating and realizing a politic of the market economy, based on the application of measures for disorder and liberalization of the market reports. The pragmatic and fast articulation and acceptance of these global changes by the economies on development appears as a special moment for the creation of technical – technological pre – conditions of the development that, then will enable the efficient utilization of the developmental factors on the orientation of the manufacturing subjects in export, through the raising of their competitive level, and through this, the fast integration in the competitive European and world market. From this we come to a conclusion that “contemporary manufacturing structures” are based on the new and high technologies, that are as a result of the scientific – technological permanent researches. While the existing structure of manufacturing in Macedonia is based on the classical and antiquated technology, which cannot be ranked as competitive economy with exporting abilities, even though is realized a politic of the opened market. Overwhelming percentage in the rapid technical – technological development of the modern economies is based on the activities and results from “research – developments” (R&D) within the frames of the enterprises, that have their own budgets for these purposes. Based on this the states with technological domination (USA, Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain etc) from gross domestic production (GDP) separate between 2,5 % up to 3 % for research - development purposes. The main part of these financial means provide the companies themselves that operate in a totally competitive ambience of the market. In the conditions of globalization, is though that nearly 60% from the net investments of the American enterprises belong to the research – development sphere. Based on this, is imposed the necessity of creating the conditions for an accelerated transport and of the application of the new technologies that intensify various processes of modernization of the actual manufacturing structures of the states in transition. Starting from these factors of development should, with the help of the competent state institutions, to be created a favorable ambience for the development of entrepreneurship and innovational abilities of small and medium enterprises, in which will be enabled motivational conditions for innovative competitions between the participants in the market. Therefore the national companies should draft a clear concept towards the “challenges of the new technologies”, through the involvement of considerable part of the budget that is dedicated for “R&D”, with the purpose of stopping of the trend of marginalization of the involvement of budget means for these purposes. In the developed states, the overwhelming part from the budget support for research – development is dedicated for fundamental researches, which are linked with “positive externals” that are manifested as “social good”.

Introduction In the contemporary conditions of the global economy, among the most important factors for the socio-economical accelerated development are considered the permanent technical-technological achievements that have opportunity of transforming the less developed states into societies based

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 221


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

on skills and knowledge. The fast and pragmatic acceptance of these global changes by the economies in development appears as an imperative for the creation of technical-technological pre-conditions of the development, which then, will enable the efficient usage of the developmental factors over the orientation of subjects of the manufacturing in export, through the raise of their competitive level, and through this, their integration in the competitive world market. The Republic of Macedonia, in this 20 years period of transition is creating and realizing a politic of the market’s economy, based on the application of the relevant reforming measures with a purpose of the realization of an accelerated economic development. While the “contemporary manufacturing structures” are based on the new technologies with high performances, which are as a result of the permanent scientific – technological researches, the existing structure of manufacturing in Macedonia is based on the classical and antiqued technology, which cannot be ranked as a competitive economy with exporting abilities, even though actually, is applied a politic of the opened economy. In this direction, should be emphasized the fact that, the overwhelming part of the states that mark a rapid technical – technological development, their successes are based on the activities and results from “researches – developments” (R&D) that are realized within the frames of existing enterprises, and which have their own budgets specially for these purposes. In this direction, the states with dominant technology in the world such as – USA, Japan, Germany, France, Great Britain, Canada, Italy etc “from their gross domestic production” (GDP) separate between 2,5% up to 3% for research – development purposes. By emphasizing the fact that the main part of these provided financial means provide the companies themselves that operate in a totally competitive ambience of the market. Nearly 60% from the net investments of the American enterprises are dedicated to the research – development sphere. Starting from these facts, to the states in development and transition is imposed the necessity from the creation of conditions for accelerated transfer and of the application of new technologies that intensify the carious processes of the modernization of actual manufacturing structures. Therefore, based on these factors of development should, with the help of the competent state institutions, to be created a favorable ambience for the development of entrepreneurship, as an business philosophy, and the innovative abilities of the small and medium enterprises, in which will be enabled motivational conditions for innovational competitions between the participants in the market. Based on this national economies should draft a clear concept towards “the challenges of new technologies”, through the involvement of a considerable part from the budget of the company, that is dedicated for “R&D”, with the purpose of preclusion of the symbolic involvement trend, of the budget means for these purposes. In the developed states, the overwhelming part from the budget support for research – development is dedicated for fundamental researches, which are linked with the “positive externals” that are manifested as “social good”. Today in the global technical – technological conditions, each country that hasn’t created a comprehensive, efficient and pragmatic concept towards these changes is risked to remain in the margins of global developments. It is understood, Macedonia also, as well as the other states of the Balkan that are still in transition, besides the serious difficulties in the sphere of national economy but also in the other spheres, has no other alternative except a fast and adequate submission towards these contemporary technological challenges and the acceptance of qualitative changes with purpose of

