Urdu/ English Bi-Monthly
QUARANTINE ZOMBIE OUTBREAK NO ONE SHALL ENTER OR LEAVE THIS AREA WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE LOCAL HEALTH AUTHORITY ANYONE FOUND VIOLATING THIS REGULATION WILL BE FINED NOT LESS THAN $100.00 NOR MORE THAN $1000.00 FOR EACH VIOLATION (US ART.673)
The Lowest Area on Earth
Pulsars: Pulsating Stars
Rs. 30/Climate Change: In the Light of Qurâ€™an & Hadith AMU Lecture Rs. 99/-
Islam & Science Dubai Lecture
Increasing Freq. of Earthquakes Istanbul Conf.
Furqania Academy Waqf
#82, 9th F Main, BTM 1st Stage, Bangalore-560 029 (India) Tel & Fax: 9180-26689064; Moble: 09483952440; Email: email@example.com; Web: www.furqaniaacademy.com
Here you will get Successful Treatment for: Diabetics, Hearts, Joints Pain, Gastic, Piles, Kidney Stone, Sexual Problems, Infertility Through Unani Medicine Without any side effect
#5, Lucky Plaza Complex, Opp. Taj Darbar Hotel Byrsandra Main Road, Tilaknagar, Jayanagar, Banglore-41
Cell: 9886465799/ 8123263761
Best Wedding Collection Fashion Tradition Celebration Time to shop for the latest collection that have just arrived for Marriage Season Designer Sarees Dresses, Ghagras Fancy Salwar Suits and cotton Karachi suits
#34, Quadrant Road, Opp. Palace Theature Shivajinagar, Bangalore-1 #31, Quadrent Road, Opp. Renuka Talkies, Shivajinagar-1
Ph: 25565500, 32553470; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tel: 080-25577550/ 32323536
Manufacturing, Import & Export of All Sorts of Scents & Perfumes # 26/3, Hospital Road, Opp. Sultan Shah Mosque, Shivaji Nagar, Bangalore - 01 Tel: +91 80 4210 9109; Fax: +91 80 4210 9110; Email: email@example.com
Md. Asrar ul Haq Mob: 96115 76112 81471 70187
H. Md. Kaleemulla
99450 71222 76767 04744
Haq Constructions Licenced Civil Contractors & & Labour Supplies
Specialist in: All Types of Civil Works
#35, 5th Cross, Pukraj Layout, Near Mico B.G. Road, Bangalore-560 032
#131, Anwar Layout, 5th Cross Shampur Main Road, Bangalore - 45
We have very effective treatment for General weakness, sexual problems with discharge, monthly problems for ladies, hair falling & whitening, gastric problems, joint pains, kidney stone, piles, obesity, cough, cold and all kinds of diseases.
Contact for any kind of veneral diseases
Timings 10:30 am to 3:00 pm 5:30 pm to 10:30 pm
WE ENSURE HE CURES
HASHMI UNANI SHIFAKHANA #5, 2nd Cross, Old Gruppanpalya Main Road, Near Salafiya Masjid, Bannerghatta Road Cross, Bangalore-29
Cell: 9902934563/ 9060609004
Dr. Viqat Ara Amjad MBBS, MD (OBG) (MRCOG LONDON) Consultant Obstetrican & Gynaecologist
AL-SAHHA GYNAEC CENTRE Pregnancy, Infertility, Menopause Prop. Nisar Ahmed
Treatment of Infertility at Reasonable Rate. Free Treatment for Poor People #63/1, 1st Floor, Mosque Road, Frazer Town Next to Casio Gift Palace, Opp. Sangeetha Mobile Showroom, Bangalore-560 005 Mob: 8088644223, 8105087704; Tel: 25489990
Highly experienced and reputed lady gynaecologist from Bangalore Medical College with 21 years experience in Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health Hopitals of Makkah-tulMukarramah, Madina-Al- Munawwarah & Jeddah is now available for consultation, treatment and referral for a full range of gynaecological disorders, â€œINFERTILITYâ€?, pregnancy diagnosis, Ultrasound Scan, Antental care, Normal Delivery & High risk Obstetric preventive care family planning etc.
pe ci al iz ei n
Associated with Morpheus Fertility Centre, a German Indian Joint Venture Services : IVF / ICSI / IUI and all Latest Techniques
New Madni Tailors Arabi Jubba, Kalidar Jubba, Sada Jubba, Pant, Shirt, Suite & Sadri #21/35, Shop No. 3, 1st Floor, Krishna Reddy Building Mangammana Palya Main Road Near Al Fazil Tours & Travels, Bommanhalli, Bangalore-68
Mobile: 9742822786/ 9036119256/ 9740366051
AL-MADINA TOURS & TRAVELS Recognised & Approved by Ministry of External Affairs (Haj Cell) Govt. of India and Haj Ministry Govt. of Saudi Arabia, Member, Karnataka State Haj Organiserâ€™s Association, Bangalore
Translations English, Arabic, Urdu Kannada, Hindi
Alhamdu lillah, Al Madina Tours & Travels a trustworthy name in organizing Haj, Umrah & Ziarath Tours. By the grace of Almighty Allah, we are known for dedicated, sincere & excellent service to Allahâ€™s Guests, since 27 years, serving pilgrims from Karnataka & neighbouring states.
Proofreading Data Processing DTP
We announce Umarh 2014 programme, Insha Allah will be conducted in the month of January, February and March followed by Summer Umrah in the month of April/ May, Ramazan Umrah and Hajj 2014
Booking started for all the above packages.
ORIENTAL LANGUAGE SERVICES (OLS) #82/1, 9th F Main, BTM 1st Stage Bangalore-560 029. Mobile: 09483952440 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
#172, 32nd Cross, 4th T. Block, Jayanagar Opp. Rajiv Gandhi University, Bangalore - 560 041 Ph: 26639742, 25976039; Cell: 9886178666 9739045555, Saudi Cell: 0508787480 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Tameer-e-Fikr Agents Islamic Book Center Jamia Complex, N.R. Road Bangalore-2. Ph:25922374 Mehboob Book Depot Opp. Russel Market, Shivajinagar, Bangalore-51 Ph:22867138 Bookware #42, Nandi Durg Road, Near Coffee Day, Benson Town Post Bangalore-46. Ph: 41491249 Qasmi Kutub Khana Lucky Plaza Complex, Opp. Taj Darbar Hotel, Byrsandra Main Road, Tilaknagar, Jayangar Bangalore- . Ph: Majeedia Book Depot #7/2, Coffee Board Colony Shampur Main Road, Opp. Masjid Quba, Bangalore-45 Mob: 9901089701 Maktaba Shafeequl Ummat #15/33, 3rd Main, Masjid Bismillah Nagar, Bangalore-29 Mob: 9590982356
28 Shree Ganesh News Agency #4, Broadway Road Shivajinagar, Bangalore-51 Azad News Agency #1, Charminar Masjid Road Near Russell Market, Sultangunta Shivajinagar, Bangalore-51 Mobile: 9739088986 S.L.V. Book Centre 6th Main, K.E.B. Layout 100ft Ring Road, BTM Layout Bangalore-29 Globe Stationary Guruppan Palya, 2nd Cross Bangalore-29 Al Mohammediah Atlas & Islamic Book Store #24/10, ‘C’ Cross, Bismillah Nagar, Bangalore-29 Kashfi Book Depot #1-22, 2nd Main, Road, New Masjid Rizwan, Ghafoor Layout J.P. Nagar 5th Phase, B’lore-78 Mobile: 9845424533 Bismillah General Store #48, Opp. Bismillah Masjid Bismillah Nagar, Bangalore-29 Mobile: 9845379697
Announcement Tameer-e-Fikr is in need of sales agents who are willing to work on commission basis in the metropolitan cities of New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad and other cities of India and Karnataka. Interested persons may contact the office of Tameere- Fikr. Mobile: 09483952440
Tameer-e-Fikr online Tameer-e-Fikr can also be read online. To read the Tameer E Fikr o n l i n e l o g o n t o www.furqaniaacademy.com and click the Tameer-e-Fikr section.
Life Members of the Academy 1- Janab Iqbal Ahmed Sahib Koramangala 5th Block Bangalore-95 2- Janab Mohammed Shuaib Sultan Sahib Muqaddas Tours and Travels Kalasipalayam, Bangalore-2
Bulletin of Academy - K. A. Nizami Center for Qur'anic Studies, AMU, Aligarh invited Moulana Aneesur Rahman Nadvi to deliver a lecture on “Climate Change: In the Light of Qur'an” on 19 January, 2013. Moulana Nadvi delivered the lecture on the above topic in Urdu which stretched for an hour. The lecture was organized in the administrative block of the university and presided over by the Pro-Vice Chancellor of the AMU, Brigadier S. Ahmed Ali. The lecture was attended by a large number of professors, lecturers, scholars and students of the university. - Jamia Moinuddin Chisti, Ajmer organized a national conference on “Study of Qur'an: Problems and Perspectives” on March 8-10 2013. Moulana Aneesur Rahman Nadvi was invited to attend this conference. Though
Moulana Nadvi couldn't attend it, he sent his paper titled “Doomsday: In the Light of Modern Scientific Discoveries”. - Monthly journal of Muslim World League “The MWL Journal” in its Feb-Mar 2013 issue published Moul. Aneesur Rahman Nadvi's article “God Particle or Magnum Opus of God's Creation”. - The quarterly magazine of Juma Majid Center for Culture and Heritage Dubai Aafaq as Saqafa Watturas published Moulana Aneesur Rahman Nadvi's Arabic article “Geographical Concepts of Islam” in its Dec. 2013 issue. - Urdu quarterly magazine of Tahqeeqat e Islami of Idara Tahqeeq wa Tasneef Islami Aligarh published Moulana Aneesur Rahman Nadvi's article in Urdu titled “Connotations of Words 'Arz'
<< P. 6: continental glaciation, i.e. the ice sheets that cover large areas of the continental land. Thus, the Antarctic continent and Greenland are almost completely covered with thick ice sheets, causing a complete lack of plant life in these regions. The average ice thickness in these regions is between 2 to 4 kilometers. Antarctica is almost completely covered with ice sheets, while Greenland's about 4/5 of the total area is covered
by the ice. The continental glaciers and ice sheets cover about 11% of the total land area of the planet earth, which constitute 3.21% of total area of the earth. ([29.2 x 11] / 100 = 3.21) (See Figure 3) Barren due to deserts The third kind of the barren area is in the form of deserts. The majority of the planet earth's deserts is situated in the subtropical regions, and is generally considered as hot and barren region. They receive
and 'Sama' in Qur'an and its Scientific Marvel” in its OctDec 2013 issue. - A two-day national seminar is being organized by K.A. Nizami Center, AMU, Aligarh on 8-9 March 2014 on “Peaceful Coexistence in Multi-Cultural Societies”. Moulana Aneesur Rahman Nadvi has been invited to deliver a keynote speech on “Environmental Peace in the Qur'an” in this seminar. - On 25 Dec 2013, the principle of Islamia Institute of Technology, B’lore Mr. Mohd. Shahraz Patel visited the Academy and discussed issues pertaining to Islam and science. M r. P a t e l a d m i r e d t h e endeavors of Academy and advised the Academy to prepare books on Islam and science on school level. - By the grace of Allah, the first issue of Tameer e Fikr got wide acceptance from the Muslim community; particularly, the educational institutions praised its research articles. little rainfall, and hence cannot support abundant plant and animal life. According to the geodesic estimates, all the deserts of the planet earth occupy about 1/7 of the total land area of the earth, which constitute about 4.17% of the total area of the earth (29.2 / 7 = 4.17). (See Figure 4) The summery of the fact about the planet earth's geographical features discussed above has been given in the following table.