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 222


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

the fastest possible adaption towards the international standards for manufacturing and exchange. 1. Socio Economical Predispositions of the Contemporary Technological Changes In the developed states the permanent changes in the sphere of the technical – technological development appear as a constituent part of the developmental processes that enables the transformation of these places into societies based on knowledge. It is understood that, these contemporary technical – technological changes have a special importance even for the economic development of Macedonia because the technologies with high developmental predispositions appear as a base of the new economical changes through their applications in sectors of propulsive character that have impact on the general social development. These technologies, in general, manifest some characteristics: the high ability of accumulation of the capital, high educational predispositions, the special mission and role of the state institutions in the definition and providing of the preconditions for the application of these high technologies etc. When we are in the sphere of phenomenon of the technology with high developmental predisposition (high – tech sector) should be emphasized that it is considered that technology in which, at least two or more times, is invested for research – development issues (R&D) from the average of the industry: information technology (IT), optical electronic, nanotechnology, biotechnology, advanced materials etc. It is understood that the Information and Communicative Technology, in the conditions of the global economy has manifested greater synergistic developmental effects, because of their linking communicative predispositions not only in the national, but also in the global level. As a result of the great impact of the technology on the development of the national economies of the more developed states (the application of the new technologies participate with over 50% in the norm of development of the USA, with 55% in Japan, 72% in Great Britain, 75% in France, 77% in German etc.) appears the necessity of the conception of relevant developmental strategies and politics that will be in correspondence with the new challenges that derive from the uninterrupted technical – technological progress. In the contemporary world economies, their permanent socio – economical development is based on the high competitive abilities of the business subjects, their functional organizational forms, the ways of communication etc, all these qualitative predispositions that are in a direct dependence from “production, distribution and of the usage of the knowledge and information”. The moment of transfer of the knowledge is very important for the general economic development because are distributed through various participants, adequate structures and specialized institutions that are in function of the enlargement of general socio – economical capacities through this component of the technological development. Therefore, the economies based on knowledge manifest relevant developmental consequences that come to expression through material investments in the sector of information and communicative technologies, in the computational equipments etc, in the investments of the non – material nature research – search, training of workforce, the insurance and proficiency of the professional qualified workers, the perfection of the computer software, the granting of various scientific services for the education in the sphere of the employment, export etc. Based on this, is imposed the fact that today nearly 60% from GDP of the OECD countries are realized from the economies based on knowledge and skills. Should be mentioned also the so-

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 223


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

called economies “economies that learn”(learning economy) that as base take the experience transformed in knowledge and skill, these moments that appear as necessity for permanent learning through the participants and various networks. The high requirements and the need of these economies that continually learn derives as a result of the immanent desire of the business for benefit, that can be realized only through the invention and application of various innovations, the improvement of the production–service quality, the increase of quantity, improvement of the design, management, marketing etc. Exactly, the phenomenon of Globalization appears as result of the technical – technological development and comes to expression through the casual attachment of the sphere of productivity and innovations, on one side, and of the dependence, continually in raise, on the other side, between the productivity and global markets of the products, services, of the workforce, existing technology, the capital etc. Based on this we can conclude that the phenomenon of globalization doesn’t only mean the issue of the buying and selling of goods and services, but also the dissemination of the knowledge and skills, the spread of productivity and its accompanying activities in the form of various servicing, the application of the most appropriate forms of marketing, of the consulting services, the cooperation in the research – search sphere, in the sphere of various scientific methodologies, in the sphere of the movement of capital, investments etc. Not to forget that on one side of these processes stands the desire and the real possibilities on the other side, that implicates a dilemma related to the opening of these national economies of the states in transition towards the world market, which follows as a result of the confrontation of these not enough competitive economies with the harsh criteria of the unmerciful concurrence among the participating subject, as well as with the rules of “World Trade Organization” but also with the other existing rules. The position of the enterprises of the states in transition depends from their abilities for invention of innovations and the speed for their spreading, and based on this, the national strategies and politics as point of orientation should have the competitive abilities in the international level and not in national level. Within the frames of drafting an efficient technological politic can be included some general characteristics: - The include of knowledge and information – with the purpose of support of the creation of knowledge and information, and after this, the dissemination (spreading) and the transfer of these sources; - The focus towards the factor of the human (human factor) through the exist and care for the issue of the advancement of the very advanced levels of education, with the only purpose the level of knowledge, skills and experience to be increased; - The involvement and support of the socio – economical spheres that are important for the increase of the competitive level of enterprises with the purpose of providing a better place in the global market; - The involvement of the possibilities of communication, connections and cooperation between various participants within the frames of national existing systems of innovations; - From this derives and the possibility and necessity of the cooperation of all participants in the globalized market, especially when it is about the projects with international character that have the orientation of the involvement of various social and economical spheres.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 224