Letters K.A. Mohammed Retd. Senior Finance Officer BTM Layout, Bangalore
book which was a final guidance book for whole of the mankind. Man can think and act on the basics of this book, i.e., Qur’an and for detailed guidance on every “Signs” in it. So, many books and literatures are available for more depth in studies of research by learned persons in Islamic countries & elsewhere who have taken a clove from the same source.
At the very out set I thank the persons who are putting in the maiden effort to publish English/ Urdu bi-monthly as their Nov-Dec 2013 issue and various articles presented in them by various authors or resources may be a worthwhile effort to know how important it For example, why interest is to update our knowledge as in finance companies and regards Qur’an and Hadith and banking systems so also why also the teachings of the Holy
Muslim Intellectuals Welcome Tameer e Fikr
Mr. Muneer Ahmed Editor, Daily Salar Bangalore
Mr. Mirza Azmatullah Registrar, Karnataka Urdu Academy
Mr. Y. Azeez Ahmed Ex. Principal Al Ameen College, Bangalore
some intoxicating drinks and things are prohibited in the Holy Book Qur’an is conveying clear “signs” & messages in all the works of life of the human beings across the world? For example in our own country India 4% interest was introduced some years ago to make the finance available to release the persons who are exploited by the money lenders. However, it does not mean that prevailing time-tested conventional methods should be totally discarded. But should only be modified within universally acceptable economic system to regulate and implement the same. It is no doubt a gigantic task before the human intelligence. In the meantime if an alternative is invented in the light of above narrations, it will go a long way in mitigating the sufferings of millions of people across the world. One such move is also the priority Sector Advances at a lessor rate of interest. In short, Holy Book Qur’an does not contradict the Research & Development for the positive results in the light of above resources of guidance. Ghulam Mohiuddin Nadvi Ananthnag (Jammu & Kashmir)
Mr. Imtiaz Ali Khan Mr. Syed Ali Rizwi Trustee, Mubarak Girls Officer, IIT, Bangalore High School, B’lore
Mr. Amanulla Khan Founder Member, IIT, Bangalore
The magazine "Tameer E Fikr is very knowledgeable & informative in the context of modern times. It will play an important role in our day to day life. May Allah give you sucess in your field. Amen!
5. The word which precedes alif and laam will have a single pesh on it and the word without alif and laam will have double pesh on it. If you know grammar, or if you don't consider it as a burden, keep in mind that usually alif and laam prefix the subject and don't prefix the predicate. In the sentence ٌﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏُ ﺳﮭﻞ, the first word is subject and the second word is predicate. If something has been described, there exist two parts in the sentence. First part is the object about which something is being said and the second is something which is being said about that object. Grammatically, the first part is called the subject and the second predicate. For example: 'the book is easy,' or 'the boy is beautiful.' Examine that in the first sentence, it is a book that is reported to be easy. Similarly, in the second sentence, the boy is the character who is reported to be beautiful. Hence, in these sentences 'book' and 'boy' are subjects and 'easy' and 'beautiful' are predicates. So alif and laam will prefix " "ﻛﺘﺎﺏand ""وﻟﺪ, and it will not prefix ﺳﮭﻞand ﺟﻤﻴﻞ.
Exercise - 1 You have read the first lesson. Now perhaps you may not find any difficulty in translating the following sentences. The meanings of the new words are given below. With the help of these words translate the following. Near Food Short School Tasty Shirt Far
ﺍَﻟﱠﻄَﻌَﺎﻡُ ﻟَﺬِﻳْ ٌﺬ-٤ ٌ ﺍَﻟﺮﱠﺟُﻞُ ﺻَﺎدْق-٥ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﻮَﻟَﺪُ ﺻَﺎﻟِﺢ-٦
ٌ ْ ﺍَﻟْﺠَﻤَﻞُ ﻁَﻮِﻳ-٧ ﻞ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﺤِﺼَﺎﻥُ ﻗَﺼِﻴْﺮ-٨ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﻘَﻤِﻴْﺺُ ﺟَﺪِﻳْﺪ-۹
ٌ ﺍَﻟﺴﱢﺮْوَﺍﻝُ ﻋَﺘِﻴْﻖ-۱۰ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﻤِﺬْﻳَﺎعُ ﺻَﻐِﻴْﺮ-۱۱ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﻜُﺮْﺳِﻲﱡ ﻛَﺒِﻴْﺮ-۱٢
Exercise - 2
In Terms of Grammar
New Words - 1 ٌ ﻗَﺮِﻳْﺐVirtuous ٌ ﻁَﻌَﺎﻡTrouser ٌ ﻗَﺼِﻴْﺮWater ٌ ﻣَﺪْرَﺳَﺔCamel Old ٌﻟَﺬِﻳْﺬ ٌ ﻗَﻤِﻴْﺺCold Horse ٌﺑَﻌِﻴْﺪ
ٌﺻَﺎﻟِﺢ ٌﺳِﺮْوَﺍﻝ ٌﻣَﺎء ٌﺟَﻤَﻞ ٌﻋَﺘِﻴْﻖ ٌﺑَﺎرِد ٌﺣِﺼَﺎﻥ
ٌ ْ ﺍَﻟْﻤَﺴْﺠِﺪُ ﻗَﺮِﻳ-۱ ﺐ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﻤَﺪْ��َﺳَﺔُ ﺑَﻌِﻴْﺪَﺓ-٢ ٌ ﺍَﻟْﻤَﺎءُ ﺑَﺎرِد-۳
1. Describe which word is the subject and which is the predicate in the previous lesson. 2. Write all the words you have learnt till now with and without alif and laam on a notebook. For example: رﺟﻞ٬ ﺍﻟﺒــﻴﺖ- ﺑـﻴﺖ٬ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗـﻒ- وﺍﻗـﻒﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ. In the same way, write all the words. Spacious Pen Box Sitting Wall Open
New Words - 2 ٌوَﺍﺳِﻊ Full ٌﻗَﻠَﻢ Light ٌ ﺻَﻨْﺪٌوْقDoor ٌ ﺟَﺎﻟِﺲStanding ٌﺟِﺪَﺍر Merciful ٌ ﻣَﻔْﺘٌﻮْحClosed
ٌﺣَﺎﻓِﻠَﺔ ُﻧُﻮْر ٌﺑَﺎﺏ ٌوَﺍﻗِﻒ ٌرَﺣِﻴْﻢ ٌﻣُﻐْﻠَﻖ
3. Translate the following sentences in Arabic: 1. The house is spacious. 2. The boy is sitting. 3. The aeroplane is full. 4. The train is standing. 5. The book is easy. 6. The pen is new.
7. The wall is big. 8. The shirt is old. 9. Qur'an is Light. 10. Allah is merciful. 11. The box is open. 12. The door is closed.
<< P. 2: The West, instead of taking preventive measures against this crime, which is prevailing in the western society, is involved in its propagation and promotion in other countries in the name of art and expression of human love and affection; this is a sign of moral bankruptcy of the West.
<< P. 11: beating star. (Allah knows best.) As discussed, the stars described as Tariq in the Qur'an bear a close similarity to the pulsars described in the 20th century, and may reveal to us another scientific miracle of the Qur'an. << P. 19: new land by utilizing the water of this river or dam will have to pay less tax than the other farmers and the irrigated land will be considered hereditary.
Let us learn Arabic Starting from this issue, we are going to publish in this column a series of lessons which try to teach you Arabic in line with the modern education system. It will enable you to learn the Arabic language without the help of a teacher in a new and unique way. With the help of this series you will be able to talk and write modern Arabic language. It will also help you understand the Qur'an & Hadith. This successful teaching series was designed and compiled by the Late Allama Mohammed Shihabuddin Nadvi in Urdu. We have rendered it in English. (Editor)
Subject and Predicate 1. Allah is creator 2. The Prophet is honest 3. Islam is religion 4. Qur'an is book 5. The book is new 6. The man is intelligent 7. The train is long 8. The Aeroplane is standing 9. The Chair is small 10.The House is big 11.The Radio is beautiful 12.The Telegram is written
ٌﷲُ ﺧَﺎﻟِﻖ ٌﺍَﻟﺮﱠﺳُﻮْﻝُ ﺻَﺎدِق ٌﺍَﻹﺳْﻼَﻡُ دِﻳْﻦ ٌﺍَﻟْﻘُﺮْآﻥُ ﻛِﺘَﺎﺏ ٌﺍَﻟْﻜِﺘَﺎﺏُ ﺟَﺪِﻳْﺪ ٌﺍَﻟﺮﱠﺟُﻞُ ﻋَﺎﻗِﻞ ٌﺍَﻟْﻘِﻄَﺎرُ ﻁَﻮِﻳْﻞ ٌﺍَﻟﻄﱠﻴﱠﺎرَﺓُ وَﺍﻗِﻔَﺔ ٌﺍَﻟْﻜُﺮْﺳِﻲﱡ ﺻَﻐِﻴْﺮ ٌﺍَﻟْﺒَﻴْﺖُ ﻛَﺒِﻴْﺮ ٌﺍَﻟْﻤِﺬْﻳَﺎعُ ﺟَﻤِﻴْﻞ ٌﺍَﻟْﺒَﺮْﻗِﻴﱠﺔُ ﻣَﻜْﺘُﻮْﺑَﺔ
You have read and understood the above sentences. They are twelve sentences in total; each made up of two words. You might have felt that Arabic language is easy. Now let us learn a few things which help you understand this sacred language. 1. Read the above sentences again. There are twelve sentences and each sentence is made up of two words. The letters 'alif' and 'laam' appear in the beginning of the first word of the each sentence. For example ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ٬ ﺍﻹﺳــﻼﻡ٬ﺍﻟﺮﺳـﻮﻝ٬ ﺍﻟﻘﺮآﻥetc. If we remove the afore-mentioned
letters from these words, they will look like ﻗـﺮآﻥ٬ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ٬ إﺳـﻼﻡ٬رﺳﻮﻝ. Similarly, the second word of each sentence is without these letters, e.g. ﻛﺘﺎﺏ٬ دﻳﻦ٬ ﺻﺎدق٬ ﺧﺎﻟﻖetc. 2. It is important to understand that alif and laam can precede almost each and every word in Arabic, e.g. ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏfrom ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺳﻲ, ﻛﺘﺎﺏfrom ﻛﺮﺳﻲ, ﺍﻟﺼﺎدقfrom ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ, ﺻﺎدقfrom ﺍﻟﻘـﻄﺎر, ﻋﺎﻗﻞfrom ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ, ﻗﻄﺎرfrom ﺑﻴﺖetc. 3. Now, the question that arises here is why alif and laam come before every first word of each sentence and why don't they come before the second word? To understand this, we have to understand the grammatical rules of the Arabic language. But since the word grammar itself is frightening to you, for the time being you need to understand that when you want to say something for example: 1. The book is easy. 2. The boy is beautiful. 3. The house is small. Then to convey these sentences in Arabic, first search for the Arabic words of both the English words. Then join alif and laam to the first word in the beginning and a single pesh ( ) on last character of first word and do not prefix alif and laam to the second word but use two pesh ( ) at the end. For example, the word ﻛﺘﺎﺏis used to denote book in Arabic and ﺳﮭﻞis used to denote 'easy'. Hence, if we join, it will become ٌﻛﺘﺎﺏٌ ﺳــــﮭﻞ. Then according to the above instructions, if we prefix alif and laam to the first word it will become ٌﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏُ ﺳﮭﻞ. Your message is conveyed. Similarly: The boy is beautiful - ٌﺍَﻟْﻮَﻟَﺪُ ﺟَﻤِﻴْﻞ The House is small - ٌﺍَﻟْﺒَﻴْﺖُ ﺻَﻐِﻴْﺮ 4. Do you now realize how simple it is? Now, remember one more thing that the words 'is' and 'are' that are used in English do not have equivalent words in Arabic. But the structure of the above sentences conveys its meaning automatically.
Warning bell: Greenhouse gas levels hit new high Geneva: The amount of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere hit a new record high in 2012, continuing an ever-faster rise that is driving climate change, according to the UN weather agency. Global concentration of CO2, the main culprit in global warming, for instance reached 393.1 ppm last year, or 141% of pre-industrial levels - defined as before 1750. The report was released a day after the UN Environment Programme warned the
chances of limiting the global temperature rise to 2°C over pre-industrial levels were swiftly diminishing. Experts warm that unless more is done to rein in emissions, the world faces potentially devastating effects such as more frequent megastorms, species extinctions, water shortages, crop die-offs, desertification, loss of land to the rising seas as glaciers and polar ice melt, spreading disease and a number of other natural calamities. AFP
Global Warming to make world poorer Washington: Starvation, poverty, flooding, heat waves, droughts, war and diseases already lead to human tragedies. They’re likely to worsen as the world warms from man-made climate change, a leaked draft of an international scientific report forecasts. The Noble Peace Prizewinning IPCC will issue a report next March on how global warming is already affecting the way people live and what will happen in the future, including a world wide drop in income. “Throughout the 21st century, climate change impacts will slow down economic growth and poverty reduction, further erode food security and trigger new poverty traps,” the report says.
Cities where most of the world now lives, have the highest vulnerability, as do the globe’s poorest people. None of the harms talked about in the report is solely due to global warming nor is climate change even the No. 1 cause, the scientists say. But a warmer world, with bursts of heavy rain and prolonged drought, will worsen some of these existing effects, they say. The summery went through e a c h continent detailing risks and possible ways that countries can adapt to them. For North America, the highest risks
32%increase in warming effect on climate between 1990 and 2012, due to hear-trapping gases
over the long term are from wildfires, heat waves and flooding. Water - too much and too little - and heat are the biggest risks for Europe, South America and Asia, with South America and Asia having to deal with drought-related food shortages. Africa gets those risks and more: starvation, pests and disease. Australia and New Zealand get the unique risk of losing their coral reef ecosystems, and small island nations have to be worried about being inundated by rising seas. AP
Space sounds like chirping of birds
India begins march to Mars Bangalore: India's Mars orbiter mission ventured out of Earth's sphere of influence early Sunday in an attempt to reach the red planet's orbit after a critical manoeuvre. The Bangalore-based Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) said the spacecraft fired its main engine for more than 20 minutes, giving it the correct velocity to leave the earth's orbit. It said that all systems onboard the spacecraft are performing normally. India launched its first spacecraft bound for Mars on Nov. 5, a complex mission that it hopes
will demonstrate and advance technologies for space travel. The 3,000-pound orbiter Mangalyaan, which means "Mars craft" in Hindi, must travel 485 million miles over 300 days to reach an orbit around Mars next September. Some have questioned the $72 million price tag for a country of 1.2 billion people still dealing with widespread
China lunches rover to the Moon China took a significant step toward eventually landing a person on the moon with successful launch of a rocket carrying its first moon rover, the “Jade Rabbit” on December 1, 2013. It is the first soft landing on the Earth’s only
natural satellite since 1976. The rocket blasted off from southwestern China at 1:30 a.m. Monday (2nd Dec). This marks the latest stage in China’s grand ambitions not just to put a man on Moon by the end of the next decade, but
London: For the first time, scientists have captured the sound of deep space in stunning new recordings - and it sounds like the dawn chorus of birds singing in spring interspersed with deep bass pulses from the Sun. Andrew Williams from Leicester’s Space Research Centre used data collected by satellites and spacecraft to generate the sound you would hear if you tuned a radio into outer space. The most compelling recording is the ‘dawn chorus’ of electrons hitting our upper atmosphere.PTI to build a permanent lunar base from which it can plan missions to Mars and beyond.
Most distant galaxy till date found London: Astronomers have discovered the most distant galaxy known to man to date. They have also confirmed this galaxy was created within 700 million years of the Bing Bang, raising interesting questions about the origins and the evolution of the universe. While the Milky Way
creates about one or two Sun-like stars every year or so, the newly discovered galaxy, being called z8_GND_5296, forms about 300 a year and was observed by the researches as it was 13 billion years ago. That’ the time it took for the galaxy’s light to travel to Earth. A single light year, which is the distance
Newly found galaxy z8_GND_5296
light travels in a year, is nearly six trillion miles. TOI
Nouakchott: There exists rare manuscripts in large quantities on various topics in the private libraries of Mauritania. But since majority of their owners are unaware of the true value and importance of these manuscripts, they are lying in bad and dilapidate condition. Their owners even hesitate to show them to the manuscript experts. Experts believe that these manuscripts could be regarded as most valuable and precious deposits of knowledge and science of Muslim world. Since they didn’t acquire general publicity, they didn’t get attention and the public didn’t gain information about
Rare Islamic Manuscripts of Mauritania
them. Some manuscripts which were displayed here after a lot of request and pleading show that they encompass all Islamic sciences. These manuscripts are from 3rd to 14th century AD, and they are numbered an unimaginable more than forty thousand. According to famous researcher of manuscripts Syedi Mohammed Walad Al
Arabi, since these manuscripts are laying in the hands of those who are unaware of their importance, they are not only negligent but also unable to protect them. Hence, due to the environmental pollution, there is increasing danger of destruction looming on this valuable inheritance. It is the need of the hour that should get protection from insects and environment pollution, and to preserve them by atleast making their microfilms. (Alarabia.net via Maarif, November, 2013)
Intl. Conference on Al Zahrawi
New Delhi: An international conference have been organized here on the great Islamic University, Islamabad to hold Conference on: scientist of 11th century and father of modern surgery Abul New Issues of Muslim Family Law Qasim Al Zahrawi on 13-15 Islamabad: The International finding solutions to the December. The conference was I s l a m i c U n i v e r s i t y i n problems and challenges faced organized by IOS, Delhi and collaboration with Imam by society in general and MESCO, Hyderabad. Mohammed bin Saud Islamic families in particular is the The secretary of MESCO, U n i v e r s i t y, R i y a d h i s objective of this conference. Dr. Fakhruddin Mohammed organizing an international This conference is being said that the father of modern conference on “New Issues of organized under six areas: 1- surgery Al Zahrawi invented Muslim Family Law”. This Medical problems regarding m o r e t h a n 2 0 0 s u rg i c a l conference will be held in family laws 2- New issues procedures and more than 300 Islamabad on 13-15 May 2014. faced by Muslim families in surgical instruments most of Diversified issues are n o n - M u s l i m s t a t e s 3 - them are being used till now. arising in Muslim families Intellectual protection of the The concept of sterilsation is which never researched or family 4- New phenomena of also the invention of Al addressed. Hence these issues society with regard to family Zahrawi. An exhibition was required to be studied and laws 5- Shariah principles and also arranged during the solved with deep insight and objectives with regard to new conference. It has to be noted understanding with modern issues of family laws 6- that the book of Al Zahrawi “Al outlook in the light of Qur’an Legislation of family laws. Last Tasreef Li Man Aajaza Anit and Hadith. date for receiving papers is 1st Ta’leef” is regarded as the most Hence according to the January 2014. For details comprehensive, systematic and organizers of this conference, contact: www.iiu.edu.pk typical textbook of surgery.
Muslim World News Two-Day National Seminar to be held in AMU on
Peaceful Coexistence in Multi-Cultural Societies Aligarh: A two-day national seminar on “Peaceful Coexistence in Multi-Cultural Societies: The Qur ’anic Perspective” is being organized by Prof. K. A. Nizami Centre for Quranic Studies, AMU, Aligarh. It is scheduled to be held on 8-9 March 2014 in Aligarh Muslim University. According to Prof. Ahtisham Ahmad Nizami, Head of the Nizami Centre and the convener of the seminar, the seminar aims to gather academics, specialists, and writers from different parts of India to undertake research on issues and problems that threaten world peace and interc u l t u r a l h a r m o n y. T h e organizers of the Seminar aim at encouraging the paper presenters to share their insights and proposals that will
contribute to peace, p r o s p e r i t y, a n d h u m a n happiness. Among the invitees of the seminar are Moulana Md. Rabey Nadvi, Lucknow, Moulana Mahmood Madani, Deoband, Prof. Salman Nadvi, Durban (SA), Prof. Akhtarul Wa s e y, D e l h i , M o u l a n a Aneesur Rahman Nadvi, Bangalore and a number of other scholars of Islam. Moulana Aneesur Rahman Nadvi has been invited to deliver keynote speech on “Environmental Peace in the
ICSSQS, Jeddah to hold its 11th International
Conference on Scientific Signs of Qur’an & Hadith Jeddah: ICSSQS, a subsidiary organization of MWL, Makkah, Saudi Arabia is organizing its 11th international conference on scientific marvels of Qur’an and Hadith in collaboration with Ministry of Waqf, Qatar in Qatar. The dates of the conference are yet to be announced.