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

2. The Creation of a New Developmental Policy as a Precondition for Accelerated Technical Technological Development From above we can conclude that the creation of a comprehensive developmental politic can be realized in an adequate socio – economical ambience which depends on many factors within the frames of that environment. If it is made a comparison between different factors within the frames of that concrete environment then, it is understood that, can be differentiated some factors that have a greater impact because of their specific nature. The factors that have a specific impact over the creation of an efficient technological politic, within the frames of the relevant environment, are considered1: political stability and then, also economical; the definition of developmental policy; the creation of equal conditions for the all participants in the market; the role of the state institutions in the leading of contemporary processes; the membership in European structures; the attraction of direct foreign investments etc; About the issue of “political stability” should be emphasized that in the Republic of Macedonia exist important political moments that upload the opportunities of creating a stabile political ambience, as a precondition for the motivation of foreign investments. As a priority issue for Macedonia is the realization of a politic of mutual trust between the existing entities, the resolution of name issue, that nearly two decades is contested by Greece and is followed by different reflections, as well as other issues of the political and religious character with neighboring countries. These appear as very important moments that prevent the political stability, and then, also the economical stability. Unfortunately, Macedonia is stuck related to the opportunities to pass the transition phase, which even after two decades still cannot pass it with success. Within this period of transition were implemented reforms in various spheres but, which did not give the expected results: instead of the decrease of unemployment, the same is continually increasing; the level of poverty is also increasing (according to many researches in Macedonia every third resident is not able to provide the elementary essential basket of food products, that means that over 30% are poor); also the industrial production continually marks decrease, that implies the decrease of norms of the GDP increase; all these have consequences on the issue of the increase of payment deficit and so on. In the toughening of the general political situation in this period in Macedonia, as a result of different disagreements that were followed with the loss of markets, various embargos and blockades, and as a culmination, also was the conflict of the year 2001, which has caused serious consequences as in the economical aspect as well as in the increase of social tensions. Therefore, in an obligatory way is imposed the issue of “definition of the position and the role of the state institutions” that comes to expression through the realization of further reforms, which should possess a more operative than declarative component, that implies the deep reformation of all institutions that are still under the shadow of the past. State institutions should realizes as soon as possible the economical functions that will be in function of the developmental needs of business subjects. This implies that the state with its institutions should stand as far as 1

Потикнување на растот (1998), Економски меморандум на Република Македонија, Групација на Светска Банка.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 225


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

possible from its involvement in business issues that function within the frames of the market economy. The role of these institutions should come to expression by providing favorable conditions for the development of various business initiatives in the private sector through the legal definition of the general business conditions and the normative – legal sphere. State institutions should be engaged in the direction of creating favorable competitive conditions for all participants in the market, as for the aspect of providing the conditions for the realization of various business initiatives by the entrepreneurs of the small enterprises, as well as in the aspect of providing the conditions for stimulation of innovative activities, that is understood, result with the opening of new work places and mitigation of unemployment. The role of the relevant state institutions should come to expression in conception and approval of an efficient technological policy, which in a complementary way, with the research – scientific policy enter in the structure of the general industrial policy of the country. The creation of equal conditions for all participants in the market – is considered as one of the priority issues that should be realized by the state institutions because without the existence of a competitive ambience for all business subjects in the market, cannot exist an ambience for the invention of innovations, because only innovations add the competitive abilities of the country subjects that with success to go out in international markets. The free market fights the various barriers and restrictions by the governmental institutions that prevent the various entrepreneurial initiatives to enter or to get out of the relevant business. Therefore, should be created mechanisms through the relevant legislative in order to exist a real business ambience that fights the disloyal concurrence. The issue of the “membership in European structures” is considered as an issue of the strategic character for Macedonia. The accession of Macedonia in the EU structures provides, firstly a political stability and then, through various opportunities (the increase of export, employment, education, science, technology etc) also economical stability. In this context Macedonia has signed the “agreement for stabilization and association” (April, 2001) with the EU that has enabled to it some predispositions toward the integration in these institutions as soon as possible. With the purpose that the criteria for the entrance in the EU to be realized as soon as possible, Macedonia, parallel with the taken obligations and realized reforms, has started with the realization of additional obligations that have to do with different spheres as: the adaption of country’s legislation with that of the EU, the realization of the reforms in the public administration sphere, definition, conception and implementation of the efficient developmental policy as well as other issues. Based on the obligations that come out from the signer agreement for stabilization and association, is drafted an “action plan” for the implementation of this agreement for the realization of which is established a “comity for euro-integrations” that has the character of operating and working organ. The issue of the “attraction of foreign direct investments”, the same enables the realization of the economic developmental objectives in a level of the developed and competitive economies, that then enable the expansion of the market through the added competitive economies of the domestic subjects that can confront all the challenges of the global market. These issues of the attraction of foreign investments enables the creation of an favorable global ambience for the expansion and dissemination of the new changes that contribute in the building of an economy

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 226


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

based on information. The foreign investors can invest in all socio – economical spheres under equal and very favorable conditions. Actually, even though, from the legal aspect and declaratively, exist very motivational moments, in Macedonia in comparison with the other countries of Balkan, the foreign investments have confirmed the symbolic character that means that Macedonia has the last place in table of countries in transition according to the foreign investments. Even though there exist preconditions for the attraction of foreign direct investments through “various customs and tax releases”, interest reliefs, expediency of the establishment of enterprises through the system of a wicket, through the providing of a favorable business infrastructure etc, yet all these moments does not have such a big importance in comparison with the factors that have to do with the “political and economical stability” that have been elaborated above. Therefore, should be emphasized that besides the different existing predispositions for the motivation and attraction of foreign investments, the same cannot be realized if does not exist a higher level of political stability, and based on this also the existence of a stabile macroeconomic ambience. In this obligatory way is also is imposed the issue of other segments that encompass the dimension of “the general business environment”, that have to do with the reforms in jurisprudence, the ensuring of the capital from the borrowers, the protection of intellectual property, transfer of the profit, the height of contributes, protection of the investments etc. 3. Interdisciplinary Nature of the Technological Policy and its Correlation with the Economical Policy The partial access that that comes to expression through the existence of certain documents and activities in Republic of Macedonia cannot be in function of the definition and solution of complex issues and a functional dependence, which in essence include the developmental competence. As Macedonia, as well as the other states in transition, in the contemporary technological development see their chance to enter in a higher phase of development through the involvement and participation of qualitative factors that impact on the increase of GDP (gross domestic production) and in this way, also in the general economical development of the country. Therefore appears a necessity from the aspect of drafting and realization of a consistent technological policy, which will be in accordance with the adequate measures as of the budget policy, as well as with those measures of educational, scientific, export – import, interest policy etc. Exactly, because of the interdisciplinary character of the technological policy, in the realization of the same participate, various institutions with relevant jurisdictions: Ministry of education and science, Ministry of economy, Ministry of agriculture, Ministry of justice as well as other institutions and agencies interconnected with different jurisdictions in the realization of this policy. The realization of a longtime technological policy should enable an accelerated passage in the higher phases of the economical development, that later will enable, increase of GDP, permanent decrease of the deficit in the payment balance, increasing the welfare of residents etc. Through the realization of a technological policy, with a complementary character with the general economical policy, can be achieved these objectives: - The general increase of the technologic level that is manifested through the increase of the segment of education and science;

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 227


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

- The increase of the level of technological abilities of country’s industry, in which case comes to the general development of the production, investment activities and innovative abilities; - The permanent increase of the offer of the country’ innovations etc. The technological policy should be supported on other alternatives that represent various combinations of the country’s and foreign knowledge, that means that country’s knowledge and skills should be combined with the foreign ones, imported with the purpose of support of strategic technological processes. Macedonia, even though is a small and not so developed country, with not enough developmental resources, because of the considerable potential of the workforce with high qualification, that represents a comparative superiority, can realize a vantage with the creation of a policy of motivation and stimulation of the human capital2. Therefore, investments in human capital implicate activities that increase the productivity of work through the education and various trainings in the work places. Among the basic factors for the enlargement of the economical activities and for the efficiency of the enterprises in the competitive market appear some factors that, freely can be treated as pillar factors with propulsive character of the socio – economical development, among which can be considered: policy in the sphere of innovations, policy in the sphere of dissemination of innovations and policy of the transfer of technology and knowledge. The phenomenon of knowledge as a precondition for their materialization in concrete forms of innovations, can be achieved through two elementary forms: the formal forms of the benefit of knowledge and the informal forms, and the possibilities of their diffusion, also through the different forms of interaction in the enterprise itself, interactions between enterprises in different levels as well as the interactions of these business subjects with the different institutions that realize public functions. The sector of small and medium enterprises, as a holder sector of developmental changes, with their importance and position in the general national economy, because of their flexible predispositions toward the liberal market, because of their business opportunities in the creation of GDP, which come to expression through their high innovational abilities, appear as a target group that in every aspect should be supported by the side of state institutions. These are main motivational moments for the integration of position and role of small and medium enterprises within the frame of the existing technological policy. In the specialized spheres of advanced technology there exist various forms of the support of small and medium enterprises, forms which can come to expression through: - participation by the side of small enterprises in different research – scientific projects within the frames of EU; - connectivity between the successful enterprises of the country with the known companies with multinational and intercontinental character, based on the ling-terms agreements for cooperation in the sphere of production, common investments, in the sphere of research – development, in the sphere of common investments3 etc;

2 3

Gary S. Becker(1993); Human Capital, National Bureau of Economic Research, p.17-18. Prof.Dr. Naser Raimi:”Menaxhimi i biznesit të vogël”; Tetovë,2008, fq.115.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 228


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

- cooperation in different multinational projects with the known and proved institutions in the sphere of research – development as – universities, known centers with these professional orientations, with the known technological parks etc. These moments should be in function to the efficient adaptation of the country’s enterprises towards the changes that open the paths toward an information economy namely towards an economy which uses the knowledge and skills. In this context, we will emphasize the moment that has to do with the definition of the compatible educational system4, a system which should be in function to the needs of the participants in the market as well as to their entrepreneurs with the only purpose that these subjects in the competitive market to be able with a great success to cope all socio – economical challenges. Conclusion Permanent contemporary developments in the sphere of technological development hold different socio – economical challenges important for the perspective future of the Republic of Macedonia. The setbacks in this direction appear as a result of great differences that exist with other developed countries from this aspect. Actually, the process of approaching of the norms of development of Macedonia with that of the developed economies is on dependence with the speed of the creation of the new factors of development, among which a specific importance has the technological development. The existence of classical technology with extensive character, and in general antiquated, even though exists an orientation of the open economy and competitive ambience in the world market, the export of Macedonia, that has more the elementary character, cannot have bigger developmental effects. The mentioned contemporary changes impose different challenges before the national economy and contemporary resources of the development. This implies the confrontation of the economy of Macedonia with the different challenges and threats in the international markets and, with the purpose of their successful cope, the orientation of the domestic economy in the direction of the use of resources and comparative advantages. Based on this, we conclude that the knowledge and information are profiles as basic resources of the XXI century, which enable the dissemination of the activities related to the providing, conservation, processing and dissemination of the information starting from the electronic technologies for the elaborating of information up to the sphere of education and administrative activities. Therefore, the creation of the conditions for the development of innovative abilities, for the providing of an ambience with competitive character where will be developed the knowledge and skills of the workforce, which will be able to convey and to straddle the new information challenges and horizons, appears as an imperative that does not have an alternative, of the complex character that will be in function of the accelerated socio – economical development of each country.