The conference will focus on five areas: 1- Shariah and linguistic marvels 2- Medicine and biological sciences 3Astronomy and space sciences 4- Earth sciences 5- Marvels of human sciences. Last date to receive papers for the conference is 1st March 2014. For more details contact: www.eajaz.org
Diamond Jubilee of Darul Musannifeen Azamgarh: The renowned Islamic research institute, Darul Musannifeen, has announced that it is celebrating its diamond jubilee this year. Darul Musannifeen was established by Allama Shibli Nomani in Azamgarh in 1914 for the research and publication of Islamic sciences. This institute has published a number of important research books on Islamic history among them is the “Seeratun Nabi” biography of Prophet Mohammed co-authored by Allama Shibli and Moulana Syed Sulaiman Nadvi. Celebrations will be held in Nov. this year. 1914 is also the year of death of Allama Shible.
Automatic Wudu Washer introduced Kuala lumpur: One and a half billion Muslims use millions of liters of water everyday to perform the Wudu. The AWW© is the first automatic pre-prayer personal washing system designed to significantly minimize water usage and provide Muslims a unique ablution system that will allow them to perform the Wudu in a standing position more thoroughly, in a shorter period of time and in conformance to the teachings of the Holy Qur’an. The AWW© creates a context, unlike conventional methods, that ensures the Wudu is performed hygienically and without water wastage.
the cultivation of fig. Tipu's letters reveal that he experimented with the cultivation of saffron in Mysore. The construction of the dam on the Cauvery River was an outstanding achievement achieved in his reign. The dam, now known as the Krishnarajasagara dam, was instrumental in the promotion of agriculture and the upliftment of farmers in his kingdom. For this reason, historians regard Tipu Sultan as 'Tipu the dam builder'. The following article has been taken from the book 'Tourist Guide to Mysore': “The cultivable land in the surroundings of Cauvery River in Mysore extends to an area of about 11,500 square miles. The area of land which was cultivated from the primitive days by cutting canals is about 180 miles. The Mysore government was considering various methods to irrigate the rest of the dry land. At last, construction of this dam, which is known as Krishnarajasagar, commenced in 1911 A.D. with the three objectives as given below: 1. To curtail various difficulties in power generation due to reduced water level in Shivanasamudram. 2. To stabilize the power fluctuations caused by reduced w a t e r l e v e l a t Shivanasamudram. 3. To rejuvenate the vast area of dry land through canals. This famous dam is situated
about 9 miles from the city of Srirangapatna and extends to an area of 50 Sq. miles. This dam is 124 feet high with a water level of about 44,827 million Sq. feet above the upper canals. 1/4th of it is used for power generation and 3/4th of it will be retained for irrigation.” It is worth mentioning an incident that took place while excavating the dam. An old inscription was found which had Tipu Sultan's writing in Persian: “God! The Opener of Gates of Profits! In the name of Allah the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. On Monday, 20 Zil Hijjah, early morning before sunrise, with good desire at a virtuous time, with the grace of Allah and charity of his prophet Mohammed (pbuh), Sultan Tipu – the Khalifa of time and the land – (may Allah protect his kingdom and khilafat) has laid the foundation stone for the construction of a dam near the capital city named 'Mohy' on the river Cauvery. We have started the work and call on Allah's Will to complete it. The auspicious moment on which the foundation of this dam was laid the Sun, the Moon, Venus, Jupiter all the 4 aligned and stationed in the Zodiac. With Allah's Grace, may this dam last long till the end of this world! Lakhs of Rupees were spent for the construction of this dam by the government (Sultanat-eKhudadad). Apart from the old and new cultivations, whoever
irrigates his land through this dam will have to pay only 3/4th of the total produce of the field as tax to the government; the rest 1/4th is exempted in the path of Allah. Whoever starts agriculture in a new field through this dam, the land will belong to their heirs one after the other till the end of the world. Anyone who interferes in this like a mean, cursed and evil-doer, will be considered enemy not only of the farmers but also of the entire human race. Inscription written by Syed J a f a r ( Tr a n s l a t i o n f r o m Persian)” The government of Karnataka has stalled this inscription at the entrance of this dam prominently in the form of arch. This shows that Tipu Sultan spent lakhs of money in the path of Allah. He has granted permissions to the farmers that whoever starts agriculture in the >> P. 25
Tipu’s inscription in Persian on KRS DAM
Tameer-e-Fikr Mahmood Khan Mahmood Bangalori Translated by: A staff writer
TIPU SULTAN’S TRADE POLICY Prior to Tipu Sultan, silk and its rearing were completely unfamiliar to Mysore. The ready-made silk goods imported in the country were either from China or Bengal. Tipu sent two delegates, one to China and the other to Bengal who returned with a few mulberry cuttings and some silkworm seeds. Silkworm rearing started in Malwalli district, Hingur and in Kunigal in Tumkur district. Silk was then brought to Srirangapatna and woven to cloth. Even today, a particular species of mulberry is known as Sultani Kaddi in the State of Mysore. In modern times, the silk industry of Mysore has progressed to an extent that about two lakh families earn their livelihood through it. Mysore was also unfamiliar with nutmeg in the pre-Tipu era. This spice was introduced in Mysore during the reign of Tipu Sultan. Colonel Mark Wilkis writes: “Tipu brought nutmeg saplings from Travancore and planted them in Lalbagh with intense care”. As a result, today, Mysore exports nutmeg to other countries. It is interesting to note here that in the past coffee was not
found in Mysore. About four centuries ago, a wise man named Bababudhan came to India from Arabia and fortunately resided in this region which is known as Bababudangiri in the State of Mysore. He brought coffee seeds with him and promoted its cultivation. Today, Mysore State has coffee plantations in abundance which are utilized by both the people and the government. It has been mentioned previously in this series that Tipu had established 30 trade centres. The goods were exported to other countries from here. Among the important raw materials which were exported from Mysore were pepper, sandal, cardamom and coffee. To promote agriculture, Tipu set up two parks in Bangalore and Srirangapatna. The Lalbagh of Srirangapatna is no more today, but the one in Bangalore is present even today and is now a world famous horticultural garden. Tipu's objective in establishing Lalbagh was to set up a plant nursery where saplings and seeds would be bought from different parts of the world and tested for their growth and sustenance. Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (17621829), a Scottish physician and
surveyor, writes in his famous travelogue: “The gardens are extensive and divided into square plots divided by walks, the sides of which are ornamented with fine Cypress trees. These squares are filled with fruitful trees and flower pots. Various types of trees are separated by distinct squares. Cypress, grapes, pears and apples here are most abundant and of excellent quality. It is astonishing to note that the cypress and pine trees, which were brought from South Africa and planted here, are in good condition”.(Modern Mysore P. 270.) (Note: Bachanan visited Mysore in the year 1800 AD, i.e. a year after the fall of Tipu Sultan.) Another tourist writes: “Tipu Sultan has planted all types of trees in Lalbagh for experimentation; and experimentations are carried out here day and night to identify which useful trees are suitable to the climate of the country.” The experimentations carried out in this regard in Srirangapatna's Lalbagh revealed that its climate is suitable for the growth of fig, guava and musk melon among others. Today, the government of Karnataka (erstwhile Mysore) is once again paying attention towards the cultivation of fig. Farmers are provided with various facilities along with free land and water supply for
practised, it is magnetically drawn towards the former i d e o l o g y. T h i s i s w h a t happened with Christianity in the past. Similar fate is being faced by the Muslim community. There is, thus, immediate need for implementing the Islamic ideology and teachings completely. This will enable to restore the confidence of our youth in the efficacy of our faith. They can walk ahead in the field of science and technology and culture by simultaneously adhering to religion and Shariah. It must be realised that Islam is not merely a code of religious and moral principles and guidelines. It has the inherent capacity to lead mankind in the ideological, cultural, social and philosophical aspects of life as well. Similarities Between Nature and Shariah The all-comprehensive teachings of Islam had helped the followers of Islam in the Middle Ages to lead the world through their enviable progress in both the fields without bifurcating the religion and the material world. They have left a legacy of knowledge and art. The Muslim philosophers and scientists of yore established a group, who by reflecting on the universe discovered new scientific facts and enriched the fields of science and technology. Then there was the group of religious scholars who struck similarities between nature and Shariah and
expounded the facts of religion and Shariah and eliminated the gap between the two. Some of the great men belonging to the first group are Yakub Bin Ishaq Kindi, Jabir Bin Hayyan, Muhammed Bin Moosa Khwarizmi, Abu Nasr Farabi, Muhammed Bin Zakariyya Razi, Ibne Haisem, Av e S e n a , A b u R e h a n Alberuni, Ibne Nafees and Abul Qasim Azzuhravi etc. In the second group are included Imam Abul Hasan Ash’ari, Imam Abu Mansoor Maturidi, Imamul Harmain Juwaini, Imam Ghazzali, Imam Razi, Allama Ibne Rushd, Allama Qazweni, Imam Ibne Taimiyah, Imam Ibne Qayyim, Allama Taftazani, Qazi Abdur Rahman Aiji, Allama Shareef Jurjani etc. Many of these scholars worked in scholastic philosophy of Islam and have produced pioneering works. Imam Ghazzali, Imam Razi and Imam Ibne Taimiyah excel in this field and their contributions are everlasting. (To be Cont.) >> P. 15: Sufism Another achievement of Ibn Sina is that he compiled Sufism on scientific grounds and proved rationally those aspects which seem to be beyond rationale. He discussed in Al Isharat in detail the principles of Sufism, grades of Sufis and their conditions. Imam Razi wrote: “This chapter is the greatest of the chapters in this book,
since he has organized sciences of Sufism in a way no one has organized, neither before him nor after him.” Music and Other Sciences Ibn Sina also wrote on music. His books on music are: Treatise on Principles of Musicology and Treatise on Musicology. Similarly, Ibn Sina has written many books and treatises on psychology, logic and poetry, which need to be studied in depth. Legacy of Ibn Sina Imam Zahabi regarded Ibn Sina as the head of the Muslim science and philosophy. George Sarton regarded Ibn Sina as the greatest scientists of Islam and one among the few great scientists of human history. Ibn Sina's books and researches were so popular in the west in the medieval period that western scholars used to learn Arabic language only to refer and study his books (Encyclopedia of Islam, V. 3, P. 944.). Ibn Sina's views were so revolutionary in the field of anatomy that Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) rejected it. There was also a time when Ibn Sina's books were banned in Europe by the Church. The popularity of Ibn Sina can also be realized by the fact that due his innumerable researches and discoveries he was regarded as a magician in the east and the west. Due to his enormous contribution in almost all branches of science, Ibn Sina may be regarded as the greatest scientist humanity has ever produced.
Allama Mohammed Shihabuddin Nadvi
Translated by. Prof. Khalid Irfan Part: II
Rise and Fall of Muslims in Science Subjugating Materials and Divine Blessings The second purpose of this call for reflection is to attain the ability of capturing the materials of the universe. This has to be achieved by contemplating and reflecting into the exhibits of the world, studying their characteristics and material benefits. Through obtaining such benefits of these ‘Divine Blessings’, the human life has to be bettered every time on the one hand and on the other defensive forces and powers are to be mobilised so that the Divine Religion attains political and material supremacy in the world. These forces can be obtained by the fission of material objects. Some of these forces are steam, electricity, atomic energy, electromagnetic energy, laser beams etc. Through them man has established his supremacy and leadership in the universe. All these intrinsic material benefits are referred to as “unseen bounties” in the Glorious Qur’an: Do you not see that God has subjected to your (use) all things in the heavens and on earth, and has made His bounties flow to you in exceeding measure (both) seen and uneen? (Qur’an, 31:20) And He has subjected to you, as from Him, all that is in
the heavens and on earth; behold, in that are Signs indeed for those who reflect. (Qur’an, 45:13) But if you count the favours of God, never will ye be able to number them. (Qur’an, 15:34) That all these material benefits have been referred as ‘Divine Bounties’ indicates that they have to be utilised for benefiting mankind and never for suffocating them. If the knowledge of these material benefits were in the hands of godly people the whole humanity would have been benefited by them and would have escaped their harmful effects. But the pity is the warmongers and materialistic nations are using these forces only for destructive purposes and converting the world into Hell. This is another casualty the mankind has suffered due to the decline of Muslims in this field. While the Divine Religion gets firmly established ideologically through the first of the purposes, the reformation of the human life is assured through the second one. This also helps in the progressive development of the culture. However it must be noted that there is no reservation of Muslims or nonMuslims as far as the second essential is concerned.
Whichever nation takes to reflection on the created assets of the world gets duly benefited. This is so because the material and cultural benefits are divine bounties that would be bestowed as reward to whoever indulges in reflecting about the divine systems or making the divine symbols known through a critical and purposeful study of the objects and living beings. Comprehensiveness of Islam It must have become clear that Islam does not preach asceticism. It actually presents a wholesome and perfect coherence of this world and the religious code of life. It advocates to adopt a realistic approach through striking a balance between nature and the Shariah or between materialism and spiritualism. As long as the Islamic society did not fall a victim to extremities in both these fields, it did not yield to any ideological unrest or chaos. Such a chaos is being found in Muslim societies everywhere these days since a wide gap has been created between the worldly affairs and the religion. Consequently our youth have fallen a prey to pessimism and are compelled to seek refuge in the materialism of Western countries. This is but natural, for whenever the society is made to part with materialism and only spiritualism is
and also added important findings and experiments in addition to organizing all the knowledge of his period systematically. He described preparation of about 760 medicines in this book. One of his books on botany is Risalah fil Nabatath wal Haiwan (Book on Plants and Animals.) Earth sciences Ibn Sina's views on earth sciences are highly important. He may be regarded as the founder of modern geology. His views on earth sciences gave rise to many new sciences in the earth science. Ibn Sina's theories provided the foundation to modern geology. About the earth's landscape, Ibn Sina opined that these were not produced at once as was viewed by his predecessors, but geological factors are responsible for their formation, of which erosion and water flow play a vital role and this will require a long period of time to form. Similarly, he also presented a theory of rock formation according to which these were formed by the prolonged and combined action of soil viscosity, water and heat of the sun, which are known as sediments. According to him, the elevation of mountains above the earth's surface was due to the subduction of land during the earthquakes, i.e. at the time of earthquake a part of the land gets subducted and the other is
elevated by abduction which causes its formation. He also presented that erosion can reduce mountains into rocks, stones and gravel, converting mountainous regions into plateaus. This process of conversion of mountains into plateaus and plateaus into mountain is continuous and takes a longer period of time, which is known as geological time scale. In this way he coined the concept of 'geological time' for the first time. He also presented his theory regarding fossils as primitive animals which were fossilized during the process of sedimentation. Since the process of sedimentation takes a long period of time, these animals belong to very primitive times. Ibn Sina theorized regarding earthquakes that these are caused due to the internal heat of the earth. When the hot matter and fumes accumulates beneath the surface of the earth and seek to erupt towards the surface, it causes earthquakes. Ibn Sina suggested that digging of wells and holes in earthquake prone areas and provision of water in them would lower the intensity of earthquakes. Mathematics Although Ibn Sina was not a mathematician per se, he made important contributions to the philosophy of mathematics nevertheless. His notable contributions include his research in the fields of
theoretical and mathematical aspects of music and his role in the criticism of the mathematical astronomy of Ptolemy, which was widely pursued in later centuries by alTusi, al-'Urdi, al-Shirazi and others. What is important, as far as his contributions to the philosophy of mathematics is concerned, is his discussion of mathematical form in relation to logical concepts and the rapport between formal and mathematical logic. Some of his books on mathematics are as follows: Book of Angel, Summary of Euclid, Summery of Arithmetics, Summery of Cosmology and Summery of Almagest etc. Scholastic Theology One of the important characteristics of Ibn Sina's philosophy is that he tries to show compatibility between the philosophy and Islamic theology. Hence, he brought many changes in Aristotle's views of divinities and he changed its structure completely. According to Ibn Taimiya, the discussions of philosophers with regard to the divinities are completely wrong. Ibn Sina added many points in this regard. For example the arguments regarding prophecies, secrets of verses, doxology and wajibul wajood are purely the product of Ibn Sina. According to Ibn Taimiyah, Ibn Sina's objective was to show compatibility between wisdom and Shariah (religion). >> P. 17
By: Ibn Shihab value. He stated this with the Transled by: Atya Tabassum evidence that light is emitted in the form of particles that travel through space. Therefore, Part: II similar to other objects travelling through space, light The polymath of Islamic Golden Age must have a finite speed. Ibn inertia which will always Sina also commented on the Ibn Sina's books on remain with an object unless an dispersion and refraction of astronomy and related subjects outside force acts on the object light. are as follows: Risalah fi Ibtal e to either increase or decrease its Chemistry Ahkamin Nujoom (Treatise on the negation of Astrology), motion. Additionally, Ibn Sina Ibn Sina used distillation to Risalah fil Ajram al Alwiyah stated that in an environment produce important oils such as (Treatise on Celestial Bodies), without air resistance or rose essence, forming the Asbabul Barq Wal Ra'ad friction, an object in motion foundation of what later (Causes of Lightning and would always remain in motion became aromatherapy. Four of Thunder) and Risalah fil Fiza due to its inertia. his books on chemistry were (Treatise on Space). T h e m o d e r n d a y translated to Latin. understanding of momentum is Physics Ibn Sina strongly disputed a lso accredited to the Many of the modern day the view of the alchemists who concepts of physics have a discoveries of Ibn Sina. He believed in transmutation of direct or indirect relationship postulated that the inertia on an substances through chemical with the discoveries of Ibn object is relative to its velocity processes. Ibn Sina classified Sina. These include kinematics and weight. This gives way to inorganic substances into 4 in one or more dimensions, Newton's second law of motion classes. This classification was vectors, dynamics, Newton's that states a net force on an an important addition on the laws of motion, circular object is equal to the mass of an earlier classifications. Prior to motion, gravity, work, energy, object times the acceleration of this, Aristotle had classified l i n e a r m o m e n t u m , a n d the object. inorganic bodies into 2 classes Other observations that (fossils & ore) and Galen rotational motion. Ibn Sina's most influential theories in were made by Ibn Sina in the classified it into 3 classes (soil, Physics involve the concepts of field of physics include the rock and ore). The 4 class mechanics and projectile notion that movement and classification of Ibn Sina motion. Newton's first law of motion within an object, such includes: rock, sulfur, salt and motion which states that an as the motion of atoms and ores. Ibn Sina's books on object in motion will remain in molecules, is a form of thermal chemistry had greatly affected motion unless acted on by an energy that produces heat. This the chemists of medieval outside force was in fact concept has great relevance on period. (Wikipedia) the laws of thermodynamics, proposed by Ibn Sina. e n t h a l p y, e n t r o p y, a n d Botany and pharmacology Ibn Sina theorized that an chemical reactions. The Canon of Ibn Sina is a object would only have motion Additionally, Ibn Sina was a masterpiece full of information if a force is applied onto the object. Also, he differentiated pioneer in his use of the air on plants and the process of between the affinity of an t h e r m o m e t e r f o r h i s preparations of medicine. Ibn object to remain in motion and experiments. He stated that the Sina has provided a lot of the force applied. This is speed of light is not infinite and i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g medicinal botany in this book can thus have a measureable consistent with the concept of Glorious Past:
Ibn Sina (Avicenna)
cysticercosis, he gets infected because the eggs flow with the blood and stay in any organ. The taenia saginata that grows in cows would never cause as much damage as this one. Facets of Scientific Inimitability: It is known that swine is a filthy animal both in its behavior and in how it chooses its food. Bearing this in mind, idolaters considered it to be the killer of the symbols of goodness. Myths from ancient Egypt tell us that it was a swine that killed Horus. The Cananites even tell us that it was a swine that killed their god, Adone. The Greeks believe that a swine killed their god Adonis and Atis. In ancient Egypt, herding swine was viewed as being one of the most degrading jobs. People who had such a job were not allowed into the temple and were not allowed to marry any woman except one from their own class. Anyone who touched a pig was required to have a bath. It is prohibited for the People of the Book to eat it, yet, they violate this prohibition. Speaking about its prohibition, the Qur'an declares that it is filth. The word ‘filth’ covers all types of filth and also explains that consuming it is harmful too. This prohibition is mentioned in three places in the Qur'an; Almighty Allah says: [He has forbidden you only the Maytah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine,
a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity without willful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.](Al-Baqarah: 173) And, [He has forbidden you only Al-Maytatah (meat of a dead animal), blood, the flesh of swine, and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols etc. or on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, and not transgressing, then, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.] (An-Nahl: 115) And, [Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead animals - cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns - and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal - unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An
Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience of Allah and sin).] (Al-Ma’idah: 3) The prohibition covers all its edible parts, including its fat. The prohibition of fat for Jews only shows that it is counted as meat, since Almighty Allah says: [And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs or their entrails, or is mixed up with a bone. Thus, We recompensed them for their rebellion [committing crimes like murdering the Prophets, eating of Riba (usury), etc.]. And verily, We are Truthful.] (Al-An`am: 146) Prohibiting the meat also makes the fat prohibited even if used as fodder for an animal that will be later consumed by a person. At the time of the revelation of the Qur'an, no one ever imagined that such harm existed. Who could tell such a thing except Allah; the All-Knowing the All-Wise. Almighty Allah says: [But your people (O Muhammad) have denied it (the Qur’an) though it is the truth. Say: "I am not responsible for your affairs. For every news there is a fact, i.e. for everything there is an appointed term (and it is also said that for every deed there is a recompense) and you will come to know.](Al-An`am: 66-67) (Curtsey: ICSSQS)