4

Barro R. J. and Sala-Martin X(1995), Economic Growth, New Jork: Mc Graw-Hill.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 229


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

References 1. 2. 3.

University of Warwick, Science Park, 1993. Таки Фити, Верица Хаџи-Василева Марковска, Милфорд. Потикнување на растот (1998), Економски меморандум на Република Македонија, Групација на Светска Банка. 4. Gary S. Becker (1993); Human Capital, National Bureau of Economic Research. 5. P Бетмен,„Претприемништво„ Економски Факултет, Скопје, 1999. 6. Naser Raimi:”Menaxhimi i biznesit të vogël”; Tetovë,2008. 7. Barro R. J. and Sala-Martin X(1995), Economic Growth, New Jork: McGraw-Hill. 8. Galbraith, John Kenneth: “The New Industrial State” Houghton Mifflin, Boston,1967. 9. Richard M. Hodgets, Donald F. Kuratko: Effektive Small Business Management, sec.ed., Academic Pres College Division, New Zork, 1986. 10. Wall P.J.”Venture Capital Aktivities in Selected Countries. Another Look”Washington, International Finance Corporation, Mimio, 1986.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 230


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

Political Science Dramatistic Analysis for Rhetorical Strategies of Albanian Election 2009 Nina Nazmije Gjoçi

Keywords: rhetoric, choice, change, good terms, culture.

European University of Tirana, Faculty of Social Science Department of Communication, Tirana, Albania.

Abstract This paper examines the communication choices of the two coalition leaders, Berisha and Rama, during the campaign for the Albanian Parliamentary election, on June 28, 2009. The first section of the paper is a description of the situation necessary to understand the rhetoric, followed by the summary of the transition rhetoric. The second section is the methodology and the findings of the rhetorical analysis of the artifact. Five main themes generate by the analysis based on the crossing of Burke’s Dramatism as “philosophy of language” with Weaver’s concepts of rhetoric, culture, and ultimate terms. The third section is the pentad analyses of both leaders Berisha and Rama, which will be employed to discover the rhetor’s motives and Weaver’s ultimate terms as an expression of the ultimate values and worldview of the rhetor. The effect of their rhetorical choices and the differences between these choices will be discussed in the fourth section, followed by conclusions, limitations of this study, and suggestions for future research.

1. Introduction While in communism the rhetoric is barely existent (there is only one way and no room for influences) during transition it becomes alive and powerfully influencing values and judgments. There is a significant gap in the study of rhetoric during these transition periods. The rhetoric during the transition period is unique. It is not the same as crises rhetoric which does not involve fundamental system change, or can it be studied the same as a revolutionary rhetoric. The changes during transition are drastic but they are done democratically. The transition period gives birth to a new rhetoric which mirrors what the society is striving for. Albania’s election 2009 is a good ground to study the new rhetoric shaped during nearly the last two decades, after 1991. A new culture, distinct from twenty years ago, is created; new patterns of communication in response to the new system are employed. During election it is imperative the choosing of the future based on the calling of the past. The purpose of this study is to examine the communication strategies during the election, revealing influences in the direction the country takes; and differences of rhetorical choices between the two coalitions’ leaders. The role of leaders in the transition period is important in the transformations in discourse as well. Presidential rhetoric studies have focused largely on the role of presidential rhetoric in the political cultures of established Western democracies. Studies in leaders’ rhetoric present new perspectives or challenges for presidential rhetoric studies, provide comparative data, test established notions, or help develop new ones. The 26 speeches analyzed were relatively short, held during the campaign, by the coalitions’ leaders, in each of the country’ districts.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 231


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

2. Rhetoric and Transition The transition period is where rhetoric and history intertwine. Oratoski and Marin studied the relationship between rhetoric and history in the context of the political transformations in Central/Eastern Europe and South Africa. The nature of this intertwining on the whole reaffirms the resistance to the depersonalization of history. (Oratoski, C., & Marin, N. 2006). Rhetoric as a construction of social reality is not only reflected in language and its communication, but it is also constantly renewed by and in communication. We would have to ask how language is related to and affected by processes in which identities change, are lost, and found again or rescued (Schäffner & Porsch, 2001). A study done in Argentina during the period 1982-8 observed and called into question the socialization effects of democratic institutions during relatively short periods in a context of economic crisis and rising discontent (Bacalhau, M., 1990). During the transition to democracy in Spain the role of the media was studied during the beginning of the transition from 1975 to 1978. The significant change in the foci of the content proves the change of values and beliefs during transition (Montero, M. et al, 2008). Also, studies done by several authors about European Union enlargement could help as transition’s rhetoric perspective from an outsider, as the effect of the transition of the eastern Europeans countries into the western rhetoric. Culture and history interference in this transition time make a contribution towards understanding the transition rhetoric (Adams, S. 2006; Bacalhau, M. 1990; DeVreese, C., & Schuck, A. 2005, 2006; Erjavec, K. 2008;Hammond, A. 2006; lauristin, M. 2007; Marunowski, K. 2008;Oberhuber, F. et al, 2005). 3. The situation Albania was, in 2009, newly accepted NATO member, and inspires to join EU. The country had to undergo numerous reforms to achieve this status, and in order to be fully accepted in the European Union the reforms must continue further to complete the requirement for all the countries in the western Balkan region. EU has twenty seven country members; the laws in these countries have to be the same, and Albania has to do more to bring the legislation closer to that of the EU. The parliamentary elections on June 28, 2009, are an elections test for Albanian society to be free of any manipulation and disturbances that have happened in the past elections for the last twenty years. This study will focus on the rhetorical choices made by the leaders of both main coalitions; the right coalition with Berisha, and the main left coalition by Rama. Berisha is the legendary leader of democrats, and Rama is new leader of socialists and a successful acclaimed major of Tirana.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 232


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4. The rhetorical analysis Rhetorical choices are strategies realized from the analyses of speeches made by the two leaders during the campaign in the month of June, 2009. The speeches were relatively short, held in the campaign meetings throughout the country. The themes that emerged through analyses are clustered based in the intensity, the frequency, and the current issues, sensitive for the situation. The rhetor’s identify themselves with the audiences by naming a situation, and providing a strategy for dealing with the situation. The themes discussed below are generated based on Burke’s theory of rhetoric, by investigating the rhetoric that constitutes their terministic screens. Based on these screen of the artifacts, speeches in our case, we can reveal the worldview of the rhetor, in the terms they choose to use the speakers reflect who they are, and what is their meaning on the subjects and situations. The leader’s motives are discovered through the pentad analyses and using of Weaver’s good terms and culture. 4.1 The Themes on Berisha’s speeches The main themes that emerge from the analyses of the speeches are Change, Albania, European Union membership, Albanian people, and Rama - the socialist party leader. 4.1.1 Change Change is the motto for the right; it is mentioned in every speech and in their advertisements and posters. The right coalition’s motto is “Albania is Changing” as a continuation of the motto from four years ago from the last elections “Time for Change”. The democrats have been in power for the last four years, the motto “Albania is changing” helps create a picture of successful governance, shows evidence of kept promises from the last campaign, and willingness and determination to continue change in the direction already started. Having change as the main theme, the rhetoric of this election is the rhetoric of rebirth, with the only difference between the two campaigns on the stages of the rebirth cycle. For democrats the guilt (pollution) starts with the communist system and all the destruction and social tension created by it. The purification is the transition reforms undertaken to establish democracy in the country. The right leader’s rhetoric calls for continuation of the reforms as a form of the purification already started in 1992 and interrupted again from 1997 to 2005 and restarted in 2005. For the right wing the purification lasted all these eighteen years of transitioning to a free society. The means for relieving the guilt through mortification are the sacrifices the people went through. The motto in early nineties was, “We want Albania in Europe,” that was the redemption aimed for then and continued to be for the transition years. At present is to be concluded with the EU membership. The redemption is moving forward towards EU. Berisha called this redemption “a dream”. “Our dream is for everybody, every Albanian, anywhere they are, because they want their homeland to prosper and flourish with dignity. Dignity means ways that work for everybody. Europe is what works for everybody, Albania in European Union works for everybody” (Berisha, June 25, 2009).