Prohibition of Pork A Scientific Proof [Say (O Muhammad), "I find not in that which has been inspired to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maytah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by slaughtering or the like), or the flesh of swine (pork, etc.) for that surely is filth, or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But whosoever is forced by necessity without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, (for him) certainly, your Lord is OftForgiving, Most Merciful.] [Say (O Muhammad), "I find not in that which has been inspired to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Maytah (a dead animal) or blood poured forth (by slaughtering or the like), or the flesh of swine (pork, etc.) for that surely is filth, or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which Allah's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But whosoever is forced by
necessity without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, (for circumstances. This him) certainly, your Lord is Ofthappened in one of the islands Forgiving, Most Merciful.] of the Pacific after a hurricane (Al-An`am: 145) which spread the dung of swine The Scientific Fact: all over the island. Wherever It was through modern swine exists, such plagues and science that people came to maladies erupt even in highly know the wisdom behind Islam advanced countries. This is prohibiting certain stuffs. This counter to their claims of the prohibition was made before possibility of purging it through t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e modern techniques which make microscope. The prohibited the prohibition of pork invalid. stuffs are; dead animals where In certain countries, the bacteria find an environment to consumption of pork has grow, blood that contains even b e c o m e w i d e s p r e a d a n d more bacteria, and finally normalized as in Germany, swine whose bodies are France, Venezuela, and the magnets of some morbid Philippines. The consumption strains that cannot be removed of the infected muscles of the by any means of purification. swine causes trinchinellosis as The body of the swine is a place the female of this worm lays its where many parasites, bacteria, eggs in the walls of the swineâ€™s and viruses grow and can be bowels. The eggs that may transfused to human beings and reach 10 thousands would be animals. Some of these carried through the blood to the parasites are limited to pigs muscles where they stay and such as dysentery balantidium, grow up. As for dysentery spirals trchinella, solium balantidium it infects man when taenia, and cysticercosis. Some he eats the infected muscles of of these maladies are common the pig. This worm can grow up for men and animals like to be seven meters long inside influenza, buski fasciolopsis, the bowels of the person. With and ascaris. Balantidiasis is its head, it can cause damage in known to be widespread among the bowels of man and cause the swine herders and those severe shortage of blood people who mix with them. plasma. It grows and multiplies This malady may become rapidly When man eats any food that contains the eggs of epidemic under certain
Tameer-e-Fikr Harun Yahya
Pulsars Pulsating Stars [I swear] by Heaven and the Tariq! And what will convey to you what the Tariq is? The Star Piercing [the darkness]! (Qur'an, 86:1-3) The word "Tariq," name of the Sura 86, comes from the root "tarq," whose basic meaning is that of striking hard enough to produce a sound, or hitting. Bearing in mind the word's possible meaning as "beating," "striking hard," our attention may be being drawn in this sura to an important scientific fact. Before analysing this information, let us look at the other words employed in the verse to describe these stars. The term "alttariqi" in the above verse means a star that pierces the night, that pierces the darkness, born at night, piercing and moving on, beating, striking, or sharp star. Furthermore, the term "waal" draws attention to the things being sworn on-the heaven and the Tariq. Through research carried out by Jocelyn Bell Burnell, at Cambridge University in 1967, a regular radio signal was identified. Until that time, however, it was not known that there was a heavenly body that could be the source of regular pulse or beating rather like that of the heart. In 1967, however, astronomers stated that, as matter grows denser in the core as it revolves around its own
axis, the star's magnetic field also grows stronger, and thus gives rise to a magnetic field at its poles 1 trillion times stronger than that of Earth. They realised that a body revolving so fast and with such a powerful magnetic field emits rays consisting of very powerful radio waves in a conic form at every revolution. Shortly afterwards, it was also realised that the source of these signals is the rapid revolution of neutron stars. These newly discovered neutron stars are known as "pulsars." These stars, which turn into pulsars through supernova explosions, are of the greatest mass, and are the brightest and fastest moving bodies in the universe. Some pulsars revolve 600 times a second.50 The word "pulsar" comes from the verb to pulse. According to the American Heritage Dictionary, the word means to pulsate, to beat. Encarta Dictionary defines it as to beat rhythmically, to move or throb with a strong regular rhythm. Again, according to the Encarta Dictionary, the word "pulsate," which comes from the same root, means to expand and contract with a strong regular beat. Following that discovery, it was realised that the phenomenon described in the Qur'an as "tariq," beating, bore
a great similarity to the neutron stars known as pulsars. Neutron stars form as the nuclei of super giant stars collapse. The highly compressed & dense matter, in the form of a rapidly revolving sphere, entraps and squeezes most of the star's weight and magnetic field. The powerful magnetic field created by these rapidly revolving neutron stars has been shown to cause the emission of powerful radio waves observable on Earth.
In the third verse of Surat atTariq the term "alnnajmu alththaqibu," meaning piercing, piercing and moving on, or opening holes, indicates that Tariq is a bright star that pierces a hole in the darkness and moves on. The concept of the term "adraka" in the expression "And what will convey to you what the Tariq is?" refers to comprehension. Pulsars, formed through the compression of stars several times the size of the Sun, are among those celestial bodies that are hard to comprehend. The question in the verse emphasizes how hard it is to comprehend this >> P. 25
The Lowest Area on Earth An Important Statement of Holy Qur’an on Dead Sea Allah, the Almighty, says: [AlifLamMim. The Romans have been defeated in the lowest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious within three to nine years. Allah, the Almighty, says: [AlifLamMim. The Romans have been defeated in the lowest land, and they, after their defeat, will be victorious within three to nine years. The decision of the matter, before and after (these events) is only with Allah, (before the defeat of the Romans by the Persians, and after, i.e. the defeat of the Persians by the Romans). And on that Day, the believers (i.e. Muslims) will rejoice (at the victory given by Allah to the Romans against the Persians). With the help of Allah, He helps whom He wills, and He is the Almighty, the Most Merciful. (It is) a Promise of Allah (i.e. Allah will give victory to the Romans against the Persians), and Allah fails not in His Promise, but most of men know not.] (Ar-Rum: 1-6) The Scientific Fact: History books tell us about a battle between the Persian and the Byzantine empires – the latter signifies the eastern part of the Roman Empire - which was located in the area between Adhra`at and Basra, near the Dead Sea. The battle, which occurred in 619 A.C., ended
with the victory of the Persians. The Romans received a severe blow in that battle and everyone at that time expected their kingdom to fall. S u r p r i s i n g l y, t h e y w e r e engaged in another battle in 627 A.C. in the area of Nineveh where they defeated the
areas. Some months later, the Byzantines signed an agreement with the Persians according to which they returned all previously occupied areas. Geographical atlases show that the lowest spot on the surface of the earth is the area near the Dead Sea where the surface of the earth is as low as 395 meters below sea level. Photos taken by satellites support this fact. Facets of Scientific Inimitability: There are two miracles in these verses; 1) the EverGlorious Qur'an gave glad tidings of victory to the Romans in a course of three to nine years. After seven years,
the prophecy of the EverGlorious Qur'an came true. This Roman victory coincided with the victory of the Muslims in the Battle of Badr. To the Arab disbelievers, the victory of the Romans seemed impossible and they started mocking the Muslims and ridiculing them about these Qura’nic words. When the prophecy came true, they were disappointed and humbled. 2) They told us about a geographical fact that was not known to anyone at that time. The verses said that the Romans would lose the battle in the lowest area of land which means that it is the nearest place to the Arabian Peninsula and is the lowest spot on earth; it is 1,312 feet (around 400 meters) below sea level. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, satellites have recorded that it is indeed the lowest spot on earth. Historical facts testify that the battle took place at the lowest spot on earth; near to the Dead Sea. At that time, it was impossible for anyone to know this was the lowest area on earth. Does this not provide even more evidence that the Ever-Glorious Qur'an is the word of Allah? Almighty Allah says: [And say [(O Muhammad) to these polytheists and pagans etc.]: All the praises and thanks be to Allah. He will show you His Ayat (signs, in yourselves, and in the universe or punishments, etc.), and you shall recognize them. And your Lord is not unaware of what you do.] (AnNaml: 93) (Courtsey: ICSSQS)
Otherwise how can one explain the continuity of the creations with varied characteristics. Mystically this can be termed as Omnipresence of One God. This means, overlooking the external features, if one delves deep inside, one can witness the unitary system that governs the complete administration. Then can one realize and witness the comprehensive qualities of the God. It would be as if one is witnessing God standing in front of Him. The divine characteristics are grouped under two heads according to Faith. 1. Personal Characteristics, and 2. Functional Characteristics. Life, capacity, knowledge, logic, listening, witnessing and deciding constitute the Personal Characteristics. Creation, providing food, death, resurrection etc. all are included as Functional Characteristics.4 If these divine characteristics are studied critically in the light of modern sciences, a new chapter for guiding mankind will open up. Hence there is need for exposing fully all the characteristics of Allah so that the facts as revealed and supported by the sciences become evident. Confirmation of Basic Beliefs As far as theology and fundamental beliefs are concerned the holy Qur’an lays stress on Unity of God, Prophethood and the Life
the whole universe and its unique administration which in turn reveals how precisely and orderly this material world is functioning. The way the whole system is functioning clearly indicates how wonderfully orderly, the Administrator and Coordinator is. He says: ... you can see no fault in the Beneficent One’s creation, then look again: ‘Can you see any rifts?’ Then look again and yet again, your sight will return to you in a state of humiliation and worn out. (Mulk: 3-4) The universe comprising of minerals, plants, living beings, heavens and everything is so fascinating, illuminating and unique that even the scientists are perplexed and fail to delineate the whole functioning. The holy Qur’an, time and again, draws the attention of the man and advises him repeatedly to reflect deeply on the functioning of the universe so that man can arrive at c o n c l u s i o n s l o g i c a l l y, rationally and experimentally that confirm the existence of God, His omniscience, His being One and Only One, His providential powers and the supremacy, leaving no place for man to revolt any time any place against Him. From this point of view there is no contradiction whatsoever between the holy Qur’an and the universal administrative system or between the Holy Qur’an and the science! In fact the comprehensive references
in the Book to the universe and its system of administration are all being confirmed and details are being unravelled through the sciences. The only difference between the two is about the details. Modern researches have not disproved even a single reference of the holy Qur’an, while many of the theories, inferences, philosophies and ideologies have undergone repeated changes due to advancement in science. This fact clearly points to the incontrovertibility of the holy Qur’an at the same time proving that it is from the Omniscient Allah. Brief Qur’anic Account of Certain Sciences A number of such exquisitely original references to definite phenomena are found in the holy Qur’an which are now being studied in detail and fresh documentary evidence is being produced by researches in the field confirming the validity and truth of the Qur’anic statements. This is a new dimension of the revealed Text. There is no end or limit to it. For example, let us take one verse from the Book and see what Imam Ghazzali has to say about it. The holy Qur’an says: O men! What has made you careless concerning your Lord, the Most Generous, Who created you, fashioned you perfectly and gave you a due proportion, in whatever form He willed, He put you together. (Infitar: 6-8) (To be cont.)