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 233


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4.1.2 Albania Albania is the next major theme that emerged from the analyses of the speeches during the campaign for Berisha the right coalition leader. For Berisha “Albania is now free, strong, and brave soon to be in the EU where the country will show its full natural and cultural potential”. All three of these terms fit with the vision of all Albanians. Freedom is still the tyrannizing image of the Albanian culture. Free to live and prosper at home, and also being able to move and travel in the world. Strong would exactly describe the courage that the country did need to survive, succeed and progress. For Berisha, “The love for your country does not let you ever give up the dream of seeing its people happy, safe, and moving ahead in prosperity.” (Berisha, Tropoje, June 15, 2009). Progress is another term used in association with the country and is achieved through investments and reforms, terms which are always clustered around progress. Also brave is a good term in the Albanian culture, as “Only by being brave the people have survived the numerous battles during the history. We should also now be brave by finding the best way, not the easiest, in order to be able to overcome any obstacle we might face in the future” (Berisha, June 18, 2009). 4.1.3 Albanians The Albanian People was the third theme that emerged from the analyses. Berisha used the terms Albanians and “you” in all his speeches. He used positive terms like; “dream,” “guidance,” and “future.” Also terms like “battle “ and “war” were used in association with the people, mostly to call attention to what they had to go through. He calls the Albanian people as his “guidance” throughout the transition years, and “his strength has come from them,” making them the reason of the success. The message conveyed to the audience is to be courageous a little more on the path of change already started. “. . . Nobody has fought for their dream more than you have, and now the future is in your hands.Let us focus on the future” (Berisha, June, 15, 2009). For Berisha, “the future” and “the Albanian people’s dream,” are what is worth fighting for. 4.1.4 European Union European Union is the fourth theme that emerged during the analyses. Berisha’s goal is for the country to join EU.. Berisha sees it as the end of the struggle for freedom and democracy from the Albanian people; “. . . EU is the rebirth of Albania on the European table, following its natural destiny” (Berisha, June 15, 2009). EU would close the cycle started when the communism broke down. 4.1.5 Rama – the socialist leader Responding to the accusations, Berisha calls Rama unable for his proclaimed “new politics” because his vision is “stuck on the past” (Berisha, June 20, 2009). The terms used by Berisha in association with Rama are “corruption”, communism, and “past”. 4.2 The Themes on Rama’s speeches The main themes that emerge from the analyses of the speeches are New politics, Change, Albania, Albanian citizens, and Berisha - Democratic Leader.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 234


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

4.2.1 New Politics New politics is the motto for the left campaign rhetoric, and it is the term most often used by Rama’s rhetoric. It is always associated with change. Change is also the motto for the socialist coalition with another twist “New politics for change,” to create the idea of new ways, new means to the end, the change to a better system of society functioning. The change comes from Rama and the socialists which want new politics for change. “Old politics represented by Berisha, is keeping the Albanian time stuck, with their outdated worldview” (Rama, Shkoder, June 17, 2009). During the campaign the role of Rama as a “new leader” for “new politics” was highly emphasized, “What has been done in Tirana will prove effective to be done all over Albania. We need new politics, new politicians, new prime minister” (Rama, Kruje, June 19, 2009). By naming the transition period as a failure, Rama distinguishes himself from socialists who governed for eight years. He wants to be seen as the only “new politics” option by camps, democrats and socialists, when he states, “beyond the left and the right” (Rama, June, 2009). The only way out from the current situation is “new politics” with him as the leader.

4.2.2 Change For the left coalition leader Rama, the circle of rebirth starts now, with this election. The guilt is the social anxiety and tension created in the eighteen years of transition. The pollution comes from all the past, the communist regime and the transition years naming the latest as a failure for transforming the society. Rama blames Berisha for it and the purification cycle is “to remove him from the governing Albanians.” The process of purification starts with socialists coming to power and directing reforms toward a social cohesion. The redemption for Rama is the social cohesion within the country, new perspective “bringing Albania back its original dignity and former glory.” For the left wing the rebirth starts with them today and finishes when we have won back “our lost identity”. “The progress comes when all the members of the society look at the same direction, a direction that the Socialist Party has appointed already” (Rama, June 18, 2009). “We need centralized reforms, to control the corruption brought in during last eighteen years of the way of dealing with the issues of education, health, and other public reforms” (Rama, June 15, 2009). The means of the purification for Rama would be the changing of the system, where the citizens would yield the results.

4.2.3 Albania For Rama Albania is blessed by God with everything the country needs to live free, to prosper, and to soar. Rama adds more to the term of freedom when he associates it with God and blessing, also ultimate terms in Albanian culture. By choosing these terms he wants to make the people aware of the great potential the country has naturally and intellectually, all they have to do

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 235


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

is open the door to the sun. Sun is another good term in his speeches used to empower people of their great, naturally rich, and beautiful country. In Rama’s rhetoric, the country had the spotlight also on most of his campaign advertisement. He mentioned the national hero of the country, Gjergj Kastrioti, in several of his speeches, in combination with his other campaign motto “get up and go” to reach that dream. For Rama protection of the Albanian culture and values is what should drive people for their next move, and that’s what they should vote for, to protect our national identity and heritage, blaming Berisha for organizing “the massacre” of our national culture because of “his lust for power” (Rama, June 21, 2009). Massacre is a negative term, while culture and power are charismatic terms in Albanian culture. For Rama EU membership is just one of the processes that should happen, more important is for us to focus on our “Our focus should be on our national heritage, which includes what Europe is all about. We are one of the oldest nations in the world; Let us stop the masquerade of our national heritage” (Rama, June 16, 2009). For Rama, EU membership is not the key, the key lies with the Albanian people and the country’s economic and intellectual prosperity.

4.2.4 Albanian citizens Rama used the term “Albanian citizens” instead of Albanian people throughout his campaign. The Albanian citizens are to be honored for their “contribution and hard work on keeping the old Albanian dream alive through the transitions years of failure.” If all Albanians believe and work together anything is possible. He glorifies the Albanian people and blames “the system for not matching the potential of its people” (Rama, June 16, 2009). Rama’s main campaign advertisement is “get up and go” a highly personalized video implying; people need a leader. The video shows Rama with the miners, the farmers, then in the hospital and schools where there are shut doors where open the sun lightens up the space. The song calls for action to vote, to make possible this sunlight in their lives; they are powerful if they choose to act, and the time is now. By focusing on “removing Berisha” and with highly personalized campaign advertisements the message conveyed was not on the people but on the leader.

4.2.5 Berisha The terms used by Rama in association with Berisha were “failure”, “destruction”, “past”, “resignation”. Identifying themselves with whatever Berisha is not, personalizing the campaign against him was one of the socialist rhetorical strategies. During the campaign speeches everyone from the socialist coalition parties leaders purposed to “remove Berisha” (Gjinushi, June 17, 2009) from the politics for good, to “remove Berisha from power.” Rama calls the “removing of Berisha” as the “beginning of the new era.” By emphasizing in every speech of the left coalition parties “let’s remove Berisha” they gave the message to the audience that they do not approve of any achievement done by him, despite the facts that tell it differently.

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 236


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

5. Pentadic analyses of the leaders The pentad is a critical instrument designed to reduce statements of motives at the most fundamental level; act, agent, agency, scene, and purpose. Along with agency sometimes Burke used attitude as the manner in which particular means are employed. I will use the term attitude in the pentad analyses as it was a significant difference in attitude between the main leaders. Analyzing the speeches made by the two main coalitions’ leaders I identified the terms of the pentad for each leader. The terms for Berisha are: Agent: the Albanian people. Act: vote democrats to continue change. Scene: the country is changing and we are one step away from realizing our dream. Purpose: to finalize full membership in the European Union. Agency: continue the reforms already started. Attitude: Albanians deserve the best, and they are the power to overcome any challenge. Applying the ratios to identify the dominant term provides us with what aspect of the situation the rhetor sees as most important. The dominant term is the scene. The scene influences all the other terms of the situation. The country is changing in the right direction and this is for all Albanian people. Continuation of the reforms started by democrats is directly influenced by the scene. How Berisha put it in his speeches “what has been done so far must continue,” so choosing democrats is the choice the country should make for this situation, which corresponds with materialism; Burke’s philosophical system when the scene is the dominant term. Materialism is the philosophical system that regards all facts and reality as explainable in terms of matter and motion or physical laws. The examples were used over and over in Berisha’s speeches, facts from the distant and recent past: before and after 1990’s. The reality at the time explains what has been done and based on that, how much could be done in the future. Having scene as dominant in the drama defines materialism as philosophy of the rhetor, made Berisha’s rhetoric more concrete and understandable. The scene justified what the country has achieved so far and most importantly it gave courage and hopes. The motive of the rhetor is to have the country move forward towards democracy and prosperity, the full membership in the European Union would be the last brick to shaping up the country’s future. For Rama the left coalition leader rhetoric I identified the terms of the pentad as follows: The agent: Rama and his future administration. The act: Remove Berisha from government. The agency: Centralized reforms in private and public sector. The scene: The country needs the socialist strong hand to start all over with reforms that would bring real order, and social justice. The purpose: Bring the country the former glory. The attitude: Berisha is the obstacle; Rama is the leader the country needs. The application of the ratios revealed the purpose as the dominant term for this pentad. The pentad’s term purpose requires the other terms of the rhetor’s description of the situation. The situation in Rama’s

Anglisticum Journal (IJLLIS) , Volume: 2 | Issue: 2 |

Page | 237


April 2013 • e-ISSN: 1857-1878 • p-ISSN: 1857-8179

Research paper

rhetoric is centered on purpose, to bring the country the former glory. By identifying himself with the former Labour Party of Albania Rama calls for the law and social order the country had at that time in communism. This in fact was audience centered message based on Rama’s supporters, mostly members of the older generation which thrived before the nineties, and/or their immediate descendants. The law, order, social justice, the centralized way of handling the problems the country faces is the meaning brought to the audience. The corresponding philosophy when the situation is purpose centered by the rhetor, according to Burke, is mysticism featuring identification with a universal purpose – to return to the former glory. The motivation force for the rhetor and those persuaded by him is that Rama and his Party have the obligation before the nation to do whatever it takes to bring the country - the former glory. The way to do it is by removing Berisha for good from the politics and start with new politics for change that has our country’s honor as its focal point. Rama implied that the reforms that should take place are the ones that should please first and foremost Albanians. The reforms should be centralized so to get the best results, and should not be focused on matching the European Union standards. They should be geared towards what works for Albania. Albania is naturally in Europe, we just need to be ourselves and working in our interests as our primary focus. We cannot try to be what we already are: Europeans. The mysticism is for the nation’s glory. The term attitude as how the means are carried out, or as a preparation for an act were distinctly significant in both leaders. Rama’s attitude as “I am the man for the job, all the country has got to do is remove Berisha, and everything will settle on the place.” Berisha’s attitude was the Albanians deserve the best, they are the possibility to their own success. 6. Conclusions As the “Change” is important for both campaigns, the change is a rhetorical choice; the “change” is in the worldviews and valu