and their false beliefs were refuted through logical arguments. Thus these discussions were responsible for removing all doubts that might have arisen in the theological beliefs and philosophies. The holy Qur’an constitutes a comprehensive treatise on these branches of knowledge and guides the mankind throughout, like the light house in the vast sea. I have selected the second and the third of these branches for discussion. They are Polemics and Admonition through Divine Benefits. These pertain to the blessings of Allah and His Power of maintaining and bringing up all His Creations. Reformation of the Waylaid Nations In what is described as polemics, the false beliefs of the astray nations are discussed and the concepts of the Unity of God, Prophethood and Resurrection Day are logically and objectively established. These constitute the fundamental basis of the preachings of all prophets. In fact these are the foundation stones of the divine code of life. In the earlier periods Islam had to deal with infidels and polytheists. But now it has to meet the challenges of heretics and materialists. The holy Qur’an comprises of logical and scientific arguments that can convince the minds in every epoch. The actual purpose of references to modern sciences and problems is nothing but to meet the
requisites of perfect guidance to all men at all times. Divine Creations Lead to Knowledge of God Knowledge through the blessings of Allah includes a fuller description and appreciation of His favours, His Signs and His creations and leads one to recognise His characteristics, particularly of His providential powers and divinity. According to Imam Ghazzali (505 A.H.) the best and the exalted knowledge is the knowledge of God. All the other sciences are only secondary and incidental. The existence and characteristics of Allah alone is the basis and quintessence of all sciences. Hence for the realization of His existence and characteristics, a study of His actions becomes essential. Since this whole universe and its revelations are nothing but another form of His actions, the study of the material substances reveal His characteristics. And this study of His characteristics lead one to His Personality. And thus the understanding of His Existence rests on the study of His characteristics and His actions.2 . Imam Ghazzali has compiled all such verses of the holy Qur’an wherein there is direct reference to His Existence, Characteristics and Actions and titled the compilation as Jawahirul Qur’an or “The Quintessence of the Qur’an”. The number of these verses pertaining to His creation is 763. From the
scientific point of view these are the very verses that deal with material substances and the phenomena governing the functioning of the whole universe. A deep study of these verses will clearly point to the divinity, exaltation, providence, compassion, nourishing and protective capacities, unique sagacity and planning of Allah. Considering this view, a detailed study of the matter in the light of all modern sciences fundamentally constitutes the study of the functioning of Allah or Divine Activities. Imam Ghazzali views nothing but the Almighty Allah and His functions (activities) in this whole universe.3 Manifestations of Divine Characteristics As one studies intrinsically the working of this universe, one comes across irrefutable proof of the existence of One God and His perfect characteristics. It is only Unity of God that is experienced at every step with every new manifestation. Whether this study comprises that of the tiniest atom or gigantic planetary system, colorful or highly incensed flowers or integrated systems of termites, ants or bees, everywhere will be found the highest, smartest and finest craftsmanship. Even the singularly exquisite functioning of the human body and the multifarious biological systems are no exception. All of them reveal that someone is behind the veil who possesses extraordinary powers.
Tameer-e-Fikr Allama Mohammed Shihabuddin Nadvi
Jan-Feb 2014 Part: I
Introduction to Holy Qur’an From Scientific Perspective Material World is Divine Manifestation Many people harbour many mistaken notions about the holy Qur’an. Certain circles consider it purely as a code of Shariah and think it has no bearing whatsoever on any other problem or branch of knowledge. On the other hand some others associate it with Science and award a secondary position to principles and rules of Shariah present therein. Both are at the extremes. Hence it is imperative to adopt a realistic approach and realize its true and proper place. Here an attempt is made to introduce the reader to the basic branches of Qur’anic knowledge and to lay down certain principles and rules following which scientific study of these branches becomes productive. It will then prove its validity from the material and spiritual aspects which are generally overlooked. That most of the references are the works of ancients is a relevant point to make here. But before hitting the nail on the head, let us determine the subject matter and its scope and application of the holy Qur’an. Subject Matter of Holy Qur’an and its Application Showing the right path in life ideologically is the main theme of the holy Qur’an. This
guidance is not confined merely to Shariah Code. It extends to shaping and reforming the thinking and understanding of the man also. The holy Qur’an exhorts thus: The Qur ’an (is the) guidance for mankind and Clear Signs for the guidance and the Criterion (between right and wrong). (Baqara: 185) This verse clearly indicates that the holy Qur’an is not guidance for Muslims only but it provides ideological and practical guidance to the entire mankind. The following verses point out this aspect: Say: ‘O you mankind! Now Truth (i.e. the Qur’an and the Prophet Muhammed) has come to you from your Lord’. (Yunus: 108) ... (This is) a Book which We have revealed unto you (O Muhammed!) in order that you might lead mankind out of darkness into light (Ibrahim: 1) Which are the intricate problems and different aspects of life, thought and action the holy Qur’an has taken up for guiding mankind? The apt answer to the question is, it has guided mankind in all such aspects that constitute its topics of discourse. Then the question arises about these
topics dealt in the Book. According to Shah Waliullah Dehlavi (1176 A.H.), there are five branches of knowledge that constitute the main study in the holy Book. They are the following: 1. Commandments — wherein clear instructions about the permitted and prohibited actions, things etc. are given. 2. Polemics — wherein instructive deliberations with non- believers are suggested. 3. Admonition through Divine Signs — wherein purification is sought through the study of the Benefits and Signs of the Lord. 4. Admonition through Days of Allah — wherein purification is sought through the description of the conflicts between the Prophets and their disobedient followers. 5. Admonition through Life After Death — wherein purification through description of death, Resurrection Day is advocated. The arguments and themes centre around these five topics alone. The description of the Commandments is the obligation of the Muslim jurists and that of the polemics is the duty of the scholastics.1 The first two of these branches of knowledge deal with the beliefs, worshiping and the general affairs of life. The remaining three are reformative in nature, and they awaken the men through admonition. The polemics covers such topics which were adopted by heretics
Area (Km2) Ratio
Region Total area of the earth
Present area of the oceans
Present area of the land
Actual area of the oceans (excluding continental shelf and slope)
Actual area of the land (including continental shelf and slope)
Barren area of land due to submergence
Barren area of land due to continental glaciation
Barren area of land due to deserts
Total barren area of land
Total inhabited area of the land
Table 1: The proportion of land and oceans, and the inhabited and barren area of the land on the planet earth.
Linguistically, the words barren, Arabic Kharab, and inhabited, Arabic Umraan, are opposites. The word Umraan is derived from amr, yamuru, which is used to denote the existence of life in anything. The word Umr, meaning life, is one of its derivations, which means the life span, or the period of stay of life in a body. Consequently, the word Umraan is used to denote inhabited and populated area or region of the land. Thus, this word in the hadith means the inhabited part of the planet earth by plants, since plants are attributed as forms of life. The other word barren, Arabic Kharab is its opposite, used to denote destructed or barren
land which has no signs of life or which cannot support life at all. Qur'an too describes the soil inhabited by plants as one having life and the soil without plants as dead and
more than one place. Proceeding on these lines, the barren portion of the land on the planet earth could be divided into three parts: 1- Barren due to submergence 2- Barren due to continental glaciation 3- Barren due to deserts Barren due to submergence It has been discussed earlier that the actual area of the land is much wider than it exists today. The reason for the present shortfall in the continental area is the rise in sea levels due to the melting of continental glaciers. It has been described earlier that these submerged parts of the land constitute about 11.3% of the total area of the planet earth, while its area above the present sea level constitute about 29.2%. (See Figure 1) Barren due to continental glaciation The second cause of bareness is the >> P. 27
Figure 5: Planet earth from the space which clearly shows the barren and inhabited parts of the earth described in the hadith. Only the greenish area is considered inhabited by the plants and animals. (Source: NASA)
(A) Antarctica (B) Greenland Figure 3: The ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica which cover them almost completely. These ice sheets cover about 1/9 of the total land area of the earth. (Source: NASA)
proportion of oceans and land on the earth stands at 3:2, which is in complete conformity with the statements of the hadith. This topic will be dealt in further detail later in this article. Ice ages and Sea level fluctuations In earth's past history when the sea level was low, the continental area was much wider than it is today. The reason for the sea level fluctuations is said to be continental glaciations. That is, in the past history of the earth when its average temperature was low the evaporated water of the oceans covered most of the continental land in the form of glaciers and ice sheets, causing huge sea level falls. Continental glaciation has been a major cause of sea level fluctuations, creating a rise and fall of Âą 130 m (Âą 425 ft) from present-day sea level. C o n s e q u e n t l y, d u r i n g periods when the sea level was low, the continents were nearly 25% larger then they are now. Similarly, the planet earth has
also witnessed several periods in its history such as creataceous period when more than 40% of its present continental area was flooded due to the melting of continental glaciers (Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets), causing huge sea level rises. The periods in earth's history when continental glaciers have been formed due to the fall in the average temperatures of the earth are called ice ages or glacial periods. The intermediate periods between the two glacial periods when the continental ice sheets melted due to rise in its average temperature, causing rise in sea levels are
called interglacial periods. The planet earth is constantly witnessing these periods of glaciations and interglaciations on regular intervals at a known rate of time. We too are passing today through one such interglacial period of the earth. Hence, there exists an apparent indication in this hadith with respect to both the real proportion of land and oceans on the earth and the sea level fluctuations due to glacial and inter-glacial periods of the earth's history. The inhabited and barren parts of the land After the proportion of land and oceans, the hadith deals with the barren and inhabited parts of the land and their proportion and states that the inhabited portion of the land represents 1/5 of the total area of the planet earth while the barren portion too is 1/5. This foretold fact about the geographic feature of the planet earth bears enormous connotations in the light of modern geographical discoveries too. Its details are as follow:
Figure 4: Deserts of the earth which occupy 1/7 of the total area of the land. (Source: USGS)
understand this equation, an overview of the oceanographic concepts is inevitable. Continental Margins According to the modern oceanographic findings, the present boundaries of land and oceans don't reflect their actual borders. This is because a major part of the land has submerged into the oceans due to several reasons (refer later parts of this article). The submerged portion of land in the oceans is called continental margins. Scientists divide the continental margins in three parts: 1- Continental shelf 2- Continental slope 3- Continental rise Continental Shelf It represents the actual boundaries of the continental floor, which have submerged in oceans due to sea level rise. Their average width is between 50 to 100 km (30 and 60 mi) and its widest part is 1,500 km. The outer edge of the continental shelf, often called the shelf break, is typically about 130 m (425 ft) deep. The continental shelves form 7.5% of the total area of the seafloor. (See. Figure 1 & 2) Continental Slope From the shelf break onwards, the steepness of the seafloor increases sharply. Its average steepness here is ten times higher per meter than the steepness in the continental shelf area. This part of continental margin is called
Figure 2: Continental Shelves: The black shaded area in this map represents submerged area of continents. Note that only continental shelf is shown here and not the continental slope. (Source: Oceanography, Inagmanson)
continental slope. The continental slope resembles a wall in its shape, which upholds the continental shelf. Continental slopes make up about 8.5% of the total area of the ocean floor. (See Figure 1) Continental Rise It is the final transition zone between continents and the ocean basin. It occupies about 3% of the total area of the sea floor. But it differs with continental shelf and the slope in the sense that both the shelf and slope are considered part of continents because they lie on continental crust while the major part of continental rise lies on oceanic crust, since it is in the form of sediments which have eroded from continents. Hence it is largely considered as part of the ocean basin. (See Figure 1) Since only continental shelf and slope are considered parts of continents and not the
continental rise, their combined area would be 16% [7.5 + 8.5 = 16] of the total area of the sea floor and 11.3% [(70.8 x 16) / 100 = 11.3] of the total area of the planet earth. If we include this submerged portion of the earth into its present area of the land, the sum of the total land area would be: 40.5% [29.20 + 11.32 = 40.52] It means that the total area of the land on the earth is about 40.50% in which about 29.2% is above the sea level and another about 11.30% is submerged in the oceans. Similarly, if we exclude this submerged portion of continents from the area of oceans (since it is included in the present area of oceans) the sum would be: 70.8 â€“ 11.3 = 59.5 Thus, the actual area of oceans is about 59.5% of the total area of the earth and that of land is about 40.5%. Hence, the
Scientific Researches & Islam:
3 Aneesur Rahman Nadvi
Geographical Concepts of Islam What is the proportion of land and oceans on the planet earth? There exist no proper perception to this concept in the pre-Islamic geographical literature. The Greek had the view that the earth is flat and not spherical. Hence, this theory was dominated in Europe until the end of the fifteenth century. The fifth century Indian astronomer, Aryabhatta is said to be one among those who propounded the theory that the earth is spherical in shape. He also made suggestions that the proportion of land and the water on the earth is about half each (i.e. 50:50). Nevertheless, one must bear in mind here that the whole planet earth was not completely explored until that time, and hence all statements in this regard must be held as mere speculations. Statements of the hadith Several hadiths have also been narrated in this regard, which deal with the planet earth and its geography in detail. Though the outward meaning of these hadiths look as if it disagree with the modern geographical findings, but with an in-depth study of geography and its allied sciences, a complete conformity do appear between them. In addition, they go on to reveal several aspects
of the geological history of the planet earth too. One of these hadiths is narrated by Abu al-Sheikh (d. 369), which runs as follows: Abu al-Sheikh narrated from Hassan ibn Atiya, he said: It has come to my knowledge that the distance of the earth is five hundred years. Its oceans are three hundred years in distance, its destructed (barren) area is one hundred years in distance and its inhabited area is one hundred years in distance. Another hadith in this regard is narrated by Ibn abi Hatim, which runs as follows: Ibn abi Hatim narrated from Abdullah ibn Amr, he says: the distance of the earth is five hundred years. Four hundred years are destructed and one hundred years are inhabited. It is evident from these hadiths that the word 'distance', Arabic 'masafah', is used here
to denote the proportion. Thus, according to the first hadith, the proportion of oceanic area is 3/5th of the total area of the planet earth. The remaining 2/5th constitute land, in which 1/5 is destructed or barren, and the other 1/5th is inhabited. According to the second hadith the barren part of the planet earth constitute 4/5th of the total area of the earth and the remaining 1/5th is inhabited. Let us now try to understand the significance of these statements in the light of modern geography. According to the current geographical findings, the oceans occupy about 70.8% of the total area of the planet earth, while the land occupy about 29.2% of its area. It means the proportion of oceans and land stands at 7:3. The ratio of ocean and land mentioned in the hadith (3:2) outwardly contradicts with these findings. However, the truth is that both of them are true. The geographical findings reflect the proportion of oceans and land according to the present sea level, while the statement of the hadith point out the real boundaries of land and
Figure 1: Continental margins, which depict the real boundary between land and ocean.
Editorial Tameer E Fikr By the grace of Allah, the second issue of the Tameer E Fikr magazine is in your hands. It’s first issue got wide acclamation from academic circles. We will try to make this magazine better and incorporate new columns on education and general information in order to keep our reader better acquainted with the developments in the scientific and literary world. We are starting a new column for learning Arabic titled “Let us Learn Arabic” on the request of some of our readers. Hope the readers will like it. Supreme Court's Historic Judgment On December 11th 2013, the Supreme Court of India delivered a historic judgment, validating homosexuality as illegal and rejecting any change in the constitution of India. This decision of the Supreme Court is not only a flag-bearer of Indian culture and civilization but it is also in accordance with the teachings and customs of the world religions and faiths. Let it be clear that homosexuality is considered a punishable offence under the section 377 of the Indian constitution which attracts ten years of prison for the
c o n v i c t e d . S i m i l a r l y, homosexuality is considered a moral crime and a taboo by all mainstream religions of the world and they advocate severe punishments to those convicted of it. In India, this matter took a new turn when the Delhi High Court considered the prohibition of homosexuality to be against the law of equality in one of its judgments in 2009. Several Hindu and Muslim organizations had appealed against this judgment in the Supreme Court of India to which the Supreme Court gave this verdict. The dilemma arises due to the argument forwarded by homosexuals in this regard that the prohibition of homosexuality is against the law of equality. If this argument is accepted as true, it will not only impact the sanctified relation of man and woman, but also the concepts of family and society will cease to exist. Almost all religions and societies of the world recognize similar principles and customs with regards to the establishment of bilateral sexual relationship, which signify and reflect upon these principles to be natural. The gigantic edifice of human family and society is erected on these principles. Homosexuality is equivalent to shaking the foundations of this
edifice and demolishing its structure. Another argument presented by homosexuals in favor of this moral crime is that the provision of legal protection to homosexuality will actually safeguard the rights of homosexuals. Nevertheless, this is also a delusion. Since homosexuality is a crime and a social evil, it needs to be prevented and averted in the same way as a disease or an epidemic is prevented and averted, instead of spreading it by protecting the people involved in this crime. It is also necessary to take such drastic steps to prevent and control this moral evil since it also leads to the spread of dangerous and currently incurable diseases like AIDS. Hence, today the vast majority of infected people with AIDS are found in the countries where this moral corruption is prevalent. This sexual and moral corruption is not only against the laws of the nature and unhealthy and dangerous medically but it also invokes God's fury and wrath. Therefore, the people of Prophet Lot (pbuh) who were involved in sodomy were punished by stones falling from the sky by the Almighty, wiping them out completely from the face of the earth. (An article on scientific proofs and aspects of the destruction of people of Lot (pbuh) in detail will be published in the upcoming issues of Tameer e Fikr) >>P. 25
Scientific & Religious Organ of Furqania Academy In the memory of Late Allama Mohammed Shihabuddin Nadvi
Vol. 2, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2014 Editor-in-Chief: Aneesur Rahman Nadvi Sub-Editors: Atya Tabassum, Shahid M. Zubair Editorial Board Dr. Mubeen Saleem Nadvi, Aligarh New Delhi, Sahimuddin, New Delhi Circulation Manager: Mufti Attaulla Qasmi Asst. Manager: Shoaib Ahmed Type Setting: OLS, Bangalore Subscriptions In India: Rs. 35/- per copy Annual: Rs. 200/Annual: Rs. 300/By Regd. Post: Annual: US$ 20/Abroad: Per copy US$ 6/Rs. 10,000/Life Member: Cheques & drafts should be drawn in favor of: Furqania Academy Waqf Please add Rs. 50/- on outstation cheques.
Contents Editorial Scientific Researches & Islam: Geographical Concepts of Islam
Introduction to Holy Qur’an from Scientific Perspective The Lowest Area on Earth
Pulsars: Pulsating Stars
Title Back Page Full (Color) Title Page 2 & 3 Half (Color) Inside Page Full (Color) Inside Page Half (Color) Inside Page Full (B/W) Inside Page Half (B/W)
Rs. 16,000/Rs. 12,000/Rs. 10,000/Rs. 5,000/Rs. 5,000/Rs. 3,000/-
For all sort of correspondence contact: Tameer e Fikr #82, 9th F Main, BTM 1st Stage, Bangalore-560029 Tel & Fax: +9180 26689064; Mobile:+91 9483952440 Email: email@example.com
Printed and Published by: Aneesur Rahman Nadvi on behalf of Furqania Academy Waqf, Bangalore-29 Printed at National Printers #8/1, 3rd Cross, DR. T.C.M. Royam Road Bangalore-560053 All disputes subject to Bangalore Jurisdiction The views expressed in this magazine need not be those of the Tameer-e-Fikr
Medicine & Cure: The Prohibition of Pork: A Scientific Proof 12 Glorious Past: Ibn Sina 14 Rise and Fall of Muslims in Science 16 Tipu Sultan’s Trade Policy 18 News from Muslim World 20 Science News 22 Let us learn Arabic 24 Letters 26 Bulletin of Academy 27
Tameer-e-Fikr Jan-Feb 2014
English/ Urdu Bi-Monthly
2014 - 2015 CET CODE: E180
BIT Happy Students
BIT Green Campus
Bearys Institute of Technology A world class Engineering College BIT from its inception has been recognized as a futuristic Engineering College. Applauded by the BIT University Toppers
discerning circles, academia and industry
Excellent Placement Opportunities
100% Results 81% Distinctions 19%
Leading the way to the future... Engineering disciplines Civil Mechanical Computer Science Information Science Electronics & Communication
M + 91 94824 96987
BIT Graduates, 2013